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Score: 12.00
Title: The role of altered acetyl-CoA carboxylase in conferring resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) .
Author: Pornprom T Mahatamnuchoke P Usui K
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16964592
Abstract: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
Score: 9.00
Title: Field study on exposure and health effects of an organophosphate pesticide for maintaining registration in the Philippines .
Author: van Sittert NJ Dumas EP .
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2100760
Abstract: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
Score: 7.00
Title: Indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin controls malaria in Pakistan : a community-randomized trial
Author: Rowland M Mahmood P Iqbal J Carneiro I Chavasse D
Journal: Trop . Med . Int . Health Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10964269
Abstract: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
Score: 7.00
Title: Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on non-target herbivore and natural enemy assemblages in tropical irrigated rice .
Author: Schoenly KG Cohen MB Barrion AT Zhang W Gaolach B Viajante VD .
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15612416
Abstract: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
Score: 7.00
Title: [ Effects of fungicide on temporal and spatial niches of Rhizoctonia solani ]
Author: Wang Z Tan G
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16262065
Abstract: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
Score: 7.00
Title: Original research : long-term efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid in acute ankle sprain .
Author: Petrella MJ Cogliano A Petrella RJ
Journal: Phys Sportsmed Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20048489
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid ( HA ) injections in acute lateral ankle sprain . A randomized , controlled , prospective trial in a primary sports medicine and emergency practice involved 158 competitive athletes who suffered an acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprain , and who were randomly assigned within 48 hours of injury . Patients were randomly assigned at baseline to periarticular injection with HA + standard of care ( rest , ice , elevation , and compression [ RICE ] ) or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and day 4 after injury . Follow-up was at 30 , 90 , and 712 days after treatment . Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , 90 , and 712 included visual analogue scale ( VAS ) ( 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( 5-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( 5-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , recurrent ankle sprain , total number of days missing from primary sport activity , and adverse events ( AEs ) . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours with no difference between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at all follow-up assessments for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 001 ) . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/- 8 ) versus 17 ( +/- 8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . At 24 months , in the PL versus HA group , there were 2 versus 0 lower limb fractures , 16 versus 7 second ankle sprains ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 3 versus 1 third ankle sprains , and a significantly greater number of days missing primary sport activity ( 41 vs 21 ; P < 0 . 002 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was also observed for HA versus PL at all follow-up assessments . No serious AEs were recorded throughout follow-up . Periarticular HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short and long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain , more rapid return to sport , fewer recurrent ankle sprains , fewer missed days from sport , and with few associated AEs to 24 months .
Score: 7.00
Title: TEMPER : an acronym for ankle sprain rehabilitation .
Author: Rzonca EC Lue BY .
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3293757
Abstract: As has been previously discussed , the incidence and resultant associated disabilities of ankle sprains have been well documented in the literature . The staggering statistics on long-term disability show that there is no such thing as a simple ankle sprain . The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided . It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program . One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment . One possible reason is the lack of agreement in diagnostic techniques as well as the end diagnosis of a particular grade of ankle sprain . If a sprain is managed correctly , resultant disability will be kept to a minimum . A proper rehabilitation program may be the most important factor in preventing chronic instability . The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management . RICE primarily addresses the ankle edema . Thus , the patients ankle is only partially rehabilitated . A rational approach to the management of ankle sprains is given . Upon reviewing a complete protocol for ankle sprain rehabilitation , the acronym TEMPER can be used judiciously to remember the key steps in the treatment plan . Through the use of this acronym , one can institute a complete rehabilitation program .
Score: 6.00
Title: Effect of growth stage on the efficacy of postemergence herbicides on four weed species of direct-seeded rice .
Author: Chauhan BS Abugho SB
Journal: ScientificWorldJournal Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22619576
Abstract: The efficacy of bispyribac-sodium , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron , and penoxsulam + cyhalofop was evaluated against barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , junglerice , and southern crabgrass when applied at four- , six- , and eight-leaf stages . When applied at the four-leaf stage , bispyribac-sodium provided greater than 97% control of barnyardgrass , junglerice , and southern crabgrass ; however , it was slightly weak ( 74% control ) on Chinese sprangletop . Irrespective of the weed species , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron provided greater than 97% control when applied at the four-leaf stage . At the same leaf stage , penoxsulam + cyhalofop controlled 89 to 100% barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , and junglerice and only 54% of southern crabgrass . The efficacy of herbicides was reduced when applied at the eight-leaf stage of the weeds ; however , at this stage , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron was effective in controlling 99% of Chinese sprangletop . The results demonstrate the importance of early herbicide application in controlling the weeds . The study identified that at the six-leaf stage of the weeds , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron can effectively control Chinese sprangletop and southern crabgrass , penoxsulam + cyhalofop can effectively control Chinese sprangletop , and bispyribac-sodium can effectively control junglerice .
Score: 6.00
Title: [ The reconquest of the Madagascar highlands by malaria ]
Author: Mouchet J Laventure S Blanchy S Fioramonti R Rakotonjanabelo A Rabarison P Sircoulon J Roux J
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9410249
Abstract: A strong malaria epidemic with a high mortality rate occurred on the Madagascar Highlands in 1986-88 . Vector control and free access to antimalaria drugs controlled the disease . The authors have searched for the causes of the epidemic to propose a strategy avoiding such events . The Highlands on Madagascar were known as malaria free . In 1878 a very severe epidemic flooded all the country . Development of irrigated ricefields which house both An . arabiensis and An . funestus had created a new anthropic environment . Moreover manpower imported from malarious coastal areas for rice cultivation and also for building large temples , could have brought P falciparum . After several outbreaks the disease became endemic up to 1949 . In 1949 a malaria eradication programme based on DDT spraying and drug chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy was launched . By 1960 malaria was eliminated and DDT spraying cancelled . Only 3 foci were kept under surveillance with irregular spraying until 1975 . The prophylaxis and treatment centres ( "centres de nivaquinisation" ) were kept open up to 1979 . The catholic dispensary of Analaroa , 100 km NE of Tananarive , opened in 1971 and worked without interruption up to now . The malaria diagnosis has always been controlled by microscopy . Its registers are probably the more reliable source of information on malaria in the area . They show that malaria was already present on the Highlands in 1971 but at a low prevalence ; in 1980 when the "centres de nivaquinisation" were closed the number of cases increased by three times the progressive increase of the number of cases became exponential from 1986 to 1988 which was the peak of the epidemic ; malaria remained at a high level until the end of 1993 ; yearly DDT spraying since 1993 have decreased the number of malaria cases among the dispensary attendants by 90% . The epidemic peak of 1988 was well documented by the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar around Tananarive . Before the epidemic started it was observed a come back of An . funestus which had been previously eliminated of most of the villages by DDT spraying . More than an epidemic the malaria increase in 1988 was a reconquest by malaria of the land from which it had been eliminated in the years 1950 . This episode became dramatic because the lack of immunity of the population and the shortage of medicaments . The global warming which was advocated to explain the epidemic has no responsibility because the temperature on the Madagascar Highlands has not changed during the last 30 years . Also the cyclones do not seem to have played any role . It is very likely that the gradual decline of control measures , first DDT spraying , later drug distributions , had the main responsibility in the Highlands drama . Everywhere An . funestus reached a high level during the time where the parasite reservoir was rebuilding . They synergised each other . These findings should be taken in account in drawing the strategy planning for the next years .
Score: 5.00
Title: Floral spray transformation can efficiently generate Arabidopsis transgenic plants .
Author: Chung MH Chen MK Pan SM .
Journal: Transgenic Res . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11206976
Abstract: In this study , floral spray and floral dip were used to replace the vacuum step in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) gene into Arabidopsis . The transgene was constructed by using a CaMV 35S promoter to drive a rice cytosolic CuZnSOD coding sequence in Arabidopsis . The transgene construct was developed in binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium . When Arabidopsis plants started to initiate flower buds , the primary inflorescence shoots were removed and then transformed by floral spray or floral dip . More than 300 transgenic plants were generated to assess the feasibility of floral spray used in the in planta transformation . The result indicates that the floral spray method of Agrobacterium can achieve rates of in planta transformation comparable to the vacuum-infiltration and floral dip methods . The floral spray method opens up the possibility of in planta transformation of plant species which are too large for dipping or vacuum infiltration .
Score: 5.00
Title: Susceptibility of adult and larval stages of the horn fly , Haematobia irritans , to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae under field conditions .
