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Score: 11.00
Title: Infrared photodissociation of a water molecule from a flexible molecule-H ( 2 ) O complex : Rates and conformational product yields following XH stretch excitation .
Author: Clarkson JR Herbert JM Zwier TS .
Journal: Citation: V : 126 ( 13 ) P : 134306 Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17430031 Accession (PMID): 17430031
Abstract: Infrared-ultraviolet hole-burning and hole-filling spectroscopies have been used to study IR-induced dissociation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and tryptamineD ( 2 ) O complexes . Upon complexation of a single water molecule , the seven conformational isomers of tryptamine collapse to a single structure that retains the same ethylamine side chain conformation present in the most highly populated conformer of tryptamine monomer . Infrared excitation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O complex was carried out using a series of infrared absorptions spanning the range of 2470-3715 cm ( -1 ) . The authors have determined the conformational product yield over this range and the dissociation rate near threshold , where it is slow enough to be measured by our methods . The observed threshold for dissociation occurred at 2872 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and at 2869 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineD ( 2 ) O , with no dissociation occurring on the time scale of the experiment ( approximately 2 mus ) at 2745 cm ( -1 ) . The dissociation time constants varied from approximately 200 ns for the 2869 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineD ( 2 ) O to approximately 25 ns for the 2872 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineH ( 2 ) O This large isotope dependence is associated with a zero-point energy effect that increases the binding energy of the deuterated complex by approximately 190 cm ( -1 ) , thereby reducing the excess energy available at the same excitation energy . At all higher energies , the dissociation lifetime was shorter than the pulse duration of our lasers ( 8 ns ) . At all wavelengths , the observed products in the presence of collisions are dominated by conformers A and B of tryptamine monomer , with small contributions from the other minor conformers . In addition , right at threshold ( 2869 cm ( -1 ) ) , tryptamineD ( 2 ) O dissociates exclusively to conformer A in the absence of collisions with helium , while both A and B conformational products are observed in the presence of collisions with helium . Using resolution-of-identity approximation to second-order Moller-Plesset binding energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit and harmonic vibrational frequencies and transition states calculated at the density functional limit B3LYP6-31+G ( * ) level of theory , Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus ( RRKM ) predictions for the dissociation , isomerization , and water shuttling rates as a function of energy are made . At threshold , the experimental dissociation rate is almost 10 ( 3 ) faster than RRKM predictions . Reasons for this apparent non-RRKM behavior will be discussed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Infrared-ultraviolet hole-burning and hole-filling spectroscopies have been used to study IR-induced dissociation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and tryptamineD ( 2 ) O complexes .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: Upon complexation of a single water molecule , the seven conformational isomers of tryptamine collapse to a single structure that retains the same ethylamine side chain conformation present in the most highly populated conformer of tryptamine monomer .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The observed threshold for dissociation occurred at 2872 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and at 2869 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineD ( 2 ) O , with no dissociation occurring on the time scale of the experiment ( approximately 2 mus ) at 2745 cm ( -1 ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The dissociation time constants varied from approximately 200 ns for the 2869 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineD ( 2 ) O to approximately 25 ns for the 2872 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineH ( 2 ) O This large isotope dependence is associated with a zero-point energy effect that increases the binding energy of the deuterated complex by approximately 190 cm ( -1 ) , thereby reducing the excess energy available at the same excitation energy .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Infrared excitation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O complex was carried out using a series of infrared absorptions spanning the range of 2470-3715 cm ( -1 ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: At all wavelengths , the observed products in the presence of collisions are dominated by conformers A and B of tryptamine monomer , with small contributions from the other minor conformers .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition , right at threshold ( 2869 cm ( -1 ) ) , tryptamineD ( 2 ) O dissociates exclusively to conformer A in the absence of collisions with helium , while both A and B conformational products are observed in the presence of collisions with helium .
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Score: 10.00
Title: In vitro inhibition of the activation of Pro-matrix Metalloproteinase 1 ( Pro-MMP-1 ) and Pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 ( Pro-MMP-9 ) by rice and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitors .
Author: Bawadi HA Antunes TM Shih F Losso JN .
Journal: J Agric . Food Chem . Citation: V : 52 ( 15 ) P : 4730-6 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15264907 Accession (PMID): 15264907
Abstract: The in vitro inhibitory activity of the rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( rBBI ) or soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( sBBI ) against trypsin-catalyzed activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 1 or 9 ( pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 ) , respectively , was investigated using electrophoresis with silver staining , heparin-enhanced zymography , biotinylated gelatin , Biotrak assay , and fluorescence quenched substrate hydrolysis . rBBI at concentrations of 0 . 08-0 . 352 mg/mL dose-dependently inhibited the in vitro activation of 45 microg/mL pro-MMP-1 by trypsin . Heparin-enhanced zymography analysis of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin-activated MMP-1 , and a mixture of pro-MMP-1-trypsin-rBBI showed clear zones associated with trypsin-activated MMP-1 and the absence of clear zones in lanes containing pro-MMP-1 or a mixture of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin , and rBBI . The results of the Biotrak assay also indicated that rBBI dose-dependently suppressed the activation of pro-MMP-1 by trypsin . sBBI dose-dependently inhibited the activation of 100 microg/mL of pro-MMP-9 by trypsin . Biotinylated gelatin assays demonstrated that pro-MMP-9 or pro-MMP-9 in the presence of trypsin and BBI did not hydrolyze gelatin , whereas p-aminophenylmercury acetate ( APMA ) -activated MMP-9 and trypsin-activated MMP-9 caused significant hydrolysis of gelatin . Quenched fluorescence substrate hydrolysis for total MMP activity showed that pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 did not hydrolyze the substrate Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 ; active MMP-1 or MMP-9 hydrolyzed the substrate , but lower substrate hydrolysis was obtained when pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 was incubated with trypsin in the presence of increasing concentrations of rBBI . The results are discussed in light of the role of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in the process of angiogenesis and the potential of rBBI or sBBI as a functional food ingredient .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: Heparin-enhanced zymography analysis of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin-activated MMP-1 , and a mixture of pro-MMP-1-trypsin-rBBI showed clear zones associated with trypsin-activated MMP-1 and the absence of clear zones in lanes containing pro-MMP-1 or a mixture of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin , and rBBI .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: The in vitro inhibitory activity of the rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( rBBI ) or soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( sBBI ) against trypsin-catalyzed activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 1 or 9 ( pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 ) , respectively , was investigated using electrophoresis with silver staining , heparin-enhanced zymography , biotinylated gelatin , Biotrak assay , and fluorescence quenched substrate hydrolysis . rBBI at concentrations of 0 . 08-0 . 352 mg/mL dose-dependently inhibited the in vitro activation of 45 microg/mL pro-MMP-1 by trypsin .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The results of the Biotrak assay also indicated that rBBI dose-dependently suppressed the activation of pro-MMP-1 by trypsin . sBBI dose-dependently inhibited the activation of 100 microg/mL of pro-MMP-9 by trypsin .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: Biotinylated gelatin assays demonstrated that pro-MMP-9 or pro-MMP-9 in the presence of trypsin and BBI did not hydrolyze gelatin , whereas p-aminophenylmercury acetate ( APMA ) -activated MMP-9 and trypsin-activated MMP-9 caused significant hydrolysis of gelatin .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Quenched fluorescence substrate hydrolysis for total MMP activity showed that pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 did not hydrolyze the substrate Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 ; active MMP-1 or MMP-9 hydrolyzed the substrate , but lower substrate hydrolysis was obtained when pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 was incubated with trypsin in the presence of increasing concentrations of rBBI .
