About Textpresso Categories/Ontology Copyright Downloads Feedback Home Query Language Search User Guide
Enter keyword(s) and/or category/ies. Selecting categories for a query makes a search more specific. For example, you can retrieve sentences that contain the word HSN and a Oryza sativa gene name by typing the keyword 'SPW1' and choosing the category 'gene (Oryza sativa)'. A category hit occurs when a particular word or phrase in the sentence is defined as a member of a particular category. Categories will be concatenated by a Boolean 'and' operation to other categories and keyword(s) if present. To search for terms in categories, click on the Categories/Ontology link above.
Keywords
Separate multiple, required keywords by white spaces (Boolean 'and').
Separate multiple, alternative keywords by a comma with no white spaces (Boolean 'or').
Enter phrases in double quotes, and put a '-' sign in front of words which are to be excluded.
Keyword Specification
AND/OR
Categories
Fields
Search Scope
Search Mode
Sort by
 
Narrow your search results with filter:
Put a '+' sign in front of words which have to be included, a '-' sign in front of words which have to be excluded. Enter the field of the word, viz author, title, year, journal, abstract, type or sentence in square brackets. Enter phrases in double quotes.
For example, to find all the papers in the search result that have Jack as author, but not John, enter +Jack-John[author]. To exclude all papers that have the phrase double mutant in title, enter -"double mutant"[title]. You can combine several filters and enter something like +Jack-John[author] -"double mutant"[title] +1994[year] -review[type].
Click on Filter! button to activate the filter.

Goto:
of 6
Display options:
author: on | off accession: on | off type: on | off abstract: on | off title: on | off
citation: on | off journal: on | off year: on | off supplementals: on | off textlinks: on | off
searchterm-highlighting: on | off matching sentences: none 1 5 10 entries/page: 5 10 20 50
285 matches found in 115 documents. Search time: 0.006 seconds.
Global links/files: all results in endnote all results in print version
Score: 11.00
Title: A conserved threonine residue in the juxtamembrane domain of the XA21 pattern recognition receptor is critical for kinase autophosphorylation and XA21-mediated immunity .
Author: Chen X Chern M Canlas PE Jiang C Ruan D Cao P Ronald PC
Journal: J Biol Chem Citation: V : 285 P : 10454-63 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20118235 Accession (PMID): 20118235
Abstract: Despite the key role that pattern recognition receptors ( PRRs ) play in regulating immunity in plants and animals , the mechanism of activation of the associated non-arginine-aspartate ( non-RD ) kinases is unknown . The rice PRR XA21 recognizes the pathogen-associated molecular pattern , Ax21 ( activator of XA21-mediated immunity ) . Here we show that the XA21 juxtamembrane ( JM ) domain is required for kinase autophosphorylation . Threonine 705 in the XA21 JM domain is essential for XA21 autophosphorylation in vitro and XA21-mediated innate immunity in vivo . The replacement of Thr ( 705 ) by an alanine or glutamic acid abolishes XA21 autophosphorylation and eliminates interactions between XA21 and four XA21-binding proteins in yeast and rice . Although threonine residues analogous to Thr ( 705 ) of XA21 are present in the JM domains of most RD and non-RD plant receptor-like kinases , this residue is not required for autophosphorylation of the Arabidopsis RD RLK BRI1 ( brassinosteroid insensitive 1 ) . The threonine 705 of XA21 is conserved only in the JM domains of plant RLKs but not in those of fly , human , or mouse suggesting distinct regulatory mechanisms . These results contribute to growing knowledge regarding the mechanism by which non-RD RLKs function in plant .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: Threonine 705 in the XA21 JM domain is essential for XA21 autophosphorylation in vitro and XA21-mediated innate immunity in vivo .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 3.00 ]: The replacement of Thr ( 705 ) by an alanine or glutamic acid abolishes XA21 autophosphorylation and eliminates interactions between XA21 and four XA21-binding proteins in yeast and rice .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: The rice PRR XA21 recognizes the pathogen-associated molecular pattern , Ax21 ( activator of XA21-mediated immunity ) .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Here we show that the XA21 juxtamembrane ( JM ) domain is required for kinase autophosphorylation .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Although threonine residues analogous to Thr ( 705 ) of XA21 are present in the JM domains of most RD and non-RD plant receptor-like kinases , this residue is not required for autophosphorylation of the Arabidopsis RD RLK BRI1 ( brassinosteroid insensitive 1 ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The threonine 705 of XA21 is conserved only in the JM domains of plant RLKs but not in those of fly , human , or mouse suggesting distinct regulatory mechanisms .
Score: 10.00
Title: Plasma membrane localization and potential endocytosis of constitutively expressed XA21 proteins in transgenic rice .
Author: Chen F Gao MJ Miao YS Yuan YX Wang MY Li Q Mao BZ Jiang LW He ZH
Journal: Mol Plant Citation: V : 3 P : 917-26 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20616165 Accession (PMID): 20616165
Abstract: The rice pattern recognition receptor ( PRR ) XA21 confers race-specific resistance in leaf infection by bacterial blight Xathomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) , and was shown to be primarily localized to the endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ) when expressed with its native promoter or overexpressed in the protoplast However , whether the protein is still ER-localization in the intact cell when overexpressed remains to be identified . Here , we showed that XA21 , its kinase-dead mutant XA21P ( K736EP ) , and the triple autophosphorylation mutant XA21P ( S686A/T688A/S699A ) GFP fusions were primarily localized to the plasma membrane ( PM ) when overexpressed in the intact transgenic rice cell , and also localized to the ER in the transgenic protoplast The transgenic plants constitutively expressing the wild-type XA21 or its GFP fusion displayed race-specific resistance to Xoo at the adult and seedling stages . XA21 and XA21P ( K736EP ) could be internalized probably via the SCAMP-positive early endosomal compartment in the protoplast , suggesting that XA21 might be endocytosed to initiate resistance responses during pathogen infection . We also established a root infection system and demonstrated that XA21 also mediated race-specific resistance responses to Xoo in the root . Our current study provides an insight into the nature of the XA21-mediated resistance and a practical approach using the root cell system to further dissect the cellular signaling of the PRR during the rice-Xoo interaction .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 4.00 ]: Here , we showed that XA21 , its kinase-dead mutant XA21P ( K736EP ) , and the triple autophosphorylation mutant XA21P ( S686A/T688A/S699A ) GFP fusions were primarily localized to the plasma membrane ( PM ) when overexpressed in the intact transgenic rice cell , and also localized to the ER in the transgenic protoplast The transgenic plants constitutively expressing the wild-type XA21 or its GFP fusion displayed race-specific resistance to Xoo at the adult and seedling stages .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 3.00 ]: XA21 and XA21P ( K736EP ) could be internalized probably via the SCAMP-positive early endosomal compartment in the protoplast , suggesting that XA21 might be endocytosed to initiate resistance responses during pathogen infection .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice pattern recognition receptor ( PRR ) XA21 confers race-specific resistance in leaf infection by bacterial blight Xathomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) , and was shown to be primarily localized to the endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ) when expressed with its native promoter or overexpressed in the protoplast However , whether the protein is still ER-localization in the intact cell when overexpressed remains to be identified .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: We also established a root infection system and demonstrated that XA21 also mediated race-specific resistance responses to Xoo in the root .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Our current study provides an insight into the nature of the XA21-mediated resistance and a practical approach using the root cell system to further dissect the cellular signaling of the PRR during the rice-Xoo interaction .
