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Score: 11.00
Title: Infrared photodissociation of a water molecule from a flexible molecule-H ( 2 ) O complex : Rates and conformational product yields following XH stretch excitation .
Author: Clarkson JR Herbert JM Zwier TS .
Journal: Citation: V : 126 ( 13 ) P : 134306 Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17430031 Accession (PMID): 17430031
Abstract: Infrared-ultraviolet hole-burning and hole-filling spectroscopies have been used to study IR-induced dissociation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and tryptamineD ( 2 ) O complexes . Upon complexation of a single water molecule , the seven conformational isomers of tryptamine collapse to a single structure that retains the same ethylamine side chain conformation present in the most highly populated conformer of tryptamine monomer . Infrared excitation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O complex was carried out using a series of infrared absorptions spanning the range of 2470-3715 cm ( -1 ) . The authors have determined the conformational product yield over this range and the dissociation rate near threshold , where it is slow enough to be measured by our methods . The observed threshold for dissociation occurred at 2872 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and at 2869 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineD ( 2 ) O , with no dissociation occurring on the time scale of the experiment ( approximately 2 mus ) at 2745 cm ( -1 ) . The dissociation time constants varied from approximately 200 ns for the 2869 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineD ( 2 ) O to approximately 25 ns for the 2872 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineH ( 2 ) O This large isotope dependence is associated with a zero-point energy effect that increases the binding energy of the deuterated complex by approximately 190 cm ( -1 ) , thereby reducing the excess energy available at the same excitation energy . At all higher energies , the dissociation lifetime was shorter than the pulse duration of our lasers ( 8 ns ) . At all wavelengths , the observed products in the presence of collisions are dominated by conformers A and B of tryptamine monomer , with small contributions from the other minor conformers . In addition , right at threshold ( 2869 cm ( -1 ) ) , tryptamineD ( 2 ) O dissociates exclusively to conformer A in the absence of collisions with helium , while both A and B conformational products are observed in the presence of collisions with helium . Using resolution-of-identity approximation to second-order Moller-Plesset binding energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit and harmonic vibrational frequencies and transition states calculated at the density functional limit B3LYP6-31+G ( * ) level of theory , Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus ( RRKM ) predictions for the dissociation , isomerization , and water shuttling rates as a function of energy are made . At threshold , the experimental dissociation rate is almost 10 ( 3 ) faster than RRKM predictions . Reasons for this apparent non-RRKM behavior will be discussed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Infrared-ultraviolet hole-burning and hole-filling spectroscopies have been used to study IR-induced dissociation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and tryptamineD ( 2 ) O complexes .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: Upon complexation of a single water molecule , the seven conformational isomers of tryptamine collapse to a single structure that retains the same ethylamine side chain conformation present in the most highly populated conformer of tryptamine monomer .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The observed threshold for dissociation occurred at 2872 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and at 2869 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineD ( 2 ) O , with no dissociation occurring on the time scale of the experiment ( approximately 2 mus ) at 2745 cm ( -1 ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The dissociation time constants varied from approximately 200 ns for the 2869 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineD ( 2 ) O to approximately 25 ns for the 2872 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineH ( 2 ) O This large isotope dependence is associated with a zero-point energy effect that increases the binding energy of the deuterated complex by approximately 190 cm ( -1 ) , thereby reducing the excess energy available at the same excitation energy .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Infrared excitation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O complex was carried out using a series of infrared absorptions spanning the range of 2470-3715 cm ( -1 ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: At all wavelengths , the observed products in the presence of collisions are dominated by conformers A and B of tryptamine monomer , with small contributions from the other minor conformers .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition , right at threshold ( 2869 cm ( -1 ) ) , tryptamineD ( 2 ) O dissociates exclusively to conformer A in the absence of collisions with helium , while both A and B conformational products are observed in the presence of collisions with helium .
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Score: 10.00
Title: In vitro inhibition of the activation of Pro-matrix Metalloproteinase 1 ( Pro-MMP-1 ) and Pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 ( Pro-MMP-9 ) by rice and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitors .
Author: Bawadi HA Antunes TM Shih F Losso JN .
Journal: J Agric . Food Chem . Citation: V : 52 ( 15 ) P : 4730-6 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15264907 Accession (PMID): 15264907
Abstract: The in vitro inhibitory activity of the rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( rBBI ) or soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( sBBI ) against trypsin-catalyzed activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 1 or 9 ( pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 ) , respectively , was investigated using electrophoresis with silver staining , heparin-enhanced zymography , biotinylated gelatin , Biotrak assay , and fluorescence quenched substrate hydrolysis . rBBI at concentrations of 0 . 08-0 . 352 mg/mL dose-dependently inhibited the in vitro activation of 45 microg/mL pro-MMP-1 by trypsin . Heparin-enhanced zymography analysis of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin-activated MMP-1 , and a mixture of pro-MMP-1-trypsin-rBBI showed clear zones associated with trypsin-activated MMP-1 and the absence of clear zones in lanes containing pro-MMP-1 or a mixture of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin , and rBBI . The results of the Biotrak assay also indicated that rBBI dose-dependently suppressed the activation of pro-MMP-1 by trypsin . sBBI dose-dependently inhibited the activation of 100 microg/mL of pro-MMP-9 by trypsin . Biotinylated gelatin assays demonstrated that pro-MMP-9 or pro-MMP-9 in the presence of trypsin and BBI did not hydrolyze gelatin , whereas p-aminophenylmercury acetate ( APMA ) -activated MMP-9 and trypsin-activated MMP-9 caused significant hydrolysis of gelatin . Quenched fluorescence substrate hydrolysis for total MMP activity showed that pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 did not hydrolyze the substrate Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 ; active MMP-1 or MMP-9 hydrolyzed the substrate , but lower substrate hydrolysis was obtained when pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 was incubated with trypsin in the presence of increasing concentrations of rBBI . The results are discussed in light of the role of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in the process of angiogenesis and the potential of rBBI or sBBI as a functional food ingredient .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: Heparin-enhanced zymography analysis of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin-activated MMP-1 , and a mixture of pro-MMP-1-trypsin-rBBI showed clear zones associated with trypsin-activated MMP-1 and the absence of clear zones in lanes containing pro-MMP-1 or a mixture of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin , and rBBI .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: The in vitro inhibitory activity of the rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( rBBI ) or soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( sBBI ) against trypsin-catalyzed activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 1 or 9 ( pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 ) , respectively , was investigated using electrophoresis with silver staining , heparin-enhanced zymography , biotinylated gelatin , Biotrak assay , and fluorescence quenched substrate hydrolysis . rBBI at concentrations of 0 . 08-0 . 352 mg/mL dose-dependently inhibited the in vitro activation of 45 microg/mL pro-MMP-1 by trypsin .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The results of the Biotrak assay also indicated that rBBI dose-dependently suppressed the activation of pro-MMP-1 by trypsin . sBBI dose-dependently inhibited the activation of 100 microg/mL of pro-MMP-9 by trypsin .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: Biotinylated gelatin assays demonstrated that pro-MMP-9 or pro-MMP-9 in the presence of trypsin and BBI did not hydrolyze gelatin , whereas p-aminophenylmercury acetate ( APMA ) -activated MMP-9 and trypsin-activated MMP-9 caused significant hydrolysis of gelatin .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Quenched fluorescence substrate hydrolysis for total MMP activity showed that pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 did not hydrolyze the substrate Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 ; active MMP-1 or MMP-9 hydrolyzed the substrate , but lower substrate hydrolysis was obtained when pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 was incubated with trypsin in the presence of increasing concentrations of rBBI .
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Score: 10.00
Title: Probing the role of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolism in defense responses against Bipolaris oryzae infection in rice leaves by a suicide substrate of tryptophan decarboxylase .
Author: Ishihara A Nakao T Mashimo Y Murai M Ichimaru N Tanaka C Nakajima H Wakasa K Miyagawa H
Journal: Phytochemistry Citation: V : 72 P : 7-13 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21112065 Accession (PMID): 21112065
Abstract: Tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites , including serotonin and its hydroxycinnamic acid amides , markedly accumulate in rice leaves in response to pathogen attack . These compounds have been implicated in the physical defense system against pathogen invasion by being deposited in cell walls . Serotonin is biosynthesized from tryptophan via tryptamine , and tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) catalyzes the first committed reaction . In this study , ( S ) -alpha- ( fluoromethyl ) tryptophan ( S-alphaFMT ) was utilized to investigate the effects of the inhibition of TDC on the defense responses of rice leaves . S-alphaFMT , enantiospecifically synthesized from L-tryptophan , effectively inhibited TDC activity extracted from rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae . The inhibition rate increased dependently on the incubation time , indicating that S-alphaFMT served as a suicide substrate . Treatment of rice seedlings with S-alphaFMT suppressed accumulation of serotonin , tryptamine , and hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin in a dose-dependent manner in B oryzae-inoculated leaves . The lesions formed on seedlings treated with S-alphaFMT lacked deposition of brown materials , and those leaves were severely damaged in comparison with leaves without S-alphaFMT treatment . Administrating tryptamine to S-alphaFMT-treated leaves restored accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites as well as deposition of brown material In addition , tryptamine administration reduced damage caused by fungal infection . Accordingly , the accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites was suggested to be part of the effective defense mechanism of rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 3.00 ]: Serotonin is biosynthesized from tryptophan via tryptamine , and tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) catalyzes the first committed reaction .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 3.00 ]: Administrating tryptamine to S-alphaFMT-treated leaves restored accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites as well as deposition of brown material In addition , tryptamine administration reduced damage caused by fungal infection .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites , including serotonin and its hydroxycinnamic acid amides , markedly accumulate in rice leaves in response to pathogen attack .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , ( S ) -alpha- ( fluoromethyl ) tryptophan ( S-alphaFMT ) was utilized to investigate the effects of the inhibition of TDC on the defense responses of rice leaves .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Treatment of rice seedlings with S-alphaFMT suppressed accumulation of serotonin , tryptamine , and hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin in a dose-dependent manner in B oryzae-inoculated leaves .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Accordingly , the accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites was suggested to be part of the effective defense mechanism of rice .
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Score: 7.00
Title: Identification of target genes conferring ethanol stress tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on DNA microarray data analysis .
Author: Hirasawa T Yoshikawa K Nakakura Y Nagahisa K Furusawa C Katakura Y Shimizu H Shioya S
Journal: J Biotechnol Citation: V : 131 P : 34-44 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17604866 Accession (PMID): 17604866
Abstract: During industrial production process using yeast , cells are exposed to the stress due to the accumulation of ethanol , which affects the cell growth activity and productivity of target products , thus , the ethanol stress-tolerant yeast strains are highly desired . To identify the target gene ( s ) for constructing ethanol stress tolerant yeast strains , we obtained the gene expression profiles of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , namely , a laboratory strain and a strain used for brewing Japanese rice wine ( sake ) , in the presence of 5% ( v/v ) ethanol , using DNA microarray . For the selection of target genes for breeding ethanol stress tolerant strains , clustering of DNA microarray data was performed . For further selection , the ethanol sensitivity of the knockout mutants in each of which the gene selected by DNA microarray analysis is deleted , was also investigated . The integration of the DNA microarray data and the ethanol sensitivity data of knockout strains suggests that the enhancement of expression of genes related to tryptophan biosynthesis might confer the ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells . Indeed , the strains overexpressing tryptophan biosynthesis genes showed a stress tolerance to 5% ethanol . Moreover , the addition of tryptophan to the culture medium and overexpression of tryptophan permease gene conferred ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells . These results indicate that overexpression of the genes for trypophan biosynthesis increases the ethanol stress tolerance . Tryptophan supplementation to culture and overexpression of the tryptophan permease gene are also effective for the increase in ethanol stress tolerance . Our methodology for the selection of target genes for constructing ethanol stress tolerant strains , based on the data of DNA microarray analysis and phenotypes of knockout mutants , was validated .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Moreover , the addition of tryptophan to the culture medium and overexpression of tryptophan permease gene conferred ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: Tryptophan supplementation to culture and overexpression of the tryptophan permease gene are also effective for the increase in ethanol stress tolerance .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The integration of the DNA microarray data and the ethanol sensitivity data of knockout strains suggests that the enhancement of expression of genes related to tryptophan biosynthesis might confer the ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Indeed , the strains overexpressing tryptophan biosynthesis genes showed a stress tolerance to 5% ethanol .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results indicate that overexpression of the genes for trypophan biosynthesis increases the ethanol stress tolerance .
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Score: 7.00
Title: Serotonin accumulation in transgenic rice by over-expressing tryptophan decarboxylase results in a dark brown phenotype and stunted growth .