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Score: 10.00
Title: Probing the role of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolism in defense responses against Bipolaris oryzae infection in rice leaves by a suicide substrate of tryptophan decarboxylase .
Author: Ishihara A Nakao T Mashimo Y Murai M Ichimaru N Tanaka C Nakajima H Wakasa K Miyagawa H
Journal: Phytochemistry Citation: V : 72 P : 7-13 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21112065 Accession (PMID): 21112065
Abstract: Tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites , including serotonin and its hydroxycinnamic acid amides , markedly accumulate in rice leaves in response to pathogen attack . These compounds have been implicated in the physical defense system against pathogen invasion by being deposited in cell walls . Serotonin is biosynthesized from tryptophan via tryptamine , and tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) catalyzes the first committed reaction . In this study , ( S ) -alpha- ( fluoromethyl ) tryptophan ( S-alphaFMT ) was utilized to investigate the effects of the inhibition of TDC on the defense responses of rice leaves . S-alphaFMT , enantiospecifically synthesized from L-tryptophan , effectively inhibited TDC activity extracted from rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae . The inhibition rate increased dependently on the incubation time , indicating that S-alphaFMT served as a suicide substrate . Treatment of rice seedlings with S-alphaFMT suppressed accumulation of serotonin , tryptamine , and hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin in a dose-dependent manner in B oryzae-inoculated leaves . The lesions formed on seedlings treated with S-alphaFMT lacked deposition of brown materials , and those leaves were severely damaged in comparison with leaves without S-alphaFMT treatment . Administrating tryptamine to S-alphaFMT-treated leaves restored accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites as well as deposition of brown material In addition , tryptamine administration reduced damage caused by fungal infection . Accordingly , the accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites was suggested to be part of the effective defense mechanism of rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 3.00 ]: Serotonin is biosynthesized from tryptophan via tryptamine , and tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) catalyzes the first committed reaction .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 3.00 ]: Administrating tryptamine to S-alphaFMT-treated leaves restored accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites as well as deposition of brown material In addition , tryptamine administration reduced damage caused by fungal infection .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites , including serotonin and its hydroxycinnamic acid amides , markedly accumulate in rice leaves in response to pathogen attack .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , ( S ) -alpha- ( fluoromethyl ) tryptophan ( S-alphaFMT ) was utilized to investigate the effects of the inhibition of TDC on the defense responses of rice leaves .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Treatment of rice seedlings with S-alphaFMT suppressed accumulation of serotonin , tryptamine , and hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin in a dose-dependent manner in B oryzae-inoculated leaves .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Accordingly , the accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites was suggested to be part of the effective defense mechanism of rice .
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Score: 7.00
Title: Identification of target genes conferring ethanol stress tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on DNA microarray data analysis .
Author: Hirasawa T Yoshikawa K Nakakura Y Nagahisa K Furusawa C Katakura Y Shimizu H Shioya S
Journal: J Biotechnol Citation: V : 131 P : 34-44 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17604866 Accession (PMID): 17604866
Abstract: During industrial production process using yeast , cells are exposed to the stress due to the accumulation of ethanol , which affects the cell growth activity and productivity of target products , thus , the ethanol stress-tolerant yeast strains are highly desired . To identify the target gene ( s ) for constructing ethanol stress tolerant yeast strains , we obtained the gene expression profiles of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , namely , a laboratory strain and a strain used for brewing Japanese rice wine ( sake ) , in the presence of 5% ( v/v ) ethanol , using DNA microarray . For the selection of target genes for breeding ethanol stress tolerant strains , clustering of DNA microarray data was performed . For further selection , the ethanol sensitivity of the knockout mutants in each of which the gene selected by DNA microarray analysis is deleted , was also investigated . The integration of the DNA microarray data and the ethanol sensitivity data of knockout strains suggests that the enhancement of expression of genes related to tryptophan biosynthesis might confer the ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells . Indeed , the strains overexpressing tryptophan biosynthesis genes showed a stress tolerance to 5% ethanol . Moreover , the addition of tryptophan to the culture medium and overexpression of tryptophan permease gene conferred ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells . These results indicate that overexpression of the genes for trypophan biosynthesis increases the ethanol stress tolerance . Tryptophan supplementation to culture and overexpression of the tryptophan permease gene are also effective for the increase in ethanol stress tolerance . Our methodology for the selection of target genes for constructing ethanol stress tolerant strains , based on the data of DNA microarray analysis and phenotypes of knockout mutants , was validated .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Moreover , the addition of tryptophan to the culture medium and overexpression of tryptophan permease gene conferred ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: Tryptophan supplementation to culture and overexpression of the tryptophan permease gene are also effective for the increase in ethanol stress tolerance .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The integration of the DNA microarray data and the ethanol sensitivity data of knockout strains suggests that the enhancement of expression of genes related to tryptophan biosynthesis might confer the ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Indeed , the strains overexpressing tryptophan biosynthesis genes showed a stress tolerance to 5% ethanol .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results indicate that overexpression of the genes for trypophan biosynthesis increases the ethanol stress tolerance .