Score: 10.00
Title: Adaptive evolution of Xa21 homologs in Gramineae .
Author: Tan S Wang D Ding J Tian D Zhang X Yang S
Journal: Genetica Citation: V : 139 P : 1465-75 Year: 2011 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22451352 Accession (PMID): 22451352
Abstract: The XA21 protein has broad spectrum resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae . Although Xa21-mediated immunity is well characterized , little is known about the origin and evolutionary history of this gene in grasses . Therefore , we analyzed all Xa21 gene homologs in eight whole-genome sequenced rice lines , as well as in four gramineous genomes , rice , Brachypodium , sorghum and maize ; using Arabidopsis Xa21 homologs as outgroups , 17 , 7 , 7 and 3 Xa21 homologs were detected in these four grasses , respectively . Synteny and phylogenetic analysis showed that frequent gene translocation , duplication and/or loss , have occurred at Xa21 homologous loci , suggesting that they have undergone or are undergoing rapid generation of copy number variations . Within the rice species , the high level of nucleotide diversity between Xa21-like orthologs showed a strong association with the presence/absence haplotypes , suggesting that the genetic structure of rice lines plays an important role in the variations between these Xa21-like orthologs . Strongly positive selection was detected in the core region of the leucine-rich repeat domains of the Xa21 subclade among the rice lines , indicating that the rapid gene diversification of Xa21 homologs may be a strategy for a given species to adapt to the changing spectrum of species-specific pathogens .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 3.00 ]: Therefore , we analyzed all Xa21 gene homologs in eight whole-genome sequenced rice lines , as well as in four gramineous genomes , rice , Brachypodium , sorghum and maize ; using Arabidopsis Xa21 homologs as outgroups , 17 , 7 , 7 and 3 Xa21 homologs were detected in these four grasses , respectively .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Within the rice species , the high level of nucleotide diversity between Xa21-like orthologs showed a strong association with the presence/absence haplotypes , suggesting that the genetic structure of rice lines plays an important role in the variations between these Xa21-like orthologs .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Strongly positive selection was detected in the core region of the leucine-rich repeat domains of the Xa21 subclade among the rice lines , indicating that the rapid gene diversification of Xa21 homologs may be a strategy for a given species to adapt to the changing spectrum of species-specific pathogens .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The XA21 protein has broad spectrum resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Although Xa21-mediated immunity is well characterized , little is known about the origin and evolutionary history of this gene in grasses .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Synteny and phylogenetic analysis showed that frequent gene translocation , duplication and/or loss , have occurred at Xa21 homologous loci , suggesting that they have undergone or are undergoing rapid generation of copy number variations .
Score: 9.00
Title: Biochemical characterization of the kinase domain of the rice disease resistance receptor-like kinase XA21 .
Author: Liu GZ Pi LY Walker JC Ronald PC Song WY .
Journal: J Biol . Chem . Citation: V : 277 ( 23 ) P : 20264-9 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11927577 Accession (PMID): 11927577
Abstract: The rice disease resistance gene , Xa21 , encodes a receptor kinase-like protein consisting of leucine-rich repeats in the putative extracellular domain and a serine/threonine kinase in the putative intracellular domain . The putative XA21 kinase domain was expressed as maltose-binding and glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins in Escherichia coli . The fusion proteins are capable of autophosphorylation . Phosphoamino acid analysis of the glutathione S-transferase fusion protein indicates that only serine and threonine residues are phosphorylated . The relative phosphorylation rate of the XA21 kinase against increasing enzyme concentrations follows a first-order rather than second-order kinetics , indicating an intramolecular phosphorylation mechanism . Moreover , the active XA21 kinase can not phosphorylate a kinase-deficient mutant of XA21 kinase . The enzymatic activity of the XA21 kinase in a buffer containing Mn ( 2+ ) is at least 15 times higher than that with Mg ( 2+ ) . The K ( m ) and V ( max ) of XA21 kinase for ATP are 0 . 3 microm and 8 . 4 nmol/mg/min , respectively . Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping reveals that multiple sites on the XA21 kinase are phosphorylated . Finally , our data suggest that the region of XA21 kinase corresponding to the RD kinase activation domain is not phosphorylated , revealing a distinct mode of action compared with the tomato Pto serine/threonine kinase conferring disease resistance .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Moreover , the active XA21 kinase can not phosphorylate a kinase-deficient mutant of XA21 kinase .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice disease resistance gene , Xa21 , encodes a receptor kinase-like protein consisting of leucine-rich repeats in the putative extracellular domain and a serine/threonine kinase in the putative intracellular domain .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The putative XA21 kinase domain was expressed as maltose-binding and glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins in Escherichia coli .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The relative phosphorylation rate of the XA21 kinase against increasing enzyme concentrations follows a first-order rather than second-order kinetics , indicating an intramolecular phosphorylation mechanism .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The enzymatic activity of the XA21 kinase in a buffer containing Mn ( 2+ ) is at least 15 times higher than that with Mg ( 2+ ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The K ( m ) and V ( max ) of XA21 kinase for ATP are 0 . 3 microm and 8 . 4 nmol/mg/min , respectively .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping reveals that multiple sites on the XA21 kinase are phosphorylated .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Finally , our data suggest that the region of XA21 kinase corresponding to the RD kinase activation domain is not phosphorylated , revealing a distinct mode of action compared with the tomato Pto serine/threonine kinase conferring disease resistance .
