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Score: 12.00
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 62 ( 11 ) P : 1109-15 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16964592 Accession (PMID): 16964592
Abstract: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
Score: 9.00
Journal: Citation: V : 81 ( 6 ) P : 463-73 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2100760 Accession (PMID): 2100760
Abstract: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
Score: 7.00
Journal: Trop . Med . Int . Health Citation: V : 5 ( 7 ) P : 472-81 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10964269 Accession (PMID): 10964269
Abstract: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
Score: 7.00
Journal: Citation: V : 2 ( 3 ) P : 181-206 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15612416 Accession (PMID): 15612416
Abstract: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
Score: 7.00
Journal: Citation: V : 16 ( 8 ) P : 1493-6 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16262065 Accession (PMID): 16262065
Abstract: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
Score: 7.00
Journal: Phys Sportsmed Citation: V : 37 P : 64-70 Year: 2009 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20048489 Accession (PMID): 20048489
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid ( HA ) injections in acute lateral ankle sprain . A randomized , controlled , prospective trial in a primary sports medicine and emergency practice involved 158 competitive athletes who suffered an acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprain , and who were randomly assigned within 48 hours of injury . Patients were randomly assigned at baseline to periarticular injection with HA + standard of care ( rest , ice , elevation , and compression [ RICE ] ) or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and day 4 after injury . Follow-up was at 30 , 90 , and 712 days after treatment . Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , 90 , and 712 included visual analogue scale ( VAS ) ( 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( 5-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( 5-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , recurrent ankle sprain , total number of days missing from primary sport activity , and adverse events ( AEs ) . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours with no difference between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at all follow-up assessments for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 001 ) . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/- 8 ) versus 17 ( +/- 8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . At 24 months , in the PL versus HA group , there were 2 versus 0 lower limb fractures , 16 versus 7 second ankle sprains ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 3 versus 1 third ankle sprains , and a significantly greater number of days missing primary sport activity ( 41 vs 21 ; P < 0 . 002 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was also observed for HA versus PL at all follow-up assessments . No serious AEs were recorded throughout follow-up . Periarticular HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short and long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain , more rapid return to sport , fewer recurrent ankle sprains , fewer missed days from sport , and with few associated AEs to 24 months .
Score: 7.00
Journal: Citation: V : 5 ( 3 ) P : 661-75 Year: 1988 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3293757 Accession (PMID): 3293757
Abstract: As has been previously discussed , the incidence and resultant associated disabilities of ankle sprains have been well documented in the literature . The staggering statistics on long-term disability show that there is no such thing as a simple ankle sprain . The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided . It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program . One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment . One possible reason is the lack of agreement in diagnostic techniques as well as the end diagnosis of a particular grade of ankle sprain . If a sprain is managed correctly , resultant disability will be kept to a minimum . A proper rehabilitation program may be the most important factor in preventing chronic instability . The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management . RICE primarily addresses the ankle edema . Thus , the patients ankle is only partially rehabilitated . A rational approach to the management of ankle sprains is given . Upon reviewing a complete protocol for ankle sprain rehabilitation , the acronym TEMPER can be used judiciously to remember the key steps in the treatment plan . Through the use of this acronym , one can institute a complete rehabilitation program .
Score: 6.00
Journal: ScientificWorldJournal Citation: V : 2012 P : 123071 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22619576 Accession (PMID): 22619576
Abstract: The efficacy of bispyribac-sodium , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron , and penoxsulam + cyhalofop was evaluated against barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , junglerice , and southern crabgrass when applied at four- , six- , and eight-leaf stages . When applied at the four-leaf stage , bispyribac-sodium provided greater than 97% control of barnyardgrass , junglerice , and southern crabgrass ; however , it was slightly weak ( 74% control ) on Chinese sprangletop . Irrespective of the weed species , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron provided greater than 97% control when applied at the four-leaf stage . At the same leaf stage , penoxsulam + cyhalofop controlled 89 to 100% barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , and junglerice and only 54% of southern crabgrass . The efficacy of herbicides was reduced when applied at the eight-leaf stage of the weeds ; however , at this stage , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron was effective in controlling 99% of Chinese sprangletop . The results demonstrate the importance of early herbicide application in controlling the weeds . The study identified that at the six-leaf stage of the weeds , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron can effectively control Chinese sprangletop and southern crabgrass , penoxsulam + cyhalofop can effectively control Chinese sprangletop , and bispyribac-sodium can effectively control junglerice .