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Score: 7.00
Title: Serotonin accumulation in transgenic rice by over-expressing tryptophan decarboxylase results in a dark brown phenotype and stunted growth .
Author: Kanjanaphachoat P Wei BY Lo SF Wang IW Wang CS Yu SM Yen ML Chiu SH Lai CC Chen LJ
Journal: Plant Mol Biol Citation: V : 78 P : 525-43 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22297847 Accession (PMID): 22297847
Abstract: A mutant M47286 with a stunted growth , low fertility and dark-brown phenotype was identified from a T-DNA-tagged rice mutant library . This mutant contained a copy of the T-DNA tag inserted at the location where the expression of two putative tryptophan decarboxylase genes , TDC-1 and TDC-3 , were activated . Enzymatic assays of both recombinant proteins showed tryptophan decarboxylase activities that converted tryptophan to tryptamine , which could be converted to serotonin by a constitutively expressed tryptamine 5 hydroxylase ( T5H ) in rice plants . Over-expression of TDC-1 and TDC-3 in transgenic rice recapitulated the stunted growth , darkbrown phenotype and resulted in a low fertility similar to M47286 . The degree of stunted growth and dark-brown color was proportional to the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3 . The levels of tryptamine and serotonin accumulation in these transgenic rice lines were also directly correlated with the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3 . A mass spectrometry assay demonstrated that the darkbrown leaves and hulls in the TDC-overexpressing transgenic rice were caused by the accumulation of serotonin dimer and that the stunted growth and low fertility were also caused by the accumulation of serotonin and serotonin dimer , but not tryptamine . These results represent the first evidence that over-expression of TDC results in stunted growth , low fertility and the accumulation of serotonin , which when converted to serotonin dimer , leads to a dark brown plant color .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 4.00 ]: Enzymatic assays of both recombinant proteins showed tryptophan decarboxylase activities that converted tryptophan to tryptamine , which could be converted to serotonin by a constitutively expressed tryptamine 5 hydroxylase ( T5H ) in rice plants .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: This mutant contained a copy of the T-DNA tag inserted at the location where the expression of two putative tryptophan decarboxylase genes , TDC-1 and TDC-3 , were activated .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The levels of tryptamine and serotonin accumulation in these transgenic rice lines were also directly correlated with the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3 .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: A mass spectrometry assay demonstrated that the darkbrown leaves and hulls in the TDC-overexpressing transgenic rice were caused by the accumulation of serotonin dimer and that the stunted growth and low fertility were also caused by the accumulation of serotonin and serotonin dimer , but not tryptamine .
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Score: 7.00
Title: Primary structure of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase from horse muscle . II . Amino acid sequence of cyanogen bromide peptides CB1-CB4 and CB6-CB14 , sequence of methionine-containing regions , and complete sequence of the enzyme .
Author: Merrett M
Journal: J Biol . Chem . Citation: V : 256 ( 20 ) P : 10293-305 Year: 1981 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub7287713 Accession (PMID): 7287713
Abstract: The amino acid sequences of 13 of the 14 cyanogen bromide peptides of horse muscle 3-phosphoglycerate kinase have been determined . These peptides together constitute 75% of the structure of the enzyme . Except for the smallest peptides , automated sequence analysis of the parent peptide was employed together with the automated or manual ( 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl ( dansyl ) -Edman method ) sequencing of relevant peptides obtained by proteolytic digestion . In the case of the five smallest peptides , all between 6 and 11 residues in length , sequences were derived from analyses of the intact peptides . CB14a , a peptide produced in low yield during the preparation of the cyanogen bromide fragments , was helpful in the sequence analysis of CB14 . This peptide appeared to have arisen as the result of a cyanogen bromide cleavage on the carboxyl side of a tryptophanyl residue . The sequences of these 13 cyanogen bromide peptides , together with that of CB1 , reported previously ( Hardy , G W , Darbre , A , and Merrett , M ( 1981 ) J Biol . Chem . 256 , 10284-10292 ) , have been combined with data obtained from the sequence analysis of tryptic peptides derived from the methionine-containing regions of the enzyme to determine the complete sequence . Isolation of these overlap peptides was facilitated by the labeling of methionyl residues with iodo [ 2-14C ] acetic acid prior to tryptic digestion . Tryptophan-containing tryptic peptides were also isolated , and their sequence analysis enabled the positions of the four tryptophanyl residues to be established . In this way , the problem caused by tryptophan degradation during the preparation of the cyanogen bromide fragments was overcome . The NH2 terminus of CB1 , the NH2-terminal cyanogen bromide peptide , was identified as N-acetyl serine by mass spectrometry . The alignment of the cyanogen bromide fragments of horse muscle 3-phosphoglycerate kinase described here is in complete agreement with that based on X-ray analysis of the enzyme reported previously ( Banks , R D , Blake , C C F , Evans , P R , Haser , R , Rice , D W , Hardy , G W , Merrett , M , and Phillips , A W ( 1979 ) Nature 279 , 773-777 ) . The complete structure is comprised of 416 residues and has a molecular weight of 44 , 519 .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 3.00 ]: Tryptophan-containing tryptic peptides were also isolated , and their sequence analysis enabled the positions of the four tryptophanyl residues to be established .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: This peptide appeared to have arisen as the result of a cyanogen bromide cleavage on the carboxyl side of a tryptophanyl residue .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The sequences of these 13 cyanogen bromide peptides , together with that of CB1 , reported previously ( Hardy , G W , Darbre , A , and Merrett , M ( 1981 ) J Biol . Chem . 256 , 10284-10292 ) , have been combined with data obtained from the sequence analysis of tryptic peptides derived from the methionine-containing regions of the enzyme to determine the complete sequence .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Isolation of these overlap peptides was facilitated by the labeling of methionyl residues with iodo [ 2-14C ] acetic acid prior to tryptic digestion .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this way , the problem caused by tryptophan degradation during the preparation of the cyanogen bromide fragments was overcome .
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Score: 7.00
Title: The tryptophan content in protein of cereal grains and legume seeds as a function of nitrogen content . A reappraisal of tryptophan score .