Author: Mochi DA Monteiro AC Simi LD Sampaio AA
Journal: Vet Parasitol Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19713044
Abstract: The efficacy of M anisopliae strain E9 as a biological insecticide for the adult and larval stages of H irritans was assessed under field conditions . To assess larvicidal activity , nine heifers were randomly divided into three groups , which were maintained separated from each other . The first group ingested fungal spores encapsulated in alginate pellets . The second group ingested in natura spores that were grown on sterilized rice . In both groups , each animal received three meals a day , with each meal containing 2 x 10 ( 10 ) conidia . The third group received no treatment and was used as a control . Fecal samples from manure and whole dung pats were collected from each of the three separate pastures on the day that the animals were allocated and on days 1 , 3 , 6 , 9 and 12 afterwards . The fecal samples were tested for the presence of fungal colony forming units ( CFU ) , and the emergence of horn flies was observed in the dung pats . Significantly less ( P<0 . 01 ) adult horn flies were found in dung pats of the group treated with encapsulated fungi ( 11 . 7 ) than in those from the heifers treated with conidia in natura ( 27 . 9 ) or from the control group ( 29 . 5 ) . The fecal samples of the treated animals presented significantly higher numbers of M anisopliae CFUs then those from the untreated controls . We found that on day 9 fecal samples from animals given microencapsulated conidia had significantly higher CFUs than those from animals treated with conidia in natura . To assess adulticide activity , four heifers were sprayed with a suspension of 3 x 10 ( 10 ) conidial ( -1 ) of M anisopliae , and four control animals were sprayed with the same solution without conidial content . Four sprayings were done at five-day intervals , and all animals were photographed daily to observe the quantity of flies present . After the second spraying , we observed an average of 22 . 9 flies per animal ; untreated heifers had an average of 43 flies per animal ; thus , the treatment significantly ( P<0 . 05 ) decreases fly infestation . The results obtained from both tests show that M anisopliae strain E9 has a pathogenic effect on H irritans larvae in bovine manure when administered orally and on adult fly infestations when applied as a spray on the hosts .
Score: 4.00
Title: Management of ankle sprains .
Author: Wolfe MW Uhl TL Mattacola CG McCluskey LC .
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11195774
Abstract: Without adequate care , acute ankle trauma can result in chronic joint instability . Use of a standardized protocol enhances the management of ankle sprains . In patients with grades I or II sprains , emphasis should be placed on accurate diagnosis , early use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression and elevation ) , maintenance of range of motion and use of an ankle support . Sprains with complete ligament [ corrected ] tears ( grade III ) may require surgical intervention . Although early motion and mobility are recommended , ligamentous strength does not return until months after an ankle sprain .
Score: 4.00
Title: Biological monitoring of combined exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroids .
Author: He F Chen S Tang X Gan W Tao B Wen B
Journal: Toxicol . Lett . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12191869
Abstract: A total of 132 farmers were selected from two areas ( J and S ) for this study . In area J , the subgroups Ja ( 40 subjects ) and Jb ( 36 subjects ) sprayed on rice crops either the organophosphate ( OP ) insecticide methamidophos or the mixture methamidophos-deltamethrin ( a pyrethroid , Pyr ) . In area S , the subgroups Sa ( 27 subjects ) and Sb ( 29 subjects ) sprayed on cottons either the OP methyl-parathion or the mixture methyl-parathion-deltamethrin . Groups Jc ( 22 subjects ) and Sc ( 20 subjects ) were non-exposed controls . Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) was measured by the Ellmans method before spraying , after 2-h exposure and 1 h later . Inhibition of AChE occurred after 2-h exposure to both single OP ( Ja and Sa ) and OP-containing mixtures ( Jb and Sb ) as compared with both pre-exposure and control values ( Jc and Sc ) . A similar recovery was found in subgroups Ja , Jb , Sa and Sb 1 h after spraying , but all remained lower than the pre-exposure level . There was no difference in AChE inhibition and recovery between the single OP subgroups and the OP mixture subgroups . The inhibitory effect on AChE shown in subjects with combined OP-Pyr exposure was induced by the OP component of the insecticide mixture and to a similar extent as that induced by the single OP formulations . In addition to the fact that the OP is more potent than Pyrs , the above results might explain why the clinical manifestations of OP mixture poisonings are similar to those of single OP poisoning .
Score: 4.00
Title: [ Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil , fenobucarb , silafluofen and buprofezin in rice ]
Author: Satoh M Sakaguchi M Kobata M Sakaguchi Y Tanizawa H Miura Y Sasano R Nakanishi Y
Journal: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12749190
Abstract: We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil , fenobucarb , silafluofen and buprofezin in rice . The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city , with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols : spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides , repeated spraying ( 3 times ) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides . The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process . Silafluofen , which has a higher log Pow value , remained in the hull of the rice . Fenobucarb , which has a lower log Pow value , penetrated inside the rice . The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking . During the cooking procedure , the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice .
Score: 4.00
Title: [ Techniques of diseases , insect pests and weeds control and their efficacy in bio-rational rice production ]
Author: Li B Shi Q Fang J Pan X
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15139200
Abstract: Studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus , and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75 . 16%-94 . 27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice , respectively , and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon . The efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50 . 54%-72 . 67% on rice leaf blast and 76 . 66%-87 . 42% on rice head blast , and equal to the chemical fungicide tricyclazole after sprayed once at the initial stage of rice leaf blast occurrence and the initial and end stages of earing , respectively . The efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis on Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was better than that of chemical insecticide bisultap , and the efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was equal to that of chemical insecticide bisultap when the three biorational insecticides were sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of pests . The efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was above 70% , and lower than that of chemical insecticide imidacloprid 3-30 d after sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of Nilaparvata lugens . The occurrence of weeds could be controlled , and the rice yield could be raised when the suitable non-thorough decomposed organism was applied or weeding was carried after the field had been ploughed twice before rice transplant . The rice yield could be raised by using biorational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice . The residue of pesticides in rice was lower in the bio-control area than in the chemical control area , according with the demands of health target of green food .
Score: 4.00
Title: Distribution of organo-chlorine pesticides ( DDT and HCH ) between plant and soil system .
Author: Feng K Yu BY Wang XL Ge DM Wang XZ Wong MH Cao ZH .
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15499781
Abstract: This paper reports a study of the distribution of organo-chlorine pesticides ( DDT and HCH ) between rice plants and the soil system by spraying before the heading stage at four different dosage levels--control , normal dosage ( 15 kg ha ( -1 ) of 6% HCH and 7 . 5 kg ha ( -1 ) of 25% DDT ) , double dosage and four times dosage . Soil and plant samples were taken respectively at the 1st h , 3rd , 10th , 20th , and 40th day after spraying and at the harvest time . The results indicate that less than 5% of HCH and 15% of DDT were absorbed by the surface of rice leaves for normal dosage . Most of both pesticides moved into the soil in solution after spraying . Compared with DDT , HCH was degraded and run off more easily . HCH residues in the surface soil layer ( 1-3 cm ) were already below 6 . 4 microg kg ( -1 ) at the mature stage , lower than Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Agricultural Soils : HCH < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . However DDT residues in the surface soil layer remained 172 microg kg ( -1 ) , higher than the national standard : DDT < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . According to the test f OCP residues in rice seeds , it can be concluded that the OCP sprayed onto the surface of rice leaves can move into rice plants and accumulate in the seeds at the mature stage . HCH residues in rice seeds of the double and four times dosage treatments , and DDT residues in all treatments , exceeded the Chinese National Food Standard ( HCH < 0 . 10 mg kg ( -1 ) , DDT < 0 . 20 mg kg ( -1 ) ) .
Score: 4.00
Title: [ Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic rice and chemical insecticides on arthropod communities in paddy-fields ]
Author: Liu Z Ye G Hu C
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15825447
Abstract: This paper assessed the effects of cry1Abl/cry1Ac-carrying transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice ( Bt rice ) and chemical insecticides on the arthropod communities under paddy-field conditions in terms of arthropod guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution of each guild , individuals of each guild , some common indices of arthropod communities , and community dissimilarity . In most cases , no significant differences were found between the Bt and control rice plots without any chemical insecticide spray in such arthropod community specific parameters as guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution , temporal dynamics of the individuals of each guild or all arthropod , as well as some common community indices ( including species richness , Shannon-Wiener diversity index , evenness index and dominant index ) and their temporal dynamics . The similarity of arthropod community between the Bt and control rice plots were apparently higher . It was clear that Bt rice generally showed no marked negative effect on the arthropod community in paddy field . In contrast , some arthropod community specific parameters such as guild dominances in the control plot with chemical insecticide spray were in some cases markedly and even significantly different from those in the control plot without any chemical insecticide spray . The similarity of arthropod community between the control plots with and without chemical insecticide spray was relatively lower . It could be concluded that the effect of Bt rice on the arthropod community was apparently lower than that of chemical insecticides .
Score: 4.00
Title: [ Use of agricultural insecticides in Benin ]
Author: Akogbeto MC Djouaka R Noukpo H
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16425724
Abstract: The use of insecticides in households and in agriculture has been incriminated in the emergence of insecticide resistance in insect vectors . For farming staff , the emergence of vector resistance is due to indoors spray of insecticides using aerosols and other low quality products in rural and urban settings against mosquitoes . On the other hand , public health specialists believe that the phenomenon of resistance could be due to massive use of insecticides in agriculture for field pests control . In Turkey , the implication of agricultural use of pesticides in the selection of vector resistance is clearly established . This study was framed to identify potential practices favouring the emergence of insecticide resistance in the Republic of Benin . Interviews and focus group discussions were organized with cotton , rice and vegetables farmers . The final aim of these surveys was to point out practices likely to favour the emergence of resistance . The research is conducted in 3 cotton fields , 2 rice fields and 2 vegetable plantations . After filling and signing concerned forms , farmers are subjected to quantitative and qualitative questionnaires to generate data on : insecticides being used , the various doses applied for pests eradication , the frequency of treatments , the cost of treatments ( cost/hectare/year ) the origin of insecticides , the place of purchase , safety precautions and related health hazards . The results of this study have shown that the use of insecticides in agriculture is a clear fact . During treatments , insecticide residues get in contact with mosquito breeding sites where they diffuse into water and exercise a selection pressure on larvae . This partially explains the high levels of resistance recorded in with strains of Anopheles gambiae collected in agricultural settings under insecticides pressure . Pyrethroids and more specifically deltamethrin and cyfluthrin are the insecticides mainly used in studied localities . Bedrooms of farmers are used as storage place for half-used and un-used insecticides containers . For a proper management of insecticides , cotton and vegetable plantations farmers receive assistance from the ministry of rural development . Because of the importance of cotton production in the Republic of Benin , trainings on management of insecticides in agricultural settings are frequently organised by the ministry of rural development and are opened to farmers and their family members ( husbands , wives , children and relatives . . . ) . In the long run , the whole family learns and becomes very versant with the use of insecticides , spraying frequencies , spraying devices and spraying techniques .
