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Score: 12.00
Title: The role of altered acetyl-CoA carboxylase in conferring resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) .
Author: Pornprom T Mahatamnuchoke P Usui K
Citation: V : 62 ( 11 ) P : 1109-15 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16964592 Accession (PMID): 16964592
Abstract: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
Score: 9.00
Title: Field study on exposure and health effects of an organophosphate pesticide for maintaining registration in the Philippines .
Author: van Sittert NJ Dumas EP .
Citation: V : 81 ( 6 ) P : 463-73 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2100760 Accession (PMID): 2100760
Abstract: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
Score: 7.00
Title: Indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin controls malaria in Pakistan : a community-randomized trial
Author: Rowland M Mahmood P Iqbal J Carneiro I Chavasse D
Citation: V : 5 ( 7 ) P : 472-81 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10964269 Accession (PMID): 10964269
Abstract: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
Score: 7.00
Title: Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on non-target herbivore and natural enemy assemblages in tropical irrigated rice .
Author: Schoenly KG Cohen MB Barrion AT Zhang W Gaolach B Viajante VD .
Citation: V : 2 ( 3 ) P : 181-206 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15612416 Accession (PMID): 15612416
Abstract: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
Score: 7.00
Title: [ Effects of fungicide on temporal and spatial niches of Rhizoctonia solani ]
Author: Wang Z Tan G
Citation: V : 16 ( 8 ) P : 1493-6 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16262065 Accession (PMID): 16262065
Abstract: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
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Textpresso Thu Oct 29 08:48:39 2020 .