Author: Delhaye S Landry J
Journal: Adv . Exp . Med . Biol . Citation: V : 398 ( ) P : 661-4 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8906341 Accession (PMID): 8906341
Abstract: The tryptophan content ( [ Trp ] ) in the dry matter ( DM ) of wheat , maize , barley , sorghum , rice , pearl millet grains , pea and broad bean seeds is evaluated from samples , with various nitrogen contents ( [ N ] DM ) and genotypes , using a procedure that has been shown to be strictly quantitative . The determination of linear correlations between [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM , and between the tryptophan content in protein ( [ Trp ] N ) and [ N ] DM or 1/ [ N ] DM for every species leads to the following observations : ( 1 ) [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM are linearly related . The data show that previous reports of similar relationships underestimate tryptophan by 10 +/- 5% owing to tryptophan degradation during alkaline hydrolysis preparatory to analysis ; ( 2 ) the linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and 1/ [ N ] DM , resulting from linear relationships [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM display coefficients of determination ( r2 ) far lower than 1 and similar to those found for linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and [ N ] DM ; ( 3 ) [ Trp ] N increases with [ N ] DM increasing for rice and pearl millet while it decreases for all other species . In conclusion : ( 1 ) linear relationships between tryptophan and nitrogen have a low predictive value ; ( 2 ) the nutritional score of tryptophan of foods and feeds , as calculated from the determination of tryptophan using a procedure involving alkaline hydrolysis , is generally underestimated by 10% .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: In conclusion : ( 1 ) linear relationships between tryptophan and nitrogen have a low predictive value ; ( 2 ) the nutritional score of tryptophan of foods and feeds , as calculated from the determination of tryptophan using a procedure involving alkaline hydrolysis , is generally underestimated by 10% .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The data show that previous reports of similar relationships underestimate tryptophan by 10 +/- 5% owing to tryptophan degradation during alkaline hydrolysis preparatory to analysis ; ( 2 ) the linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and 1/ [ N ] DM , resulting from linear relationships [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM display coefficients of determination ( r2 ) far lower than 1 and similar to those found for linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and [ N ] DM ; ( 3 ) [ Trp ] N increases with [ N ] DM increasing for rice and pearl millet while it decreases for all other species .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The tryptophan content ( [ Trp ] ) in the dry matter ( DM ) of wheat , maize , barley , sorghum , rice , pearl millet grains , pea and broad bean seeds is evaluated from samples , with various nitrogen contents ( [ N ] DM ) and genotypes , using a procedure that has been shown to be strictly quantitative .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The determination of linear correlations between [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM , and between the tryptophan content in protein ( [ Trp ] N ) and [ N ] DM or 1/ [ N ] DM for every species leads to the following observations : ( 1 ) [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM are linearly related .
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Score: 6.00
Title: Characterization of tryptamine 5-hydroxylase and serotonin synthesis in rice plants .
Author: Kang S Kang K Lee K Back K
Journal: Plant Cell Rep Citation: V : 26 P : 2009-15 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17639402 Accession (PMID): 17639402
Abstract: Serotonin is a well-known pineal hormone that in mammals plays a key role in mood . In plants , serotonin is implicated in several physiological roles such as flowering , morphogenesis , and adaptation to environmental changes . However , its biosynthetic enzyme in plants has not been characterized . Therefore , we measured the serotonin content and enzyme activity responsible for serotonin biosynthesis in rice seedlings . Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase ( T5H ) , which converts tryptamine into serotonin , was found as a soluble enzyme that had maximal activity in the roots . The maximal activity of T5H was closely associated with the enriched synthesis of serotonin in roots . Tetrahydropterine-dependent T5H activity was inhibited by tyramine , tryptophan , 5-OH-tryptophan , and octopamine , but remained unaltered by dopamine in vitro . The it issues of rice seedlings grown in the presence of tryptamine exhibited a dose-dependent increase in serotonin in parallel with enhanced T5H enzyme activity . However , no significant increase in serotonin was observed in rice it issues grown in the presence of tryptophan , suggesting that tryptamine is a bottleneck intermediate substrate for serotonin synthesis .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase ( T5H ) , which converts tryptamine into serotonin , was found as a soluble enzyme that had maximal activity in the roots .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: However , no significant increase in serotonin was observed in rice it issues grown in the presence of tryptophan , suggesting that tryptamine is a bottleneck intermediate substrate for serotonin synthesis .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tetrahydropterine-dependent T5H activity was inhibited by tyramine , tryptophan , 5-OH-tryptophan , and octopamine , but remained unaltered by dopamine in vitro .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The it issues of rice seedlings grown in the presence of tryptamine exhibited a dose-dependent increase in serotonin in parallel with enhanced T5H enzyme activity .
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Score: 6.00
Title: Overproduction of indole acetic acid in Azospirillum lipoferum using the Escherichia coli trp operon .
Author: Cho MJ Gal SW Choi YJ Yoon HW Kim CY Hong JC Bahk JD .
Journal: Microb . Releases Citation: V : 1 ( 4 ) P : 197-202 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8281358 Accession (PMID): 8281358
Abstract: A recombinant plasmid carrying the trp operon from Escherichia coli , which synthesizes tryptophan from chorismate , was constructed by using a broad host range plasmid vector pRK290 ; a mutant trp plasmid for tryptophan overproduction was then selected . The physiological , biochemical , and genetic properties of the Azospirillum lipoferum KY6 , a potential nitrogen fixer of rice , harbouring the recombinant trp plasmid pMJC1 and its mutant pMJC101 , were compared with those of the wild-type bacteria . Anthranilate synthetase is known to be the trpE gene product which plays a key role in the regulatory step in the feedback control of tryptophan biosynthesis . The enzyme activity of the Azospirillum lipoferum KY6 carrying pMJC1 or pMJC101 was respectively 7 and 30-fold higher than that of the wild type in the presence of 10 ( -4 ) M tryptophan . As expected , the amount of tryptophan biosynthesis in A lipoferum KY6 ( pMJC101 ) was increased approximately 100-fold as compared with the wild type , which led to overproduction of indole acetic acid even without addition of exogenous tryptophan . Moreover , the recombinant trp plasmid was fairly stable in A lipoferum KY6 host , showing only 25% loss of the plasmid itself or the trp insert after 40 generations .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: A recombinant plasmid carrying the trp operon from Escherichia coli , which synthesizes tryptophan from chorismate , was constructed by using a broad host range plasmid vector pRK290 ; a mutant trp plasmid for tryptophan overproduction was then selected .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: As expected , the amount of tryptophan biosynthesis in A lipoferum KY6 ( pMJC101 ) was increased approximately 100-fold as compared with the wild type , which led to overproduction of indole acetic acid even without addition of exogenous tryptophan .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Anthranilate synthetase is known to be the trpE gene product which plays a key role in the regulatory step in the feedback control of tryptophan biosynthesis .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The enzyme activity of the Azospirillum lipoferum KY6 carrying pMJC1 or pMJC101 was respectively 7 and 30-fold higher than that of the wild type in the presence of 10 ( -4 ) M tryptophan .