Score: 6.00
Journal: Citation: V : 90 ( 3 ) P : 162-8 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9410249 Accession (PMID): 9410249
Abstract: A strong malaria epidemic with a high mortality rate occurred on the Madagascar Highlands in 1986-88 . Vector control and free access to antimalaria drugs controlled the disease . The authors have searched for the causes of the epidemic to propose a strategy avoiding such events . The Highlands on Madagascar were known as malaria free . In 1878 a very severe epidemic flooded all the country . Development of irrigated ricefields which house both An . arabiensis and An . funestus had created a new anthropic environment . Moreover manpower imported from malarious coastal areas for rice cultivation and also for building large temples , could have brought P falciparum . After several outbreaks the disease became endemic up to 1949 . In 1949 a malaria eradication programme based on DDT spraying and drug chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy was launched . By 1960 malaria was eliminated and DDT spraying cancelled . Only 3 foci were kept under surveillance with irregular spraying until 1975 . The prophylaxis and treatment centres ( "centres de nivaquinisation" ) were kept open up to 1979 . The catholic dispensary of Analaroa , 100 km NE of Tananarive , opened in 1971 and worked without interruption up to now . The malaria diagnosis has always been controlled by microscopy . Its registers are probably the more reliable source of information on malaria in the area . They show that malaria was already present on the Highlands in 1971 but at a low prevalence ; in 1980 when the "centres de nivaquinisation" were closed the number of cases increased by three times the progressive increase of the number of cases became exponential from 1986 to 1988 which was the peak of the epidemic ; malaria remained at a high level until the end of 1993 ; yearly DDT spraying since 1993 have decreased the number of malaria cases among the dispensary attendants by 90% . The epidemic peak of 1988 was well documented by the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar around Tananarive . Before the epidemic started it was observed a come back of An . funestus which had been previously eliminated of most of the villages by DDT spraying . More than an epidemic the malaria increase in 1988 was a reconquest by malaria of the land from which it had been eliminated in the years 1950 . This episode became dramatic because the lack of immunity of the population and the shortage of medicaments . The global warming which was advocated to explain the epidemic has no responsibility because the temperature on the Madagascar Highlands has not changed during the last 30 years . Also the cyclones do not seem to have played any role . It is very likely that the gradual decline of control measures , first DDT spraying , later drug distributions , had the main responsibility in the Highlands drama . Everywhere An . funestus reached a high level during the time where the parasite reservoir was rebuilding . They synergised each other . These findings should be taken in account in drawing the strategy planning for the next years .
Score: 5.00
Journal: Transgenic Res . Citation: V : 9 ( 6 ) P : 471-6 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11206976 Accession (PMID): 11206976
Abstract: In this study , floral spray and floral dip were used to replace the vacuum step in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) gene into Arabidopsis . The transgene was constructed by using a CaMV 35S promoter to drive a rice cytosolic CuZnSOD coding sequence in Arabidopsis . The transgene construct was developed in binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium . When Arabidopsis plants started to initiate flower buds , the primary inflorescence shoots were removed and then transformed by floral spray or floral dip . More than 300 transgenic plants were generated to assess the feasibility of floral spray used in the in planta transformation . The result indicates that the floral spray method of Agrobacterium can achieve rates of in planta transformation comparable to the vacuum-infiltration and floral dip methods . The floral spray method opens up the possibility of in planta transformation of plant species which are too large for dipping or vacuum infiltration .
Score: 5.00
Journal: Vet Parasitol Citation: V : 166 P : 136-43 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19713044 Accession (PMID): 19713044
Abstract: The efficacy of M anisopliae strain E9 as a biological insecticide for the adult and larval stages of H irritans was assessed under field conditions . To assess larvicidal activity , nine heifers were randomly divided into three groups , which were maintained separated from each other . The first group ingested fungal spores encapsulated in alginate pellets . The second group ingested in natura spores that were grown on sterilized rice . In both groups , each animal received three meals a day , with each meal containing 2 x 10 ( 10 ) conidia . The third group received no treatment and was used as a control . Fecal samples from manure and whole dung pats were collected from each of the three separate pastures on the day that the animals were allocated and on days 1 , 3 , 6 , 9 and 12 afterwards . The fecal samples were tested for the presence of fungal colony forming units ( CFU ) , and the emergence of horn flies was observed in the dung pats . Significantly less ( P<0 . 01 ) adult horn flies were found in dung pats of the group treated with encapsulated fungi ( 11 . 7 ) than in those from the heifers treated with conidia in natura ( 27 . 9 ) or from the control group ( 29 . 5 ) . The fecal samples of the treated animals presented significantly higher numbers of M anisopliae CFUs then those from the untreated controls . We found that on day 9 fecal samples from animals given microencapsulated conidia had significantly higher CFUs than those from animals treated with conidia in natura . To assess adulticide activity , four heifers were sprayed with a suspension of 3 x 10 ( 10 ) conidial ( -1 ) of M anisopliae , and four control animals were sprayed with the same solution without conidial content . Four sprayings were done at five-day intervals , and all animals were photographed daily to observe the quantity of flies present . After the second spraying , we observed an average of 22 . 9 flies per animal ; untreated heifers had an average of 43 flies per animal ; thus , the treatment significantly ( P<0 . 05 ) decreases fly infestation . The results obtained from both tests show that M anisopliae strain E9 has a pathogenic effect on H irritans larvae in bovine manure when administered orally and on adult fly infestations when applied as a spray on the hosts .