Score: 9.00
Title: Rice XA21 Binding Protein 3 Is a Ubiquitin Ligase Required for Full Xa21-Mediated Disease Resistance .
Author: Wang YS Pi LY Chen X Chakrabarty PK Jiang J De Leon AL Liu GZ Li L Benny U Oard J Ronald PC Song WY .
Journal: Citation: V : ( ) P : Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17172358 Accession (PMID): 17172358
Abstract: XA21 is a receptor-like kinase protein in rice ( Oryza sativa ) that confers gene-for-gene resistance to specific races of the causal agent of bacterial blight disease , Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae . We identified XA21 binding protein 3 ( XB3 ) , an E3 ubiquitin ligase , as a substrate for the XA21 Ser and Thr kinase . The interaction between XB3 and the kinase domain of XA21 has been shown in yeast and in vitro , and the physical association between XB3 and XA21 in vivo has also been confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation assays . XB3 contains an ankyrin repeat domain and a RING finger motif that is sufficient for its interaction with the kinase domain of XA21 and for its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity , respectively . Transgenic plants with reduced expression of the Xb3 gene are compromised in resistance to the avirulent race of X oryzae pv oryzae . Furthermore , reduced levels of Xb3 lead to decreased levels of the XA21 protein . These results indicate that Xb3 is necessary for full accumulation of the XA21 protein and for Xa21-mediated resistance .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: We identified XA21 binding protein 3 ( XB3 ) , an E3 ubiquitin ligase , as a substrate for the XA21 Ser and Thr kinase .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The interaction between XB3 and the kinase domain of XA21 has been shown in yeast and in vitro , and the physical association between XB3 and XA21 in vivo has also been confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation assays .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: These results indicate that Xb3 is necessary for full accumulation of the XA21 protein and for Xa21-mediated resistance .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: XA21 is a receptor-like kinase protein in rice ( Oryza sativa ) that confers gene-for-gene resistance to specific races of the causal agent of bacterial blight disease , Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: XB3 contains an ankyrin repeat domain and a RING finger motif that is sufficient for its interaction with the kinase domain of XA21 and for its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity , respectively .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Furthermore , reduced levels of Xb3 lead to decreased levels of the XA21 protein .
Score: 9.00
Title: Rice XB15 , a protein phosphatase 2C , negatively regulates cell death and XA21-mediated innate immunity .
Author: Park CJ Peng Y Chen X Dardick C Ruan D Bart R Canlas PE Ronald PC
Journal: PLoS Biol Citation: V : 6 P : e231 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18817453 Accession (PMID): 18817453
Abstract: Perception of extracellular signals by cell surface receptors is of central importance to eukaryotic development and immunity . Kinases that are associated with the receptors or are part of the receptors themselves modulate signaling through phosphorylation events . The rice ( Oryza sativa L ) XA21 receptor kinase is a key recognition and signaling determinant in the innate immune response . A yeast two-hybrid screen using the intracellular portion of XA21 , including the juxtamembrane ( JM ) and kinase domain as bait , identified a protein phosphatase 2C ( PP2C ) , called XA21 binding protein 15 ( XB15 ) . The interaction of XA21 and XB15 was confirmed in vitro and in vivo by glutathione-S-transferase ( GST ) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays , respectively . XB15 fusion proteins purified from Escherichia coli and from transgenic rice carry PP2C activity . Autophosphorylated XA21 can be dephosphorylated by XB15 in a temporal and dosage-dependent manner . A serine residue in the XA21 JM domain is required for XB15 binding . Xb15 mutants display a severe cell death phenotype , induction of pathogenesis-related genes , and enhanced XA21-mediated resistance . Overexpression of Xb15 in an XA21 rice line compromises resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae . These results demonstrate that Xb15 encodes a PP2C that negatively regulates the XA21-mediated innate immune response .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: A yeast two-hybrid screen using the intracellular portion of XA21 , including the juxtamembrane ( JM ) and kinase domain as bait , identified a protein phosphatase 2C ( PP2C ) , called XA21 binding protein 15 ( XB15 ) .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice ( Oryza sativa L ) XA21 receptor kinase is a key recognition and signaling determinant in the innate immune response .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The interaction of XA21 and XB15 was confirmed in vitro and in vivo by glutathione-S-transferase ( GST ) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays , respectively .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Autophosphorylated XA21 can be dephosphorylated by XB15 in a temporal and dosage-dependent manner .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: A serine residue in the XA21 JM domain is required for XB15 binding .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Xb15 mutants display a severe cell death phenotype , induction of pathogenesis-related genes , and enhanced XA21-mediated resistance .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Overexpression of Xb15 in an XA21 rice line compromises resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results demonstrate that Xb15 encodes a PP2C that negatively regulates the XA21-mediated innate immune response .
Score: 9.00
Title: Xa21D encodes a receptor-like molecule with a leucine-rich repeat domain that determines race-specific recognition and is subject to adaptive evolution .
Author: Wang GL Ruan DL Song WY Sideris S Chen L Pi LY Zhang S Zhang Z Fauquet C Gaut BS Whalen MC Ronald PC .
Journal: Plant Cell Citation: V : 10 ( 5 ) P : 765-79 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9596635 Accession (PMID): 9596635
Abstract: The rice Xa21 gene confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae in a race-specific manner . Analysis of the inheritance patterns and resistance spectra of transgenic plants carrying six Xa21 gene family members indicated that one member , designated Xa21D , displayed a resistance spectrum identical to that observed for Xa21 but conferred only partial resistance . Xa21D encodes a receptor-like protein carrying leucine-rich repeat ( LRR ) motifs in the presumed extracellular domain . The Xa21D transcript terminates shortly after the stop codon introduced by the retrotransposon Retrofit . Comparison of nucleotide substitutions in the LRR coding regions of Xa21 and Xa21D provided evidence of adaptive selection . Both functional and evolutionary evidence indicates that the Xa21D LRR domain controls race-specific pathogen recognition .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: Analysis of the inheritance patterns and resistance spectra of transgenic plants carrying six Xa21 gene family members indicated that one member , designated Xa21D , displayed a resistance spectrum identical to that observed for Xa21 but conferred only partial resistance .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Comparison of nucleotide substitutions in the LRR coding regions of Xa21 and Xa21D provided evidence of adaptive selection .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice Xa21 gene confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae in a race-specific manner .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Xa21D encodes a receptor-like protein carrying leucine-rich repeat ( LRR ) motifs in the presumed extracellular domain .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The Xa21D transcript terminates shortly after the stop codon introduced by the retrotransposon Retrofit .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Both functional and evolutionary evidence indicates that the Xa21D LRR domain controls race-specific pathogen recognition .