Author: Kanjanaphachoat P Wei BY Lo SF Wang IW Wang CS Yu SM Yen ML Chiu SH Lai CC Chen LJ
Journal: Plant Mol Biol Citation: V : 78 P : 525-43 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22297847 Accession (PMID): 22297847
Abstract: A mutant M47286 with a stunted growth , low fertility and dark-brown phenotype was identified from a T-DNA-tagged rice mutant library . This mutant contained a copy of the T-DNA tag inserted at the location where the expression of two putative tryptophan decarboxylase genes , TDC-1 and TDC-3 , were activated . Enzymatic assays of both recombinant proteins showed tryptophan decarboxylase activities that converted tryptophan to tryptamine , which could be converted to serotonin by a constitutively expressed tryptamine 5 hydroxylase ( T5H ) in rice plants . Over-expression of TDC-1 and TDC-3 in transgenic rice recapitulated the stunted growth , darkbrown phenotype and resulted in a low fertility similar to M47286 . The degree of stunted growth and dark-brown color was proportional to the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3 . The levels of tryptamine and serotonin accumulation in these transgenic rice lines were also directly correlated with the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3 . A mass spectrometry assay demonstrated that the darkbrown leaves and hulls in the TDC-overexpressing transgenic rice were caused by the accumulation of serotonin dimer and that the stunted growth and low fertility were also caused by the accumulation of serotonin and serotonin dimer , but not tryptamine . These results represent the first evidence that over-expression of TDC results in stunted growth , low fertility and the accumulation of serotonin , which when converted to serotonin dimer , leads to a dark brown plant color .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 4.00 ]: Enzymatic assays of both recombinant proteins showed tryptophan decarboxylase activities that converted tryptophan to tryptamine , which could be converted to serotonin by a constitutively expressed tryptamine 5 hydroxylase ( T5H ) in rice plants .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: This mutant contained a copy of the T-DNA tag inserted at the location where the expression of two putative tryptophan decarboxylase genes , TDC-1 and TDC-3 , were activated .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The levels of tryptamine and serotonin accumulation in these transgenic rice lines were also directly correlated with the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3 .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: A mass spectrometry assay demonstrated that the darkbrown leaves and hulls in the TDC-overexpressing transgenic rice were caused by the accumulation of serotonin dimer and that the stunted growth and low fertility were also caused by the accumulation of serotonin and serotonin dimer , but not tryptamine .
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Score: 7.00
Title: Primary structure of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase from horse muscle . II . Amino acid sequence of cyanogen bromide peptides CB1-CB4 and CB6-CB14 , sequence of methionine-containing regions , and complete sequence of the enzyme .
Author: Merrett M
Journal: J Biol . Chem . Citation: V : 256 ( 20 ) P : 10293-305 Year: 1981 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub7287713 Accession (PMID): 7287713
Abstract: The amino acid sequences of 13 of the 14 cyanogen bromide peptides of horse muscle 3-phosphoglycerate kinase have been determined . These peptides together constitute 75% of the structure of the enzyme . Except for the smallest peptides , automated sequence analysis of the parent peptide was employed together with the automated or manual ( 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl ( dansyl ) -Edman method ) sequencing of relevant peptides obtained by proteolytic digestion . In the case of the five smallest peptides , all between 6 and 11 residues in length , sequences were derived from analyses of the intact peptides . CB14a , a peptide produced in low yield during the preparation of the cyanogen bromide fragments , was helpful in the sequence analysis of CB14 . This peptide appeared to have arisen as the result of a cyanogen bromide cleavage on the carboxyl side of a tryptophanyl residue . The sequences of these 13 cyanogen bromide peptides , together with that of CB1 , reported previously ( Hardy , G W , Darbre , A , and Merrett , M ( 1981 ) J Biol . Chem . 256 , 10284-10292 ) , have been combined with data obtained from the sequence analysis of tryptic peptides derived from the methionine-containing regions of the enzyme to determine the complete sequence . Isolation of these overlap peptides was facilitated by the labeling of methionyl residues with iodo [ 2-14C ] acetic acid prior to tryptic digestion . Tryptophan-containing tryptic peptides were also isolated , and their sequence analysis enabled the positions of the four tryptophanyl residues to be established . In this way , the problem caused by tryptophan degradation during the preparation of the cyanogen bromide fragments was overcome . The NH2 terminus of CB1 , the NH2-terminal cyanogen bromide peptide , was identified as N-acetyl serine by mass spectrometry . The alignment of the cyanogen bromide fragments of horse muscle 3-phosphoglycerate kinase described here is in complete agreement with that based on X-ray analysis of the enzyme reported previously ( Banks , R D , Blake , C C F , Evans , P R , Haser , R , Rice , D W , Hardy , G W , Merrett , M , and Phillips , A W ( 1979 ) Nature 279 , 773-777 ) . The complete structure is comprised of 416 residues and has a molecular weight of 44 , 519 .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 3.00 ]: Tryptophan-containing tryptic peptides were also isolated , and their sequence analysis enabled the positions of the four tryptophanyl residues to be established .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: This peptide appeared to have arisen as the result of a cyanogen bromide cleavage on the carboxyl side of a tryptophanyl residue .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The sequences of these 13 cyanogen bromide peptides , together with that of CB1 , reported previously ( Hardy , G W , Darbre , A , and Merrett , M ( 1981 ) J Biol . Chem . 256 , 10284-10292 ) , have been combined with data obtained from the sequence analysis of tryptic peptides derived from the methionine-containing regions of the enzyme to determine the complete sequence .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Isolation of these overlap peptides was facilitated by the labeling of methionyl residues with iodo [ 2-14C ] acetic acid prior to tryptic digestion .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this way , the problem caused by tryptophan degradation during the preparation of the cyanogen bromide fragments was overcome .
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Score: 7.00
Title: The tryptophan content in protein of cereal grains and legume seeds as a function of nitrogen content . A reappraisal of tryptophan score .
Author: Delhaye S Landry J
Journal: Adv . Exp . Med . Biol . Citation: V : 398 ( ) P : 661-4 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8906341 Accession (PMID): 8906341
Abstract: The tryptophan content ( [ Trp ] ) in the dry matter ( DM ) of wheat , maize , barley , sorghum , rice , pearl millet grains , pea and broad bean seeds is evaluated from samples , with various nitrogen contents ( [ N ] DM ) and genotypes , using a procedure that has been shown to be strictly quantitative . The determination of linear correlations between [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM , and between the tryptophan content in protein ( [ Trp ] N ) and [ N ] DM or 1/ [ N ] DM for every species leads to the following observations : ( 1 ) [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM are linearly related . The data show that previous reports of similar relationships underestimate tryptophan by 10 +/- 5% owing to tryptophan degradation during alkaline hydrolysis preparatory to analysis ; ( 2 ) the linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and 1/ [ N ] DM , resulting from linear relationships [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM display coefficients of determination ( r2 ) far lower than 1 and similar to those found for linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and [ N ] DM ; ( 3 ) [ Trp ] N increases with [ N ] DM increasing for rice and pearl millet while it decreases for all other species . In conclusion : ( 1 ) linear relationships between tryptophan and nitrogen have a low predictive value ; ( 2 ) the nutritional score of tryptophan of foods and feeds , as calculated from the determination of tryptophan using a procedure involving alkaline hydrolysis , is generally underestimated by 10% .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: In conclusion : ( 1 ) linear relationships between tryptophan and nitrogen have a low predictive value ; ( 2 ) the nutritional score of tryptophan of foods and feeds , as calculated from the determination of tryptophan using a procedure involving alkaline hydrolysis , is generally underestimated by 10% .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The data show that previous reports of similar relationships underestimate tryptophan by 10 +/- 5% owing to tryptophan degradation during alkaline hydrolysis preparatory to analysis ; ( 2 ) the linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and 1/ [ N ] DM , resulting from linear relationships [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM display coefficients of determination ( r2 ) far lower than 1 and similar to those found for linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and [ N ] DM ; ( 3 ) [ Trp ] N increases with [ N ] DM increasing for rice and pearl millet while it decreases for all other species .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The tryptophan content ( [ Trp ] ) in the dry matter ( DM ) of wheat , maize , barley , sorghum , rice , pearl millet grains , pea and broad bean seeds is evaluated from samples , with various nitrogen contents ( [ N ] DM ) and genotypes , using a procedure that has been shown to be strictly quantitative .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The determination of linear correlations between [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM , and between the tryptophan content in protein ( [ Trp ] N ) and [ N ] DM or 1/ [ N ] DM for every species leads to the following observations : ( 1 ) [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM are linearly related .
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Score: 6.00
Title: Characterization of tryptamine 5-hydroxylase and serotonin synthesis in rice plants .
Author: Kang S Kang K Lee K Back K
Journal: Plant Cell Rep Citation: V : 26 P : 2009-15 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17639402 Accession (PMID): 17639402
Abstract: Serotonin is a well-known pineal hormone that in mammals plays a key role in mood . In plants , serotonin is implicated in several physiological roles such as flowering , morphogenesis , and adaptation to environmental changes . However , its biosynthetic enzyme in plants has not been characterized . Therefore , we measured the serotonin content and enzyme activity responsible for serotonin biosynthesis in rice seedlings . Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase ( T5H ) , which converts tryptamine into serotonin , was found as a soluble enzyme that had maximal activity in the roots . The maximal activity of T5H was closely associated with the enriched synthesis of serotonin in roots . Tetrahydropterine-dependent T5H activity was inhibited by tyramine , tryptophan , 5-OH-tryptophan , and octopamine , but remained unaltered by dopamine in vitro . The it issues of rice seedlings grown in the presence of tryptamine exhibited a dose-dependent increase in serotonin in parallel with enhanced T5H enzyme activity . However , no significant increase in serotonin was observed in rice it issues grown in the presence of tryptophan , suggesting that tryptamine is a bottleneck intermediate substrate for serotonin synthesis .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase ( T5H ) , which converts tryptamine into serotonin , was found as a soluble enzyme that had maximal activity in the roots .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: However , no significant increase in serotonin was observed in rice it issues grown in the presence of tryptophan , suggesting that tryptamine is a bottleneck intermediate substrate for serotonin synthesis .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tetrahydropterine-dependent T5H activity was inhibited by tyramine , tryptophan , 5-OH-tryptophan , and octopamine , but remained unaltered by dopamine in vitro .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The it issues of rice seedlings grown in the presence of tryptamine exhibited a dose-dependent increase in serotonin in parallel with enhanced T5H enzyme activity .
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Score: 6.00
Title: Overproduction of indole acetic acid in Azospirillum lipoferum using the Escherichia coli trp operon .
Author: Cho MJ Gal SW Choi YJ Yoon HW Kim CY Hong JC Bahk JD .
Journal: Microb . Releases Citation: V : 1 ( 4 ) P : 197-202 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8281358 Accession (PMID): 8281358
Abstract: A recombinant plasmid carrying the trp operon from Escherichia coli , which synthesizes tryptophan from chorismate , was constructed by using a broad host range plasmid vector pRK290 ; a mutant trp plasmid for tryptophan overproduction was then selected . The physiological , biochemical , and genetic properties of the Azospirillum lipoferum KY6 , a potential nitrogen fixer of rice , harbouring the recombinant trp plasmid pMJC1 and its mutant pMJC101 , were compared with those of the wild-type bacteria . Anthranilate synthetase is known to be the trpE gene product which plays a key role in the regulatory step in the feedback control of tryptophan biosynthesis . The enzyme activity of the Azospirillum lipoferum KY6 carrying pMJC1 or pMJC101 was respectively 7 and 30-fold higher than that of the wild type in the presence of 10 ( -4 ) M tryptophan . As expected , the amount of tryptophan biosynthesis in A lipoferum KY6 ( pMJC101 ) was increased approximately 100-fold as compared with the wild type , which led to overproduction of indole acetic acid even without addition of exogenous tryptophan . Moreover , the recombinant trp plasmid was fairly stable in A lipoferum KY6 host , showing only 25% loss of the plasmid itself or the trp insert after 40 generations .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: A recombinant plasmid carrying the trp operon from Escherichia coli , which synthesizes tryptophan from chorismate , was constructed by using a broad host range plasmid vector pRK290 ; a mutant trp plasmid for tryptophan overproduction was then selected .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: As expected , the amount of tryptophan biosynthesis in A lipoferum KY6 ( pMJC101 ) was increased approximately 100-fold as compared with the wild type , which led to overproduction of indole acetic acid even without addition of exogenous tryptophan .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Anthranilate synthetase is known to be the trpE gene product which plays a key role in the regulatory step in the feedback control of tryptophan biosynthesis .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The enzyme activity of the Azospirillum lipoferum KY6 carrying pMJC1 or pMJC101 was respectively 7 and 30-fold higher than that of the wild type in the presence of 10 ( -4 ) M tryptophan .
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Score: 5.00
Title: [ Research of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca SG-11 by HPLC and GC-MS ]
Author: LEZX Song W
Journal: Citation: V : 18 ( 4 ) P : 328-31 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12541509 Accession (PMID): 12541509
Abstract: The plant growth promoting bacteria are closely associated to plant . The bacteria are used to adhering to plant rhizoplane , promoting plant growth by fixing nitrogen from atmosphere , secreting stimulating substances or producing antagonistic to plant pathogens . It was indicated that the biological nitrogen fixation played an important role in plant growth promoting function . In fact , it was verified recently by overall research that IAA does it . Therefore research of IAA production and biosynthetic pathway of plant growth-promoting bacteria is much more important . The various ways of IAA production indicated the strong or weak promoting function of bacterium to plants in general The purpose of this paper is to determine whether IAA exists in cultured medium of Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 and biosynthetic pathway of IAA , in order to opimize cultural conditions for IAA production . Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 is a plant growth promoting bacterium , isolated from rice rhizoplane , which can fix nitrogen . The supernatant of SG-11 cultured medium determined by HPLC showed that 47 . 4 mg/L of IAA existed in LB medium and 1 . 2 mg/L of IAA , in basal medium . IAA in metabolite was identified by GC/MS as well . The intermediate determination of tryptamine , indole-3-acetamide , tryptophol and indole-3-acetonitrile indirectly indicated that IAA was biosynthesized in a pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid . Meanwhile , tryptophol in metabolite of SG-11 was verified by GC/MS . The direct intermediates of indole-3-pyruvic acid and indole-3-acetaldehyde in the pathway can not be determined , because both are unstable under normal condition . As reversible conversion existed between indole-3 pyruvic aldehyde and tryptophol , the presence of tryptophol also proved the pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid in the synthesis of IAA by Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 . The results laid basis for further research of plant growth-promoting function of the bacterium .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: The intermediate determination of tryptamine , indole-3-acetamide , tryptophol and indole-3-acetonitrile indirectly indicated that IAA was biosynthesized in a pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 2.00 ]: As reversible conversion existed between indole-3 pyruvic aldehyde and tryptophol , the presence of tryptophol also proved the pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid in the synthesis of IAA by Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Meanwhile , tryptophol in metabolite of SG-11 was verified by GC/MS .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Increased tryptophan decarboxylase and monoamine oxidase activities induce Sekiguchi lesion formation in rice infected with Magnaporthe grisea .