Score: 4.00
Title: Amino acid and energy digestibility of protein sources for growing pigs .
Author: Gottlob RO DeRouchey JM Tokach MD Goodband RD Dritz SS Nelssen JL Hastad CW Knabe DA .
Journal: J Anim . Sci . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16699096
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility ( AID ) and standardized ileal digestibility ( SID ) of AA and DE , and to estimate ME and NE of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , and spray-dried plasma protein . In Exp . 1 , 6 barrows ( initially 29 . 5 +/- 2 . 5 kg of BW ) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and fed each of 5 cornstarch-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d . During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 test diets ( fed from d 0 to 28 ) were formulated to contain 12 . 5% CP by using analyzed nutrient compositions of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , or spray-dried plasma protein . The fifth ( N-free ) diet was fed from d 28 to 35 to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA , which were used to calculate SID . Ileal digesta were collected and analyzed , and AID and SID values were calculated . Apparent ileal digestible Lys , Met , and Thr values were 80 . 0 +/- 3 . 3 , 65 . 6 +/- 3 . 1 , and 68 . 4 +/- 4 . 5% for rice protein concentrate ; 85 . 6 +/- 4 . 8 , 85 . 5 +/- 4 . 3 , and 69 . 8 +/- 8 . 5% for salmon protein hydrolysate ; 93 . 3 +/- 1 . 4 , 89 . 9 +/- 5 . 8 , and 83 . 6 +/- 5 . 3% for whey protein concentrate ; and 92 . 8 +/- 0 . 9 , 85 . 7 +/- 2 . 1 , 86 . 5 +/- 2 . 3% for spray-dried plasma protein , respectively . In Exp . 2 , 6 barrows ( initially 37 . 6 +/- 1 . 7 kg of BW ) were fed each of 5 corn-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d . During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 diets containing the test ingredients were formulated to contain approximately 20% CP by using their analyzed nutrient compositions . The fifth ( corn control ) diet containing 8 . 2% CP was also used to calculate energy values by difference . Feces were collected to determine DE . The ME and NE contents were estimated using published regression equations . The DE , ME , and NE ( as-fed ) values were 4 , 724 +/- 461 , 4 , 226 +/- 437 , and 3 , 235 +/- 380 kcal/kg for rice protein concentrate ; 4 , 173 +/- 1 , 052 , 3 , 523 +/- 1 , 002 , and 2 , 623 +/- 872 kcal/kg for salmon protein hydrolysate ; 4 , 949 +/- 1 , 002 , 4 , 352 +/- 955 , and 3 , 344 +/- 831 kcal/kg for whey protein concentrate ; and 4 , 546 +/- 673 , 3 , 979 +/- 652 , and 3 , 020 +/- 567 kcal/kg for spray-dried plasma protein , respectively . The excellent AA digestibility and relatively high DE , ME , and NE values indicate that these protein sources warrant further investigation as ingredients for growing pig diets .
Score: 4.00
Title: Effervescent fast-disintegrating bacterial formulation for biological control of rice sheath blight .
Author: Wiwattanapatapee R Chumthong A Pengnoo A Kanjanamaneesathian M
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17428569
Abstract: A lack of effective , easily applied and stable formulation has been a major obstacle to widespread use of biocontrol agents for control of rice sheath blight . In this study , effervescent fast-disintegrating granules containing endospores of Bacillus megaterium were developed for use either by broadcast or spray application . The formulation composed of lactose , polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 ( PVP , K-30 ) and effervescent base ( citric acid , tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate ) . The number of living bacteria in effervescent granules that performed mycelial growth inhibition was in the range of 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g after 12 months storage at room temperature . The number of viable bacteria after applying into the water and spraying on the rice seedling for 7 days in the greenhouse tests were also satisfactory high ( 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g of granules and 10 ( 6 ) CFU/g of plant , respectively ) . The scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) was used to observe bacterial antagonist on the surface of leaf sheath and leaf blade after spraying with formulation . Effervescent formulation applied either broadcasting or spraying reduced incidence of sheath blight disease in the greenhouse experiments .
Score: 4.00
Title: Periarticular hyaluronic acid in acute ankle sprain .
Author: Petrella RJ Petrella MJ Cogliano A
Journal: Clin J Sport Med Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17620777
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : To determine the efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid injections in acute lateral ankle sprain during 9 months at a sports injuries center . DESIGN : Randomized controlled prospective trial SETTING : Primary sport medicine and emergency practice . PATIENTS : One hundred fifty-eight consecutive competitive athletes who suffered acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprains were randomized within 48 hours of injury . INTERVENTIONS : Patients were randomized at baseline to periarticular injection with hyaluronic acid ( HA ) + standard of care [ rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) ] or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and on day 4 after injury . OUTCOMES MEASURES : Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , and 90 included Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ; 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( five-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( five-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , and adverse events . Differences between groups were determined using an intent-to-treat analysis of variance . RESULTS : About 30% of the ankle sprains were "first" events , and no differences in clinical assessments with those presenting but not volunteering for the study ( n = 341 ) were observed . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours , with no difference between groups . No serious adverse events were recorded during the 8-day treatment period . No difference in concomitant treatment or physical therapy was observed between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at day 8 for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was observed for HA versus PL at days 4 ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 8 ( P < 0 . 001 ) , 30 ( P < 0 . 001 ) , and 90 ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Patient global assessment of ankle injury was significantly better compared with baseline in the HA group at day 8 , but this was not different between groups . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/-8 ) versus 17 ( +/-8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . CONCLUSION : HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short term and the long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain and more rapid return to sport , with few associated adverse events .
Score: 4.00
Title: Changes in levels of juvenile hormone and molting hormone in larvae and adult females of Chilo suppressalis ( Lepidoptera : Pyralidae ) after imidacloprid applications to rice .
Author: Yu YS Xue S Wu JC Wang F Yang GQ
Journal: J Econ Entomol Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17849869
Abstract: Insect hormones regulate growth and development and fecundity of insects . The current study investigated changes in juvenile hormone ( JH ) and molting hormone ( MH ) levels in fourth instars and adult females of Chilo suppressalis ( Walker ) ( Lepidoptera : Pyralidae ) after imidacloprid application to rice , Oryza sativa L The results showed that JH level in fourth instars that developed feeding on Fengyouxiangzhan rice plants sprayed with 15 , 30 , and 60 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than that of larvae that developed on control plants , increasing by 5 . 04 , 6 . 39 , and 4 . 89 times , respectively . The relationships between JH level and imidacloprid concentrations showed a significant negative correlation . In contrast , molting hormone ( MH ) level in larvae fed on control plants was significantly higher than that on treated plants . JH : MH values in fourth instars developed from larvae feeding on rice plants treated with 15 , 30 , 60 , 80 , and 100 ppm imidacloprid increased by 49 . 17 , 39 . 43 , 13 . 48 , 15 . 80 , and 0 . 2 times , respectively , compared with control . JH and JH : MH ratio in larvae fed on Wujing 15 plants treated with imidacloprid were significantly lower than those fed on Fengyouxiangzhan under the same treatments . JH level in adult females that developed from larvae feeding on rice plants sprayed with imidacloprid significantly decreased with increase in imidacloprid concentration , but it increased compared with control . JH level in adult females was associated with times of imidacloprid application . JH level in adult females developed from larvae feeding on rice plants after double spray with 30 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than control , increasing by 61 . 6 and 116 . 5% , respectively , compared with a single spray and the control . Moreover , hormone levels in the larvae were related to the application method of imidacloprid . JH level in fourth instars after root application and topical application of imidacloprid was significantly lower than in control . Thus , the dynamics of JH and MH in insects after insecticide applications are an extremely interesting problem , because hormones are related to insect growth and development .
Score: 4.00
Title: Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing transgenic maize grains from event DP-O9814O-6 ( Optimum GAT ) , near-isogenic control maize grain , or commercial reference maize grains .
Author: McNaughton J Roberts M Smith B Rice D Hinds M Rood T Layton R Lamb I Delaney B
Journal: Poult Sci Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19038812
Abstract: A genetically modified maize ( Zea mays L ) line that contains the Optimum GAT trait ( event DP-O9814O-6 ; 98140 ) was produced by integration of the gat4621 and zm-hra genes . The expressed GAT4621 and ZM-HRA proteins confer tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides , respectively . The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of 98140 maize grain to nontransgenic maize grain in a 42-d feeding trial in broiler chickens . Diets were prepared using grain from untreated 98140 plants and from plants treated with an in-field application of herbicides ( 98140 + Spray ) . For comparison , additional diets were produced with maize grain obtained from the nontransgenic near-isogenic control ( control ) and nontransgenic commercial reference Pioneer brand hybrids 33J56 , 33P66 , and 33R77 . Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers ( n = 120/group , 50% male and 50% female ) in 3 phases : starter , grower , and finisher containing 58 . 5 , 64 , and 71 . 5% maize grain , respectively . No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality , growth performance variables , or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with maize grains from unsprayed or sprayed 98140 and those consuming diets produced with near-isogenic control maize grain . Additionally , all performance and carcass variables from control , 98140 , and 98140 + Spray test maize treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from reference maize groups . Based on these results , it was concluded that 98140 maize grain ( unsprayed or sprayed with a herbicide mixture ) was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic control maize with comparable genetic background .