Score: 8.00
Title: Genetic and physical analysis of the rice bacterial blight disease resistance locus , Xa21 .
Author: Ronald PC Albano B Tabien R Abenes L Wu KS McCouch S Tanksley SD .
Journal: Mol . Gen . Genet . Citation: V : 236 ( 1 ) P : 113-20 Year: 1992 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1362973 Accession (PMID): 1362973
Abstract: Nearly isogenic lines ( NILs ) of rice ( Oryza sativa ) differing at a locus conferring resistance to the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae were surveyed with 123 DNA markers and 985 random primers using restriction fragment length plymorphism ( RFLP ) and random amplified polymorphic DNA ( RAPD ) analysis . One chromosome 11 marker ( RG103 ) detected polymorphism between the NILs that cosegregated with Xa21 . All other chromosome 11 DNA markers tested were monomorphic between the NILs , localizing the Xa21 introgressed region to an 8 . 3 cM interval on chromosome 11 . Furthermore , we identified two polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) products ( RAPD2148 and RAPD818 ) that detected polymorphisms between the NILs . Genomic sequences hybridizing with RAPD818 , RAPD248 and RG103 were duplicated specifically in the Xa21 NIL . All three markers cosegregated with the resistance locus , Xa21 , in a F2 population of 386 progeny . Based on the frequency with which we recovered polymorphic Xa21-linked markers , we estimated the physical size of the introgressed region to be approximately 800 kb . This estimation was supported by physical mapping ( using pulsed field gel electrophoresis ) of the sequences hybridizing with the three Xa21-linked DNA markers . The results showed that the three Xa21-linked markers are physically close to each other , with one copy of the RAPD818 sequences located within 60 kb of RAPD248 and the other copy within 270 kb of RG103 . None of the enzymes tested generated a DNA fragment that hybridized with all three of the markers indicating that the introgressed region containing the resistance locus Xa21 is probably larger than 270 kb .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: One chromosome 11 marker ( RG103 ) detected polymorphism between the NILs that cosegregated with Xa21 .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: All other chromosome 11 DNA markers tested were monomorphic between the NILs , localizing the Xa21 introgressed region to an 8 . 3 cM interval on chromosome 11 .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Genomic sequences hybridizing with RAPD818 , RAPD248 and RG103 were duplicated specifically in the Xa21 NIL .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: All three markers cosegregated with the resistance locus , Xa21 , in a F2 population of 386 progeny .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Based on the frequency with which we recovered polymorphic Xa21-linked markers , we estimated the physical size of the introgressed region to be approximately 800 kb .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: This estimation was supported by physical mapping ( using pulsed field gel electrophoresis ) of the sequences hybridizing with the three Xa21-linked DNA markers .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: The results showed that the three Xa21-linked markers are physically close to each other , with one copy of the RAPD818 sequences located within 60 kb of RAPD248 and the other copy within 270 kb of RG103 .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: None of the enzymes tested generated a DNA fragment that hybridized with all three of the markers indicating that the introgressed region containing the resistance locus Xa21 is probably larger than 270 kb .
Score: 8.00
Title: Isolation and characterization of rice mutants compromised in Xa21-mediated resistance to X oryzae pv . oryzae .
Author: Wang GL Wu C Zeng L He C Baraoidan M de Assis Goes da Silva F Williams CE Ronald PC Leung H
Journal: Theor . Appl . Genet . Citation: V : 108 ( 3 ) P : 379-84 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14523518 Accession (PMID): 14523518
Abstract: The rice gene , Xa21 , confers resistance to diverse races of Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) and encodes a receptor-like kinase with leucine-rich repeats in the extra-cellular domain . To identify genes essential for the function of the Xa21 gene , 4 , 500 IRBB21 ( Xa21 isogenic line in IR24 background ) mutants , induced by diepoxybutane and fast neutrons , were screened against Philippine race six ( PR6 ) Xoo for a change from resistance to susceptibility . From two greenhouse screens , 23 mutants were identified that had changed from resistant to fully ( 6 ) or partially ( 17 ) susceptible to PR6 . All fully susceptible mutants carried rearrangements at the Xa21 locus as detected by PCR and Southern hybridization . For the partially susceptible mutants , no changes were detected at the Xa21 locus based on Southern and PCR analyses . However , two of these mutants were confirmed via genetic analysis to have mutations at the Xa21 locus . Partially susceptible mutants exhibited variation in level of susceptibility to different Xoo strains , suggesting that they may carry different mutations required for the Xa21-mediated resistance . The mutants identified in this study provide useful materials for dissecting the Xa21-mediated resistance pathway in rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: To identify genes essential for the function of the Xa21 gene , 4 , 500 IRBB21 ( Xa21 isogenic line in IR24 background ) mutants , induced by diepoxybutane and fast neutrons , were screened against Philippine race six ( PR6 ) Xoo for a change from resistance to susceptibility .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice gene , Xa21 , confers resistance to diverse races of Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) and encodes a receptor-like kinase with leucine-rich repeats in the extra-cellular domain .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: All fully susceptible mutants carried rearrangements at the Xa21 locus as detected by PCR and Southern hybridization .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: For the partially susceptible mutants , no changes were detected at the Xa21 locus based on Southern and PCR analyses .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: However , two of these mutants were confirmed via genetic analysis to have mutations at the Xa21 locus .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Partially susceptible mutants exhibited variation in level of susceptibility to different Xoo strains , suggesting that they may carry different mutations required for the Xa21-mediated resistance .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The mutants identified in this study provide useful materials for dissecting the Xa21-mediated resistance pathway in rice .
Score: 8.00
Title: Analysis of T-DNA Xa21 loci and bacterial blight resistance effects of the transgene Xa21 in transgenic rice .