Score: 4.00
Journal: Citation: V : 63 ( 1 ) P : 93-104 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11195774 Accession (PMID): 11195774
Abstract: Without adequate care , acute ankle trauma can result in chronic joint instability . Use of a standardized protocol enhances the management of ankle sprains . In patients with grades I or II sprains , emphasis should be placed on accurate diagnosis , early use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression and elevation ) , maintenance of range of motion and use of an ankle support . Sprains with complete ligament [ corrected ] tears ( grade III ) may require surgical intervention . Although early motion and mobility are recommended , ligamentous strength does not return until months after an ankle sprain .
Score: 4.00
Journal: Toxicol . Lett . Citation: V : 134 ( 1-3 ) P : 119-24 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12191869 Accession (PMID): 12191869
Abstract: A total of 132 farmers were selected from two areas ( J and S ) for this study . In area J , the subgroups Ja ( 40 subjects ) and Jb ( 36 subjects ) sprayed on rice crops either the organophosphate ( OP ) insecticide methamidophos or the mixture methamidophos-deltamethrin ( a pyrethroid , Pyr ) . In area S , the subgroups Sa ( 27 subjects ) and Sb ( 29 subjects ) sprayed on cottons either the OP methyl-parathion or the mixture methyl-parathion-deltamethrin . Groups Jc ( 22 subjects ) and Sc ( 20 subjects ) were non-exposed controls . Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) was measured by the Ellmans method before spraying , after 2-h exposure and 1 h later . Inhibition of AChE occurred after 2-h exposure to both single OP ( Ja and Sa ) and OP-containing mixtures ( Jb and Sb ) as compared with both pre-exposure and control values ( Jc and Sc ) . A similar recovery was found in subgroups Ja , Jb , Sa and Sb 1 h after spraying , but all remained lower than the pre-exposure level . There was no difference in AChE inhibition and recovery between the single OP subgroups and the OP mixture subgroups . The inhibitory effect on AChE shown in subjects with combined OP-Pyr exposure was induced by the OP component of the insecticide mixture and to a similar extent as that induced by the single OP formulations . In addition to the fact that the OP is more potent than Pyrs , the above results might explain why the clinical manifestations of OP mixture poisonings are similar to those of single OP poisoning .
Score: 4.00
Journal: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi Citation: V : 44 ( 1 ) P : 7-12 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12749190 Accession (PMID): 12749190
Abstract: We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil , fenobucarb , silafluofen and buprofezin in rice . The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city , with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols : spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides , repeated spraying ( 3 times ) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides . The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process . Silafluofen , which has a higher log Pow value , remained in the hull of the rice . Fenobucarb , which has a lower log Pow value , penetrated inside the rice . The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking . During the cooking procedure , the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice .
Score: 4.00
Journal: Citation: V : 15 ( 1 ) P : 111-5 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15139200 Accession (PMID): 15139200
Abstract: Studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus , and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75 . 16%-94 . 27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice , respectively , and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon . The efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50 . 54%-72 . 67% on rice leaf blast and 76 . 66%-87 . 42% on rice head blast , and equal to the chemical fungicide tricyclazole after sprayed once at the initial stage of rice leaf blast occurrence and the initial and end stages of earing , respectively . The efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis on Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was better than that of chemical insecticide bisultap , and the efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was equal to that of chemical insecticide bisultap when the three biorational insecticides were sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of pests . The efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was above 70% , and lower than that of chemical insecticide imidacloprid 3-30 d after sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of Nilaparvata lugens . The occurrence of weeds could be controlled , and the rice yield could be raised when the suitable non-thorough decomposed organism was applied or weeding was carried after the field had been ploughed twice before rice transplant . The rice yield could be raised by using biorational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice . The residue of pesticides in rice was lower in the bio-control area than in the chemical control area , according with the demands of health target of green food .