Score: 4.00
Title: Efficacy of paracetamol versus diclofenac for Grade II ankle sprains .
Author: Lyrtzis C Natsis K Papadopoulos C Noussios G Papathanasiou E
Journal: Foot Ankle Int Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21733417
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Ankle sprains are usually treated with the RICE protocol often with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAID ) for pain reduction . We evaluated the effect of diclofenac , an NSAID , versus paracematol in the reduction of pain and acute edema of severe ankle sprains . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Ninety patients , 18 to 60 years old , with Grade II acute ankle sprains were randomized into two groups . Group A ( 45 patients ) received for the first 10 days diclofenac 75 mg orally twice per day . Group B ( 45 patients ) received paracetamol 500 mg orally three times per day for the same period . We evaluated ankle joint edema with the Figure-of-Eight method and with the volumetric method , as well as pain with the Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ) in both groups . RESULTS : The patients had no significant differences concerning their baseline values ( p > 0 . 05 ) . The ankle joint edema was decreased in both groups ( p < 0 . 001 ) but there was more edema in group A than in group B at the third post-traumatic day with both measurement methods ( p = 0 . 028/0 . 025 ) . By the tenth post-traumatic day no difference was found . Pain decreased in both groups at the third day and at the tenth day ( p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSION : According to these results , diclofenac and paracetamol had the same effect on pain reduction of ankle sprains but more acute ankle edema was present in patients who were treated with diclofenac than in patients who were treated with paracetamol .
Score: 3.00
Title: Treatment of acute lateral ankle ligament rupture in the athlete . Conservative versus surgical treatment .
Author: Lynch SA Renstrm PA .
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10028133
Abstract: Acute lateral ankle ligament sprains are common in young athletes ( 15 to 35 years of age ) . Diagnostic and treatment protocols vary . Therapies range from cast immobilisation or acute surgical repair to functional rehabilitation . The lateral ligament complex includes 3 capsular ligaments : the anterior tibiofibular ( ATFL ) , calcaneofibular ( CFL ) and posterior talofibular ( PTFL ) ligaments . Injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion ; the ATFL is most commonly torn . The CFL and the PTFL can also be injured and , after severe inversion , subtalar joint ligaments are also affected . Commonly , an athlete with a lateral ankle ligament sprain reports having rolled over the outside of their ankle . The entire ankle and foot must be examined to ensure there are no other injuries . Clinical stability tests for ligamentous disruption include the anterior drawer test of ATFL function and inversion tilt test of both ATFL and CFL function . Radiographs may rule out treatable fractures in severe injuries or when pain or tenderness are not associated with lateral ligaments . Stress radiographs do not affect treatment . Ankle sprains are classified from grades I to III ( mild , moderate or severe ) . Grade I and II injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management . A non-operative functional treatment programme includes immediate use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression , elevation ) , a short period of immobilisation and protection with a tape or bandage , and early range of motion , weight-bearing and neuromuscular training exercises . Proprioceptive training on a tilt board after 3 to 4 weeks helps improve balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle . Treatment for grade III injuries is more controversial A comprehensive literature evaluation and meta-analysis showed that early functional treatment provided the fastest recovery of ankle mobility and earliest return to work and physical activity without affecting late mechanical stability . Functional treatment was complication-free , whereas surgery had serious , though infrequent , complications . Functional treatment produced no more sequelae than casting with or without surgical repair . Secondary surgical repair , even years after an injury , has results comparable to those of primary repair , so even competitive athletes can receive initial conservative treatment . Sequelae of lateral ligament injuries are common . After conservative or surgical treatment , 10 to 30% of patients have chronic symptoms , including persistent synovitis or tendinitis , ankle stiffness , swelling , pain , muscle weakness and giving-way . Well-designed physical therapy programmes usually reduce instability . For individuals with chronic instability refractory to conservative measures , surgery may be needed . Subtalar instability should be carefully evaluated when considering surgery .
Score: 3.00
Title: Propanil ( 3 , 4-dichloropropionanilide ) particulate concentrations within and near the residences of families living adjacent to aerially sprayed rice fields .
Author: Richards SM McClure GY Lavy TL Mattice JD Keller RJ Gandy J
Journal: Arch . Environ . Contam . Toxicol . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11385597
Abstract: Propanil is widely used as a postemergence herbicide in rice . Because it is typically applied aerially , there is a potential for propanil to drift into and around homes of those living adjacent to rice fields . Propanil has been shown to be immunotoxic in rodent models . The objective of this study was to measure the levels of propanil to which families living adjacent to aerially sprayed rice fields may be exposed . Air levels were sampled by actively and passively collecting propanil in and around the homes of volunteer families living in close proximity to rice fields sprayed with propanil . Homes ranged from 73 m to 113 m from treated rice fields . Sampling was conducted in the home , adjacent to the home ( within 5 m of the home ) , 30 m from the home , and at the edge of the rice field . Concentrations were determined via gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy . Propanil levels adjacent to the homes ranged from nondetectable to 1 , 106 . 4 microg per 400 cm2 collection surface ( 2 . 0 microg detection limit ) . Wind direction and wind velocity were the primary determinants of propanil drift . At sites where the prevailing wind was blowing away from the home , no propanil was detected except at the edge of the field . Distance from the edge of the rice field also influenced the amount of drift with higher levels measured at 30 m from the house than adjacent to the house . No propanil vapor was detected on absorbent media sampled in and around the homes . The results indicate that individuals living adjacent to rice fields aerially sprayed with propanil are potentially exposed to variable amounts of propanil , and wind speed and direction are the most important factors that influence the concentration of aerially applied pesticide .
Score: 3.00
Title: Effects of the agricultural insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin ( Warrior ) on mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis ) .
Author: Lawler SP Dritz DA Godfrey LD .
Journal: J Am . Mosq . Control Assoc . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14710748
Abstract: Because agricultural insecticides have potential to disrupt biological control of mosquitoes , we quantified whether an insecticide used in rice fields causes mortality of mosquitofish . Laboratory studies have shown that lambda-cyhalothrin ( Warrior ) is toxic to fish ; however , some studies report low field toxicities of pyrethroids to fish because they degrade rapidly and adsorb to soil . We tested whether Warrior kills mosquitofish under field conditions . Replicated enclosures in a rice field were either sprayed with Warrior at 5 . 8 g active ingredient/ha or were untreated . Mosquitofish were either added before the spray , or 7 days later . Of those added before the spray , none survived . Most fish added 7 days later survived .
Score: 3.00
Title: Low-level laser treatment can reduce edema in second degree ankle sprains .
Author: Stergioulas A
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15165387
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : Low-level laser therapy ( LLLT ) has been used for the last few years to treat sports injuries . The purpose of this study was to compare three therapeutic protocols in treating edema in second degree ankle sprains that did not require immobilization with a splint , under placebo-controlled conditions . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Forty-seven soccer players with second degree ankle sprains , selected at random , were divided into the following groups : The first group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the conventional initial treatment ( RICE , rest , ice , compression , elevation ) , the second group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the RICE method plus placebo laser , and the third group ( n = 15 ) was treated with the RICE method plus an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser with a radiant power output of 40 mW at 16 Hz . Before the treatment , and 24 , 48 , and 72 h later , the volume of the edema was measured . RESULTS : A three by three repeated measures ANOVA with a follow up post hoc test revealed that the group treated with the RICE and an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser presented a statistically significant reduction in the volume of the edema after 24 h ( 40 . 3 +/- 2 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 01 ) , 48 h ( 56 . 4 +/- 3 . 1 mL , p < 0 . 002 ) , and 72 h ( 65 . 1 +/- 4 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSIONS : LLLT combined with RICE can reduce edema in second-degree ankle sprains .
Score: 3.00
Title: Does Cryotherapy Improve Outcomes With Soft it issue Injury?
Author: Hubbard TJ Denegar CR .