Author: Zhai W Chen C Zhu X Chen X Zhang D Li X Zhu L
Journal: Theor . Appl . Genet . Citation: V : 109 ( 3 ) P : 534-42 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15088086 Accession (PMID): 15088086
Abstract: The genetic loci and phenotypic effects of the transgene Xa21 , a bacterial blight ( BB ) resistance gene cloned from rice , were investigated in transgenic rice produced through an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system . The flanking sequences of integrated T-DNAs were isolated from Xa21 transgenic rice lines using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR . Based on the analysis of 24 T-DNA Xa21 flanking sequences , T-DNA loci in rice could be classified into three types : the typical T-DNA integration with the definite left and right borders , the T-DNA integration linked with the adjacent vector backbone sequences and the T-DNA integration involved in a complicated recombination in the flanking sequences . The T-DNA integration in rice was similar to that in dicotyledonous genomes but was significantly different from the integration produced through direct DNA transformation approaches . All three types of integrated transgene Xa21 could be stably inherited and expressed the BB resistance through derived generations in their respective transgenic lines . The flanking sequences of the typical T-DNA integration consisted of actual rice genomic DNA and could be used as probes to locate the transgene on the rice genetic map . A total of 15 different rice T-DNA flanking sequences were identified . They displayed restriction fragment length polymorphisms ( RFLPs ) between two rice varieties , ZYQ8 and JX17 , and were mapped on rice chromosomes 1 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 7 , 9 , 10 , 11 and 12 , respectively , by using a double haploid population derived from a cross between ZYQ8 and JX17 . The blast search and homology comparison of the rice T-DNA flanking sequences with the rice chromosome-anchored sequence database confirmed the RFLP mapping results . On the basis of genetic mapping of the T-DNA Xa21 loci , the BB resistance effects of the transgene Xa21 at different chromosome locations were investigated using homozygous transgenic lines with only one copy of the transgene . Among the transgenic lines , no obvious position effects of the transgene Xa21 were observed . In addition , the BB resistance levels of the Xa21 transgenic plants with different transgene copy numbers and on different genetic backgrounds were also investigated . It was observed that genetic background ( or genome ) effects were more obvious than dosage effects and position effects on the BB resistance level of the transgenic plants .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: On the basis of genetic mapping of the T-DNA Xa21 loci , the BB resistance effects of the transgene Xa21 at different chromosome locations were investigated using homozygous transgenic lines with only one copy of the transgene .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The genetic loci and phenotypic effects of the transgene Xa21 , a bacterial blight ( BB ) resistance gene cloned from rice , were investigated in transgenic rice produced through an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The flanking sequences of integrated T-DNAs were isolated from Xa21 transgenic rice lines using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Based on the analysis of 24 T-DNA Xa21 flanking sequences , T-DNA loci in rice could be classified into three types : the typical T-DNA integration with the definite left and right borders , the T-DNA integration linked with the adjacent vector backbone sequences and the T-DNA integration involved in a complicated recombination in the flanking sequences .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: All three types of integrated transgene Xa21 could be stably inherited and expressed the BB resistance through derived generations in their respective transgenic lines .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Among the transgenic lines , no obvious position effects of the transgene Xa21 were observed .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition , the BB resistance levels of the Xa21 transgenic plants with different transgene copy numbers and on different genetic backgrounds were also investigated .
Score: 8.00
Title: Elucidation of XA21-mediated innate immunity .
Author: Park CJ Han SW Chen X Ronald PC
Journal: Cell Microbiol Citation: V : 12 P : 1017-25 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20590657 Accession (PMID): 20590657
Abstract: In the early 1970s , the Xa21 gene from the wild rice species Oryza longistaminata drew attention of rice breeders because of its broad-spectrum resistance to diverse strains of a serious bacterial disease of rice in Asia and Africa , called bacterial blight disease , caused by the Gram-negative bacterium , Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) . In 1995 , we isolated the gene controlling this resistance and in 2009 demonstrated that XA21 recognizes a highly conserved peptide , called Ax21 ( activator of XA21-mediated immunity ) . Tyrosine sulfation of Ax21 is required for recognition by rice XA21 . A decade of genetic , molecular and biochemical studies have uncovered key components of the XA21-mediated signalling cascade . Ax21 recognition by XA21 at the cell surface induces phosphorylation-mediated events , which are predicted to alter subcellular localization and/or DNA-binding activity of a WRKY family of transcription factors . Because XA21 is representative of the large number of predicted pattern recognition receptors ( PRRs ) in rice ( n = 328 ) , Arabidopsis ( n = 35 ) and other plant species , further characterization of XA21-mediated signalling pathways will contribute to elucidation of these important defence responses .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: In 1995 , we isolated the gene controlling this resistance and in 2009 demonstrated that XA21 recognizes a highly conserved peptide , called Ax21 ( activator of XA21-mediated immunity ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Because XA21 is representative of the large number of predicted pattern recognition receptors ( PRRs ) in rice ( n = 328 ) , Arabidopsis ( n = 35 ) and other plant species , further characterization of XA21-mediated signalling pathways will contribute to elucidation of these important defence responses .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the early 1970s , the Xa21 gene from the wild rice species Oryza longistaminata drew attention of rice breeders because of its broad-spectrum resistance to diverse strains of a serious bacterial disease of rice in Asia and Africa , called bacterial blight disease , caused by the Gram-negative bacterium , Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tyrosine sulfation of Ax21 is required for recognition by rice XA21 .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: A decade of genetic , molecular and biochemical studies have uncovered key components of the XA21-mediated signalling cascade .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ax21 recognition by XA21 at the cell surface induces phosphorylation-mediated events , which are predicted to alter subcellular localization and/or DNA-binding activity of a WRKY family of transcription factors .
Score: 7.00
Title: Short communication : developmental control of Xa21-mediated disease resistance in rice .
Author: Century KS Lagman RA Adkisson M Morlan J Tobias R Schwartz K Smith A Love J Ronald PC Whalen MC .