Score: 4.00
Journal: Citation: V : 26 ( 2-3 ) P : 253-8 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15499781 Accession (PMID): 15499781
Abstract: This paper reports a study of the distribution of organo-chlorine pesticides ( DDT and HCH ) between rice plants and the soil system by spraying before the heading stage at four different dosage levels--control , normal dosage ( 15 kg ha ( -1 ) of 6% HCH and 7 . 5 kg ha ( -1 ) of 25% DDT ) , double dosage and four times dosage . Soil and plant samples were taken respectively at the 1st h , 3rd , 10th , 20th , and 40th day after spraying and at the harvest time . The results indicate that less than 5% of HCH and 15% of DDT were absorbed by the surface of rice leaves for normal dosage . Most of both pesticides moved into the soil in solution after spraying . Compared with DDT , HCH was degraded and run off more easily . HCH residues in the surface soil layer ( 1-3 cm ) were already below 6 . 4 microg kg ( -1 ) at the mature stage , lower than Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Agricultural Soils : HCH < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . However DDT residues in the surface soil layer remained 172 microg kg ( -1 ) , higher than the national standard : DDT < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . According to the test f OCP residues in rice seeds , it can be concluded that the OCP sprayed onto the surface of rice leaves can move into rice plants and accumulate in the seeds at the mature stage . HCH residues in rice seeds of the double and four times dosage treatments , and DDT residues in all treatments , exceeded the Chinese National Food Standard ( HCH < 0 . 10 mg kg ( -1 ) , DDT < 0 . 20 mg kg ( -1 ) ) .
Score: 4.00
Journal: Citation: V : 15 ( 12 ) P : 2309-14 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15825447 Accession (PMID): 15825447
Abstract: This paper assessed the effects of cry1Abl/cry1Ac-carrying transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice ( Bt rice ) and chemical insecticides on the arthropod communities under paddy-field conditions in terms of arthropod guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution of each guild , individuals of each guild , some common indices of arthropod communities , and community dissimilarity . In most cases , no significant differences were found between the Bt and control rice plots without any chemical insecticide spray in such arthropod community specific parameters as guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution , temporal dynamics of the individuals of each guild or all arthropod , as well as some common community indices ( including species richness , Shannon-Wiener diversity index , evenness index and dominant index ) and their temporal dynamics . The similarity of arthropod community between the Bt and control rice plots were apparently higher . It was clear that Bt rice generally showed no marked negative effect on the arthropod community in paddy field . In contrast , some arthropod community specific parameters such as guild dominances in the control plot with chemical insecticide spray were in some cases markedly and even significantly different from those in the control plot without any chemical insecticide spray . The similarity of arthropod community between the control plots with and without chemical insecticide spray was relatively lower . It could be concluded that the effect of Bt rice on the arthropod community was apparently lower than that of chemical insecticides .
Score: 4.00
Journal: Citation: V : 98 ( 5 ) P : 400-5 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16425724 Accession (PMID): 16425724
Abstract: The use of insecticides in households and in agriculture has been incriminated in the emergence of insecticide resistance in insect vectors . For farming staff , the emergence of vector resistance is due to indoors spray of insecticides using aerosols and other low quality products in rural and urban settings against mosquitoes . On the other hand , public health specialists believe that the phenomenon of resistance could be due to massive use of insecticides in agriculture for field pests control . In Turkey , the implication of agricultural use of pesticides in the selection of vector resistance is clearly established . This study was framed to identify potential practices favouring the emergence of insecticide resistance in the Republic of Benin . Interviews and focus group discussions were organized with cotton , rice and vegetables farmers . The final aim of these surveys was to point out practices likely to favour the emergence of resistance . The research is conducted in 3 cotton fields , 2 rice fields and 2 vegetable plantations . After filling and signing concerned forms , farmers are subjected to quantitative and qualitative questionnaires to generate data on : insecticides being used , the various doses applied for pests eradication , the frequency of treatments , the cost of treatments ( cost/hectare/year ) the origin of insecticides , the place of purchase , safety precautions and related health hazards . The results of this study have shown that the use of insecticides in agriculture is a clear fact . During treatments , insecticide residues get in contact with mosquito breeding sites where they diffuse into water and exercise a selection pressure on larvae . This partially explains the high levels of resistance recorded in with strains of Anopheles gambiae collected in agricultural settings under insecticides pressure . Pyrethroids and more specifically deltamethrin and cyfluthrin are the insecticides mainly used in studied localities . Bedrooms of farmers are used as storage place for half-used and un-used insecticides containers . For a proper management of insecticides , cotton and vegetable plantations farmers receive assistance from the ministry of rural development . Because of the importance of cotton production in the Republic of Benin , trainings on management of insecticides in agricultural settings are frequently organised by the ministry of rural development and are opened to farmers and their family members ( husbands , wives , children and relatives . . . ) . In the long run , the whole family learns and becomes very versant with the use of insecticides , spraying frequencies , spraying devices and spraying techniques .
