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Score: 9.00
Title: Mechanism underlying regulated expression of RFL , a conserved transcription factor , in the developing rice inflorescence .
Author: Prasad K Kushalappa K Vijayraghavan U
Journal: Mech . Dev . Citation: V : 120 ( 4 ) P : 491-502 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12676326 Accession (PMID): 12676326
Abstract: LFY and its orthologues are necessary for flower specification in diverse dicotyledonous plants . The spatial and temporal RNA expression pattern of a rice LFY-like gene : RFL differs significantly from that in several other species studied thus far . The onset of RFL expression coincides with inflorescence meristem ( panicle meristem ) initiation , and continues during panicle branching . Notably , incipient flower primordia have lower expression levels , and during floral organogenesis the expression is restricted to second-whorl lodicules . To explore mechanisms underlying this distinct expression pattern , we have tested the transcription regulatory functions of sequences upstream to RFL coding sequences either alone , or together with intragenic segments . Sequences 3 . 0 kb upstream of the RFL reading frame do not confer correctly regulated reporter gene expression in transgenic rice . In contrast , RFL intron1 or 2 can individually confer the expected profile in the developing panicle and floret . However , the additional repression of expression in vegetative it issues , is a pattern achieved by intron2 together with far-upstream sequences . Strikingly , RFL intron2 sequences can even utilize the Arabidopsis thaliana LFY promoter to confer regulated transcription in young rice panicles . By sequence comparison of RFL upstream sequences , intron1 , intron2 and the Arabidopsis LFY promoter , we identify putative cis-regulatory elements unique to RFL . These data exemplify the use of regulatory circuits specific to rice RFL that may underlie its divergent function .
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Score: 9.00
Title: Distinct regulatory role for RFL , the rice LFY homolog , in determining flowering time and plant architecture .
Author: Rao NN Prasad K Kumar PR Vijayraghavan U
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Citation: V : 105 P : 3646-51 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18305171 Accession (PMID): 18305171
Abstract: Activity of axillary meristems dictates the architecture of both vegetative and reproductive parts of a plant . In Arabidopsis thaliana , a model eudicot species , the transcription factor LFY confers a floral fate to new meristems arising from the periphery of the reproductive shoot apex Diverse orthologous LFY genes regulate vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition when expressed in Arabidopsis , a property not shared by RFL , the homolog in the agronomically important grass , rice . We have characterized RFL by knockdown of its expression and by its ectopic overexpression in transgenic rice . We find that reduction in RFL expression causes a dramatic delay in transition to flowering , with the extreme phenotype being no flowering . Conversely , RFL overexpression triggers precocious flowering . In these transgenics , the expression levels of known flowering time genes reveal RFL as a regulator of OsSOC1 ( OsMADS50 ) , an activator of flowering . Aside from facilitating a transition of the main growth axis to an inflorescence meristem , RFL expression status affects vegetative axillary meristems and therefore regulates tillering . The unique spatially and temporally regulated RFL expression during the development of vegetative axillary bud ( tiller ) primordia and inflorescence branch primordia is therefore required to produce tillers and panicle branches , respectively . Our data provide mechanistic insights into a unique role for RFL in determining the typical rice plant architecture by regulating distinct downstream pathways . These results offer a means to alter rice flowering time and plant architecture by manipulating RFL-mediated pathways .
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Score: 9.00
Title: Down-regulation of RFL , the FLO/LFY homolog of rice , accompanied with panicle branch initiation .