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 20 ( 2 ) P : 231-6 Year: 1999 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10571882 Accession (PMID): 10571882
Abstract: The rice resistance gene Xa21 confers resistance against the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) . The molecular genetic mechanism controlling the integration of the Xa21-mediated disease resistance response with the developmental program in rice is under study in this model system . Reproducible means of infecting plants at certain developmental stages were designed based on the timing of full expansion of the leaf . Xa21-resistance progressively increases from the susceptible juvenile leaf 2 stage through later stages , with 100% resistance at the adult leaf 9/10 stage . We found that Xa21 expression is independent of plant developmental stage , infection with Xoo , or wounding . Expression of the Xa21 gene transcript is not correlated with expression of Xa21 disease resistance indicating that the developmental regulation of Xa21-resistance is either controlled post-transcriptionally or by other factors .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 3.00 ]: Expression of the Xa21 gene transcript is not correlated with expression of Xa21 disease resistance indicating that the developmental regulation of Xa21-resistance is either controlled post-transcriptionally or by other factors .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice resistance gene Xa21 confers resistance against the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The molecular genetic mechanism controlling the integration of the Xa21-mediated disease resistance response with the developmental program in rice is under study in this model system .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Xa21-resistance progressively increases from the susceptible juvenile leaf 2 stage through later stages , with 100% resistance at the adult leaf 9/10 stage .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: We found that Xa21 expression is independent of plant developmental stage , infection with Xoo , or wounding .
Score: 7.00
Title: The autophosphorylated Ser686 , Thr688 , and Ser689 residues in the intracellular juxtamembrane domain of XA21 are implicated in stability control of rice receptor-like kinase .
Author: Xu WH Wang YS Liu GZ Chen X Tinjuangjun P Pi LY Song WY .
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 45 ( 5 ) P : 740-51 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16460508 Accession (PMID): 16460508
Abstract: The rice gene Xa21 confers resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) . Xa21 encodes a receptor-like kinase ( XA21 ) . We demonstrate that XA21 autophosphorylates residues Ser686 , Thr688 and Ser689 in vitro . Substitution of these residues with alanines did not affect the autophosphorylation function of this kinase , but specifically destabilized the resistance protein in vitro and in vivo . Plants carrying these same substitutions in XA21 were compromised in their resistance to the normally avirulent Xoo Philippine race 6 . Additionally , we show that wild-type XA21 and the kinase-dead mutant with the invariable Lys736 residue mutated to glutamic acid were also proteolytically degraded in protein extracts . Finally , we show a correlation between the in vitro degradation and in vivo instability of the proteins . We propose that autophosphorylation of Ser686 , Thr688 and Ser689 functions to stabilize XA21 against the developmentally controlled proteolytic activity .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: Xa21 encodes a receptor-like kinase ( XA21 ) .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice gene Xa21 confers resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: We demonstrate that XA21 autophosphorylates residues Ser686 , Thr688 and Ser689 in vitro .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Plants carrying these same substitutions in XA21 were compromised in their resistance to the normally avirulent Xoo Philippine race 6 .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Additionally , we show that wild-type XA21 and the kinase-dead mutant with the invariable Lys736 residue mutated to glutamic acid were also proteolytically degraded in protein extracts .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: We propose that autophosphorylation of Ser686 , Thr688 and Ser689 functions to stabilize XA21 against the developmentally controlled proteolytic activity .
Score: 7.00
Title: Ectopic expression of rice Xa21 overcomes developmentally controlled resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae .
Author: Park CJ Lee SW Chern M Sharma R Canlas PE Song MY Jeon JS Ronald PC
Journal: Plant Sci Citation: V : 179 P : 466-71 Year: 2010 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21076626 Accession (PMID): 21076626
Abstract: Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns ( PAMPs ) by pattern recognition receptors ( PRRs ) activates the innate immune response . The rice PRR , XA21 , confers robust resistance at adult stages to most strains of the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) . Seedlings are still easily infected by Xoo , causing severe yield losses . Here we report that Xa21 is induced by Xoo infection and that ectopic expression of Xa21 confers resistance at three leaf stage ( three-week-old ) , overcoming the developmental limitation of XA21-mediated resistance . Ectopic expression of Xa21 also up-regulates a larger set of defense-related genes as compared to Xa21 driven by the native promoter . These results indicate that altered regulation of Xa21 expression is useful for developing enhanced resistance to Xoo at multiple developmental stages .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: Here we report that Xa21 is induced by Xoo infection and that ectopic expression of Xa21 confers resistance at three leaf stage ( three-week-old ) , overcoming the developmental limitation of XA21-mediated resistance .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Ectopic expression of Xa21 also up-regulates a larger set of defense-related genes as compared to Xa21 driven by the native promoter .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice PRR , XA21 , confers robust resistance at adult stages to most strains of the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results indicate that altered regulation of Xa21 expression is useful for developing enhanced resistance to Xoo at multiple developmental stages .
Score: 6.00
Title: [ Accelerated improvement of bacterial blight resistance of Shuhui527 using molecular marker-assisted selection ]
Author: Huang TY Li SG Wang YP Li HY .
Journal: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao Citation: V : 19 ( 2 ) P : 153-7 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15966313 Accession (PMID): 15966313
Abstract: Shuhui527 is a promising restorer line bred by Rice Research Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University in recent years . However , this line is susceptible to Bacterial Blight ( BB ) , which limits its use . The IRBB60 , from the International Rice Research Institute ( IRRI ) , contains dominant genes Xa21 and Xa4 conferring resistance to BB . The objective of this study is to improve the BB resistance of Shuhui527 by introgressing Xa21 and Xa4 , the two broad-spectrum BB resistance genes , into Shuhui527 with IRBB60 as the donor , pTA248 and MP12 , linking tightly with Xa21 and Xa4 respectively as DNA markers . BC1 F1 progenies of ( Shuhui527 x IRBB60 ) , containing Xa21 and Xa4 identified using PCR screening and with agronomic traits including plant type , grain type and days to heading etc similar to those of Shuhui527 , were subsequently backcrossed to Shuhui527 and self-pollinated to generate BC2 F1 and BC1 F2 . The BC3 F1 and BC3 F2 were subsequently developed using the same approach . Among the 20 BC3 F2 plants , homozygous Xa21 and Xa4 , 10 plants were the most similar to Shuhui527 in the agronomic traits , and were screened using 120 pairs SSR and 100 pairs RAPD markers . Based on the results of the background screening and the performance of the agronomic traits , 5 plants were identified as improved-Shuhui527 and designated as 527R-5 , 527R-6 , 527R-8 , 527R-9 and 527R-10 . The improved- Shuhui527 lines expressed high resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) stains C I - C VII , P1 and P6 . The evaluation of the polymorphisms and selection accuracies of pTA248 and MP12 demonstrated that the polymorphisms of the two markers were obvious and co-dominant and the accuracies were more than 97% and 83% respectively , indicating the two markers are good for Xa21 and Xa4 in Molecular Marker-assisted Selection .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: The objective of this study is to improve the BB resistance of Shuhui527 by introgressing Xa21 and Xa4 , the two broad-spectrum BB resistance genes , into Shuhui527 with IRBB60 as the donor , pTA248 and MP12 , linking tightly with Xa21 and Xa4 respectively as DNA markers .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The IRBB60 , from the International Rice Research Institute ( IRRI ) , contains dominant genes Xa21 and Xa4 conferring resistance to BB .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: BC1 F1 progenies of ( Shuhui527 x IRBB60 ) , containing Xa21 and Xa4 identified using PCR screening and with agronomic traits including plant type , grain type and days to heading etc similar to those of Shuhui527 , were subsequently backcrossed to Shuhui527 and self-pollinated to generate BC2 F1 and BC1 F2 . The BC3 F1 and BC3 F2 were subsequently developed using the same approach .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Among the 20 BC3 F2 plants , homozygous Xa21 and Xa4 , 10 plants were the most similar to Shuhui527 in the agronomic traits , and were screened using 120 pairs SSR and 100 pairs RAPD markers .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: The evaluation of the polymorphisms and selection accuracies of pTA248 and MP12 demonstrated that the polymorphisms of the two markers were obvious and co-dominant and the accuracies were more than 97% and 83% respectively , indicating the two markers are good for Xa21 and Xa4 in Molecular Marker-assisted Selection .
