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285 matches found in 115 documents. Search time: 0.006 seconds.
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Score: 11.00
Title: A conserved threonine residue in the juxtamembrane domain of the XA21 pattern recognition receptor is critical for kinase autophosphorylation and XA21-mediated immunity .
Author: Chen X Chern M Canlas PE Jiang C Ruan D Cao P Ronald PC
Journal: J Biol Chem Citation: V : 285 P : 10454-63 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20118235 Accession (PMID): 20118235
Abstract: Despite the key role that pattern recognition receptors ( PRRs ) play in regulating immunity in plants and animals , the mechanism of activation of the associated non-arginine-aspartate ( non-RD ) kinases is unknown . The rice PRR XA21 recognizes the pathogen-associated molecular pattern , Ax21 ( activator of XA21-mediated immunity ) . Here we show that the XA21 juxtamembrane ( JM ) domain is required for kinase autophosphorylation . Threonine 705 in the XA21 JM domain is essential for XA21 autophosphorylation in vitro and XA21-mediated innate immunity in vivo . The replacement of Thr ( 705 ) by an alanine or glutamic acid abolishes XA21 autophosphorylation and eliminates interactions between XA21 and four XA21-binding proteins in yeast and rice . Although threonine residues analogous to Thr ( 705 ) of XA21 are present in the JM domains of most RD and non-RD plant receptor-like kinases , this residue is not required for autophosphorylation of the Arabidopsis RD RLK BRI1 ( brassinosteroid insensitive 1 ) . The threonine 705 of XA21 is conserved only in the JM domains of plant RLKs but not in those of fly , human , or mouse suggesting distinct regulatory mechanisms . These results contribute to growing knowledge regarding the mechanism by which non-RD RLKs function in plant .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: Threonine 705 in the XA21 JM domain is essential for XA21 autophosphorylation in vitro and XA21-mediated innate immunity in vivo .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 3.00 ]: The replacement of Thr ( 705 ) by an alanine or glutamic acid abolishes XA21 autophosphorylation and eliminates interactions between XA21 and four XA21-binding proteins in yeast and rice .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: The rice PRR XA21 recognizes the pathogen-associated molecular pattern , Ax21 ( activator of XA21-mediated immunity ) .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Here we show that the XA21 juxtamembrane ( JM ) domain is required for kinase autophosphorylation .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Although threonine residues analogous to Thr ( 705 ) of XA21 are present in the JM domains of most RD and non-RD plant receptor-like kinases , this residue is not required for autophosphorylation of the Arabidopsis RD RLK BRI1 ( brassinosteroid insensitive 1 ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The threonine 705 of XA21 is conserved only in the JM domains of plant RLKs but not in those of fly , human , or mouse suggesting distinct regulatory mechanisms .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 10.00
Title: Plasma membrane localization and potential endocytosis of constitutively expressed XA21 proteins in transgenic rice .
Author: Chen F Gao MJ Miao YS Yuan YX Wang MY Li Q Mao BZ Jiang LW He ZH
Journal: Mol Plant Citation: V : 3 P : 917-26 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20616165 Accession (PMID): 20616165
Abstract: The rice pattern recognition receptor ( PRR ) XA21 confers race-specific resistance in leaf infection by bacterial blight Xathomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) , and was shown to be primarily localized to the endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ) when expressed with its native promoter or overexpressed in the protoplast However , whether the protein is still ER-localization in the intact cell when overexpressed remains to be identified . Here , we showed that XA21 , its kinase-dead mutant XA21P ( K736EP ) , and the triple autophosphorylation mutant XA21P ( S686A/T688A/S699A ) GFP fusions were primarily localized to the plasma membrane ( PM ) when overexpressed in the intact transgenic rice cell , and also localized to the ER in the transgenic protoplast The transgenic plants constitutively expressing the wild-type XA21 or its GFP fusion displayed race-specific resistance to Xoo at the adult and seedling stages . XA21 and XA21P ( K736EP ) could be internalized probably via the SCAMP-positive early endosomal compartment in the protoplast , suggesting that XA21 might be endocytosed to initiate resistance responses during pathogen infection . We also established a root infection system and demonstrated that XA21 also mediated race-specific resistance responses to Xoo in the root . Our current study provides an insight into the nature of the XA21-mediated resistance and a practical approach using the root cell system to further dissect the cellular signaling of the PRR during the rice-Xoo interaction .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 4.00 ]: Here , we showed that XA21 , its kinase-dead mutant XA21P ( K736EP ) , and the triple autophosphorylation mutant XA21P ( S686A/T688A/S699A ) GFP fusions were primarily localized to the plasma membrane ( PM ) when overexpressed in the intact transgenic rice cell , and also localized to the ER in the transgenic protoplast The transgenic plants constitutively expressing the wild-type XA21 or its GFP fusion displayed race-specific resistance to Xoo at the adult and seedling stages .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 3.00 ]: XA21 and XA21P ( K736EP ) could be internalized probably via the SCAMP-positive early endosomal compartment in the protoplast , suggesting that XA21 might be endocytosed to initiate resistance responses during pathogen infection .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice pattern recognition receptor ( PRR ) XA21 confers race-specific resistance in leaf infection by bacterial blight Xathomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) , and was shown to be primarily localized to the endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ) when expressed with its native promoter or overexpressed in the protoplast However , whether the protein is still ER-localization in the intact cell when overexpressed remains to be identified .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: We also established a root infection system and demonstrated that XA21 also mediated race-specific resistance responses to Xoo in the root .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Our current study provides an insight into the nature of the XA21-mediated resistance and a practical approach using the root cell system to further dissect the cellular signaling of the PRR during the rice-Xoo interaction .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 10.00
Title: Adaptive evolution of Xa21 homologs in Gramineae .