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15496998
Abstract: REFERENCE : Bleakley C , McDonough S , MacAuley D The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injury : a systematic review of randomized controlled trials . Am J Sport Med . 2004 ; 32 : 251-261 . CLINICAL QUESTION : What is the clinical evidence base for cryotherapy use? DATA SOURCES : Studies were identified by using a computer-based literature search on a total of 8 databases : MEDLINE , Proquest , ISI Web of Science , Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health ( CINAHL ) on Ovid , Allied and Complementary Medicine Database ( AMED ) on Ovid , Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness , and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register ( Central ) . This was supplemented with citation tracking of relevant primary and review articles . Search terms included surgery , orthopaedics , sports injury , soft it issue injury , sprains and strains , contusions , athletic injury , acute , compression , cryotherapy , ice , RICE , andcold . STUDY SELECTION : To be included in the review , each study had to fulfill the following conditions : be a randomized , controlled trial of human subjects ; be published in English as a full paper ; include patients recovering from acute soft it issue or orthopaedic surgical interventions who received cryotherapy in inpatient , outpatient , or home-based treatment , in isolation or in combination with placebo or other therapies ; provide comparisons with no treatment , placebo , a different mode or protocol of cryotherapy , or other physiotherapeutic interventions ; and have outcome measures that included function ( subjective or objective ) , pain , swelling , or range of motion . DATA EXTRACTION : The study population , interventions , outcomes , follow-up , and reported results of the assessed trials were extracted and tabulated . The primary outcome measures were pain , swelling , and range of motion . Only 2 groups reported adequate data for return to normal function . All eligible articles were rated for methodologic quality using the PEDro scale . The PEDro scale is a checklist that examines the believability ( internal validity ) and the interpretability of trial quality . The 11-item checklist yields a maximum score of 10 if all criteria are satisfied . The intraclass correlation coefficient and kappa values are similar to those reported for 3 other frequently used quality scales ( Chalmers Scale , Jadad Scale , and Maastricht List ) . Two reviewers graded the articles , a method that has been reported to be more reliable than one evaluator . MAIN RESULTS : Specific search criteria identified 55 articles for review , of which 22 were eligible randomized , controlled clinical trials . The articles scores on the PEDro scale were low , ranging from 1 to 5 , with an average score of 3 . 4 . Five studies provided adequate information on the subjects baseline data , and only 3 studies concealed allocation during subject recruitment . No studies blinded their therapists administration of therapy , and just 1 study blinded subjects . Only 1 study included an intention-to-treat analysis . The average number of subjects in the studies was 66 . 7 ; however , only 1 group undertook a power analysis . The types of injuries varied widely ( eg , acute or surgical ) . No authors investigated subjects with muscle contusions or strains , and only 5 groups studied subjects with acute ligament sprains . The remaining 17 groups examined patients recovering from operative procedures ( anterior cruciate ligament repair , knee arthroscopy , lateral retinacular release , total knee and hip arthroplasties , and carpal tunnel release ) . Additionally , the mode of cryotherapy varied widely , as did the duration and frequency of cryotherapy application . The time period when cryotherapy was applied after injury ranged from immediately after injury to 1 to 3 days postinjury . Adequate information on the actual surface temperature of the cooling device was not provided in the selected studies . Most authors recorded outcome variables over short periods ( 1 week ) , with the longest reporting follow-ups of pain , swelling , and range of motion recorded at 4 weeks postinjury . Data in that study were insufficient to calculate effect size . Nine studies did not provide data of the key outcome measures , so individual study effect estimates could not be calculated . A total of 12 treatment comparisons were made . Ice submersion with simultaneous exercises was significantly more effective than heat and contrast therapy plus simultaneous exercises at reducing swelling . Ice was reported to be no different from ice and low-frequency or high-frequency electric stimulation in effect on swelling , pain , and range of motion . Ice alone seemed to be more effective than applying no form of cryotherapy after minor knee surgery in terms of pain , but no differences were reported for range of motion and girth . Continuous cryotherapy was associated with a significantly greater decrease in pain and wrist circumference after surgery than intermittent cryotherapy . Evidence was marginal that a single simultaneous treatment with ice and compression is no more effective than no cryotherapy after an ankle sprain . The authors reported ice to be no more effective than rehabilitation only with regard to pain , swelling , and range of motion . Ice and compression seemed to be significantly more effective than ice alone in terms of decreasing pain . Additionally , ice , compression , and a placebo injection reduced pain more than a placebo injection alone . Lastly , in 8 studies , there seemed to be little difference in the effectiveness of ice and compression compared with compression alone . Only 2 of the 8 groups reported significant differences in favor of ice and compression . CONCLUSIONS : Based on the available evidence , cryotherapy seems to be effective in decreasing pain . In comparison with other rehabilitation techniques , the efficacy of cryotherapy has been questioned . The exact effect of cryotherapy on more frequently treated acute injuries ( eg , muscle strains and contusions ) has not been fully elucidated . Additionally , the low methodologic quality of the available evidence is of concern . Many more high-quality studies are required to create evidence-based guidelines on the use of cryotherapy . These must focus on developing modes , durations , and frequencies of ice application that will optimize outcomes after injury .
Score: 3.00
Title: Mortality factors of eggs of Leptocorisa chinensis ( Hemiptera : Alydidae ) in rice fields .
Author: Takeuchi H Watanabe T
Journal: J Econ . Entomol . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16686134
Abstract: To clarify factors causing mortality of Leptocorisa chinensis Dallas ( Hemiptera : Alydidae ) eggs in rice fields , sentinel egg masses were exposed for seven days in two rice , Oryza sativa L ( Poaceae ) , fields . An insecticide was sprayed to remove natural enemies in one-half of each field before exposing egg masses to predation . An egg mass containing 14 eggs was glued to a plastic label , and 21 egg masses each were placed in the sprayed and unsprayed control plots . During exposure , the number of hatched and missing eggs was observed daily . Egg predators were sampled in the fields before and after insecticide application . After the egg masses were retrieved from the fields , mortality factors of the unhatched eggs were assessed in the laboratory . The mean number of hatched and missing eggs was not significantly different between the sprayed and control plots in field A In field B , however , the numbers were significantly different . The percentage of missing eggs in damaged egg masses ranged from 80 to 100% . In the laboratory , we observed that feeding marks caused by the grasshopper Conocephalus chinensis ( Redtenbacher ) were similar to those on the eggs exposed in the rice fields . The density of C chinensis was low in control plots of field A In contrast , the density was high in those of field B These observations suggest that the density of egg predators , eg , C chinensis , is a mortality factor of L chinensis eggs in rice fields .
Score: 3.00
Title: Determining areas that require indoor insecticide spraying using Multi Criteria Evaluation , a decision-support tool for malaria vector control programmes in the Central Highlands of Madagascar .
Author: Rakotomanana F Randremanana RV Rabarijaona LP Duchemin JB Ratovonjato J Ariey F Rudant JP Jeanne I
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17261177
Abstract: BACKGROUND : The highlands of Madagascar present an unstable transmission pattern of malaria . The population has no immunity , and the central highlands have been the sites of epidemics with particularly high fatality . The most recent epidemic occurred in the 1980s , and caused about 30 , 000 deaths . The fight against malaria epidemics in the highlands has been based on indoor insecticide spraying to control malaria vectors . Any preventive programme involving generalised cover in the highlands will require very substantial logistical support . We used multicriteria evaluation , by the method of weighted linear combination , as basis for improved targeting of actions by determining priority zones for intervention . RESULTS : Image analysis and field validation showed the accuracy of mapping rice fields to be between 82 . 3% and 100% , and the Kappa coefficient was 0 . 86 to 0 . 99 . A significant positive correlation was observed between the abundance of the vector Anopheles funestus and temperature ; the correlation coefficient was 0 . 599 ( p < 0 . 001 ) . A significant negative correlation was observed between vector abundance and human population density : the correlation coefficient was -0 . 551 ( p < 0 . 003 ) . Factor weights were determined by pair-wise comparison and the consistency ratio was 0 . 04 . Risk maps of the six study zones were obtained according to a gradient of risk . Nine of thirteen results of alert confirmed by the Epidemiological Surveillance Post were in concordance with the risk map . CONCLUSION : This study is particularly valuable for the management of vector control programmes , and particularly the reduction of the vector population with a view to preventing disease . The risk map obtained can be used to identify priority zones for the management of resources , and also help avoid systematic and generalised spraying throughout the highlands : such spraying is particularly difficult and expensive . The accuracy of the mapping , both as concerns time and space , is dependent on the availability of data . Continuous monitoring of malaria transmission factors must be undertaken to detect any changes . A regular case notification allows risk map to be verified . These actions should therefore be implemented so that risk maps can be satisfactorily assessed .
Score: 3.00
Title: Effect of pre-germination time of brown rice on serum cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolaemic rats .
Author: Roohinejad S Omidizadeh A Mirhosseini H Saari N Mustafa S Yusof RM Hussin AS Hamid A Abd Manap MY
Journal: J Sci Food Agric Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20355038
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Brown rice is unpolished rice with immeasurable benefits for human health . Brown rice ( BR ) and pre-germinated brown rice ( PGBR ) are known to contain various functional compounds such as gamma-oryzanol , dietary fibre and gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA ) . In the present study , the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 , 48 h pre-germination ) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats . RESULTS : Hypercholesterolaemia and elevation of LDL-cholesterol were successfully ameliorated by the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 and 48 h pre-germination ) . As compared to the control sample , the pre-germination time had a significant ( P < 0 . 05 ) effect on blood cholesterol of Sprague-Dawley male rats . It was also found that the significantly ( P < 0 . 05 ) better effect on lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats was observed by prolonging the pre-germination time . As compared to non-germinated brown rice , the germinated brown rice showed the higher cardio-protective effect on hypercholesterolaemic Sprague-Dawley male rats . CONCLUSION : The present study suggests that the changes of blood cholesterol can be mainly modulated by using the PGBR rather than BR . The prolonging of pre-germination time led to an increase in the bioactive components , thereby providing a more efficient functional diet affecting the high blood cholesterol . This study suggests that PGBR can be used instead of BR and polished rice in the human diet .
Score: 3.00
Title: Evaluation of alternative rice planthopper control by the combined action of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae and low-rate buprofezin .