Score: 6.00
Title: Epigenetic inheritance in rice plants .
Author: Akimoto K Katakami H Kim HJ Ogawa E Sano CM Wada Y Sano H
Journal: Ann Bot ( Lond ) Citation: V : 100 P : 205-17 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17576658 Accession (PMID): 17576658
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS : Epigenetics is defined as mechanisms that regulate gene expression without base sequence alteration . One molecular basis is considered to be DNA cytosine methylation , which reversibly modifies DNA or chromatin structures . Although its correlation with epigenetic inheritance over generations has been circumstantially shown , evidence at the gene level has been limited . The present study aims to find genes whose methylation status directly correlates with inheritance of phenotypic changes . METHODS : DNA methylation in vivo was artificially reduced by treating rice ( Oryza sativa ssp . japonica ) seeds with 5-azadeoxycytidine , and the progeny were cultivated in the field for > 10 years . Genomic regions with changed methylation status were screened by the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphysm ( MSAP ) method , and cytosine methylation was directly scanned by the bisulfite mapping method . Pathogen infection with Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae , race PR2 was performed by the scissors-dip method on mature leaf blades . KEY RESULTS : The majority of seedlings were lethal , but some survived to maturity . One line designated as Line-2 showed a clear marker phenotype of dwarfism , which was stably inherited by the progeny over nine generations . MSAP screening identified six fragments , among which two were further characterized by DNA blot hybridization and direct methylation mapping . One clone encoding a retrotransposon gag-pol polyprotein showed a complete erasure of 5-methylcytosines in Line-2 , but neither translocation nor expression of this region was detectable . The other clone encoded an Xa21-like protein , Xa21G . In wild-type plants , all cytosines were methylated within the promoter region , whereas in Line-2 , corresponding methylation was completely erased throughout generations . Expression of Xa21G was not detectable in wild type but was constitutive in Line-2 . When infected with X oryzae pv . oryzae , against which Xa21 confers resistance in a gene-for-gene manner , the progeny of Line-2 were apparently resistant while the wild type was highly susceptible without Xa21G expression . CONCLUSIONS : These results indicated that demethylation was selective in Line-2 , and that promoter demethylation abolished the constitutive silencing of Xa21G due to hypermethylation , resulting in acquisition of disease resistance . Both hypomethylation and resistant trait were stably inherited . This is a clear example of epigenetic inheritance , and supports the idea of Lamarckian inheritance which suggested acquired traits to be heritable .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 2.00 ]: The other clone encoded an Xa21-like protein , Xa21G .
[ Sen. 15, subscore: 2.00 ]: When infected with X oryzae pv . oryzae , against which Xa21 confers resistance in a gene-for-gene manner , the progeny of Line-2 were apparently resistant while the wild type was highly susceptible without Xa21G expression .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: Expression of Xa21G was not detectable in wild type but was constitutive in Line-2 .
[ Sen. 16, subscore: 1.00 ]: CONCLUSIONS : These results indicated that demethylation was selective in Line-2 , and that promoter demethylation abolished the constitutive silencing of Xa21G due to hypermethylation , resulting in acquisition of disease resistance .
Score: 6.00
Title: [ Expression and autophosphorylation analysis of XA21 and PI-D2 protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ]
Author: Wang SL Li LY Shang JJ Wang J Liu GZ
Journal: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao Citation: V : 47 P : 1009-12 Year: 2007 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18271255 Accession (PMID): 18271255
Abstract: Rice bacterial blight and blast are the most crucial rice disease . Xa21 confers resistance to bacterial blight , while Pi-d2 confers resistance to rice blast Both Xa21 and Pi-d2 encode receptor kinase-like proteins . Biochemical properties of XA21 kinase expressed in bacterial were characterized in our previous report . In this study , both XA21 and PI-D2 kinase domain were PCR amplified and cloned into yeast expression vector pEGH via recombinational cloning strategy , kinase proteins expressed in eukaryotic yeast system was purified and autophosphorylation assay was carried out . The results indicated that XA21 and PI-D2 protein can be detected by SDS-PAGE and showed expected molecular weight . Autophosphorylation assay indicated that yeast expressed XA21 and PI-D2 were active when incubated with P32 labelled ATP . The experiment provided basic materials for biochemical prosperity analysis , protein-protein interaction and substrate screening research .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: Xa21 confers resistance to bacterial blight , while Pi-d2 confers resistance to rice blast Both Xa21 and Pi-d2 encode receptor kinase-like proteins .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Biochemical properties of XA21 kinase expressed in bacterial were characterized in our previous report .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , both XA21 and PI-D2 kinase domain were PCR amplified and cloned into yeast expression vector pEGH via recombinational cloning strategy , kinase proteins expressed in eukaryotic yeast system was purified and autophosphorylation assay was carried out .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The results indicated that XA21 and PI-D2 protein can be detected by SDS-PAGE and showed expected molecular weight .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Autophosphorylation assay indicated that yeast expressed XA21 and PI-D2 were active when incubated with P32 labelled ATP .
Score: 6.00
Title: Dissection of the factors affecting development-controlled and race-specific disease resistance conferred by leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase-type R genes in rice .