Author: Tan S Wang D Ding J Tian D Zhang X Yang S
Journal: Genetica Citation: V : 139 P : 1465-75 Year: 2011 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22451352 Accession (PMID): 22451352
Abstract: The XA21 protein has broad spectrum resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae . Although Xa21-mediated immunity is well characterized , little is known about the origin and evolutionary history of this gene in grasses . Therefore , we analyzed all Xa21 gene homologs in eight whole-genome sequenced rice lines , as well as in four gramineous genomes , rice , Brachypodium , sorghum and maize ; using Arabidopsis Xa21 homologs as outgroups , 17 , 7 , 7 and 3 Xa21 homologs were detected in these four grasses , respectively . Synteny and phylogenetic analysis showed that frequent gene translocation , duplication and/or loss , have occurred at Xa21 homologous loci , suggesting that they have undergone or are undergoing rapid generation of copy number variations . Within the rice species , the high level of nucleotide diversity between Xa21-like orthologs showed a strong association with the presence/absence haplotypes , suggesting that the genetic structure of rice lines plays an important role in the variations between these Xa21-like orthologs . Strongly positive selection was detected in the core region of the leucine-rich repeat domains of the Xa21 subclade among the rice lines , indicating that the rapid gene diversification of Xa21 homologs may be a strategy for a given species to adapt to the changing spectrum of species-specific pathogens .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 3.00 ]: Therefore , we analyzed all Xa21 gene homologs in eight whole-genome sequenced rice lines , as well as in four gramineous genomes , rice , Brachypodium , sorghum and maize ; using Arabidopsis Xa21 homologs as outgroups , 17 , 7 , 7 and 3 Xa21 homologs were detected in these four grasses , respectively .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Within the rice species , the high level of nucleotide diversity between Xa21-like orthologs showed a strong association with the presence/absence haplotypes , suggesting that the genetic structure of rice lines plays an important role in the variations between these Xa21-like orthologs .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Strongly positive selection was detected in the core region of the leucine-rich repeat domains of the Xa21 subclade among the rice lines , indicating that the rapid gene diversification of Xa21 homologs may be a strategy for a given species to adapt to the changing spectrum of species-specific pathogens .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The XA21 protein has broad spectrum resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Although Xa21-mediated immunity is well characterized , little is known about the origin and evolutionary history of this gene in grasses .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Synteny and phylogenetic analysis showed that frequent gene translocation , duplication and/or loss , have occurred at Xa21 homologous loci , suggesting that they have undergone or are undergoing rapid generation of copy number variations .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 9.00
Title: Biochemical characterization of the kinase domain of the rice disease resistance receptor-like kinase XA21 .
Author: Liu GZ Pi LY Walker JC Ronald PC Song WY .