Score: 4.00
Journal: J Anim . Sci . Citation: V : 84 ( 6 ) P : 1396-402 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16699096 Accession (PMID): 16699096
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility ( AID ) and standardized ileal digestibility ( SID ) of AA and DE , and to estimate ME and NE of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , and spray-dried plasma protein . In Exp . 1 , 6 barrows ( initially 29 . 5 +/- 2 . 5 kg of BW ) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and fed each of 5 cornstarch-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d . During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 test diets ( fed from d 0 to 28 ) were formulated to contain 12 . 5% CP by using analyzed nutrient compositions of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , or spray-dried plasma protein . The fifth ( N-free ) diet was fed from d 28 to 35 to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA , which were used to calculate SID . Ileal digesta were collected and analyzed , and AID and SID values were calculated . Apparent ileal digestible Lys , Met , and Thr values were 80 . 0 +/- 3 . 3 , 65 . 6 +/- 3 . 1 , and 68 . 4 +/- 4 . 5% for rice protein concentrate ; 85 . 6 +/- 4 . 8 , 85 . 5 +/- 4 . 3 , and 69 . 8 +/- 8 . 5% for salmon protein hydrolysate ; 93 . 3 +/- 1 . 4 , 89 . 9 +/- 5 . 8 , and 83 . 6 +/- 5 . 3% for whey protein concentrate ; and 92 . 8 +/- 0 . 9 , 85 . 7 +/- 2 . 1 , 86 . 5 +/- 2 . 3% for spray-dried plasma protein , respectively . In Exp . 2 , 6 barrows ( initially 37 . 6 +/- 1 . 7 kg of BW ) were fed each of 5 corn-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d . During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 diets containing the test ingredients were formulated to contain approximately 20% CP by using their analyzed nutrient compositions . The fifth ( corn control ) diet containing 8 . 2% CP was also used to calculate energy values by difference . Feces were collected to determine DE . The ME and NE contents were estimated using published regression equations . The DE , ME , and NE ( as-fed ) values were 4 , 724 +/- 461 , 4 , 226 +/- 437 , and 3 , 235 +/- 380 kcal/kg for rice protein concentrate ; 4 , 173 +/- 1 , 052 , 3 , 523 +/- 1 , 002 , and 2 , 623 +/- 872 kcal/kg for salmon protein hydrolysate ; 4 , 949 +/- 1 , 002 , 4 , 352 +/- 955 , and 3 , 344 +/- 831 kcal/kg for whey protein concentrate ; and 4 , 546 +/- 673 , 3 , 979 +/- 652 , and 3 , 020 +/- 567 kcal/kg for spray-dried plasma protein , respectively . The excellent AA digestibility and relatively high DE , ME , and NE values indicate that these protein sources warrant further investigation as ingredients for growing pig diets .
Score: 4.00
Journal: Citation: V : ( ) P : Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17428569 Accession (PMID): 17428569
Abstract: A lack of effective , easily applied and stable formulation has been a major obstacle to widespread use of biocontrol agents for control of rice sheath blight . In this study , effervescent fast-disintegrating granules containing endospores of Bacillus megaterium were developed for use either by broadcast or spray application . The formulation composed of lactose , polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 ( PVP , K-30 ) and effervescent base ( citric acid , tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate ) . The number of living bacteria in effervescent granules that performed mycelial growth inhibition was in the range of 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g after 12 months storage at room temperature . The number of viable bacteria after applying into the water and spraying on the rice seedling for 7 days in the greenhouse tests were also satisfactory high ( 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g of granules and 10 ( 6 ) CFU/g of plant , respectively ) . The scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) was used to observe bacterial antagonist on the surface of leaf sheath and leaf blade after spraying with formulation . Effervescent formulation applied either broadcasting or spraying reduced incidence of sheath blight disease in the greenhouse experiments .

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