Author: Ueno M Shibata H Kihara J Honda Y Arase S
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 36 ( 2 ) P : 215-28 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14535886 Accession (PMID): 14535886
Abstract: Sekiguchi lesion ( sl ) -mutant rice infected with Magnaporthe grisea showed increased light-dependent tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and monoamine oxidase ( MAO ) activities . TDC and MAO activities were observed before the penetration of M grisea to rice cells and maintained high levels even after Sekiguchi lesion formation . Light-dependent expression of TDC gene was observed in leaves inoculated with M grisea before Sekiguchi lesion formation . Spore germination fluid ( SGF ) of M grisea also induced Sekiguchi lesion formation accompanied by increased enzymes activities and tryptamine accumulation . Sekiguchi lesion was also induced by treatments with tryptamine and beta-phenylethylamine , which are substrates for MAO , but was not induced by non-substrates such as indole-3-propionic acid , ( +/- ) -phenylethylamine and tryptophan under light . Light-dependent induction of Sekiguchi lesion by tryptamine was significantly inhibited in the presence of MAO inhibitors , metalaxyl and semicarbazide , and H2O2-scavengers , ascorbic acid and catalase . H2O2 in M grisea-infected leaves with and without Sekiguchi lesions was demonstrated directly in situ by strong 3 , 3-diaminobenzidine ( DAB ) staining . On the other hand , H2O2 induced Sekiguchi lesions on leaves of cv . Sekiguchi-asahi under light , but not in darkness . This difference was associated with the decrease of catalase activity in infected leaves under light and the absence of decrease in darkness . We hypothesize that the H2O2-induced breakdown of cellular organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria in mesophyll cells may cause high TDC and MAO activities and the development of Sekiguchi lesion , and that the sl gene products in wild-type rice may function as a suppressor of organelle breakdown caused by chemical or environmental stress .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Sekiguchi lesion was also induced by treatments with tryptamine and beta-phenylethylamine , which are substrates for MAO , but was not induced by non-substrates such as indole-3-propionic acid , ( +/- ) -phenylethylamine and tryptophan under light .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sekiguchi lesion ( sl ) -mutant rice infected with Magnaporthe grisea showed increased light-dependent tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and monoamine oxidase ( MAO ) activities .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Spore germination fluid ( SGF ) of M grisea also induced Sekiguchi lesion formation accompanied by increased enzymes activities and tryptamine accumulation .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Light-dependent induction of Sekiguchi lesion by tryptamine was significantly inhibited in the presence of MAO inhibitors , metalaxyl and semicarbazide , and H2O2-scavengers , ascorbic acid and catalase .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Metabolic profiling of tryptophan-overproducing rice calli that express a feedback-insensitive alpha subunit of anthranilate synthase .
Author: Morino K Matsuda F Miyazawa H Sukegawa A Miyagawa H Wakasa K
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol . Citation: V : 46 ( 3 ) P : 514-21 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15695448 Accession (PMID): 15695448
Abstract: The profile of aromatic metabolites in calli was compared between wild-type rice ( Oryza sativa cv . Nipponbare ) and tryptophan-overproducing transgenic rice lines that express a gene ( OASA1D ) for a feedback-insensitive alpha subunit of anthranilate synthase . Metabolic profiling by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection of ultraviolet absorbance revealed a total of 71 peaks in both wild-type and transgenic calli . Only a limited effect on the pattern of major aromatic compounds was observed in tryptophan-accumulating transgenic rice lines , with the exception of an approximately 80-fold increase in the amount of tryptophan . Expression of OASA1D induced relatively small changes in several minor metabolites . One of the minor metabolites whose abundance was increased by OASA1D expression was purified and identified as a previously unknown indole-alkaloid glucoside . The levels of free and conjugated forms of indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) , a plant hormone derived from the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway , were determined separately by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS ) . The amounts of both free IAA and its conjugates were increased in the transgenic calli , suggesting that the activity of anthranilate synthase or the concentration of tryptophan ( or both ) is an important determinant of IAA biosynthesis .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: Only a limited effect on the pattern of major aromatic compounds was observed in tryptophan-accumulating transgenic rice lines , with the exception of an approximately 80-fold increase in the amount of tryptophan .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Nipponbare ) and tryptophan-overproducing transgenic rice lines that express a gene ( OASA1D ) for a feedback-insensitive alpha subunit of anthranilate synthase .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The levels of free and conjugated forms of indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) , a plant hormone derived from the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway , were determined separately by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The amounts of both free IAA and its conjugates were increased in the transgenic calli , suggesting that the activity of anthranilate synthase or the concentration of tryptophan ( or both ) is an important determinant of IAA biosynthesis .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Characterization of rice tryptophan decarboxylases and their direct involvement in serotonin biosynthesis in transgenic rice .
Author: Kang S Kang K Lee K Back K
Journal: Planta Citation: V : 227 P : 263-72 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17763868 Accession (PMID): 17763868
Abstract: L-Tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and L-tyrosine decarboxylase ( TYDC ) belong to a family of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylases and catalyze the conversion of tryptophan and tyrosine into tryptamine and tyramine , respectively . The rice genome has been shown to contain seven TDC or TYDC-like genes . Three of these genes for which cDNA clones were available were characterized to assign their functions using heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and rice ( Oryza sativa cv . Dongjin ) . The purified products of two of the genes were expressed in E coli and exhibited TDC activity , whereas the remaining gene could not be expressed in E coli . The recombinant TDC protein with the greatest TDC activity showed a K ( m ) of 0 . 69 mM for tryptophan , and its activity was not inhibited by phenylalanine or tyrosine , indicating a high level of substrate specificity toward tryptophan . The ectopic expression of the three cDNA clones in rice led to the abundant production of the products of the encoded enzymes , tyramine and tryptamine . The overproduction of TYDC resulted in stunted growth and a lack of seed production due to tyramine accumulation , which increased as the plant aged . In contrast , transgenic plants that produced TDC showed a normal phenotype and contained 25-fold and 11-fold higher serotonin in the leaves and seeds , respectively , than the wild-type plants . The overproduction of either tyramine or serotonin was not strongly related to the enhanced synthesis of tyramine or serotonin derivatives , such as feruloyltyramine and feruloylserotonin , which are secondary metabolites that act as phytoalexins in plants .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: L-Tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and L-tyrosine decarboxylase ( TYDC ) belong to a family of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylases and catalyze the conversion of tryptophan and tyrosine into tryptamine and tyramine , respectively .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The recombinant TDC protein with the greatest TDC activity showed a K ( m ) of 0 . 69 mM for tryptophan , and its activity was not inhibited by phenylalanine or tyrosine , indicating a high level of substrate specificity toward tryptophan .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The ectopic expression of the three cDNA clones in rice led to the abundant production of the products of the encoded enzymes , tyramine and tryptamine .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Senescence Induced Serotonin Biosynthesis and Its Role in Delaying Senescence in Rice Leaves .
Author: Kang K Kim YS Park S Back K
Journal: Plant Physiol Citation: V : P : Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19439571 Accession (PMID): 19439571
Abstract: Serotonin , which is well known as a pineal hormone in mammals , plays a key role in conditions such as mood , eating disorders , and alcoholism . In plants , although serotonin has been suggested to be involved in several physiological roles , including flowering , morphogenesis , and adaptation to environmental changes , its regulation and functional roles are as yet not characterized at the molecular level . In this study , we found that serotonin is greatly accumulated in rice leaves undergoing senescence induced by either nutrient deprivation or detachment , and its synthesis is closely coupled with transcriptional and enzymatic induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes as well as tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) . Transgenic rice plants that overexpressed TDC accumulated higher levels of serotonin than the wild type and showed delayed senescence of rice leaves . However , transgenic rice plants , in which expression of TDC was suppressed through an RNAi system , produced less serotonin and senesced faster than the wild type , suggesting that serotonin is involved in attenuating leaf senescence . The senescence-retarding activity of serotonin is associated with its high antioxidant activity compared to either tryptophan or chlorogenic acid . Results of TDC overexpression and TDC RNAi plants suggest that TDC plays a rate-limiting role for serotonin accumulation , but the synthesis of serotonin depends on an absolute amount of tryptophan accumulation by the coordinate induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes . In addition , immunolocalization analysis revealed that serotonin was abundant in the vascular parenchyma cells , including companion cells and xylem-parenchyma cells , suggestive of its involvement in maintaining the cellular integrity of these cells for facilitating efficient nutrient recycling from senescing leaves to sink it issues during senescence .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: In this study , we found that serotonin is greatly accumulated in rice leaves undergoing senescence induced by either nutrient deprivation or detachment , and its synthesis is closely coupled with transcriptional and enzymatic induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes as well as tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Results of TDC overexpression and TDC RNAi plants suggest that TDC plays a rate-limiting role for serotonin accumulation , but the synthesis of serotonin depends on an absolute amount of tryptophan accumulation by the coordinate induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The senescence-retarding activity of serotonin is associated with its high antioxidant activity compared to either tryptophan or chlorogenic acid .
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Score: 5.00
Title: silencing coi1 in rice increases susceptibility to chewing insects and impairs inducible defense .
Author: Ye M Luo SM Xie JF Li YF Xu T Liu Y Song YY Zhu-Salzman K Zeng RS
Journal: PLoS One Citation: V : 7 P : e36214 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22558386 Accession (PMID): 22558386
Abstract: The jasmonic acid ( JA ) pathway plays a key role in plant defense responses against herbivorous insects . CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 ( COI1 ) is an F-box protein essential for all jasmonate responses . However , the precise defense function of COI1 in monocotyledonous plants , especially in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) is largely unknown . We silenced OsCOI1 in rice plants via RNA interference ( RNAi ) to determine the role of OsCOI1 in rice defense against rice leaf folder ( LF ) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis , a chewing insect , and brown planthopper ( BPH ) Nilaparvata lugens , a phloem-feeding insect . In wild-type rice plants ( WT ) , the transcripts of OsCOI1 were strongly and continuously up-regulated by LF infestation and methyl jasmonate ( MeJA ) treatment , but not by BPH infestation . The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor ( TrypPI ) , and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO ) and peroxidase ( POD ) were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation , but the activity of lipoxygenase ( LOX ) was only induced by LF . The RNAi lines with repressed expression of OsCOI1 showed reduced resistance against LF , but no change against BPH . Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content , but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content , POD and PPO activity by 62 . 3% , 48 . 5% and 27 . 2% , respectively . In addition , MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57 . 2% and 48 . 2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants . These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component , controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect ( LF ) in rice plants , and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI , POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor ( TrypPI ) , and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO ) and peroxidase ( POD ) were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation , but the activity of lipoxygenase ( LOX ) was only induced by LF .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content , but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content , POD and PPO activity by 62 . 3% , 48 . 5% and 27 . 2% , respectively .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition , MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57 . 2% and 48 . 2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component , controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect ( LF ) in rice plants , and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI , POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Some tryptophan pathways in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae .
Author: Ansari MM Sridhar R
Journal: Folia Microbiol . ( Praha ) Citation: V : 45 ( 6 ) P : 531-7 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11501419 Accession (PMID): 11501419
Abstract: Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae , the causal organism of bacterial blight of rice which produces leaf blight as well as kresek ( wilt ) symptoms in plants were tested for indole , auxin production in culture supplemented with L-tryptophan . On the basis of indoleacetic acid ( IAA ) production the isolates were grouped into IAA-positive and IAA-negative . Out of 17 isolates , 11 were IAA-positive while 6 were IAA-negative . The isolates metabolized tryptophan through two different routes and the isolates vary in the pathway of tryptophan utilization . The IAA-positive isolates converted tryptophan to IAA as the end product , whereas the IAA-negative isolates formed anthranilate as an intermediate metabolite and finally produced pyrocatechol via the kynurenine pathway . Quantification of tryptophan metabolism revealed that the maximum production of IAA and pyrocatechol in culture occurred during 2-d incubation at 30 +/- 2 degrees C
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: The isolates metabolized tryptophan through two different routes and the isolates vary in the pathway of tryptophan utilization .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The IAA-positive isolates converted tryptophan to IAA as the end product , whereas the IAA-negative isolates formed anthranilate as an intermediate metabolite and finally produced pyrocatechol via the kynurenine pathway .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Quantification of tryptophan metabolism revealed that the maximum production of IAA and pyrocatechol in culture occurred during 2-d incubation at 30 +/- 2 degrees C
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Score: 4.00
Title: Characterization of the altered anthranilate synthase in 5-methyltryptophan-resistant rice mutants .
Author: Kim DS Lee IS Jang CS Kang SY Seo YW .