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Score: 5.00
Title: [ Research of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca SG-11 by HPLC and GC-MS ]
Author: LEZX Song W
Journal: Citation: V : 18 ( 4 ) P : 328-31 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12541509 Accession (PMID): 12541509
Abstract: The plant growth promoting bacteria are closely associated to plant . The bacteria are used to adhering to plant rhizoplane , promoting plant growth by fixing nitrogen from atmosphere , secreting stimulating substances or producing antagonistic to plant pathogens . It was indicated that the biological nitrogen fixation played an important role in plant growth promoting function . In fact , it was verified recently by overall research that IAA does it . Therefore research of IAA production and biosynthetic pathway of plant growth-promoting bacteria is much more important . The various ways of IAA production indicated the strong or weak promoting function of bacterium to plants in general The purpose of this paper is to determine whether IAA exists in cultured medium of Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 and biosynthetic pathway of IAA , in order to opimize cultural conditions for IAA production . Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 is a plant growth promoting bacterium , isolated from rice rhizoplane , which can fix nitrogen . The supernatant of SG-11 cultured medium determined by HPLC showed that 47 . 4 mg/L of IAA existed in LB medium and 1 . 2 mg/L of IAA , in basal medium . IAA in metabolite was identified by GC/MS as well . The intermediate determination of tryptamine , indole-3-acetamide , tryptophol and indole-3-acetonitrile indirectly indicated that IAA was biosynthesized in a pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid . Meanwhile , tryptophol in metabolite of SG-11 was verified by GC/MS . The direct intermediates of indole-3-pyruvic acid and indole-3-acetaldehyde in the pathway can not be determined , because both are unstable under normal condition . As reversible conversion existed between indole-3 pyruvic aldehyde and tryptophol , the presence of tryptophol also proved the pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid in the synthesis of IAA by Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 . The results laid basis for further research of plant growth-promoting function of the bacterium .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: The intermediate determination of tryptamine , indole-3-acetamide , tryptophol and indole-3-acetonitrile indirectly indicated that IAA was biosynthesized in a pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 2.00 ]: As reversible conversion existed between indole-3 pyruvic aldehyde and tryptophol , the presence of tryptophol also proved the pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid in the synthesis of IAA by Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Meanwhile , tryptophol in metabolite of SG-11 was verified by GC/MS .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Increased tryptophan decarboxylase and monoamine oxidase activities induce Sekiguchi lesion formation in rice infected with Magnaporthe grisea .
Author: Ueno M Shibata H Kihara J Honda Y Arase S
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 36 ( 2 ) P : 215-28 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14535886 Accession (PMID): 14535886
Abstract: Sekiguchi lesion ( sl ) -mutant rice infected with Magnaporthe grisea showed increased light-dependent tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and monoamine oxidase ( MAO ) activities . TDC and MAO activities were observed before the penetration of M grisea to rice cells and maintained high levels even after Sekiguchi lesion formation . Light-dependent expression of TDC gene was observed in leaves inoculated with M grisea before Sekiguchi lesion formation . Spore germination fluid ( SGF ) of M grisea also induced Sekiguchi lesion formation accompanied by increased enzymes activities and tryptamine accumulation . Sekiguchi lesion was also induced by treatments with tryptamine and beta-phenylethylamine , which are substrates for MAO , but was not induced by non-substrates such as indole-3-propionic acid , ( +/- ) -phenylethylamine and tryptophan under light . Light-dependent induction of Sekiguchi lesion by tryptamine was significantly inhibited in the presence of MAO inhibitors , metalaxyl and semicarbazide , and H2O2-scavengers , ascorbic acid and catalase . H2O2 in M grisea-infected leaves with and without Sekiguchi lesions was demonstrated directly in situ by strong 3 , 3-diaminobenzidine ( DAB ) staining . On the other hand , H2O2 induced Sekiguchi lesions on leaves of cv . Sekiguchi-asahi under light , but not in darkness . This difference was associated with the decrease of catalase activity in infected leaves under light and the absence of decrease in darkness . We hypothesize that the H2O2-induced breakdown of cellular organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria in mesophyll cells may cause high TDC and MAO activities and the development of Sekiguchi lesion , and that the sl gene products in wild-type rice may function as a suppressor of organelle breakdown caused by chemical or environmental stress .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Sekiguchi lesion was also induced by treatments with tryptamine and beta-phenylethylamine , which are substrates for MAO , but was not induced by non-substrates such as indole-3-propionic acid , ( +/- ) -phenylethylamine and tryptophan under light .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sekiguchi lesion ( sl ) -mutant rice infected with Magnaporthe grisea showed increased light-dependent tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and monoamine oxidase ( MAO ) activities .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Spore germination fluid ( SGF ) of M grisea also induced Sekiguchi lesion formation accompanied by increased enzymes activities and tryptamine accumulation .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Light-dependent induction of Sekiguchi lesion by tryptamine was significantly inhibited in the presence of MAO inhibitors , metalaxyl and semicarbazide , and H2O2-scavengers , ascorbic acid and catalase .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Metabolic profiling of tryptophan-overproducing rice calli that express a feedback-insensitive alpha subunit of anthranilate synthase .