Journal: J Biol . Chem . Citation: V : 277 ( 23 ) P : 20264-9 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11927577 Accession (PMID): 11927577
Abstract: The rice disease resistance gene , Xa21 , encodes a receptor kinase-like protein consisting of leucine-rich repeats in the putative extracellular domain and a serine/threonine kinase in the putative intracellular domain . The putative XA21 kinase domain was expressed as maltose-binding and glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins in Escherichia coli . The fusion proteins are capable of autophosphorylation . Phosphoamino acid analysis of the glutathione S-transferase fusion protein indicates that only serine and threonine residues are phosphorylated . The relative phosphorylation rate of the XA21 kinase against increasing enzyme concentrations follows a first-order rather than second-order kinetics , indicating an intramolecular phosphorylation mechanism . Moreover , the active XA21 kinase can not phosphorylate a kinase-deficient mutant of XA21 kinase . The enzymatic activity of the XA21 kinase in a buffer containing Mn ( 2+ ) is at least 15 times higher than that with Mg ( 2+ ) . The K ( m ) and V ( max ) of XA21 kinase for ATP are 0 . 3 microm and 8 . 4 nmol/mg/min , respectively . Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping reveals that multiple sites on the XA21 kinase are phosphorylated . Finally , our data suggest that the region of XA21 kinase corresponding to the RD kinase activation domain is not phosphorylated , revealing a distinct mode of action compared with the tomato Pto serine/threonine kinase conferring disease resistance .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Moreover , the active XA21 kinase can not phosphorylate a kinase-deficient mutant of XA21 kinase .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice disease resistance gene , Xa21 , encodes a receptor kinase-like protein consisting of leucine-rich repeats in the putative extracellular domain and a serine/threonine kinase in the putative intracellular domain .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The putative XA21 kinase domain was expressed as maltose-binding and glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins in Escherichia coli .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The relative phosphorylation rate of the XA21 kinase against increasing enzyme concentrations follows a first-order rather than second-order kinetics , indicating an intramolecular phosphorylation mechanism .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The enzymatic activity of the XA21 kinase in a buffer containing Mn ( 2+ ) is at least 15 times higher than that with Mg ( 2+ ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The K ( m ) and V ( max ) of XA21 kinase for ATP are 0 . 3 microm and 8 . 4 nmol/mg/min , respectively .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping reveals that multiple sites on the XA21 kinase are phosphorylated .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Finally , our data suggest that the region of XA21 kinase corresponding to the RD kinase activation domain is not phosphorylated , revealing a distinct mode of action compared with the tomato Pto serine/threonine kinase conferring disease resistance .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 9.00
Title: Rice XA21 Binding Protein 3 Is a Ubiquitin Ligase Required for Full Xa21-Mediated Disease Resistance .
Author: Wang YS Pi LY Chen X Chakrabarty PK Jiang J De Leon AL Liu GZ Li L Benny U Oard J Ronald PC Song WY .
Journal: Citation: V : ( ) P : Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17172358 Accession (PMID): 17172358
Abstract: XA21 is a receptor-like kinase protein in rice ( Oryza sativa ) that confers gene-for-gene resistance to specific races of the causal agent of bacterial blight disease , Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae . We identified XA21 binding protein 3 ( XB3 ) , an E3 ubiquitin ligase , as a substrate for the XA21 Ser and Thr kinase . The interaction between XB3 and the kinase domain of XA21 has been shown in yeast and in vitro , and the physical association between XB3 and XA21 in vivo has also been confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation assays . XB3 contains an ankyrin repeat domain and a RING finger motif that is sufficient for its interaction with the kinase domain of XA21 and for its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity , respectively . Transgenic plants with reduced expression of the Xb3 gene are compromised in resistance to the avirulent race of X oryzae pv oryzae . Furthermore , reduced levels of Xb3 lead to decreased levels of the XA21 protein . These results indicate that Xb3 is necessary for full accumulation of the XA21 protein and for Xa21-mediated resistance .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: We identified XA21 binding protein 3 ( XB3 ) , an E3 ubiquitin ligase , as a substrate for the XA21 Ser and Thr kinase .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The interaction between XB3 and the kinase domain of XA21 has been shown in yeast and in vitro , and the physical association between XB3 and XA21 in vivo has also been confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation assays .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: These results indicate that Xb3 is necessary for full accumulation of the XA21 protein and for Xa21-mediated resistance .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: XA21 is a receptor-like kinase protein in rice ( Oryza sativa ) that confers gene-for-gene resistance to specific races of the causal agent of bacterial blight disease , Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: XB3 contains an ankyrin repeat domain and a RING finger motif that is sufficient for its interaction with the kinase domain of XA21 and for its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity , respectively .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Furthermore , reduced levels of Xb3 lead to decreased levels of the XA21 protein .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
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