Author: Jin SF Feng MG Ying SH Mu WJ Chen JQ
Journal: Pest Manag Sci Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20949549
Abstract: BACKGROUND : High resistance of brown planthopper ( BPH ) Nilaparvata lugens Stal to common insecticides is a challenge for control of the pest An alternative control strategy based on the combined application of fungal and chemical agents has been evaluated . RESULTS : Three gradient spore concentrations of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae ( Metschnikoff ) Sorokin ( Ma456 ) were sprayed onto third-instar nymphs in five bioassays comprising the low buprofezin rates of 0 , 10 , 20 , 30 and 40 microg mL ( -1 ) respectively . Fungal LC ( 50 ) after 1 week at 25 degrees C and 14 : 10 h light : dark photoperiod decreased from 386 conidia mm ( -2 ) in the buprofezin-free bioassay to 40 at the highest chemical rate . Buprofezin ( LC ( 50 ) : 1647 , 486 and 233 microg mL ( -1 ) on days 2 to 4 ) had no significant effect on the fungal outgrowths of mycosis-killed cadavers at the low application rates . The fungal infection was found to cause 81% reduction in reproductive potential of BPH adults . In two 40 day field trials , significant planthopper ( mainly BPH ) control ( 54-60% ) was achieved by biweekly sprays of two fungal candidates ( Ma456 and Ma576 ) at 1 . 5 x 10 ( 13 ) conidia ha ( -1 ) and elevated to 80-83% by incorporating 30 . 8 g buprofezin ha ( -1 ) into the fungal sprays . CONCLUSION : The combined application of the fungal and chemical agents is a promising alternative strategy for BPH control .
Score: 3.00
Title: Malaria resurgence in India : a critical study .
Author: Sharma VP Mehrotra KN .
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3749959
Abstract: In 1953 , the Indian National Malaria Control Programme ( NMCP ) was started . Encouraged by the results , and the fact that insecticide resistance in vector species may evolve and become an obstacle , in 1958 a control programme was converted to the National Malaria Eradication Programme ( NMEP ) . By 1964 , malaria was eradicated from 88% of the area and it was in the advanced stage of spraying in the remaining parts . At that time , focal outbreaks that occurred in 1965 and increased in later years , could not be contained due to the shortages of DDT . As a result , large areas in consolidation and maintenance phases were reverted to the attack phase . Besides , the infrastructure in general health services was not adequate and mature enough to take up surveillance and vigilance . This produced a large number of secondary cases due to the re-introduction and relapse of malaria . Added to this was the problem of urban malaria , the control of which was the responsibility of local bodies . Malaria cases increased in towns , and started diffusing to the rural areas , due to inadequate staff and the shortages of malarial larvicidal oil ( MLO ) . Later , it turned out , that while it was technically feasible to eradicate malaria from 91% of the population , the strategy of indoor spraying of DDT to interrupt transmission did not succeed in 9 . 0% of the population , despite more than 12-14 years of regular spraying . During the years of resurgence , there was no research support to the programme , so that technical problems were not properly appreciated , understood and tackled . The reservoir of parasites that were present throughout the country started multiplying and spreading to newer areas due to the presence of vectors in high densities . Thus malaria resurged and re-established itself even in areas that were at one time freed from the disease . The analysis of the pattern of malaria resurgence revealed that malaria outbreaks preceded the true problem of insecticide resistance . It is noteworthy to mention that malaria resurgence occurred in towns where the control measures were non-insecticidal and in regions which were not under the influence of insecticide-resistant vectors . The study also revealed that resurgence occurred before the introduction of high-yielding varieties programme in the country , and had no relationship to either the cotton or rice growing or intensive agriculture .
Score: 3.00
Title: Anopheline mosquito ( Diptera : Culicidae ) ecology in relation to malaria transmission in the inner and outer terai of Nepal , 1987-1989 .
Author: Reisen WK Pradhan SP Shrestha JP Shrestha SL Vaidya RG Shrestha JD .
Journal: J Med . Entomol . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8360891
Abstract: The ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to malaria transmission was studied at sprayed and unsprayed villages and two unsprayed cattle sheds in the inner terai of Sindhuli District , Central Region , and at two unsprayed villages and one cattle shed in Kanchanpur , Far Western Region of Nepal , from August 1987 to August 1989 . Anopheles maculatus was the most abundant of 26 anopheline species collected in Sindhuli District ; however , An . fluviatilis was collected most frequently at human bait and was infected most frequently with malaria sporozoites . Residual house spray controlled the indoor resting abundance of the endophilic resting species and protected the population from malaria during midsummer , but had less effect on exophilic resting species and those abundant after and before spray application during the fall and spring , respectively . Malaria at the unsprayed village was detected predominantly in adults of both sexes , perhaps because young children retired early and frequently slept indoors under bed nets during the early evening period of elevated anopheline host-seeking activity . Malaria transmission was verified by the collection of sporozoite infected An . fluviatilis and An . maculatus during spring at cattle sheds in the forested Churia Hills and during the summer monsoon season within the unsprayed village . An . culicifacies was the most abundant of 12 anopheline species collected in Kanchanpur District . Few females of all species were collected at human bait positioned in or out of houses or had human positive blood meals ; none were infected with sporozoites . Malaria incidence was higher in the study village positioned along the forest-rice field ecotone than in the cleared rice growing area .
Score: 3.00
Title: The treatment of acute soft it issue trauma in Danish emergency rooms .
Author: Johannsen F Langberg H
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9200323
Abstract: Rest , ice , compression , elevation ( RICE ) is the most recommended treatment for acute traumatic soft it issue injuries . A questionnaire was given to all Danish emergency rooms ( n = 5 ) regarding their routines for acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions . Complete answers were received from 37 emergency rooms ( 73% ) , covering the treatment of 111 ankle sprains and 101 muscle contusions . Treatment with RICE was given in a minority of injuries , ice ( 21% ) , compression ( 32% ) and elevation ( 58% ) similarly between injury types . A complete RICE treatment was rarely applied ( 3% ) . Verbal information on RICE and rehabilitation was given in less than half of the cases . We conclude that the acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions in the Danish emergency rooms is not applied in accordance with consensus from international literature , and that the instruction in rehabilitation should be improved .
Score: 2.00
Title: The stability of ascorbic acid microencapsulated in granules of rice starch and in gum arabic .
Author: Trindade MA Grosso CR .
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10738692
Abstract: Ascorbic acid ( AA ) was microencapsulated by spray drying , using gum arabic and rice starch as covering materials . The AA was dissolved in solutions of the wall material prior to processing . For the rice starch , gelatin was used as a binding agent and recovery was effected with calcium pectate . The morphology of the materials was analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy , it thus being possible to verify the formation and evaluate the structural characteristics of the microcapsules . The capsules produced with gum arabic were smaller ( d50% = 8 . 0 microns ) and with a multimode particle size distribution , whilst uncovered starch capsules containing 1-2% gelatin presented a distribution mainly in the range of 5-40 microns . The capsules recovered with calcium pectate had average diameters 10-15 times greater than those obtained only by spray drying . The stability of the encapsulated materials was studied at room temperature ( RH 60-65% ) and at 45 degrees C ( RH 60-65% and 90 . 7% ) . AA microencapsulated in gum arabic was shown to be as stable as free crystalline AA under environmental conditions , whereas that encapsulated in rice starch was less stable . Increasing the amount of the binding agent gelatin increased the stability of the uncovered starch encapsulated AA . Recovery with calcium pectate notably increased the stability of the starch encapsulated AA , as compared to the uncovered samples .
Score: 2.00
Title: Laboratory evaluation of chemical-biological control of the rice weevil ( Sitophilus oryzae L ) in stored grains .
Author: Dal Bello G Padin S Lpez Lastra C Fabrizio M
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11124371
Abstract: The virulence of ten different fungal isolates of : Beauveria bassiana , Metarhizium anisopliae , Verticillium lecanii and Paecilomyces farinosus to the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae was tested . A fungal mix of the most efficient isolates , B bassiana ARSEF 5500+M anisopliae ARSEF 2974 , which caused the highest mortality , was assayed in combination with fenitrothion at a concentration lower ( 3 ppm ) than the normal 6 ppm . Fungal inoculation of insects was done by spraying conidial suspensions of each fungus on wheat . Insecticide formulations were added by spraying wheat . Treated and untreated insects were incubated on durum wheat . Insects were kept in a climatized chamber for 30 days . Observations were performed at 7 , 14 and 30 days to record insect mortality . Highly significant differences were demonstrated for B bassiana 5500 and 5501 and for M anisopliae 2974 . The level of mortality produced by treatments was : 6 ppm insecticide=97 . 50% , B bassiana ARSEF 5500+M anisopliae ARSEF 2974+3 ppm insecticide=74 . 17% , B bassiana ARSEF 5500+Manisopliae ARSEF 2974=50% and 3 ppm insecticide=37 . 50% . There was a statistically significant difference ( p<0 . 05 ) among treatments .
Score: 2.00
Title: A randomized controlled trial of a passive accessory joint mobilization on acute ankle inversion sprains .
