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Score: 12.00
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 62 ( 11 ) P : 1109-15 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16964592
Abstract: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
Score: 9.00
Journal: Citation: V : 81 ( 6 ) P : 463-73 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2100760
Abstract: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
Score: 7.00
Journal: Trop . Med . Int . Health Citation: V : 5 ( 7 ) P : 472-81 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10964269
Abstract: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
Score: 7.00
Journal: Citation: V : 2 ( 3 ) P : 181-206 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15612416
Abstract: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
Score: 7.00
Journal: Citation: V : 16 ( 8 ) P : 1493-6 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16262065
Abstract: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
Score: 7.00
Journal: Phys Sportsmed Citation: V : 37 P : 64-70 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20048489
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid ( HA ) injections in acute lateral ankle sprain . A randomized , controlled , prospective trial in a primary sports medicine and emergency practice involved 158 competitive athletes who suffered an acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprain , and who were randomly assigned within 48 hours of injury . Patients were randomly assigned at baseline to periarticular injection with HA + standard of care ( rest , ice , elevation , and compression [ RICE ] ) or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and day 4 after injury . Follow-up was at 30 , 90 , and 712 days after treatment . Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , 90 , and 712 included visual analogue scale ( VAS ) ( 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( 5-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( 5-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , recurrent ankle sprain , total number of days missing from primary sport activity , and adverse events ( AEs ) . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours with no difference between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at all follow-up assessments for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 001 ) . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/- 8 ) versus 17 ( +/- 8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . At 24 months , in the PL versus HA group , there were 2 versus 0 lower limb fractures , 16 versus 7 second ankle sprains ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 3 versus 1 third ankle sprains , and a significantly greater number of days missing primary sport activity ( 41 vs 21 ; P < 0 . 002 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was also observed for HA versus PL at all follow-up assessments . No serious AEs were recorded throughout follow-up . Periarticular HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short and long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain , more rapid return to sport , fewer recurrent ankle sprains , fewer missed days from sport , and with few associated AEs to 24 months .
Score: 7.00
Journal: Citation: V : 5 ( 3 ) P : 661-75 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3293757
Abstract: As has been previously discussed , the incidence and resultant associated disabilities of ankle sprains have been well documented in the literature . The staggering statistics on long-term disability show that there is no such thing as a simple ankle sprain . The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided . It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program . One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment . One possible reason is the lack of agreement in diagnostic techniques as well as the end diagnosis of a particular grade of ankle sprain . If a sprain is managed correctly , resultant disability will be kept to a minimum . A proper rehabilitation program may be the most important factor in preventing chronic instability . The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management . RICE primarily addresses the ankle edema . Thus , the patients ankle is only partially rehabilitated . A rational approach to the management of ankle sprains is given . Upon reviewing a complete protocol for ankle sprain rehabilitation , the acronym TEMPER can be used judiciously to remember the key steps in the treatment plan . Through the use of this acronym , one can institute a complete rehabilitation program .
Score: 6.00
Journal: ScientificWorldJournal Citation: V : 2012 P : 123071 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22619576
Abstract: The efficacy of bispyribac-sodium , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron , and penoxsulam + cyhalofop was evaluated against barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , junglerice , and southern crabgrass when applied at four- , six- , and eight-leaf stages . When applied at the four-leaf stage , bispyribac-sodium provided greater than 97% control of barnyardgrass , junglerice , and southern crabgrass ; however , it was slightly weak ( 74% control ) on Chinese sprangletop . Irrespective of the weed species , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron provided greater than 97% control when applied at the four-leaf stage . At the same leaf stage , penoxsulam + cyhalofop controlled 89 to 100% barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , and junglerice and only 54% of southern crabgrass . The efficacy of herbicides was reduced when applied at the eight-leaf stage of the weeds ; however , at this stage , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron was effective in controlling 99% of Chinese sprangletop . The results demonstrate the importance of early herbicide application in controlling the weeds . The study identified that at the six-leaf stage of the weeds , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron can effectively control Chinese sprangletop and southern crabgrass , penoxsulam + cyhalofop can effectively control Chinese sprangletop , and bispyribac-sodium can effectively control junglerice .
Score: 6.00
Journal: Citation: V : 90 ( 3 ) P : 162-8 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9410249
Abstract: A strong malaria epidemic with a high mortality rate occurred on the Madagascar Highlands in 1986-88 . Vector control and free access to antimalaria drugs controlled the disease . The authors have searched for the causes of the epidemic to propose a strategy avoiding such events . The Highlands on Madagascar were known as malaria free . In 1878 a very severe epidemic flooded all the country . Development of irrigated ricefields which house both An . arabiensis and An . funestus had created a new anthropic environment . Moreover manpower imported from malarious coastal areas for rice cultivation and also for building large temples , could have brought P falciparum . After several outbreaks the disease became endemic up to 1949 . In 1949 a malaria eradication programme based on DDT spraying and drug chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy was launched . By 1960 malaria was eliminated and DDT spraying cancelled . Only 3 foci were kept under surveillance with irregular spraying until 1975 . The prophylaxis and treatment centres ( "centres de nivaquinisation" ) were kept open up to 1979 . The catholic dispensary of Analaroa , 100 km NE of Tananarive , opened in 1971 and worked without interruption up to now . The malaria diagnosis has always been controlled by microscopy . Its registers are probably the more reliable source of information on malaria in the area . They show that malaria was already present on the Highlands in 1971 but at a low prevalence ; in 1980 when the "centres de nivaquinisation" were closed the number of cases increased by three times the progressive increase of the number of cases became exponential from 1986 to 1988 which was the peak of the epidemic ; malaria remained at a high level until the end of 1993 ; yearly DDT spraying since 1993 have decreased the number of malaria cases among the dispensary attendants by 90% . The epidemic peak of 1988 was well documented by the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar around Tananarive . Before the epidemic started it was observed a come back of An . funestus which had been previously eliminated of most of the villages by DDT spraying . More than an epidemic the malaria increase in 1988 was a reconquest by malaria of the land from which it had been eliminated in the years 1950 . This episode became dramatic because the lack of immunity of the population and the shortage of medicaments . The global warming which was advocated to explain the epidemic has no responsibility because the temperature on the Madagascar Highlands has not changed during the last 30 years . Also the cyclones do not seem to have played any role . It is very likely that the gradual decline of control measures , first DDT spraying , later drug distributions , had the main responsibility in the Highlands drama . Everywhere An . funestus reached a high level during the time where the parasite reservoir was rebuilding . They synergised each other . These findings should be taken in account in drawing the strategy planning for the next years .
Score: 5.00
Journal: Transgenic Res . Citation: V : 9 ( 6 ) P : 471-6 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11206976
Abstract: In this study , floral spray and floral dip were used to replace the vacuum step in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) gene into Arabidopsis . The transgene was constructed by using a CaMV 35S promoter to drive a rice cytosolic CuZnSOD coding sequence in Arabidopsis . The transgene construct was developed in binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium . When Arabidopsis plants started to initiate flower buds , the primary inflorescence shoots were removed and then transformed by floral spray or floral dip . More than 300 transgenic plants were generated to assess the feasibility of floral spray used in the in planta transformation . The result indicates that the floral spray method of Agrobacterium can achieve rates of in planta transformation comparable to the vacuum-infiltration and floral dip methods . The floral spray method opens up the possibility of in planta transformation of plant species which are too large for dipping or vacuum infiltration .

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