Journal: Plant Cell Rep . Citation: V : 24 ( 6 ) P : 357-65 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15776237 Accession (PMID): 15776237
Abstract: In an earlier investigation , homologous mutant lines resistant to growth inhibition by 5-methyltryptophan ( 5MT ) were selected from a callus that had been irradiated with a 50-Gy gamma ray during embryo culture . In order to identify the 5MT-resistant mechanism , we have continued our investigations of these mutant lines and studied the anthranilate synthase activity of the M5 ) advanced lines by direct fluorometric detection of the anthranilate formed in both control plants and mutant lines grown on 500 microM 5MT . The anthranilate synthase activity of the mutant plants was 2 . 2 to 3-fold higher than that of the control . In a kinetic analysis with tryptophan , an anthranilate synthase of the mutant lines was insensitive to feedback inhibition . These lines showed an enhanced accumulation of storage proteins and amino acids . The increased rates of protein synthesis in the mutant lines , relative to that of the control seeds , were 17-28 . 5% . The amino acid contents were 2 . 4-fold ( MRI-40-2 ) to 2 . 6-fold ( MRI-110-6 ) higher in the MRI lines than in the control seeds , and 2 . 4-fold ( MRII-12-5 ) to 3 . 5-fold ( MRII-8-1 ) higher in the MRII lines than in the control seeds . Significant increases among the amino acids of the MR lines were observed for tryptophan , phenylalanine , and tyrosine , which had been biosynthesized through the shikimate pathway . The transcript levels of putative OASA2 , which is one of the key-regulating enzyme subunits in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway , were studied in the control and 5MT-resistant mutant lines subjected to inhibition by two tryptophan analogs ( 5MT and alphaMT ) and to other abiotic stresses ( ABA , NaCl , and cold ) . The putative OASA2 gene in the 5MT-resistant mutant lines was highly expressed in at a low 5MT concentration and at an early stage of the 5MT and alphaMT treatments . However , mRNA accumulation of the putative OASA2 gene in the mutant plants gradually decreased when the plants were subjected to abiotic stresses such as NaCl and cold . These results indicated that the 5MT resistance in the mutant lines is due to altered anthranilate synthase forms .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: The transcript levels of putative OASA2 , which is one of the key-regulating enzyme subunits in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway , were studied in the control and 5MT-resistant mutant lines subjected to inhibition by two tryptophan analogs ( 5MT and alphaMT ) and to other abiotic stresses ( ABA , NaCl , and cold ) .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In a kinetic analysis with tryptophan , an anthranilate synthase of the mutant lines was insensitive to feedback inhibition .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Significant increases among the amino acids of the MR lines were observed for tryptophan , phenylalanine , and tyrosine , which had been biosynthesized through the shikimate pathway .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Tryptophan Enhancement of Somatic Embryogenesis in Rice .
Author: Siriwardana S Nabors MW .
Journal: Citation: V : 73 ( 1 ) P : 142-146 Year: 1983 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16663163 Accession (PMID): 16663163
Abstract: Cereal embryos can produce two types of callus . One type , termed "embryogenic , " consists of small meristematic-like cells and gives rise to many plants by somatic embryogenesis if placed on a suitable regeneration medium . The other is termed "nonembryogenic" and consists of long tubular cells which gives rise to few or no plants . High concentrations of tryptophan increased the formation of embryogenic callus in three rice cultivars ( Oryza sativa L Calrose 76 , Pokkali , and IR 36 ) but not in four others ( Mahsuri , Bg 400-1 , H ( 4 ) , and Giza 159 ) . The best concentration of tryptophan for Pokkali and Calrose 76 was 100 micrograms per milliliter , and for IR 36 , 50 micrograms per milliliter . Indoleacetic acid at 100 micrograms per milliliter promoted an effect similar to that of tryptophan on Calrose 76 . The difference between japonica ( Calrose 76 , Giza 159 ) and indica ( Pokkali , IR 36 ) varieties is not the causal factor for the difference in response to tryptophan . Kinetin does not appear to be a requirement for embryogenic callus formation in Calrose 76 . Plant regeneration from Calrose 76 embryogenic callus occurred at low levels in media containing no hormones . 6-benzyladenine , or 2 , 3 , 5-triiodobenzoic acid but not indoleacetic acid at 0 . 1 to 0 . 5 micrograms per milliliter significantly increased regeneration .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: High concentrations of tryptophan increased the formation of embryogenic callus in three rice cultivars ( Oryza sativa L Calrose 76 , Pokkali , and IR 36 ) but not in four others ( Mahsuri , Bg 400-1 , H ( 4 ) , and Giza 159 ) .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The best concentration of tryptophan for Pokkali and Calrose 76 was 100 micrograms per milliliter , and for IR 36 , 50 micrograms per milliliter .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Indoleacetic acid at 100 micrograms per milliliter promoted an effect similar to that of tryptophan on Calrose 76 .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The difference between japonica ( Calrose 76 , Giza 159 ) and indica ( Pokkali , IR 36 ) varieties is not the causal factor for the difference in response to tryptophan .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Purification and Characterization of a Trypsin Inhibitor from Plathymenia foliolosa Seeds .
Author: da Silveira Ramos V de Souza Silva G das Gracas Machado Freire M Lima Tavares Machado O Postali Parra JR Rodrigues Macedo ML
Journal: J Agric Food Chem Citation: V : P : Year: 2008 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18991455 Accession (PMID): 18991455
Abstract: A novel trypsin inhibitor ( PFTI ) was isolated from Plathymenia foliolosa ( Benth . ) seeds by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G-100 , DEAE-Sepharose , and trypsin-Sepharose columns . By SDS-PAGE , PFTI yielded a single band with a M r of 19 kDa . PFTI inhibited bovine trypsin and bovine chymotrypsin with equilibrium dissociation constants ( K i ) of 4 x 10 ( -8 ) and 1 . 4 x 10 ( -6 ) M , respectively . PFTI retained more than 50% of activity at up to 50 degrees C for 30 min , but there were 80 and 100% losses of activity at 60 and 70 degrees C , respectively . DTT affected the activity or stability of PFTI . The N-terminal amino acid sequence of PFTI showed a high degree of homology with various members of the Kunitz family of inhibitors . Anagasta kuehniella is found worldwide ; this insect attacks stored grains and products of rice , oat , rye , corn , and wheat . The velvet bean caterpillar ( Anticarsia gemmatalis ) is considered the main defoliator pest of soybean in Brazil . Diatraea saccharalis , the sugar cane borer , is the major pest of sugar cane crops , and its caterpillar-feeding behavior , inside the stems , hampers control . PFTI showed significant inhibitory activity against trypsin-like proteases present in the larval midguts on A kuehniella and D saccharalis and could suppress the growth of larvae .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: A novel trypsin inhibitor ( PFTI ) was isolated from Plathymenia foliolosa ( Benth . ) seeds by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G-100 , DEAE-Sepharose , and trypsin-Sepharose columns .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: PFTI inhibited bovine trypsin and bovine chymotrypsin with equilibrium dissociation constants ( K i ) of 4 x 10 ( -8 ) and 1 . 4 x 10 ( -6 ) M , respectively .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: PFTI showed significant inhibitory activity against trypsin-like proteases present in the larval midguts on A kuehniella and D saccharalis and could suppress the growth of larvae .
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Score: 4.00
Title: cDNA cloning , heterogeneous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel trypsin-like protease from Nilaparvata lugens .
Author: Yang Z Xia X Wang X He G
Journal: Z Naturforsch C Citation: V : 65 P : 109-18 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20355330 Accession (PMID): 20355330
Abstract: A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ) strategy was used to clone diverse trypsin-like protease gene transcripts from midguts of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stal ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) . Six individual trypsin-like protease transcripts were identified . On the basis of one nucleotide sequence of the six clones , a full-length cDNA sequence ( 1902 bp ) was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends ( RACE ) . The cDNA contained an 1128-bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 375 amino acids with typical features of the trypsin-like protease . Heterogeneous expression of the coding sequence for the mature peptide in Escherichia coli cells showed that the expressed protease with a molecular weight of 27 . 0 is active , for its BApNAse activity assayed by using BApNA ( N-benzoyl-D , L-arginine-p-nitroanilide ) as substrate . The protease had its maximum activity at pH 8 . 0 and 35 degrees C A much better stability was observed at pH values above 4 . 0 and temperatures below 40 degrees C The enzyme was strongly inhibited by serine protease inhibitor . The trypsin-like protease is therefore likely one of the major digestive proteases responsible for protein hydrolysis in N lugens gut , and multiple gene families encoding digestive proteases may help in adaptation of this sap-sucker to different rice varieties .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ) strategy was used to clone diverse trypsin-like protease gene transcripts from midguts of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stal ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Six individual trypsin-like protease transcripts were identified .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The cDNA contained an 1128-bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 375 amino acids with typical features of the trypsin-like protease .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The trypsin-like protease is therefore likely one of the major digestive proteases responsible for protein hydrolysis in N lugens gut , and multiple gene families encoding digestive proteases may help in adaptation of this sap-sucker to different rice varieties .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Production of functional recombinant bovine trypsin in transgenic rice cell suspension cultures .
Author: Kim NS Yu HY Chung ND Shin YJ Kwon TH Yang MS
Journal: Protein Expr Purif Citation: V : 76 P : 121-6 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20951807 Accession (PMID): 20951807
Abstract: A synthetic bovine trypsinogen ( sbTrypsinogen ) was synthesized on the basis of rice-optimized codon usage via an overlap PCR strategy , prior to being expressed under the control of the sucrose starvation-inducible rice alpha-amylase 3D ( RAmy3D ) promoter . Secretion of trypsin into the culture medium was achieved by using the existing signal peptide . The plant expression vector was introduced into rice calli ( Oryza sativa L cv . Dongjin ) , mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens . The integration of the sbTrypsinogen gene into the chromosome of the transgenic rice callus was verified via genomic DNA PCR amplification , and sbTrypsin expression in transgenic rice suspension cells was confirmed via Northern blot analysis . Western blot analysis detected glycosylated proteins in the culture medium , having masses from 24 to 26 kDa , following induction by sugar starvation . Proteolytic activity of the rice-derived trypsin was confirmed by gelatin zymogram , and was similar to that of the commercial bovine-produced trypsin . The yields of sbTrypsin that accumulated in the transgenic rice cell suspension medium were 15 mg/L at 5 days after sugar starvation .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Proteolytic activity of the rice-derived trypsin was confirmed by gelatin zymogram , and was similar to that of the commercial bovine-produced trypsin .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A synthetic bovine trypsinogen ( sbTrypsinogen ) was synthesized on the basis of rice-optimized codon usage via an overlap PCR strategy , prior to being expressed under the control of the sucrose starvation-inducible rice alpha-amylase 3D ( RAmy3D ) promoter .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Secretion of trypsin into the culture medium was achieved by using the existing signal peptide .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Tryptophan boost caused by senescence occurred independently of cytoplasmic glutamine synthetase .
Author: Park S Lee K Kang K Kim YS Lee S Kweon SJ Back K
Journal: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Citation: V : 74 P : 2352-4 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21071852 Accession (PMID): 21071852
Abstract: We examined to determine whether senescence-induced tryptophan levels are positively associated with levels of glutamine synthetase ( GS1 ) , the initial enzyme in tryptophan biosynthesis . We generated transgenic rice plants in which GS1 was suppressed by RNA interference technology . The transgenic line showed a dramatic decrease in GS1 protein and glutamine content , but the levels of tryptophan and mRNA of the key tryptophan biosynthetic genes upon senescence were comparable to those of the wild type .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: We examined to determine whether senescence-induced tryptophan levels are positively associated with levels of glutamine synthetase ( GS1 ) , the initial enzyme in tryptophan biosynthesis .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The transgenic line showed a dramatic decrease in GS1 protein and glutamine content , but the levels of tryptophan and mRNA of the key tryptophan biosynthetic genes upon senescence were comparable to those of the wild type .
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Score: 4.00
Title: [ Study on the global and local calibration methods of tryptophan content in rice by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy ] .
Author: Zhang B Zhang DP Zhang WB Wang KM Li G Yao YZ Wu JG Shi CH
Journal: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi Citation: V : 31 P : 73-6 Year: 2011 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21428060 Accession (PMID): 21428060
Abstract: Tryptophan is one of the essential amino acids in human , and also considered as an important limiting amino acid in rice . Alkali hydrolysis method was used to determine the tryptophan content of 272 representative samples selected from the 1 256 samples in four years . Based on the milled rice flour spectroscopy , by comparing the prediction abilities of the equations with global calibrations and local calibration , the global calibration method with MPLS and the local calibration method were better than others . Their calibration models could be introduced to application because of low standard errors of prediction for both methods ( 0 . 007% ) and high coefficients of determination ( 87 . 1% and 87 . 4% , respectively ) . Furthermore , the prediction ability of the equation based on the brown rice spectroscopy could be still used for determination application though their effects were worse than that of the milled rice flour spectroscopy . It was concluded that the equation could be directly used to estimate the content of tryptophan in milled rice , and the technology of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy developed in this study could be applied in selecting breeding materials for higher tryptophan content and in quality control during rice processing .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: It was concluded that the equation could be directly used to estimate the content of tryptophan in milled rice , and the technology of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy developed in this study could be applied in selecting breeding materials for higher tryptophan content and in quality control during rice processing .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tryptophan is one of the essential amino acids in human , and also considered as an important limiting amino acid in rice .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Alkali hydrolysis method was used to determine the tryptophan content of 272 representative samples selected from the 1 256 samples in four years .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Pathological Study of Blood Parasites in Rice Field Frogs , Hoplobatrachus rugulosus ( Wiegmann , 1834 ) .