Author: Morino K Matsuda F Miyazawa H Sukegawa A Miyagawa H Wakasa K
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol . Citation: V : 46 ( 3 ) P : 514-21 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15695448 Accession (PMID): 15695448
Abstract: The profile of aromatic metabolites in calli was compared between wild-type rice ( Oryza sativa cv . Nipponbare ) and tryptophan-overproducing transgenic rice lines that express a gene ( OASA1D ) for a feedback-insensitive alpha subunit of anthranilate synthase . Metabolic profiling by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection of ultraviolet absorbance revealed a total of 71 peaks in both wild-type and transgenic calli . Only a limited effect on the pattern of major aromatic compounds was observed in tryptophan-accumulating transgenic rice lines , with the exception of an approximately 80-fold increase in the amount of tryptophan . Expression of OASA1D induced relatively small changes in several minor metabolites . One of the minor metabolites whose abundance was increased by OASA1D expression was purified and identified as a previously unknown indole-alkaloid glucoside . The levels of free and conjugated forms of indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) , a plant hormone derived from the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway , were determined separately by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS ) . The amounts of both free IAA and its conjugates were increased in the transgenic calli , suggesting that the activity of anthranilate synthase or the concentration of tryptophan ( or both ) is an important determinant of IAA biosynthesis .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: Only a limited effect on the pattern of major aromatic compounds was observed in tryptophan-accumulating transgenic rice lines , with the exception of an approximately 80-fold increase in the amount of tryptophan .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Nipponbare ) and tryptophan-overproducing transgenic rice lines that express a gene ( OASA1D ) for a feedback-insensitive alpha subunit of anthranilate synthase .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The levels of free and conjugated forms of indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) , a plant hormone derived from the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway , were determined separately by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The amounts of both free IAA and its conjugates were increased in the transgenic calli , suggesting that the activity of anthranilate synthase or the concentration of tryptophan ( or both ) is an important determinant of IAA biosynthesis .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Characterization of rice tryptophan decarboxylases and their direct involvement in serotonin biosynthesis in transgenic rice .
Author: Kang S Kang K Lee K Back K
Journal: Planta Citation: V : 227 P : 263-72 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17763868 Accession (PMID): 17763868
Abstract: L-Tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and L-tyrosine decarboxylase ( TYDC ) belong to a family of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylases and catalyze the conversion of tryptophan and tyrosine into tryptamine and tyramine , respectively . The rice genome has been shown to contain seven TDC or TYDC-like genes . Three of these genes for which cDNA clones were available were characterized to assign their functions using heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and rice ( Oryza sativa cv . Dongjin ) . The purified products of two of the genes were expressed in E coli and exhibited TDC activity , whereas the remaining gene could not be expressed in E coli . The recombinant TDC protein with the greatest TDC activity showed a K ( m ) of 0 . 69 mM for tryptophan , and its activity was not inhibited by phenylalanine or tyrosine , indicating a high level of substrate specificity toward tryptophan . The ectopic expression of the three cDNA clones in rice led to the abundant production of the products of the encoded enzymes , tyramine and tryptamine . The overproduction of TYDC resulted in stunted growth and a lack of seed production due to tyramine accumulation , which increased as the plant aged . In contrast , transgenic plants that produced TDC showed a normal phenotype and contained 25-fold and 11-fold higher serotonin in the leaves and seeds , respectively , than the wild-type plants . The overproduction of either tyramine or serotonin was not strongly related to the enhanced synthesis of tyramine or serotonin derivatives , such as feruloyltyramine and feruloylserotonin , which are secondary metabolites that act as phytoalexins in plants .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: L-Tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and L-tyrosine decarboxylase ( TYDC ) belong to a family of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylases and catalyze the conversion of tryptophan and tyrosine into tryptamine and tyramine , respectively .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The recombinant TDC protein with the greatest TDC activity showed a K ( m ) of 0 . 69 mM for tryptophan , and its activity was not inhibited by phenylalanine or tyrosine , indicating a high level of substrate specificity toward tryptophan .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The ectopic expression of the three cDNA clones in rice led to the abundant production of the products of the encoded enzymes , tyramine and tryptamine .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Senescence Induced Serotonin Biosynthesis and Its Role in Delaying Senescence in Rice Leaves .
Author: Kang K Kim YS Park S Back K
Journal: Plant Physiol Citation: V : P : Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19439571 Accession (PMID): 19439571
Abstract: Serotonin , which is well known as a pineal hormone in mammals , plays a key role in conditions such as mood , eating disorders , and alcoholism . In plants , although serotonin has been suggested to be involved in several physiological roles , including flowering , morphogenesis , and adaptation to environmental changes , its regulation and functional roles are as yet not characterized at the molecular level . In this study , we found that serotonin is greatly accumulated in rice leaves undergoing senescence induced by either nutrient deprivation or detachment , and its synthesis is closely coupled with transcriptional and enzymatic induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes as well as tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) . Transgenic rice plants that overexpressed TDC accumulated higher levels of serotonin than the wild type and showed delayed senescence of rice leaves . However , transgenic rice plants , in which expression of TDC was suppressed through an RNAi system , produced less serotonin and senesced faster than the wild type , suggesting that serotonin is involved in attenuating leaf senescence . The senescence-retarding activity of serotonin is associated with its high antioxidant activity compared to either tryptophan or chlorogenic acid . Results of TDC overexpression and TDC RNAi plants suggest that TDC plays a rate-limiting role for serotonin accumulation , but the synthesis of serotonin depends on an absolute amount of tryptophan accumulation by the coordinate induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes . In addition , immunolocalization analysis revealed that serotonin was abundant in the vascular parenchyma cells , including companion cells and xylem-parenchyma cells , suggestive of its involvement in maintaining the cellular integrity of these cells for facilitating efficient nutrient recycling from senescing leaves to sink it issues during senescence .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: In this study , we found that serotonin is greatly accumulated in rice leaves undergoing senescence induced by either nutrient deprivation or detachment , and its synthesis is closely coupled with transcriptional and enzymatic induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes as well as tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Results of TDC overexpression and TDC RNAi plants suggest that TDC plays a rate-limiting role for serotonin accumulation , but the synthesis of serotonin depends on an absolute amount of tryptophan accumulation by the coordinate induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The senescence-retarding activity of serotonin is associated with its high antioxidant activity compared to either tryptophan or chlorogenic acid .
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Score: 5.00
Title: silencing coi1 in rice increases susceptibility to chewing insects and impairs inducible defense .