Author: Kyozuka J Konishi S Nemoto K Izawa T Shimamoto K
Journal: Proc . Natl . Acad . Sci . USA Citation: V : 95 ( 5 ) P : 1979-82 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9482818 Accession (PMID): 9482818
Abstract: FLORICAULA ( FLO ) of Antirrhinum and LEAFY ( FLY ) of Arabidopsis regulate the formation of floral meristems . To examine whether same mechanisms control floral development in distantly related species such as grasses , we isolated RFL , FLO-LFY homolog of rice , and examined its expression and function . Northern analysis showed that RFL is expressed predominantly in very young panicle but not in mature florets , mature leaves , or roots . In situ hybridization revealed that RFL RNA was expressed in epidermal cells in young leaves at vegetative growth stage . After the transition to reproductive stage , RFL RNA was detected in all layers of very young panicle including the apical meristem , but absent in the incipient primary branches . As development of branches proceeds , RFL RNA accumulation localized in the developing branches except for the apical meristems of the branches and secondary branch primordia . Expression pattern of RFL raised a possibility that , unlike FLO and LFY , RFL might be involved in panicle branching . Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing RFL from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were produced to test whether 35S-RFL would cause similar phenotype as observed in 35S-LFY plants . In 35S-RFL plants , transformation of inflorescence meristem to floral meristem was rarely observed . Instead , development of cotyledons , rosette leaves , petals , and stamens was severely affected , demonstrating that RFL function is distinct from that of LFY . Our results suggest that mechanisms controlling floral development in rice might be diverged from that of Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum .
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Score: 7.00
Title: Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of CCDD genome species of the genus Oryza L
Author: Jena KK Kochert G
Journal: Plant Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 16 ( 5 ) P : 831-9 Year: 1991 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1677594 Accession (PMID): 1677594
Abstract: Restriction fragment length polymorphisms ( RFLPs ) were studied in fourteen accessions of CCDD genome allotetraploid wild rice species ( Oryza latifolia , O alta and O grandiglumis ) . Fourteen nuclear RFLP markers previously mapped in AA genome-cultivated rice were used as probes . A phylogenetic tree , constructed by parsimony analysis based on RFLPs , grouped the accessions according to their geographic origin from Central or South America . Oryza alta , O grandiglumis and one accession of O latifolia grouped together as a subgroup , and our results suggested that the three taxa should be considered as populations of a single complex species . Duplicate loci , representing the two constituent genomes of the allotetraploid , were observed for most RFLP markers . By comparing RFLPs from the allotetraploids with those from a CC genome diploid wild species ( O officinalis ) , it was possible to detect RFLPs specific for both the CC and DD genomes of the allotetraploid . In inter-accession F2 populations , independent segregation of RFLP markers for CC and DD genomes was observed .
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Score: 6.00
Title: Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae with a repetitive DNA element .
Author: Leach JE Rhoads ML Vera Cruz CM White FF Mew TW Leung H
Journal: Appl . Environ . Microbiol . Citation: V : 58 ( 7 ) P : 2188-95 Year: 1992 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1353345 Accession (PMID): 1353345
Abstract: A repetitive DNA element cloned from Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae was used to assess the population structure and genetic diversity of 98 strains of X oryzae pv . oryzae collected between 1972 and 1988 from the Philippine Islands . Genomic DNA from X oryzae pv . oryzae was digested with EcoRI and analyzed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms ( RFLPs ) with repetitive DNA element as a probe . Twenty-seven RFLP types were identified ; there was no overlap of RFLP types among the six races from the Philippines . Most variability ( 20 RFLP types ) was found in strains of races 1 , 2 , and 3 , which were isolated from tropical lowland areas . Four RFLP types ( all race 5 ) were found among strains isolated from cultivars grown in the temperate highlands . The genetic diversity of the total population of X oryzae pv . oryzae was 0 . 93 , of which 42% was due to genetic differentiation between races . The genetic diversities of strains collected in 1972 to 1976 , 1977 to 1981 , and 1982 to 1986 , were 0 . 89 , 0 . 90 , and 0 . 92 , respectively , suggesting a consistently high level of variability in the pathogen population over the past 15 years . Cluster analysis based on RFLP banding patterns showed five groupings at 85% similarity . The majority of strains from a given race were contained within one cluster , except for race 3 strains , which were distributed in three of the five clusters .
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