Author: Sailasuta A Satetasit J Chutmongkonkul M
Journal: Vet Med Int Citation: V : 2011 P : 850568 Year: 2011 Type: PubMed-not-MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21918731 Accession (PMID): 21918731
Abstract: One hundred and forty adult rice field frogs , Hoplobatrachus rugulosus ( Wiegmann , 1834 ) , were collected in Srakaew province , Thailand . For blood parasite examination , thin blood smears were made and routinely stained with Giemsa . The results showed that 70% of the frogs ( 98/140 ) were infected with 5 species of blood parasites , including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism , Trypanosoma chattoni , Hepatozoon sp . a , Hepatozoon sp . b , and Lankesterella minima . Pathological examination of the liver , lung , spleen , and kidney of the frogs that were apparently infected with one of these blood parasites were collected and processed by routine histology and subsequently stained with haematoxylin and eosin . Histopathological findings associated with the Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism and Trypanosoma chattoni-infected frogs showed no pathological lesions . Hepatozoon sp . a and Hepatozoon sp . b-infected frogs developed inflammatory lesions predominantly in the liver , demonstrating granuloma-like lesions with Hepatozoon sp . meronts at the centre . Tissue sections of Lankesterella minima-infected frogs also showed lesions . Liver and spleen showed inflammatory lesions with an accumulation of melanomacrophage centres ( MMCs ) surrounding the meronts and merozoites . It is suggested that Hepatozoon sp . a , Hepatozoon sp . b , and Lankesterella minima-infections are capable of producing inflammatory lesions in the visceral organs of rice field frogs , and the severity of lesions is tentatively related to levels of parasitemia .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The results showed that 70% of the frogs ( 98/140 ) were infected with 5 species of blood parasites , including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism , Trypanosoma chattoni , Hepatozoon sp . a , Hepatozoon sp . b , and Lankesterella minima .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Histopathological findings associated with the Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism and Trypanosoma chattoni-infected frogs showed no pathological lesions .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Cloning and characterization of trypsin and chymotrypsin-like genes in the striped rice stem borer , Chilo suppressalis .
Author: Ge ZY Wan PJ Han ZJ
Journal: Genome Citation: V : 55 P : 281-8 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22432944 Accession (PMID): 22432944
Abstract: Serine proteinases including trypsins and chymotrypsins play various important roles in insects , including food digestion , immune defense , and zymogen activation . Studies on insect serine proteinases could reveal their feeding preference ( polyphagous and monophagous ) and facilitate identification of protease inhibitors , which can be engineered for pest management . In this paper , 11 transcripts encoding trypsin and chymotrypsin-like proteins were cloned from the striped rice stem borer , Chilo suppressalis ( Walker ) . All the predicted proteins share high sequence similarity with known trypsin and chymotrypsin-like proteins from either lepidopterans or dipterans , and most of the proteins have conserved motifs that are characteristics of serine proteinases . Among the 11 cloned genes , six were expressed predominantly and one exclusively in the midgut of the insect , three were expressed relatively evenly in examined it issues , and one was not expressed in either the gut or hemolymph based on RT-PCR results . The seven genes that were predominantly or exclusively expressed in the gut were also affected by feeding on different host plants . The genes that were expressed in the gut and were affected by host plants are likely to encode digestive proteinases . The identification of trypsin and chymotrypsin-like genes in this insect species is the first step towards further comparative studies and for identification of insect-specific proteinase inhibitors , which might be engineered to protect rice plants against the striped rice stem borer , which is one of the destructive pests of rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Serine proteinases including trypsins and chymotrypsins play various important roles in insects , including food digestion , immune defense , and zymogen activation .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this paper , 11 transcripts encoding trypsin and chymotrypsin-like proteins were cloned from the striped rice stem borer , Chilo suppressalis ( Walker ) .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: All the predicted proteins share high sequence similarity with known trypsin and chymotrypsin-like proteins from either lepidopterans or dipterans , and most of the proteins have conserved motifs that are characteristics of serine proteinases .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The identification of trypsin and chymotrypsin-like genes in this insect species is the first step towards further comparative studies and for identification of insect-specific proteinase inhibitors , which might be engineered to protect rice plants against the striped rice stem borer , which is one of the destructive pests of rice .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Stability and specificity of rice bran trypsin inhibitor .
Author: Tashiro M Maki Z
Journal: J Nutr . Sci . Vitaminol . Citation: V : 32 ( 6 ) P : 591-9 Year: 1986 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3108471 Accession (PMID): 3108471
Abstract: The stability and inhibitory specificity of rice bran trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) was investigated in an attempt to understand its nutritional significance . RBTI retained about 100% of its original activity over a pH range from 4 to 10 during 24-h incubation at 37 degrees C In heat treatment , RBTI at acidic and neutral pH values still possessed about 50% of its initial activity after 30-min incubation at 100 degrees C , although it was completely inactivated during 15-min incubation at pH 10 and 100 degrees C The effects of metal ions and some reagents on RBTI were examined and it was found that Hg ion reduced RBTIs inhibitory activity : The inhibitor lost 30-100% of its original activity upon incubation with a reducing , an oxidizing or a thiol reagent . Digestion tests on RBTI indicated that alpha-chymotrypsin did not affect the inhibitory activity and pepsin caused only a 30% loss of the initial inhibitory activity after 24-h digestion . To determine inhibitory specificity , bovine , hog , rat , and human trypsins were used as target enzymes bound to an immobilized RBTI column . Titrations of the purified enzymes with RBTI showed that bovine , hog , and rat trypsins were powerfully inhibited by the inhibitor , while human trypsin was only weakly inhibited .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Titrations of the purified enzymes with RBTI showed that bovine , hog , and rat trypsins were powerfully inhibited by the inhibitor , while human trypsin was only weakly inhibited .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The stability and inhibitory specificity of rice bran trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) was investigated in an attempt to understand its nutritional significance .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: To determine inhibitory specificity , bovine , hog , rat , and human trypsins were used as target enzymes bound to an immobilized RBTI column .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Nutritional significance of a rice bran concentrate with trypsin inhibitor activity .
Author: Maki Z Tashiro M
Journal: J Nutr . Sci . Vitaminol . Citation: V : 29 ( 3 ) P : 293-302 Year: 1983 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub6619992 Accession (PMID): 6619992
Abstract: A rice bran protein concentrate ( RBPC ) was prepared from de-fatted rice bran by extraction with a 1% sodium chloride solution and by acetone-precipitation . This protein concentrate contained 45% protein , which was as good as casein in terms of protein quality being judged from the results of amino acid analysis . On the other hand , RBPC possessed the trypsin inhibitor activity corresponding to the complete inhibition of about 6 mg of bovine trypsin per 1 g of dry material The activity was , however , completely destroyed by autoclaving RBPC for 30 min at 121 degrees C In vitro digestion tests showed that RBPC was easily digested by pepsin but was resistant to the attack by trypsin , compared with autoclaved RBPC . Concerning in vivo digestion , however , there was no significant difference in apparent nitrogen digestibility between RBPC and the heated RBPC . In growth experiments with weanling rats fed a 10% level of protein diet , growth depression and the tendency of slight pancreatic hypertrophy were observed in rats receiving a RBPC diet . It is presumed that one of the reasons which explains these phenomena is the presence of trypsin inhibitor in RBPC .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 3.00 ]: On the other hand , RBPC possessed the trypsin inhibitor activity corresponding to the complete inhibition of about 6 mg of bovine trypsin per 1 g of dry material The activity was , however , completely destroyed by autoclaving RBPC for 30 min at 121 degrees C In vitro digestion tests showed that RBPC was easily digested by pepsin but was resistant to the attack by trypsin , compared with autoclaved RBPC .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: It is presumed that one of the reasons which explains these phenomena is the presence of trypsin inhibitor in RBPC .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Identification of novel serine proteinase gene transcripts in the midguts of two tropical insect pests , Scirpophaga incertulas ( Wk . ) and Helicoverpa armigera ( Hb . ) .
Author: Mazumdar-Leighton S Babu CR Bennett J
Journal: Insect Biochem . Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 30 ( 1 ) P : 57-68 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10646971 Accession (PMID): 10646971
Abstract: We have used RT PCR and 3RACE to identify diverse serine proteinase genes expressed in the midguts of the rice yellow stem borer ( Scirpophaga incertulas ) and Asian corn borer ( Helicoverpa armigera ) . The RT-PCR primers encoded the conserved regions around the active site histidine57 and serine195 of Drosophila melanogaster alpha trypsin , including aspartate189 of the specificity pocket . These primers amplified three transcripts ( SiP1-3 ) from midguts of S incertulas , and two transcripts ( HaP1-2 ) from midguts of H armigera . The five RT PCR products were sequenced to permit design of gene-specific forward primers for use with anchored oligo dT primers in 3RACE . Sequencing of the 3RACE products indicated that SiP1 , SiP2 and HaP1 encoded trypsin-like serine proteinases , while HaP2 encoded a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases . The SiP3 transcript proved to be an abundant 960 nt mRNA encoding a trypsin-like protein in which the active site serine195 was replaced by aspartate . The possible functions of this unusual protein are discussed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The RT-PCR primers encoded the conserved regions around the active site histidine57 and serine195 of Drosophila melanogaster alpha trypsin , including aspartate189 of the specificity pocket .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sequencing of the 3RACE products indicated that SiP1 , SiP2 and HaP1 encoded trypsin-like serine proteinases , while HaP2 encoded a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The SiP3 transcript proved to be an abundant 960 nt mRNA encoding a trypsin-like protein in which the active site serine195 was replaced by aspartate .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Putative protein digestion in a sap-sucking homopteran plant pest ( rice brown plant hopper ; Nilaparvata lugens : Delphacidae ) --identification of trypsin-like and cathepsin B-like proteases .
Author: Foissac X Edwards MG Du JP Gatehouse AM Gatehouse JA .
Journal: Insect Biochem . Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 32 ( 9 ) P : 967-78 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12213233 Accession (PMID): 12213233
Abstract: Sap-sucking phytophagous insect species of the order Hemiptera have been assumed not to carry out digestive proteolysis , but instead to rely on free amino acids in the phloem and xylem saps for their nutritional requirements . Extracts prepared from isolated guts of rice brown planthopper ( Nilaparvata lugens ) , a homopteran crop pest , were shown to contain protease activity , with hydrolysis of both protein and synthetic peptide substrates being observed . Assays with specific inhibitors suggested that a trypsin-like serine protease was responsible for most of hydrolytic activity against synthetic substrates . A cDNA library was prepared from RNA extracted from N lugens gut it issue , and screened for protease-encoding sequences . cDNAs for a cathepsin B-like protease and a trypsin-like protease were isolated and fully characterised ; the latter exhibits a novel C-terminal region and an unusual activation mechanism , and represents a small gene family . Soya bean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor ( SKTI ) is an effective inhibitor of protein hydrolysis by N lugens gut extracts in vitro , explaining why transgenic rice plants expressing this protein are partially resistant to the insect ( Mol . Breed . 5 ( 1999 ) 1 ) . It is suggested that digestive proteolysis may be widespread in sap-sucking homoptera , and can make a significant contribution to nutrition .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Assays with specific inhibitors suggested that a trypsin-like serine protease was responsible for most of hydrolytic activity against synthetic substrates .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: A cDNA library was prepared from RNA extracted from N lugens gut it issue , and screened for protease-encoding sequences . cDNAs for a cathepsin B-like protease and a trypsin-like protease were isolated and fully characterised ; the latter exhibits a novel C-terminal region and an unusual activation mechanism , and represents a small gene family .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Soya bean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor ( SKTI ) is an effective inhibitor of protein hydrolysis by N lugens gut extracts in vitro , explaining why transgenic rice plants expressing this protein are partially resistant to the insect ( Mol . Breed . 5 ( 1999 ) 1 ) .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Transgenic expression of trypsin inhibitor CMe from barley in indica and japonica rice , confers resistance to the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae .
Author: Alfonso-Rub J Ortego F Castaera P Carbonero P Daz I
Journal: Transgenic Res . Citation: V : 12 ( 1 ) P : 23-31 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12650522 Accession (PMID): 12650522
Abstract: Indica and japonica rice ( Oryza sativa L ) plants were transformed by particle bombardment with the Itr1 gene encoding the barley trypsin inhibitor BTI-CMe , under the control of its own promoter that confers endosperm specificity , and the maize ubiquitin promoter . From 38 independent transgenic lines of indica ( breeding line IR58 ) and 15 of the japonica ( cv Senia ) selected , 22 and 11 , respectively , expressed the barley inhibitor at detectable levels . The transgene was correctly translated as indicated by western blot analysis with a level of expression in R3 seeds up to 0 . 31% ( IR58 ) and 0 . 43% ( Senia ) of the total extracted protein . The functional integrity of BTI-CMe was confirmed by trypsin activity assays in liquid media and by activity staining gels , performed with seed extracts . The significant reduction of the survival rate of the rice weevil ( Sitophilus oryzae , Coleoptera : Curculionidae ) reared on homozygous transgenic indica and japonica rice seeds expressing the BTI-CMe , compared to non-transformed controls , and the decrease in the trypsin-like activity of insect crude midgut extracts , confirmed the utility of this proteinase inhibitor gene for the control of important storage pests .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Indica and japonica rice ( Oryza sativa L ) plants were transformed by particle bombardment with the Itr1 gene encoding the barley trypsin inhibitor BTI-CMe , under the control of its own promoter that confers endosperm specificity , and the maize ubiquitin promoter .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The functional integrity of BTI-CMe was confirmed by trypsin activity assays in liquid media and by activity staining gels , performed with seed extracts .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The significant reduction of the survival rate of the rice weevil ( Sitophilus oryzae , Coleoptera : Curculionidae ) reared on homozygous transgenic indica and japonica rice seeds expressing the BTI-CMe , compared to non-transformed controls , and the decrease in the trypsin-like activity of insect crude midgut extracts , confirmed the utility of this proteinase inhibitor gene for the control of important storage pests .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Hydrogen breath test with low-dose rice flour for assessment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency .
Author: Casellas F Guarner L Antoln M Malagelada JR .