Author: Ye M Luo SM Xie JF Li YF Xu T Liu Y Song YY Zhu-Salzman K Zeng RS
Journal: PLoS One Citation: V : 7 P : e36214 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22558386 Accession (PMID): 22558386
Abstract: The jasmonic acid ( JA ) pathway plays a key role in plant defense responses against herbivorous insects . CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 ( COI1 ) is an F-box protein essential for all jasmonate responses . However , the precise defense function of COI1 in monocotyledonous plants , especially in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) is largely unknown . We silenced OsCOI1 in rice plants via RNA interference ( RNAi ) to determine the role of OsCOI1 in rice defense against rice leaf folder ( LF ) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis , a chewing insect , and brown planthopper ( BPH ) Nilaparvata lugens , a phloem-feeding insect . In wild-type rice plants ( WT ) , the transcripts of OsCOI1 were strongly and continuously up-regulated by LF infestation and methyl jasmonate ( MeJA ) treatment , but not by BPH infestation . The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor ( TrypPI ) , and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO ) and peroxidase ( POD ) were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation , but the activity of lipoxygenase ( LOX ) was only induced by LF . The RNAi lines with repressed expression of OsCOI1 showed reduced resistance against LF , but no change against BPH . Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content , but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content , POD and PPO activity by 62 . 3% , 48 . 5% and 27 . 2% , respectively . In addition , MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57 . 2% and 48 . 2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants . These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component , controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect ( LF ) in rice plants , and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI , POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor ( TrypPI ) , and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO ) and peroxidase ( POD ) were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation , but the activity of lipoxygenase ( LOX ) was only induced by LF .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content , but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content , POD and PPO activity by 62 . 3% , 48 . 5% and 27 . 2% , respectively .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition , MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57 . 2% and 48 . 2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component , controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect ( LF ) in rice plants , and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI , POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Some tryptophan pathways in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae .
Author: Ansari MM Sridhar R
Journal: Folia Microbiol . ( Praha ) Citation: V : 45 ( 6 ) P : 531-7 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11501419 Accession (PMID): 11501419
Abstract: Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae , the causal organism of bacterial blight of rice which produces leaf blight as well as kresek ( wilt ) symptoms in plants were tested for indole , auxin production in culture supplemented with L-tryptophan . On the basis of indoleacetic acid ( IAA ) production the isolates were grouped into IAA-positive and IAA-negative . Out of 17 isolates , 11 were IAA-positive while 6 were IAA-negative . The isolates metabolized tryptophan through two different routes and the isolates vary in the pathway of tryptophan utilization . The IAA-positive isolates converted tryptophan to IAA as the end product , whereas the IAA-negative isolates formed anthranilate as an intermediate metabolite and finally produced pyrocatechol via the kynurenine pathway . Quantification of tryptophan metabolism revealed that the maximum production of IAA and pyrocatechol in culture occurred during 2-d incubation at 30 +/- 2 degrees C
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: The isolates metabolized tryptophan through two different routes and the isolates vary in the pathway of tryptophan utilization .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The IAA-positive isolates converted tryptophan to IAA as the end product , whereas the IAA-negative isolates formed anthranilate as an intermediate metabolite and finally produced pyrocatechol via the kynurenine pathway .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Quantification of tryptophan metabolism revealed that the maximum production of IAA and pyrocatechol in culture occurred during 2-d incubation at 30 +/- 2 degrees C
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Score: 4.00
Title: Characterization of the altered anthranilate synthase in 5-methyltryptophan-resistant rice mutants .
Author: Kim DS Lee IS Jang CS Kang SY Seo YW .
Journal: Plant Cell Rep . Citation: V : 24 ( 6 ) P : 357-65 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15776237 Accession (PMID): 15776237
Abstract: In an earlier investigation , homologous mutant lines resistant to growth inhibition by 5-methyltryptophan ( 5MT ) were selected from a callus that had been irradiated with a 50-Gy gamma ray during embryo culture . In order to identify the 5MT-resistant mechanism , we have continued our investigations of these mutant lines and studied the anthranilate synthase activity of the M5 ) advanced lines by direct fluorometric detection of the anthranilate formed in both control plants and mutant lines grown on 500 microM 5MT . The anthranilate synthase activity of the mutant plants was 2 . 2 to 3-fold higher than that of the control . In a kinetic analysis with tryptophan , an anthranilate synthase of the mutant lines was insensitive to feedback inhibition . These lines showed an enhanced accumulation of storage proteins and amino acids . The increased rates of protein synthesis in the mutant lines , relative to that of the control seeds , were 17-28 . 5% . The amino acid contents were 2 . 4-fold ( MRI-40-2 ) to 2 . 6-fold ( MRI-110-6 ) higher in the MRI lines than in the control seeds , and 2 . 4-fold ( MRII-12-5 ) to 3 . 5-fold ( MRII-8-1 ) higher in the MRII lines than in the control seeds . Significant increases among the amino acids of the MR lines were observed for tryptophan , phenylalanine , and tyrosine , which had been biosynthesized through the shikimate pathway . The transcript levels of putative OASA2 , which is one of the key-regulating enzyme subunits in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway , were studied in the control and 5MT-resistant mutant lines subjected to inhibition by two tryptophan analogs ( 5MT and alphaMT ) and to other abiotic stresses ( ABA , NaCl , and cold ) . The putative OASA2 gene in the 5MT-resistant mutant lines was highly expressed in at a low 5MT concentration and at an early stage of the 5MT and alphaMT treatments . However , mRNA accumulation of the putative OASA2 gene in the mutant plants gradually decreased when the plants were subjected to abiotic stresses such as NaCl and cold . These results indicated that the 5MT resistance in the mutant lines is due to altered anthranilate synthase forms .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: The transcript levels of putative OASA2 , which is one of the key-regulating enzyme subunits in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway , were studied in the control and 5MT-resistant mutant lines subjected to inhibition by two tryptophan analogs ( 5MT and alphaMT ) and to other abiotic stresses ( ABA , NaCl , and cold ) .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In a kinetic analysis with tryptophan , an anthranilate synthase of the mutant lines was insensitive to feedback inhibition .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Significant increases among the amino acids of the MR lines were observed for tryptophan , phenylalanine , and tyrosine , which had been biosynthesized through the shikimate pathway .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Tryptophan Enhancement of Somatic Embryogenesis in Rice .
Author: Siriwardana S Nabors MW .