Author: Green T Refshauge K Crosbie J Adams R
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11276181
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : Passive joint mobilization is commonly used by physical therapists as an intervention for acute ankle inversion sprains . A randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors was conducted to investigate the effect of a specific joint mobilization , the anteroposterior glide on the talus , on increasing pain-free dorsiflexion and 3 gait variables : stride speed ( gait speed ) , step length , and single support time . SUBJECTS : Forty-one subjects with acute ankle inversion sprains ( <72 hours ) and no other injury to the lower limb entered the trial METHODS : Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups . The control group received a protocol of rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) . The experimental group received the anteroposterior mobilization , using a force that avoided incurring any increase in pain , in addition to the RICE protocol . Subjects in both groups were treated every second day for a maximum of 2 weeks or until the discharge criteria were met , and all subjects were given a home program of continued RICE application . Outcomes were measured before and after each treatment . RESULTS : The results showed that the experimental group required fewer treatment sessions than the control group to achieve full pain-free dorsiflexion . The experimental group had greater improvement in range of movement before and after each of the first 3 treatment sessions . The experimental group also had greater increases in stride speed during the first and third treatment sessions . DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Addition of a talocrural mobilization to the RICE protocol in the management of ankle inversion injuries necessitated fewer treatments to achieve pain-free dorsiflexion and to improve stride speed more than RICE alone . Improvement in step length symmetry and single support time was similar in both groups .
Score: 2.00
Title: Evaluation of immune parameters in propanil-exposed farm families .
Author: McClure GY Helm RM Stine K Burks AW Jones SM Gandy J
Journal: Arch . Environ . Contam . Toxicol . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11385596
Abstract: The rice herbicide propanil induces alterations in the mouse immune system , causing significant decreases in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses . This postemergent herbicide is used extensively in rice production in the Mississippi River delta region of the southern United States . The aerial application and airborne drift of propanil may pose health concerns to exposed farm families living adjacent to sprayed rice fields . To determine if aerial spraying of propanil increases risks of altered immune responses in families bordering rice fields , immune parameters were assessed during a 2-year study . Families living within 100 yards of rice fields were compared in a case control study to farm families whose homes exceeded 1 mile from any rice field . Blood was analyzed in adults ( n = 56 ) and children ( n = 52 ) at three time intervals : ( 1 ) preseason , prior to propanil application ; ( 2 ) 5-7 days after aerial application of propanil to rice fields ; and ( 3 ) postseason , following harvest Exposed adults and children were compared with controls for a number of immune parameters . Total cell count and the percentage of various lymphocytes ( T cells , B cells , CD4+ helper cells , and CD8+ suppressor cells ) and natural killer ( NK ) cells , mitogen-induced cell proliferation , cytokine ( IL-2+ ) production , and NK cell function were assessed . A comparison of immune function between exposed and nonexposed farm families showed no significant differences , possibly related to propanil exposure . However , some immune test parameters changed as a function of season rather than propanil exposure . The data indicate that individuals living next to rice fields are not at increased risk of altered immune function due to propanil exposure .
Score: 2.00
Title: Di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) phthalate contamination of retail packed lunches caused by PVC gloves used in the preparation of foods .
Author: Tsumura Y Ishimitsu S Kaihara A Yoshii K Nakamura Y Tonogai Y
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11407756
Abstract: Plasticizer contamination of foods sold in retail packed lunches and set lunches in restaurants was determined by GC/MS . The phthalate esters were as follows : diethyl , dipropyl , dibutyl , dipentyl , dihexyl , butylbenzyl , dicyclohexyl , di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) , dioctyl , diisooctyl ( mixture of isomers ) and diisononyl ( mixture ) . Di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) adipate was also determined . Sixteen packed lunches and ten set lunches were analysed , and in all samples the concentration of di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) phthalate ( DEHP ) was the highest , at 0 . 80-11 . 8 mg/kg in packed lunches and 0 . 012-0 . 30 mg/kg in set lunches . The DEHP content of five packed lunches exceeded 1 . 85 mg , which is the EU tolerable daily intake ( TDI ) for a person of 50 kg body weight . Foodstuffs that were components of the packed lunches were taken from the factory at each step of preparation and phthalates were determined . For example , chicken contained 0 . 08 mg/kg DEHP when uncooked , 13 . 1 mg/kg after frying and 16 . 9 mg/kg after packing . Disposable PVC gloves used in the preparation of foods were apparently the source of high DEHP concentrations . The gloves used during cooking or packaging were sprayed with 68% ( w/w ) ethanol to sterilize them . PVC gloves from the factory contained 22 or 41% by weight of DEHP . To confirm the link with the contamination problem , samples of boiled rice , croquette and boiled dry radish were handled in the laboratory with PVC gloves containing 30% ( w/w ) DEHP . DEHP migration levels of 0 . 05 mg/kg in rice or 0 . 33 mg/kg in croquette , and 11 . 1 mg/kg in radish were found . The alcohol sprayed onto the gloves increased the migration of DEHP to 2 . 03 mg/kg in rice , 2 . 45 mg , kg in croquette , and 18 . 4 mg/kg in radish .
Score: 2.00
Title: Comparison of Canadian Fusarium graminearum isolates for aggressiveness , vegetative compatibility , and production of ergosterol and mycotoxins .
Author: Gilbert J Abramson D McCallum B Clear R
Journal: Mycopathologia Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12014482
Abstract: Fusarium graminearum is the predominant pathogen causing fusarium head blight of cereals in North America . Fifteen Canadian isolates of Fusarium graminearum were highly diverse in terms of vegetative compatibility grouping ( VCG ) and varied for production of ergosterol and mycotoxin production in rice culture . Aggressiveness was assessed by scoring the disease severity incited in wheat spikes by each isolate . Two inoculation methods , single-floret injection and spray of entire spikes , were used to screen 4 wheat varieties for reaction to the F graminearum isolates . All isolates were of broadly similar aggressiveness , with disease severity ranging from 17 . 2 to 39 . 1 for single floret injection , and 39 . 1 to 69 . 0 for spray inoculation . Disease severity , ergosterol production , and mycotoxin development were not correlated . Using nitrate non-utilizing mutants the 15 isolates were grouped into 14 VCGs . Deoxynivalenol ( DON ) was produced by all isolates in rice culture , at levels between 0 . 2 and 249 ppm . 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol was produced by 14 of the 15 isolates at levels between 0 . 4 and 44 . 6 ppm . These results reveal a high level of diversity for several characteristics among F graminearum isolates from Canada .
Score: 2.00
Title: [ Studies on extensive application of bromoacetamide in various types of schistosomiasis endemic area ]
Author: Zhu D Yin J Bao Z Cai L
Journal: Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12078209
Abstract: AIM : To provide scientific basis for the popularization and application of molluscide bromoacetamide . METHODS : Large scale application of bromoacetamide in twenty eight counties of four provinces was investigated and its molluscicidal effect in marshland and influence on marshland grass ( Cyperus ) and fishes were observed . RESULTS : High molluscicidal effect of bromoacetamide was found against both snails and snail eggs in various environments . According to the results observed in different fields , the applicable dosage of bromoacetamide is 1 . 5-2 g/m2 for spraying method , 1 . 5-2 g/m3 for immersing method and 1 . 5-2 g/m for immersing in combination with shovelling the turf along the bank . When it was applied in fish-raising ponds or rivers at an applicable dosage , no toxic effect on fishes was found . The spraying dosage of bromoacetamide did not affect the rice seedling but it did some damage to the leaf-tips of marshland grass , however , the grass did turn green and grow . CONCLUSION : Bromoacetamide has proved to be a safe and effective mulluscicde against Oncomelania under various field conditions .
Score: 2.00
Title: Abscisic acid and cytokinins in the root exudates and leaves and their relationship to senescence and remobilization of carbon reserves in rice subjected to water stress during grain filling .
Author: Yang J Zhang J Wang Z Zhu Q Liu L
Journal: Planta Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12172848
Abstract: The possible regulation of senescence-initiated remobilization of carbon reserves in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) by abscisic acid ( ABA ) and cytokinins was studied using two rice cultivars with high lodging resistance and slow remobilization . The plants were grown in pots and either well-watered ( WW , soil water potential = 0 MPa ) or water-stressed ( WS , soil water potential = -0 . 05 MPa ) from 9 days after anthesis until they reached maturity . Leaf water potentials of both cultivars markedly decreased at midday as a result of water stress but completely recovered by early morning . Chlorophyll ( Chl ) and photosynthetic rate ( Pr ) of the flag leaves declined faster in WS plants than in WW plants , indicating that the water deficit enhanced senescence . Water stress accelerated starch remobilization in the stems , promoted the re-allocation of pre-fixed ( 14 ) C from the stems to grains , shortened the grain-filling period and increased the grain-filling rate . Sucrose phosphate synthase ( SPS , EC 2 . 4 . 1 . 14 ) activity was enhanced by water stress and positively correlated with sucrose accumulation in both the stem and leaves . Water stress substantially increased ABA but reduced zeatin ( Z ) + zeatin riboside ( ZR ) concentrations in the root exudates and leaves . ABA significantly and negatively , while Z+ZR positively , correlated with Pr and Chl of the flag leaves . ABA , not Z+ZR , was positively and significantly correlated with SPS activity and remobilization of pre-stored carbon . Spraying ABA reduced Chl in the flag leaves , and enhanced SPS activity and remobilization of carbon reserves . Spraying kinetin had the opposite effect . The results suggest that both ABA and cytokinins are involved in controlling plant senescence , and an enhanced carbon remobilization is attributed to an elevated ABA level in rice plants subjected to water stress .
Score: 2.00
Title: Release characteristics of flavor from spray-dried powder in boiling water and during rice cooking .