Journal: Pancreas Citation: V : 29 ( 4 ) P : 306-10 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15502647 Accession (PMID): 15502647
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : The hydrogen ( H2 ) breath test is widely used in the assessment of carbohydrate malabsorption . Severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency markedly diminishes pancreatic amylase production and results in malabsorption of complex carbohydrates . Thus , the H2 breath test with low-dose rice flour starch was tested to determine its value in detecting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency by comparison with a direct measurement of pancreatic function . METHODS : Ten patients with clinically suspected pancreatic insufficiency confirmed with a duodenal perfusion technique and measurement of trypsin and lipase output after cerulein stimulation were included . An H2-rice flour breath test was performed by orally administering 30 g of rice flour . End-alveolar breath samples were obtained before rice load and at 30-minute intervals thereafter for the next 5 hours . RESULTS : The results are expressed as median ( percentile 25-75 ) . Patients included 8 men and 2 women with moderate to severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis , pancreatectomy , or cystic fibrosis . Stimulated duodenal output of lipase and trypsin was abnormally low in all patients ( median release , 1 . 7 ; range , 0 . 5-4 . 5 and 0 . 8 , range , 0 . 1-11 . 3 KU/h , respectively ) . Basal H2 excretion was 9 ppm ( range , 7-17 ) and delta increase over basal H2 excretion was 4 ppm ( range , 1-6 ) . Correlation between H2-rice breath test and basal or stimulated duodenal output of lipase and trypsin was not significant . CONCLUSION : In exocrine pancreatic insufficiency , an oral load of 30 g rice flour slightly raises H2 excretion in breath . This increase is not useful for detecting pancreatic insufficiency due to poor sensitivity and because it is influenced by extrapancreatic factors such as small bowel bacterial overgrowth .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: METHODS : Ten patients with clinically suspected pancreatic insufficiency confirmed with a duodenal perfusion technique and measurement of trypsin and lipase output after cerulein stimulation were included .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Stimulated duodenal output of lipase and trypsin was abnormally low in all patients ( median release , 1 . 7 ; range , 0 . 5-4 . 5 and 0 . 8 , range , 0 . 1-11 . 3 KU/h , respectively ) .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Correlation between H2-rice breath test and basal or stimulated duodenal output of lipase and trypsin was not significant .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Genetically modified rice seeds accumulating GLP-1 analogue stimulate insulin secretion from a mouse pancreatic beta-cell line .
Author: Sugita K Endo-Kasahara S Tada Y Lijun Y Yasuda H Hayashi Y Jomori T Ebinuma H Takaiwa F
Journal: FEBS Lett . Citation: V : 579 ( 5 ) P : 1085-8 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15710395 Accession (PMID): 15710395
Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 ( 7-36 ) amide ( GLP-1 ) is the most potent physiological insulinotropic hormone in humans . We produced large amounts of a GLP-1 analogue , [ Ser8 , Gln26 , Asp34 ] -GLP-1 , which is resistant to trypsin-digestion , as part of a chimeric rice seed storage protein , a 26 kDa globulin , in genetically modified rice seeds . Junction sites between GLP-1 analogue and globulin were replaced by tryptic cleavage sites . The highest level of GLP-1 analogue accumulation was approximately 20-50 microg per seed . We found that GLP-1 analogue derived from trypsin-digested genetically modified rice seeds stimulated insulin secretion from a mouse pancreatic beta-cell line , MIN6 .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: We produced large amounts of a GLP-1 analogue , [ Ser8 , Gln26 , Asp34 ] -GLP-1 , which is resistant to trypsin-digestion , as part of a chimeric rice seed storage protein , a 26 kDa globulin , in genetically modified rice seeds .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Junction sites between GLP-1 analogue and globulin were replaced by tryptic cleavage sites .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: We found that GLP-1 analogue derived from trypsin-digested genetically modified rice seeds stimulated insulin secretion from a mouse pancreatic beta-cell line , MIN6 .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Structure-based in vitro engineering of the anthranilate synthase , a metabolic key enzyme in the plant tryptophan pathway .
Author: Kanno T Komatsu A Kasai K Dubouzet JG Sakurai M Ikejiri-Kanno Y Wakasa K Tozawa Y
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 138 ( 4 ) P : 2260-8 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16040654 Accession (PMID): 16040654
Abstract: Rice ( Oryza sativa ) anthranilate synthase alpha-subunit , OASA2 , was modified by in vitro mutagenesis based on structural information from bacterial homologs . Twenty-four amino acid residues , predicted as putative tryptophan binding sites or their proximal regions in the OASA2 sequence , were selected and 36 mutant OASA2 genes were constructed by PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis . Corresponding mutant proteins were synthesized in a combination of two in vitro systems , transcription with a bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase and translation with a wheat-embryo cell-free system . Enzymatic functions of the mutant proteins were simultaneously examined , and we found six mutants with elevated catalytic activity and five mutants with enhanced tolerance to feedback inhibition by tryptophan . Moreover , we observed that some sets of specific combinations of the novel mutations additively conferred both characteristics to the mutant enzymes . The functions of the mutant enzymes were confirmed in vivo . The free tryptophan content of mutant rice calli expressing OASA2 enzyme with a double mutation was 30-fold of that of untransformed calli . Thus , our in vitro approach utilizing structural information of bacterial homologs is a potent technique to generate designer enzymes with predefined functions .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Twenty-four amino acid residues , predicted as putative tryptophan binding sites or their proximal regions in the OASA2 sequence , were selected and 36 mutant OASA2 genes were constructed by PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Enzymatic functions of the mutant proteins were simultaneously examined , and we found six mutants with elevated catalytic activity and five mutants with enhanced tolerance to feedback inhibition by tryptophan .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The free tryptophan content of mutant rice calli expressing OASA2 enzyme with a double mutation was 30-fold of that of untransformed calli .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Action of Corn and Rice-inactivating Proteins on a Purified Nitrate Reductase from Chlorella vulgaris .
Author: Yamaya T Solomonson LP Oaks A
Journal: Citation: V : 65 ( 1 ) P : 146-150 Year: 1980 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16661131 Accession (PMID): 16661131
Abstract: When nitrate reductase ( NR ) purified from Chlorella was incubated with NR-inactivating proteins purified from corn roots and rice cell suspension cultures or with trypsin there was a loss in NADH-NR and NADH cytochrome c reductase ( NADH-CR ) activities with time whereas the reduced methylviologen NR ( MV-NR ) remained active . When NADH-NR and NADH-CR activities were inactivated completely by the incubation with corn protein , the major protein band obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shifted from an R ( F ) value of 0 . 12 to an R ( F ) of 0 . 25 and reduced MV-NR activity moved to the new position on the gel . When NADH-NR and NADH-CR activities were partially inactivated by the corn protein , NADH-NR activity was detected in an intermediate position ( R ( F ) value of 0 . 18 ) . Incubation with trypsin also caused a change in the NR protein migration pattern ( R ( F ) value of 0 . 20 ) . This protein band also had reduced MV-NR activity . Thus , the corn inactivator degrades NR in a fashion similar to but not identical with trypsin . The incubation of NR with rice inactivating protein resulted in a loss of NADH-NR but had no effect on the migration of NR protein or on the reduced MV-NR activity or mobility suggesting that the rice protein binds to Chlorella NR .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: When nitrate reductase ( NR ) purified from Chlorella was incubated with NR-inactivating proteins purified from corn roots and rice cell suspension cultures or with trypsin there was a loss in NADH-NR and NADH cytochrome c reductase ( NADH-CR ) activities with time whereas the reduced methylviologen NR ( MV-NR ) remained active .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Incubation with trypsin also caused a change in the NR protein migration pattern ( R ( F ) value of 0 . 20 ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Thus , the corn inactivator degrades NR in a fashion similar to but not identical with trypsin .
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Score: 3.00
Title: An antibiotic-free medium for the xenic cultivation of Entamoeba gingivalis .
Author: Gannon JT Linke HA .
Journal: Int . J Parasitol . Citation: V : 21 ( 4 ) P : 403-7 Year: 1991 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1717390 Accession (PMID): 1717390
Abstract: Diamonds TYI-S-33 ( Trypticase-Yeast Extract-Iron-Serum ) medium was used as the basis for a new antibiotic-free medium for xenic growth of Entamoeba gingivalis . Nutritional requirements of the oral protozoan were determined in an effort to optimize growth . TYI-S-33 medium did not support E gingivalis growth prior to modification . The changes included : ( a ) deletion of L-cysteine . HCl and thioctic acid , ( b ) substitution of glucose for dextran I ( mol . wt 185 , 000 ) or rice starch , ( c ) reduction of concentrations of tryptone ( 2 . 5 g l-1 ) , yeast extract ( 1 . 25 g l-1 ) and dextran I ( 1 g l-1 ) , ( d ) increased concentration of ferric ammonium citrate ( 0 . 2 g l-1 ) , and ( e ) addition of gastric mucin ( 2 . 4 g l-1 ) . Dextran I was chosen as the major carbon source ; its use in the medium limited growth of accompanying bacteria . This new antibiotic-free medium significantly increased E gingivalis growth ( 16-20 E gingivalis trophozoites observed per field ) as compared to growth in Diamonds TYSGM-9 ( Trypticase-Yeast Extract-Serum-Gastric Mucin ) medium ( six to 10 E gingivalis trophozoites observed per field ) .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Diamonds TYI-S-33 ( Trypticase-Yeast Extract-Iron-Serum ) medium was used as the basis for a new antibiotic-free medium for xenic growth of Entamoeba gingivalis .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The changes included : ( a ) deletion of L-cysteine . HCl and thioctic acid , ( b ) substitution of glucose for dextran I ( mol . wt 185 , 000 ) or rice starch , ( c ) reduction of concentrations of tryptone ( 2 . 5 g l-1 ) , yeast extract ( 1 . 25 g l-1 ) and dextran I ( 1 g l-1 ) , ( d ) increased concentration of ferric ammonium citrate ( 0 . 2 g l-1 ) , and ( e ) addition of gastric mucin ( 2 . 4 g l-1 ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: This new antibiotic-free medium significantly increased E gingivalis growth ( 16-20 E gingivalis trophozoites observed per field ) as compared to growth in Diamonds TYSGM-9 ( Trypticase-Yeast Extract-Serum-Gastric Mucin ) medium ( six to 10 E gingivalis trophozoites observed per field ) .
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Score: 3.00
Title: The ileum and carbohydrate-mediated feedback regulation of postprandial pancreaticobiliary secretion in normal humans .
Author: Jain NK Boivin M Zinsmeister AR DiMagno EP .
Journal: Pancreas Citation: V : 6 ( 5 ) P : 495-505 Year: 1991 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1719522 Accession (PMID): 1719522
Abstract: We investigated the effect of perfusing carbohydrate into the ileum on postprandial pancreaticobiliary secretion and the relationships among carbohydrate in the ileum , pancreaticobiliary secretion , and gastric emptying . Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated with a multilumen oroileal tube . A metal labeled with 111In-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid ( 400 calories ; 60% carbohydrate , 20% protein , 20% fat ) was then infused into the stomach , and a carbohydrate solution ( rice starch + glucose ) was perfused into the terminal ileum at rates ( mg/min ) of 0 ( saline ; n = 6 ) , 12 . 5 ( n = 4 ) , 25 ( n = 4 ) , 50 ( n = 2 ) , and 100 ( n = 2 ) . To prevent digestion of the carbohydrate in the ileum , an amylase inhibitor ( 3 . 3 mg/ml ) was added to the perfusate used in half of the subjects . Postprandially , we measured outputs of amylase , trypsin , and bile acids in the duodenum , the amount of carbohydrate in the ileum , and gastric emptying . During the second postprandial hour the rate of gastric emptying was inversely related to the amount of carbohydrate in the ileum ( p less than 0 . 01 ) and was directly correlated with pancreaticobiliary secretion ( p less than 0 . 05 ) . However , as the amount of unabsorbed carbohydrate in the ileum increased , the ratio of amylase to trypsin secretion increased ( p less than 0 . 005 ) . Postprandially carbohydrate in the ileum induces changes of upper-gut function that should increase digestion and absorption of carbohydrate since gastric emptying ( and delivery of carbohydrate to the duodenum ) slows and pancreatic amylase secretion increases relative to trypsin secretion and gastric emptying .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Postprandially , we measured outputs of amylase , trypsin , and bile acids in the duodenum , the amount of carbohydrate in the ileum , and gastric emptying .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: However , as the amount of unabsorbed carbohydrate in the ileum increased , the ratio of amylase to trypsin secretion increased ( p less than 0 . 005 ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Postprandially carbohydrate in the ileum induces changes of upper-gut function that should increase digestion and absorption of carbohydrate since gastric emptying ( and delivery of carbohydrate to the duodenum ) slows and pancreatic amylase secretion increases relative to trypsin secretion and gastric emptying .
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Score: 3.00
Title: The tryptophan pathway is involved in the defense responses of rice against pathogenic infection via serotonin production .
Author: Ishihara A Hashimoto Y Tanaka C Dubouzet JG Nakao T Matsuda F Nishioka T Miyagawa H Wakasa K
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 54 P : 481-95 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18266919 Accession (PMID): 18266919
Abstract: The upregulation of the tryptophan ( Trp ) pathway in rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae was indicated by : ( i ) enhanced enzyme activity of anthranilate synthase ( AS ) , which regulates metabolic flux in the Trp pathway ; ( ii ) elevated levels of the AS ( OASA2 , OASB1 , and OASB2 ) transcripts ; and ( iii ) increases in the contents of anthranilate , indole , and Trp . The measurement of the contents of Trp-derived metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry revealed that serotonin and its hydroxycinnamic acid amides were accumulated in infected leaves . Serotonin accumulation was preceded by a transient increase in the tryptamine content and by marked activation of Trp decarboxylase , indicating that enhanced Trp production is linked to the formation of serotonin from Trp via tryptamine . Feeding of radiolabeled serotonin to inoculated leaves demonstrated that serotonin is incorporated into the cell walls of lesion it issue . The leaves of a propagating-type lesion mimic mutant ( sl , Sekiguchi lesion ) lacked both serotonin production and deposition of unextractable brown material at the infection sites , and showed increased susceptibility to B oryzae infection . Treating the mutant with serotonin restored deposition of brown material at the lesion site . In addition , the serotonin treatment suppressed the growth of fungal hyphae in the leaf it issues of the sl mutant . These findings indicated that the activation of the Trp pathway is involved in the establishment of effective physical defenses by producing serotonin in rice leaves .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: Serotonin accumulation was preceded by a transient increase in the tryptamine content and by marked activation of Trp decarboxylase , indicating that enhanced Trp production is linked to the formation of serotonin from Trp via tryptamine .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The upregulation of the tryptophan ( Trp ) pathway in rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae was indicated by : ( i ) enhanced enzyme activity of anthranilate synthase ( AS ) , which regulates metabolic flux in the Trp pathway ; ( ii ) elevated levels of the AS ( OASA2 , OASB1 , and OASB2 ) transcripts ; and ( iii ) increases in the contents of anthranilate , indole , and Trp .