Journal: Citation: V : 73 ( 1 ) P : 142-146 Year: 1983 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16663163 Accession (PMID): 16663163
Abstract: Cereal embryos can produce two types of callus . One type , termed "embryogenic , " consists of small meristematic-like cells and gives rise to many plants by somatic embryogenesis if placed on a suitable regeneration medium . The other is termed "nonembryogenic" and consists of long tubular cells which gives rise to few or no plants . High concentrations of tryptophan increased the formation of embryogenic callus in three rice cultivars ( Oryza sativa L Calrose 76 , Pokkali , and IR 36 ) but not in four others ( Mahsuri , Bg 400-1 , H ( 4 ) , and Giza 159 ) . The best concentration of tryptophan for Pokkali and Calrose 76 was 100 micrograms per milliliter , and for IR 36 , 50 micrograms per milliliter . Indoleacetic acid at 100 micrograms per milliliter promoted an effect similar to that of tryptophan on Calrose 76 . The difference between japonica ( Calrose 76 , Giza 159 ) and indica ( Pokkali , IR 36 ) varieties is not the causal factor for the difference in response to tryptophan . Kinetin does not appear to be a requirement for embryogenic callus formation in Calrose 76 . Plant regeneration from Calrose 76 embryogenic callus occurred at low levels in media containing no hormones . 6-benzyladenine , or 2 , 3 , 5-triiodobenzoic acid but not indoleacetic acid at 0 . 1 to 0 . 5 micrograms per milliliter significantly increased regeneration .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: High concentrations of tryptophan increased the formation of embryogenic callus in three rice cultivars ( Oryza sativa L Calrose 76 , Pokkali , and IR 36 ) but not in four others ( Mahsuri , Bg 400-1 , H ( 4 ) , and Giza 159 ) .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The best concentration of tryptophan for Pokkali and Calrose 76 was 100 micrograms per milliliter , and for IR 36 , 50 micrograms per milliliter .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Indoleacetic acid at 100 micrograms per milliliter promoted an effect similar to that of tryptophan on Calrose 76 .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The difference between japonica ( Calrose 76 , Giza 159 ) and indica ( Pokkali , IR 36 ) varieties is not the causal factor for the difference in response to tryptophan .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Purification and Characterization of a Trypsin Inhibitor from Plathymenia foliolosa Seeds .
Author: da Silveira Ramos V de Souza Silva G das Gracas Machado Freire M Lima Tavares Machado O Postali Parra JR Rodrigues Macedo ML
Journal: J Agric Food Chem Citation: V : P : Year: 2008 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18991455 Accession (PMID): 18991455
Abstract: A novel trypsin inhibitor ( PFTI ) was isolated from Plathymenia foliolosa ( Benth . ) seeds by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G-100 , DEAE-Sepharose , and trypsin-Sepharose columns . By SDS-PAGE , PFTI yielded a single band with a M r of 19 kDa . PFTI inhibited bovine trypsin and bovine chymotrypsin with equilibrium dissociation constants ( K i ) of 4 x 10 ( -8 ) and 1 . 4 x 10 ( -6 ) M , respectively . PFTI retained more than 50% of activity at up to 50 degrees C for 30 min , but there were 80 and 100% losses of activity at 60 and 70 degrees C , respectively . DTT affected the activity or stability of PFTI . The N-terminal amino acid sequence of PFTI showed a high degree of homology with various members of the Kunitz family of inhibitors . Anagasta kuehniella is found worldwide ; this insect attacks stored grains and products of rice , oat , rye , corn , and wheat . The velvet bean caterpillar ( Anticarsia gemmatalis ) is considered the main defoliator pest of soybean in Brazil . Diatraea saccharalis , the sugar cane borer , is the major pest of sugar cane crops , and its caterpillar-feeding behavior , inside the stems , hampers control . PFTI showed significant inhibitory activity against trypsin-like proteases present in the larval midguts on A kuehniella and D saccharalis and could suppress the growth of larvae .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: A novel trypsin inhibitor ( PFTI ) was isolated from Plathymenia foliolosa ( Benth . ) seeds by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G-100 , DEAE-Sepharose , and trypsin-Sepharose columns .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: PFTI inhibited bovine trypsin and bovine chymotrypsin with equilibrium dissociation constants ( K i ) of 4 x 10 ( -8 ) and 1 . 4 x 10 ( -6 ) M , respectively .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: PFTI showed significant inhibitory activity against trypsin-like proteases present in the larval midguts on A kuehniella and D saccharalis and could suppress the growth of larvae .
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Score: 4.00
Title: cDNA cloning , heterogeneous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel trypsin-like protease from Nilaparvata lugens .
Author: Yang Z Xia X Wang X He G
Journal: Z Naturforsch C Citation: V : 65 P : 109-18 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20355330 Accession (PMID): 20355330
Abstract: A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ) strategy was used to clone diverse trypsin-like protease gene transcripts from midguts of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stal ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) . Six individual trypsin-like protease transcripts were identified . On the basis of one nucleotide sequence of the six clones , a full-length cDNA sequence ( 1902 bp ) was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends ( RACE ) . The cDNA contained an 1128-bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 375 amino acids with typical features of the trypsin-like protease . Heterogeneous expression of the coding sequence for the mature peptide in Escherichia coli cells showed that the expressed protease with a molecular weight of 27 . 0 is active , for its BApNAse activity assayed by using BApNA ( N-benzoyl-D , L-arginine-p-nitroanilide ) as substrate . The protease had its maximum activity at pH 8 . 0 and 35 degrees C A much better stability was observed at pH values above 4 . 0 and temperatures below 40 degrees C The enzyme was strongly inhibited by serine protease inhibitor . The trypsin-like protease is therefore likely one of the major digestive proteases responsible for protein hydrolysis in N lugens gut , and multiple gene families encoding digestive proteases may help in adaptation of this sap-sucker to different rice varieties .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ) strategy was used to clone diverse trypsin-like protease gene transcripts from midguts of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stal ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Six individual trypsin-like protease transcripts were identified .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The cDNA contained an 1128-bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 375 amino acids with typical features of the trypsin-like protease .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The trypsin-like protease is therefore likely one of the major digestive proteases responsible for protein hydrolysis in N lugens gut , and multiple gene families encoding digestive proteases may help in adaptation of this sap-sucker to different rice varieties .
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