Author: Shiga H Yoshii H Taguchi R Nishiyama T Furuta T Linko P
Journal: Biosci . Biotechnol . Biochem . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12729014
Abstract: The release characteristics of flavor in boiling water and the flavor retention in the rice after cooking were investigated by using spray dried powder in encapsulated in or emulsified with d-limonene or ethyl n-hexanoate in cyclodextrin and maltodextrin , or in gum arabic and maltodextrin . The behavior of flavor release into the boiling water was well simulated by Avramis equation . The retention of d-limonene and ethyl n-hexanoate in cooked rice was correlated in each case with the flavor amount of spray-dried powder added .
Score: 2.00
Title: Preparation of spray-dried wettable powder formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis-based biopesticides .
Author: Teera-Arunsiri A Suphantharika M Ketunuti U
Journal: J Econ . Entomol . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14994793
Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used biopesticide among many methods available to control insects . To make a saleable product , B thuringiensis must be substantially concentrated by removal of water and formulated to improve longevity , efficacy , and ease of transport of the product . B thuringiensis subsp . aizawai culture broth as an active ingredient was mixed with various adjuvants and then spray dried . The optimum conditions for spray drying were found to be an outlet temperature of 60-85 degrees C and an inlet temperature of 120-180 degrees C Various adjuvants had different effects on physical and biological properties of the dried product . Gelatinized tapioca starch and milk powder improved suspensibility but adversely affected wettability of the dried formulated product . Vegetable oil and Tween 20 enhanced wettability but resulted in poor suspensibility . Silica fume was used to enhance flowability because it reduced clumping and caking of the powder resulting from the addition of vegetable oil . Formulation containing 10% wt : wt B thuringiensis , 10% wt : wt gelatinized tapioca starch , 10% wt : wt sucrose , 38% wt : wt tapioca starch , 20% wt : wt milk powder , 10% wt : wt silica fume , 2% wt : wt polyvinyl alcohol , 5% vol : vol Tween 20 , 1% vol : vol refined rice bran oil , and 1% vol : vol antifoam solution was found to be optimum in terms of the physical and biological properties of the dried product . This formulation had 55% suspensibility , 24 s for wetting time , and 5 . 69 x 10 ( 4 ) CFU/ml of LC50 value against Spodoptera exigua larvae .
Score: 2.00
Title: [ Anopheles and malaria transmission in Ambohimena , a village in the Occidental fringe of Madagascar Highlands ]
Author: Rajaonarivelo V Le Goff G Cot M Brutus L
Journal: Parasite Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15071831
Abstract: The anopheline vectors and malaria transmission were investigated in the Middle West of Madagascar , in the village of Ambohimena ( at the altitude of 940 meters ) during two years ( August 1996 to July 1998 ) . This village is located outside the vector control area , where yearly DDT house spraying campaigns have been conducted between 1993 and 1998 . Collection of mosquitoes was mainly based on all night man billing collections ( 650 man-nights ) , pyrethrum spray catches ( 224 bedrooms ) and direct collections in outdoor resting places ( 140 toilets , 61 pigsties , 33 holes , 19 sheds , 79 sisal hedges , 70 cart shelters ) . Blood fed anophelines allowed analysis of the origin of blood with an ELISA method . Presence of circum-sporozoite protein was assessed with another ELISA method . The total number of collected anophelines was 14 , 280 . Two malaria vectors were identified : Anopheles funestus Giles , 1900 and An . arabiensis Patton , 1902 . An . funestus was the most abundant mosquito , especially during the hot rainy season . Two peaks of abundance were observed ( in December and April ) . Endophagic rate ( for mosquitoes aggressive for man ) of 35 . 3% , an endophilic rate ( for resting mosquitoes ) of 78 . 0% and an anthropophilic rate ( for indoor resting mosquitoes ) of 64 . 0% were calculated . The average parity rate was relatively low ( 61 . 2% ) . The Plasmodium falciparum immunological sporozoite rate was 0 . 20% . An . funestus presented a higher vectorial capacity during the first round of rice cultivation ( January ) than during the second round ( April-May ) . An . arabiensis was mostly abundant in December and January at the beginning of the rainy season . This species was exophagic ( endophagic rate = 27 . 5% ) and zoophilic ( anthropophilic rate = 7 . 8% ) . The sporozoitic index was determined as zero ( number of examined mosquitoes = 871 ) . In this village , An . arabiensis presented only marginal importance for malaria transmission . Malaria transmission occurred from December to April . Annual entomological inoculation rate , only due to An . funestus , was 8 . 96 during the first year , and 3 . 17 during the second year . In this area where transmission is moderately stable , we suggest an extension of vector imagocidal control activities up to the western fringes of the Highlands .
Score: 2.00
Title: Residues of phosphamidon in rice fields .
Author: Jebakumar SR Kannan N Subramanian BR Jayaraman J
Journal: Environ . Pollut . Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15092362
Abstract: Thirty-day-old seedlings of rice plants ( IR-20 variety ) from the nursery were transplanted into experimental plots and after 52 days were sprayed with phosphamidon ( Dimecron 85% EC ) at two dose-rates ( 0 . 38 kg a . i . ha ( -1 ) and 0 . 76 kg a . i . ha ( -1 ) ) . Residues of phosphamidon in the plant , soil and water were analysed by GLC , at various time intervals , and were found to decrease steadily up to 15 days . A second application of the pesticide was made on day 113 and grains harvested on day 138 . The residue level in the plants was 0 . 12 microg g ( -1 ) and in the grains 0 . 04 microg g ( -1 ) with the high dose . This is slightly below the EPA prescribed tolerance level of 0 . 05 microg g ( -1 ) . The residues in both soil and water were very low , 24 h after spraying .
Score: 2.00
Title: Spherical composite particles of rice starch and microcrystalline cellulose : a new coprocessed excipient for direct compression .
Author: Limwong V Sutanthavibul N Kulvanich P
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15760088
Abstract: Composite particles of rice starch ( RS ) and microcrystalline cellulose were fabricated by spray-drying technique to be used as a directly compressible excipient . Two size fractions of microcrystalline cellulose , sieved ( MCS ) and jet milled ( MCJ ) , having volumetric mean diameter ( D50 ) of 13 . 61 and 40 . 51 microm , respectively , were used to form composite particles with RS in various mixing ratios . The composite particles produced were evaluated for their powder and compression properties . Although an increase in the microcrystalline cellulose proportion imparted greater compressibility of the composite particles , the shape of the particles was typically less spherical with rougher surface resulting in a decrease in the degree of flowability . Compressibility of composite particles made from different size fractions of microcrystalline cellulose was not different ; however , using MCJ , which had a particle size range close to the size of RS ( D50 = 13 . 57 microm ) , provided more spherical particles than using MCS . Spherical composite particles between RS and MCJ in the ratio of 7 : 3 ( RS-MCJ-73 ) were then evaluated for powder properties and compressibility in comparison with some marketed directly compressible diluents . Compressibility of RS-MCJ-73 was greater than commercial spray-dried RS ( Eratab ) , coprocessed lactose and microcrystalline cellulose ( Cellactose ) , and agglomerated lactose ( Tablettose ) , but , as expected , lower than microcrystalline cellulose ( Vivapur 101 ) . Flowability index of RS-MCJ-73 appeared to be slightly lower than Eratab but higher than Vivapur 101 , Cellactose , and Tablettose . Tablets of RS-MCJ-73 exhibited low friability and good self-disintegrating property . It was concluded that these developed composite particles could be introduced as a new coprocessed direct compression excipient .
Score: 2.00
Title: Ankle sprain discharge instructions from the emergency department .
Author: Chorley JN .
Journal: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16096593
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : ( 1 ) To describe the incidence of inclusion of early mobilization components in emergency department ( ED ) discharge instructions ; ( 2 ) to describe the prescribed follow-up appointments ; and ( 3 ) to analyze the differences between the treatment of pediatric and adult patients . METHODS : A 1-year retrospective chart review of ED records of a large urban hospital was performed . Medical records of 374 ( 95% ) of the 397 adult and pediatric patients with ICD-9 code for ankle sprains were reviewed ( 213 males and 171 females , mean age 28 . 4 +/- 14 . 5 ; 291 adults , 93 pediatric ) . RESULTS : Sixteen percent of records contained discharge instructions that included rest , ice , compression , elevation , and medications ( RICEM ) . Twenty percent included RICE . Pediatricians ( 33 . 7% ) were more likely than adult physicians ( 10 . 3% ) to have given RICEM ( P < 0 . 0001 ) and RICE ( P = 0 . 05 , pedi = 45 . 8% , adult = 13 . 1% ) . Follow-up referrals were recommended as needed 50% of the time . Follow-up referrals were made to community clinics ( 59% ) , orthopedic clinic ( 23% ) , the ED ( 14% ) , and others ( 4% ) . Pediatricians were more likely to recommend routine scheduled follow up ( pedi = 62% , adult = 47% , P = 0 . 018 ) , suggest follow-up in a community clinic or doctors office ( pedi = 68 . 6% , adult = 51 . 2% , P < 0 . 0001 ) , and to recommend earlier follow up ( pedi = 1 . 6 weeks +/- 1 . 1 , adult = 2 . 0 weeks +/- 1 . 1 , P = 0 . 002 ) than adult physicians . CONCLUSIONS : Programs that train physicians who work in the ED need to include education on the proper treatment , rehabilitation , and follow up of patients with acute ankle sprains . Providing easy-to-complete discharge instruction templates can help providers give patients discharge instructions that may help patients minimize the risk of long-term sequelae .

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