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Score: 3.00
Title: A Kunitz trypsin inhibitor of Entada scandens seeds : another member with single disulfide bridge .
Author: Lingaraju MH Gowda LR
Journal: Biochim Biophys Acta Citation: V : 1784 P : 850-5 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18359299 Accession (PMID): 18359299
Abstract: Sword bean ( Entada scandens ) is a tree climber that belongs to Mimosoideae , a subfamily of Leguminosae . A potent Kunitz type trypsin inhibitor ( ESTI ) was purified to homogeneity from Entada scandens seeds by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation , affinity chromatography on trypsin-Sepharose and DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography . ESTI is a single polypeptide chain of 19 , 766 Da . Both native PAGE as well as isoelectric focusing showed a single inhibitor species with a pI of 7 . 43 . MALDI-TOF analysis also confirmed the monomeric nature . The amino-terminal sequence of ESTI reveals significant homology to the Kunitz-type protease inhibitors of legume plants . ESTI is unique in that it contains a single disulfide bridge , and unlike other inhibitors from Mimosoideae species is a single chain polypeptide . ESTI inhibited bovine trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1 : 1 and the apparent K ( i ) was 4 . 9 x 10 ( -9 ) M In vitro assay showed that ESTI inhibited the midgut proteinase of the fifth instar larvae of Rice moth ( Corcyra cephalonica ) with an IC ( 50 ) of 26 . 4+/-0 . 01 nM . ESTI exhibits a mixed type competitive inhibition at lower concentration and pure competitive at higher inhibitor concentrations . Phylogenetic analyses depicted a clear divergence of single disulfide containing inhibitors from other tree legume Kunitz inhibitors . The homology of ESTI to Kunitz inhibitors together with the absence of Bowman-Birk type inhibitors in sword bean further supports the theory that there exists an evolutionary relationship between the families of inhibitors found in Leguminosae .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: A potent Kunitz type trypsin inhibitor ( ESTI ) was purified to homogeneity from Entada scandens seeds by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation , affinity chromatography on trypsin-Sepharose and DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: ESTI inhibited bovine trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1 : 1 and the apparent K ( i ) was 4 . 9 x 10 ( -9 ) M In vitro assay showed that ESTI inhibited the midgut proteinase of the fifth instar larvae of Rice moth ( Corcyra cephalonica ) with an IC ( 50 ) of 26 . 4+/-0 . 01 nM .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Regulatory effects of an inhibitor from Plathymenia foliolosa seeds on the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella ( Lepidoptera ) .
Author: Ramos Vda S Freire MG Parra JR Macedo ML
Journal: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Citation: V : 152 P : 255-61 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19007900 Accession (PMID): 19007900
Abstract: The Mediterranean flour moth , Anagasta kuehniella , is one of the most important insect pests of grains , reported worldwide , feeding on stored grains and products of rice , rye , corn and wheat . Plants synthesize a variety of molecules , including trypsin inhibitors , to defend themselves against attack by insects . In this study , a trypsin inhibitor ( PFTI ) was purified from Plathymenia foliolosa ( Benth . ) seeds and was tested for insect growth regulatory effect . The survival and mass of A kuehniella larvae feeding on control seeds were about 82 . 7% and 5 mg , respectively , whereas survival on seeds containing 0 . 7% PFTI was about 56% , while a 66 . 1% reduction in the average mass of the larvae was observed . The results from dietary utilization experiments with A kuehniella larvae showed a reduction in efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food , and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost The level of trypsin was significantly decreased in larval midgut and increased in the feces of larvae reared on a diet containing 0 . 7% PFTI . Results indicate that PFTI possesses a toxic effect against A kuehniella larvae .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Plants synthesize a variety of molecules , including trypsin inhibitors , to defend themselves against attack by insects .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , a trypsin inhibitor ( PFTI ) was purified from Plathymenia foliolosa ( Benth . ) seeds and was tested for insect growth regulatory effect .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The results from dietary utilization experiments with A kuehniella larvae showed a reduction in efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food , and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost The level of trypsin was significantly decreased in larval midgut and increased in the feces of larvae reared on a diet containing 0 . 7% PFTI .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Digestion rate of dietary starch affects systemic circulation of amino acids in weaned pigs .
Author: Yin F Zhang Z Huang J Yin Y
Journal: Br J Nutr Citation: V : 103 P : 1404-12 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20102672 Accession (PMID): 20102672
Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of dietary starch and its digestive behaviour on the systemic circulating amino acids ( AA ) in weaned pigs . Eighteen weanling pigs surgically fitted with a catheter in the jugular vein were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups . Sticky rice starch ( SRS ) was hydrolysed more quickly in vitro ( P < 0 . 05 ) than maize starch ( MS ) and resistant starch ( RS ) , and was almost completely hydrolysed within 4 h . The in vivo digestibility of dietary starch in different segments of the small intestine was significantly different . SRS was digested ( 81 . 9 % ; P < 0 . 05 ) in the anterior jejunum , but not more than half of the MS and RS was digested in the same segment of the small intestine . The digestibilities of isoleucine , leucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , valine , alanine , aspartate and serine in the SRS group were higher than in the MS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) , and all nutritionally indispensable and dispensable AA in the SRS group were higher when compared with those in the RS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) . The serum concentrations of nutritionally indispensable AA , proline and serine in the three groups were increased to a peak point within 1 . 5 h postprandially then decreased gradually ; however , the time that serum concentrations of alanine , aspartate , glutamate and glycine in each group increased to a peak point was different . The concentrations of nutritionally indispensable AA , including arginine , cystine , histidine , isoleucine , leucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , tyrosine and valine at 09 . 30 hours and arginine , cystine , histidine , isoleucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , tyrosine and valine at 13 . 30 hours in the SRS group were higher than in the MS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) ; all nutritionally indispensable AA in the SRS group were higher than in the RS group at 09 . 30 and 13 . 30 hours ( P < 0 . 05 ) , respectively . We conclude that dietary starches digested rapidly in vitro have higher digestibility in the anterior small intestine of pigs . Diets containing rapidly digestible starch ameliorate the digestive and absorptive function and regulate AA metabolism to beneficially increase the entry of dietary AA into the systemic circulation in pigs .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: The concentrations of nutritionally indispensable AA , including arginine , cystine , histidine , isoleucine , leucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , tyrosine and valine at 09 . 30 hours and arginine , cystine , histidine , isoleucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , tyrosine and valine at 13 . 30 hours in the SRS group were higher than in the MS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) ; all nutritionally indispensable AA in the SRS group were higher than in the RS group at 09 . 30 and 13 . 30 hours ( P < 0 . 05 ) , respectively .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The digestibilities of isoleucine , leucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , valine , alanine , aspartate and serine in the SRS group were higher than in the MS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) , and all nutritionally indispensable and dispensable AA in the SRS group were higher when compared with those in the RS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Sekiguchi lesion gene encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that catalyzes conversion of tryptamine to serotonin in rice .
Author: Fujiwara T Maisonneuve S Isshiki M Mizutani M Chen L Wong HL Kawasaki T Shimamoto K
Journal: J Biol Chem Citation: V : 285 P : 11308-13 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20150424 Accession (PMID): 20150424
Abstract: Serotonin is a well known neurotransmitter in mammals and plays an important role in various mental functions in humans . In plants , the serotonin biosynthesis pathway and its function are not well understood . The rice sekiguchi lesion ( sl ) mutants accumulate tryptamine , a candidate substrate for serotonin biosynthesis . We isolated the SL gene by map-based cloning and found that it encodes CYP71P1 in a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase family . A recombinant SL protein exhibited tryptamine 5-hydroxylase enzyme activity and catalyzed the conversion of tryptamine to serotonin . This pathway is novel and has not been reported in mammals . Expression of SL was induced by the N-acetylchitooligosaccharide ( chitin ) elicitor and by infection with Magnaporthe grisea , a causal agent for rice blast disease . Exogenously applied serotonin induced defense gene expression and cell death in rice suspension cultures and increased resistance to rice blast infection in plants . We also found that serotonin-induced defense gene expression is mediated by the RacGTPase pathway and by the G alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein . These results suggest that serotonin plays an important role in rice innate immunity .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: A recombinant SL protein exhibited tryptamine 5-hydroxylase enzyme activity and catalyzed the conversion of tryptamine to serotonin .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice sekiguchi lesion ( sl ) mutants accumulate tryptamine , a candidate substrate for serotonin biosynthesis .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Application of response surface methodology and artificial neural networks for optimization of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 production by Escherichia coli in medium containing byproduct glycerol .
Author: Giordano PC Martinez HD Iglesias AA Beccaria AJ Goicoechea HC
Journal: Bioresour Technol Citation: V : 101 P : 7537-7544 Year: 2010 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20576568 Accession (PMID): 20576568
Abstract: Production of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 ( OsHb1 ) by Escherichia coli was maximized in shake-flask cultures in media containing tryptone , yeast extract , sodium chloride and byproduct glycerol from biodiesel production . Response surface methodology ( RSM ) and artificial neural networks ( ANNs ) , followed by multiple response optimization through a desirability function were applied to evaluate the amount of OsHb1 produced . The results obtained by the application of ANNs were more reliable since better statistical parameters were obtained . The optimal conditions were ( gL ( -1 ) ) , tryptone , 42 . 69 ; yeast extract , 20 . 11 ; sodium chloride , 17 . 77 ; and byproduct glycerol , 0 . 33 . A maximum recombinant protein concentration of 3 . 50gL ( -1 ) and a minimum biomass concentration of 18 . 48gL ( -1 ) were obtained under these conditions . Although the concentrations of tryptone , yeast extract and sodium chloride are relatively high , the increase in the yield with respect to biomass formed ( Y ( P/X ) ) overcomes this disadvantage .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Production of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 ( OsHb1 ) by Escherichia coli was maximized in shake-flask cultures in media containing tryptone , yeast extract , sodium chloride and byproduct glycerol from biodiesel production .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The optimal conditions were ( gL ( -1 ) ) , tryptone , 42 . 69 ; yeast extract , 20 . 11 ; sodium chloride , 17 . 77 ; and byproduct glycerol , 0 . 33 .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Although the concentrations of tryptone , yeast extract and sodium chloride are relatively high , the increase in the yield with respect to biomass formed ( Y ( P/X ) ) overcomes this disadvantage .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Application of response surface methodology and artificial neural networks for optimization of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 production by Escherichia coli in medium containing byproduct glycerol .
Author: Giordano PC Martinez HD Iglesias AA Beccaria AJ Goicoechea HC
Journal: Bioresour Technol Citation: V : 101 P : 7537-44 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20578289 Accession (PMID): 20578289
Abstract: Production of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 ( OsHb1 ) by Escherichia coli was maximized in shake-flask cultures in media containing tryptone , yeast extract , sodium chloride and byproduct glycerol from biodiesel production . Response surface methodology ( RSM ) and artificial neural networks ( ANNs ) , followed by multiple response optimization through a desirability function were applied to evaluate the amount of OsHb1 produced . The results obtained by the application of ANNs were more reliable since better statistical parameters were obtained . The optimal conditions were ( g L ( -1 ) ) , tryptone , 42 . 69 ; yeast extract , 20 . 11 ; sodium chloride , 17 . 77 ; and byproduct glycerol , 0 . 33 . A maximum recombinant protein concentration of 3 . 50 g L ( -1 ) and a minimum biomass concentration of 18 . 48 g L ( -1 ) were obtained under these conditions . Although the concentrations of tryptone , yeast extract and sodium chloride are relatively high , the increase in the yield with respect to biomass formed ( Y ( P/X ) ) overcomes this disadvantage .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Production of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 ( OsHb1 ) by Escherichia coli was maximized in shake-flask cultures in media containing tryptone , yeast extract , sodium chloride and byproduct glycerol from biodiesel production .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The optimal conditions were ( g L ( -1 ) ) , tryptone , 42 . 69 ; yeast extract , 20 . 11 ; sodium chloride , 17 . 77 ; and byproduct glycerol , 0 . 33 .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Although the concentrations of tryptone , yeast extract and sodium chloride are relatively high , the increase in the yield with respect to biomass formed ( Y ( P/X ) ) overcomes this disadvantage .
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Score: 3.00
Title: A trypsin-like protease in rice green semi-looper , Naranga aenescens moore ( lepidoptera : Noctuidae ) : purification and characterization .