Author: Zhao J Fu J Li X Xu C Wang S
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : P : Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19390838 Accession (PMID): 19390838
Abstract: Development-controlled resistance and resistance specificity frequently restrict the application of a disease resistance ( R ) gene in crop breeding programs . Xa3/Xa26 and Xa21 , encoding leucine-rich repeat ( LRR ) -kinase type plasma membrane proteins , mediate race-specific resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) , which causes bacterial blight , one of the most devastating rice diseases . Plants carrying Xa3/Xa26 and plants carrying Xa21 have different resistance spectra and the functions of the two R genes are regulated by developmental stage . Four chimeric genes encoding proteins consisting of different parts of XA3/XA26 and XA21 were constructed by domain swapping and transformed into a susceptible rice variety . The resistance spectra and development-regulated resistance of the transgenic plants carrying Xa3/Xa26 , Xa21 , or chimeric gene to different Xoo strains were analyzed in the same genetic background . The results suggest that the gradually increased expression of Xa3/Xa26 and Xa21 plays an important role in the progressively enhanced Xoo resistance during rice development . In addition , the LRR domains of XA3/XA26 and XA21 are important determinants of race-specific recognition during rice-Xoo interaction , but juxtamembrane regions of the two R proteins also appear to contribute to resistance specificity .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Xa3/Xa26 and Xa21 , encoding leucine-rich repeat ( LRR ) -kinase type plasma membrane proteins , mediate race-specific resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) , which causes bacterial blight , one of the most devastating rice diseases .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Plants carrying Xa3/Xa26 and plants carrying Xa21 have different resistance spectra and the functions of the two R genes are regulated by developmental stage .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Four chimeric genes encoding proteins consisting of different parts of XA3/XA26 and XA21 were constructed by domain swapping and transformed into a susceptible rice variety .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The resistance spectra and development-regulated resistance of the transgenic plants carrying Xa3/Xa26 , Xa21 , or chimeric gene to different Xoo strains were analyzed in the same genetic background .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The results suggest that the gradually increased expression of Xa3/Xa26 and Xa21 plays an important role in the progressively enhanced Xoo resistance during rice development .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition , the LRR domains of XA3/XA26 and XA21 are important determinants of race-specific recognition during rice-Xoo interaction , but juxtamembrane regions of the two R proteins also appear to contribute to resistance specificity .
Score: 6.00
Title: Overexpression of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP3 regulates XA21-mediated innate immunity in rice .
Author: Park CJ Bart R Chern M Canlas PE Bai W Ronald PC
Journal: PLoS One Citation: V : 5 P : e9262 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20174657 Accession (PMID): 20174657
Abstract: Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors ( PRRs ) activates the innate immune response . Although PRR-mediated signaling events are critical to the survival of plants and animals , secretion and localization of PRRs have not yet been clearly elucidated . Here we report the in vivo interaction of the endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ) chaperone BiP3 with the rice XA21 PRR , which confers resistance to the Gram negative bacterium , Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) . We show that XA21 is glycosylated and is primarily localized to the ER and also to the plasma membrane ( PM ) . In BiP3-overexpressing rice plants , XA21-mediated immunity is compromised , XA21 stability is significantly decreased , and XA21 proteolytic cleavage is inhibited . BiP3 overexpression does not affect the general rice defense response , cell death or brassinolide-induced responses . These results indicate that BiP3 regulates XA21 protein stability and processing and that this regulation is critical for resistance to Xoo .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 3.00 ]: In BiP3-overexpressing rice plants , XA21-mediated immunity is compromised , XA21 stability is significantly decreased , and XA21 proteolytic cleavage is inhibited .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Here we report the in vivo interaction of the endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ) chaperone BiP3 with the rice XA21 PRR , which confers resistance to the Gram negative bacterium , Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: We show that XA21 is glycosylated and is primarily localized to the ER and also to the plasma membrane ( PM ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results indicate that BiP3 regulates XA21 protein stability and processing and that this regulation is critical for resistance to Xoo .
Score: 5.00
Title: [ Generation of selectable marker-free and vector backbone sequence-free Xa21 transgenic rice ]
Author: Xia ZH Li XB Chen CY Fan HK Jiang GH Zhu LH Zhai WX .
Journal: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao Citation: V : 22 ( 2 ) P : 204-10 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16607944 Accession (PMID): 16607944
Abstract: The dominant gene Xa21 with broad-spectrum and high resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) was transferred into C418 , an important restorer line of japonica hybrid rice in China using double right-border ( DRB ) T-DNA binary vector through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation . 17 transgenic lines were Xa21-positive with high resistance to the race P6 of Xoo through PCR analysis and resistance identification , among the total 27 independent primary transformants ( T0 ) obtained . The subsequent analysis of the T1 progenies of these 17 T0 lines through PCR-assisted selection and resistance investigation showed that four Xa21 transgenic T0 lines could produce selectable marker-free ( SMF ) progenies . The frequency of primary transformants producing SMF progenies was 15% . In addition , PCR analysis also revealed these SMF progenies did not contain vector backbone sequence , and they were named as SMF and vector backbone sequence-free ( SMF-VBSF ) Xa21 transgenic plants . The further molecular and phenotypic analysis of the T2 and T3 progenies testified the homozygous SMF-VBSF Xa21 transgenic plants were obtained with high resistance to Xoo .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The dominant gene Xa21 with broad-spectrum and high resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) was transferred into C418 , an important restorer line of japonica hybrid rice in China using double right-border ( DRB ) T-DNA binary vector through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: 17 transgenic lines were Xa21-positive with high resistance to the race P6 of Xoo through PCR analysis and resistance identification , among the total 27 independent primary transformants ( T0 ) obtained .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The subsequent analysis of the T1 progenies of these 17 T0 lines through PCR-assisted selection and resistance investigation showed that four Xa21 transgenic T0 lines could produce selectable marker-free ( SMF ) progenies .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition , PCR analysis also revealed these SMF progenies did not contain vector backbone sequence , and they were named as SMF and vector backbone sequence-free ( SMF-VBSF ) Xa21 transgenic plants .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The further molecular and phenotypic analysis of the T2 and T3 progenies testified the homozygous SMF-VBSF Xa21 transgenic plants were obtained with high resistance to Xoo .
Goto:

Textpresso Sun Sep 20 13:45:37 2020 .