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Score: 5.00
Title: The SHOOT ORGANIZATION2 gene coordinates leaf domain development along the central-marginal axis in rice .
Author: Itoh J Sato Y Nagato Y
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol Citation: V : 49 P : 1226-36 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18596062 Accession (PMID): 18596062
Abstract: We describe how rice leaves are regionalized and regulated along the central-marginal axis . The shoot organization2 ( sho2 ) mutant , a weak allele of SHOOTLESS4 that is a ZIPPY/ARGONAUTE7 homolog in rice , shows a variety of leaf abnormalities ; filamentous leaves , bi or trifurcated leaves , separation of the filamentous structure from the leaf blade or deletion of the margin . All of these phenotypes can be interpreted as combinatorial defects in the growth of the central , lateral and marginal domains along the central-marginal axis , on the condition that the growth of the central domain is predominant . The leaf founder cells for the lateral and marginal domains are recruited normally in sho2 , indicating that sho2 is defective in the growth of leaf domains after the founder cells are recruited . The expression pattern of SHO2 in the outer layer of the shoot apical meristem and the adaxial surface of the leaf , as well as the altered expression of HD-ZIP III and ETTIN homologs in the central domain of sho2 leaves , suggest that normal development of the central domain is a prerequisite for the synchronous growth of the three domains . This synchrony is thought to be mediated by a small interfering RNA-dependent process .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Shoot organization genes regulate shoot apical meristem organization and the pattern of leaf primordium initiation in rice .
Author: Itoh JI Kitano H Matsuoka M Nagato Y
Journal: Plant Cell Citation: V : 12 ( 11 ) P : 2161-74 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11090216 Accession (PMID): 11090216
Abstract: The mechanism regulating the pattern of leaf initiation was analyzed by using shoot organization ( sho ) mutants derived from three loci ( SHO1 , SHO2 , and SHO3 ) . In the early vegetative phase , sho mutants show an increased rate of leaf production with random phyllotaxy . The resulting leaves are malformed , threadlike , or short and narrow . Their shoot apical meristems are relatively low and wide , that is , flat shaped , although their shape and size are highly variable among plants of the same genotype . Statistical analysis reveals that the shape of the shoot meristem rather than its size is closely correlated with the variations of plastochron and phyllotaxy . Rapid and random leaf production in sho mutants is correlated with the frequent and disorganized cell divisions in the shoot meristem and with a reduction of expression domain of a rice homeobox gene , OSH1 . These changes in the organization and behavior of the shoot apical meristems suggest that sho mutants have fewer indeterminate cells and more determinate cells than wild type , with many cells acting as leaf founder cells . Thus , the SHO genes have an important role in maintaining the proper organization of the shoot apical meristem , which is essential for the normal initiation pattern of leaf primordia .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: The small interfering RNA production pathway is required for shoot meristem initiation in rice .
Author: Nagasaki H Itoh J Hayashi K Hibara K Satoh-Nagasawa N Nosaka M Mukouhata M Ashikari M Kitano H Matsuoka M Nagato Y Sato Y
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Citation: V : 104 P : 14867-71 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17804793 Accession (PMID): 17804793
Abstract: The shoot apical meristem ( SAM ) is a group of stem cells that are responsible for plant development . Mutations in rice SHOOTLESS2 ( SHL2 ) , SHL4/SHOOT ORGANIZATION2 ( SHO2 ) , and SHO1 cause complete deletion or abnormal formation of the SAM . In this study we showed that defects in SAM formation in shl mutants are associated with the loss of expression of the homeodomain-leucine zipper ( HD-ZIPIII ) family genes . Rice SHL2 , SHL4/SHO2 , and SHO1 encoded orthologues of Arabidopsis RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 , ARGONAUTE ( AGO ) 7 , and DICER-like 4 , respectively , whose mutations affect leaf development through the trans-acting siRNA ( ta-siRNA ) pathway . This suggested that the ta-siRNA pathway regulates the critical step of SAM formation during rice embryogenesis . The gain-of-function experiment by the ectopic expression of SHL4 resulted in reduced accumulation of an microRNA , miR166 , and partial adaxialization of leaves , supporting a role for the ta-siRNA pathway in the maintenance of leaf polarity as previously reported in maize . Analysis of the spatiotemporal expression patterns of HD-ZIPIII and miR166 in wild-type and shl mutant embryos suggested that the loss of HD-ZIPIII expression in the SAM region of the developing embryo is the result of ectopic expression of miR166 . Our analysis of shl mutants demonstrated that HD-ZIPIII expression regulated by miR166 is sensitive to the ta-siRNA pathway during SAM formation in rice embryogenesis .
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Score: 1.00
Title: WAVY LEAF1 , an ortholog of Arabidopsis HEN1 , regulates shoot development by maintaining MicroRNA and trans-acting small interfering RNA accumulation in rice .
Author: Abe M Yoshikawa T Nosaka M Sakakibara H Sato Y Nagato Y Itoh J
Journal: Plant Physiol Citation: V : 154 P : 1335-46 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20805329 Accession (PMID): 20805329
Abstract: In rice ( Oryza sativa ) , trans-acting small interfering RNA ( ta-siRNA ) is essential for shoot development , including shoot apical meristem ( SAM ) formation and leaf morphogenesis . The rice wavy leaf1 ( waf1 ) mutant has been identified as an embryonic mutant resembling shoot organization1 ( sho1 ) and sho2 , homologs of a loss-of-function mutant of DICER-LIKE4 and a hypomorphic mutant of ARGONAUTE7 , respectively , which both act in the ta-siRNA production pathway . About half of the waf1 mutants showed seedling lethality due to defects in SAM maintenance , but the rest survived to the reproductive phase and exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes in leaf morphology and floral development . Map-based cloning of WAF1 revealed that it encodes an RNA methyltransferase , a homolog of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) HUA ENHANCER1 . The reduced accumulation of small RNAs in waf1 indicated that the stability of the small RNA was decreased . Despite the greatly reduced level of microRNAs and ta-siRNA , microarray and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed that the expression levels of their target genes were not always enhanced . A double mutant between sho and waf1 showed an enhanced SAM defect , suggesting that the amount and/or quality of ta-siRNA is crucial for SAM maintenance . Our results indicate that stabilization of small RNAs by WAF1 is indispensable for rice development , especially for SAM maintenance and leaf morphogenesis governed by the ta-siRNA pathway . In addition , the inconsistent relationship between the amount of small RNAs and the level of the target mRNA in waf1 suggest that there is a complex regulatory mechanism that modifies the effects of microRNA/ta-siRNA on the expression of the target gene .
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