Author: Zibaee A Bandani AR Fazeli-Dinan M Zibaee I Sendi JJ Maleki FA
Journal: Arch Insect Biochem Physiol Citation: V : P : Year: 2011 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21678486 Accession (PMID): 21678486
Abstract: The rice green semi looper , Naranga aenescens Moore ( Lepidoptera : Noctuidae ) causes severe damage to rice fields in Eastern Asia and Middle East We demonstrate that two types of serine proteases are active in the midgut of the third instar larvae of N aenescens , but trypsin-like proteases are considerably more active than chymotrypsin-like proteases . To develop better control strategies , purification and biochemical characterization of a major trypsin-like digestive protease from the midgut of the third instar larvae of N aenescens was achieved by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography . After the final purification step , the enzyme was purified 9 . 62-fold with a recovery of 16 . 1% and a specific activity of 4 . 12 U/mg protein and a molecular mass of approximately 88 . 5 kDa . Biochemical characterization indicated that the purified protease had highest activity at pH 10 and 30 degrees C and was stable for up to 6 h under those conditions . Divalent cations , especially Ca ( 2+ ) , Mg ( 2+ ) , and Cu ( 2+ ) , increased the enzyme activity and synthetic inhibitors that target trypsin-like activity caused a significant reduction in caseinolytic activity . These data may be used to develop inhibitors that decrease the damage of N aenescens to rice cultivars in the field . ( c ) 2011 Wiley Periodicals , Inc .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice green semi looper , Naranga aenescens Moore ( Lepidoptera : Noctuidae ) causes severe damage to rice fields in Eastern Asia and Middle East We demonstrate that two types of serine proteases are active in the midgut of the third instar larvae of N aenescens , but trypsin-like proteases are considerably more active than chymotrypsin-like proteases .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: To develop better control strategies , purification and biochemical characterization of a major trypsin-like digestive protease from the midgut of the third instar larvae of N aenescens was achieved by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Divalent cations , especially Ca ( 2+ ) , Mg ( 2+ ) , and Cu ( 2+ ) , increased the enzyme activity and synthetic inhibitors that target trypsin-like activity caused a significant reduction in caseinolytic activity .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase-deficient Sekiguchi rice induces synthesis of 5-hydroxytryptophan and N-acetyltryptamine but decreases melatonin biosynthesis during senescence process of detached leaves .
Author: Park S Lee K Kim YS Back K
Journal: J Pineal Res Citation: V : 52 P : 211-6 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21884550 Accession (PMID): 21884550
Abstract: Melatonin biosynthesis was examined in Sekiguchi mutant rice lacking functional tryptamine 5-hydroxylase ( T5H ) activity , which is the terminal enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis in rice . During senescence process , the leaves of Sekiguchi mutant rice produced more tryptamine and N-acetyltryptamine compared with the wild-type Asahi leaves . Even though T5H activity is absent , Sekiguchi leaves produce low levels of serotonin derived from 5-hydroxytryptophan , which was found to be synthesized during senescence process . Accordingly , both rice cultivars exhibited similar levels of N-acetylserotonin until 6 days of senescence induction ; however , only Asahi leaves continued to accumulate N-acetylserotonin after 6 days . In contrast , a large amount of N-acetyltryptamine was accumulated in Sekiguchi leaves , indicating that tryptamine was efficiently utilized as substrate by the rice arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme . An increase in N-acetyltryptamine in Sekiguchi had an inhibitory effect on synthesis of melatonin because little melatonin was produced in Sekiguchi leaves at 6 days of senescence induction , even in the presence of equivalent levels of N-acetylserotonin in both cultivars . The exogenous treatment of 0 . 1 mmN-acetyltryptamine during senescence process completely blocked melatonin synthesis .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Melatonin biosynthesis was examined in Sekiguchi mutant rice lacking functional tryptamine 5-hydroxylase ( T5H ) activity , which is the terminal enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis in rice .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: During senescence process , the leaves of Sekiguchi mutant rice produced more tryptamine and N-acetyltryptamine compared with the wild-type Asahi leaves .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: In contrast , a large amount of N-acetyltryptamine was accumulated in Sekiguchi leaves , indicating that tryptamine was efficiently utilized as substrate by the rice arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Biosynthesis and emission of insect herbivory-induced volatile indole in rice .
Author: Zhuang X Fiesselmann A Zhao N Chen H Frey M Chen F
Journal: Phytochemistry Citation: V : 73 P : 15-22 Year: 2012 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22000657 Accession (PMID): 22000657
Abstract: Insect-damaged rice plants emit a complex mixture of volatiles that are highly attractive to parasitic wasps . Indole is one constituent of insect-induced rice volatiles , and is produced in plants by the enzyme indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase ( IGL ) . The alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase ( TSA ) is the IGL that catalyses the conversion of indole-3-glycerol phosphate to indole in the alpha-reaction of tryptophan synthesis ; however , TSA is only active in the complex with the beta-subunit of tryptophan synthase and is not capable of producing free indole . In maize a TSA homolog , ZmIgl , is the structural gene responsible for volatile indole biosynthesis . Bioinformatic analysis based on the ZmIgl-sequence indicated that the rice genome contains five homologous genes . Three homologs Os03g58260 , Os03g58300 and Os07g08430 , have detectable transcript levels in seedling it issue and were expressed in both insect-damaged and control rice plants . Only Os03g58300 , however , was up-regulated by insect feeding . Recombinant proteins of the three rice genes were tested for IGL activity . Os03g58300 had a low K ( m ) for indole-3-glycerol phosphate and a high k ( cat ) , and hence can efficiently produce indole . Os07g08430 exhibited biochemical properties resembling characterized TSAs . In contrast , Os03g58260 was inactive as a monomer . Analysis of Os03g58300 expression and indole emission provides further support that Os03g58300 is the bona fide rice IGL for biosynthesis of indole , in analogy to maize , this gene is termed OsIgl . Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rice genes are localized in two distinct clades together with the maize genes ZmIgl and ZmBx1 ( Os03g58300 ) and ZmTSA ( Os03g58260 and Os07g08430 ) . The genes in the two clades have distinct enzyme activities and gene structures in terms of intron/exon organization . These results suggest that OsIgl evolved after the split of monocot and dicot lineages and before the diversification of the Poaceae .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 3.00 ]: The alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase ( TSA ) is the IGL that catalyses the conversion of indole-3-glycerol phosphate to indole in the alpha-reaction of tryptophan synthesis ; however , TSA is only active in the complex with the beta-subunit of tryptophan synthase and is not capable of producing free indole .
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Score: 3.00
Title: A large increase in IAA during development of rice grains correlates with the expression of tryptophan aminotransferase OsTAR1 and a grain-specific YUCCA .
Author: Abu-Zaitoon YM Bennett K Normanly J Nonhebel HM
Journal: Physiol Plant Citation: V : P : Year: 2012 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22582989 Accession (PMID): 22582989
Abstract: The indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) content of developing grains of Oryza sativa subsp . japonica was measured by combined liquid chromatography , tandem mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode . The increase from 50 ng g ( -1 ) fresh weight to 2 . 9 microg g ( -1 ) fresh weight from 1 to 14 days after pollination was much larger than that previously reported by enzyme-linked immunoassay methods . The largest increase in IAA content coincided with the start of the major starch deposition phase of grain-fill . The increase in IAA content was strongly correlated with the expression of putative IAA biosynthesis genes , OsYUC9 , OsYUC11 and OsTAR1 , measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction . These results confirm the importance of the tryptophan aminotransferase/YUCCA pathway in this system . All three genes were expressed in endosperm ; expression of OsYUC11 appeared to be confined to endosperm it issue . Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OsYUC11 and AtYUC10 belong to a separate clade of YUCCAs , which do not have orthologues outside the Angiosperms . This clade may have evolved with a specific role in endosperm . Expression of tryptophan decarboxylase in developing rice grains did not correlate with IAA levels , indicating that tryptamine is unlikely to be important for IAA synthesis in this system . In light of these observations , we hypothesize that IAA production in developing rice grains is controlled via expression of OsTAR1 , OsYUC9 , OsYUC11 and that IAA may be important during starch deposition in addition to its previously suggested role early in grain development .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: Expression of tryptophan decarboxylase in developing rice grains did not correlate with IAA levels , indicating that tryptamine is unlikely to be important for IAA synthesis in this system .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results confirm the importance of the tryptophan aminotransferase/YUCCA pathway in this system .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Mechanistic Examination of C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) Bond Cleavages of Tryptophan Residues during Dissociations of Molecular Peptide Radical Cations .
Author: Song T Ma CY Chu IK Siu CK Laskin J
Journal: J Phys Chem A Citation: V : P : Year: 2012 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22697598 Accession (PMID): 22697598
Abstract: In this study , we used collision-induced dissociation ( CID ) to examine the gas-phase fragmentations of [ G ( n ) W ] ( *+ ) ( n = 2-4 ) and [ GXW ] ( *+ ) ( X = C , S , L , F , Y , Q ) species . The C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage of a C-terminal decarboxylated tryptophan residue ( [ M - CO ( 2 ) ] ( *+ ) ) can generate [ M - CO ( 2 ) - 116 ] ( + ) , [ M - CO ( 2 ) - 117 ] ( *+ ) , and [ 1H-indole ] ( *+ ) ( m/z 117 ) species as possible product ions . Competition between the formation of [ M - CO ( 2 ) - 116 ] ( + ) and [ 1H-indole ] ( *+ ) systems implies the existence of a proton-bound dimer formed between the indole ring and peptide backbone . Formation of such a proton-bound dimer is facile via a protonation of the tryptophan gamma-carbon atom as suggested by density functional theory ( DFT ) calculations . DFT calculations also suggested the initially formed ion 2 , the decarboxylated species that is active against C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage , can efficiently isomerize to form a more stable pi-radical isomer ( ion 9 ) as supported by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus ( RRKM ) modeling . The C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage of a tryptophan residue also can occur directly from peptide radical cations containing a basic residue . CID of [ WG ( n ) R ] ( *+ ) ( n = 1-3 ) radical cations consistently resulted in predominant formation of [ M - 116 ] ( + ) product ions . It appears that the basic arginine residue tightly sequesters the proton and allows the charge-remote C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage to prevail over the charge-directed one . DFT calculations predicted that the barrier for the former is 6 . 2 kcal mol ( -1 ) lower than that of the latter . Furthermore , the pathway involving a salt-bridge intermediate also was accessible during such a bond cleavage event .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage of a C-terminal decarboxylated tryptophan residue ( [ M - CO ( 2 ) ] ( *+ ) ) can generate [ M - CO ( 2 ) - 116 ] ( + ) , [ M - CO ( 2 ) - 117 ] ( *+ ) , and [ 1H-indole ] ( *+ ) ( m/z 117 ) species as possible product ions .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Formation of such a proton-bound dimer is facile via a protonation of the tryptophan gamma-carbon atom as suggested by density functional theory ( DFT ) calculations .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage of a tryptophan residue also can occur directly from peptide radical cations containing a basic residue .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from rice bran .
Author: Tashiro M Maki Z
Journal: J Nutr . Sci . Vitaminol . Citation: V : 25 ( 3 ) P : 255-64 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub501453 Accession (PMID): 501453
Abstract: A trypsin inhibitor was isolated and purified from the bran of rice , Oryza sativa , by extraction with 1% sodium chloride , heat treatment , ammonium sulfate precipitation , ion-exchange chromatography on a CM-Sephadex C-25 and gel filtration on a Sephadex G-75 . The final preparation was homogeneous by electrophoretic analysis . Rice bran trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) had a molecular weight of about 14 , 500 and an isoelectric point of 8 . 07 . The amino acids , acid composition was characterized by high contents of basic amino acids , aspartic acid , glutamic acid , proline and cystine . BRTI inhibited bovine trypsin at an inhibitor-enzyme molar ratio of 1 : 1 . 6 . It displayed , however , nobility to inhibit alpha-chymotrypsin , pepsin , papain and subtilisin BPN .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A trypsin inhibitor was isolated and purified from the bran of rice , Oryza sativa , by extraction with 1% sodium chloride , heat treatment , ammonium sulfate precipitation , ion-exchange chromatography on a CM-Sephadex C-25 and gel filtration on a Sephadex G-75 .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Rice bran trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) had a molecular weight of about 14 , 500 and an isoelectric point of 8 . 07 .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: BRTI inhibited bovine trypsin at an inhibitor-enzyme molar ratio of 1 : 1 . 6 .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Lysine and tryptophan in cereal-based diets for adult human subjects .
Author: Clark HE Bailey LB Brewer MF .
Journal: Am . J Clin . Nutr . Citation: V : 30 ( 5 ) P : 674-80 Year: 1977 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub855810 Accession (PMID): 855810
Abstract: A basic diet containing rice , wheat , and corn that furnished 6 . 0 g of nitrogen per day was consumed by health young adults . Two levels of lysine , 900 and 1800 mg , and three of tryptophan , 260 , 390 , and 520 mg , were tested . Lysine exerted a significant effect ( P less than 0 . 05 ) on nitrogen retention but tryptophan did not . When consumed in conjunction with at least twice the reported minimal requirements of other essential amino acids , 900 mg of lysine induced mean daily balances of 0 . 15 +/- 0 . 18 , 0 . 19 +/- 0 . 14 , and 0 . 22 +/- 0 . 21 g , respectively , in response to the three levels of tryptophan ; and 1800 mg of lysine caused retentions of 0 . 75 +/- 0 . 14 , 0 . 77 +/- 0 . 21 and 0 . 71 +/- 0 . 15 g . These findings are discussed in relation to fulfillment of protein and amino acid requirements of adult human subjects .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Two levels of lysine , 900 and 1800 mg , and three of tryptophan , 260 , 390 , and 520 mg , were tested .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Lysine exerted a significant effect ( P less than 0 . 05 ) on nitrogen retention but tryptophan did not .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: When consumed in conjunction with at least twice the reported minimal requirements of other essential amino acids , 900 mg of lysine induced mean daily balances of 0 . 15 +/- 0 . 18 , 0 . 19 +/- 0 . 14 , and 0 . 22 +/- 0 . 21 g , respectively , in response to the three levels of tryptophan ; and 1800 mg of lysine caused retentions of 0 . 75 +/- 0 . 14 , 0 . 77 +/- 0 . 21 and 0 . 71 +/- 0 . 15 g .
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