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Score: 10.00
Title: Expression of a rice homeobox gene causes altered morphology of transgenic plants .
Author: Matsuoka M Ichikawa H Saito A Tada Y Fujimura T Kano-Murakami Y
Journal: Plant Cell Citation: V : 5 ( 9 ) P : 1039-48 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8104574 Accession (PMID): 8104574
Abstract: We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a homeobox sequence from rice . DNA sequence analysis of this clone , which was designated as Oryza sativa homeobox 1 ( OSH1 ) , and a genomic clone encoding the OSH1 sequence have shown that the OSH1 gene consists of five exons and encodes a polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues . Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis has shown that OSH1 is a single-copy gene located near the phytochrome gene on chromosome 3 . Introduction of the cloned OSH1 gene into rice resulted in altered leaf morphology , which was similar to that of the maize morphological mutant Knotted-1 ( Kn1 ) , indicating that OSH1 is a rice gene homologous to the maize Kn1 gene . RNA gel blot analysis has shown that the gene is primarily expressed in the shoot apices of young rice seedlings . This finding is supported by results of transformation experiments in which the 5 flanking region of the gene directed expression of a reporter gene in the shoot apex , particularly in stipules , of transgenic Arabidopsis . To elucidate the biological function of the OSH1 gene product , the coding region was introduced into Arabidopsis under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter . Almost all transformants showed abnormal morphology . The typical phenotype was the formation of clumps of abundant vegetative and reproductive shoot apices containing meristems and leaf primordia , which did not form elongated shoots . Some transformants with a less severe phenotype formed elongated shoots but had abnormally shaped leaves and flowers with stunted sepals , petals , and stamens . The abnormal phenotypes were inherited , and the level of expression of the introduced OSH1 correlates with the severity of the phenotype . These findings indicate that the abnormal morphologies of the transgenic plants are caused by the expression of the OSH1 gene product and , therefore , that OSH1 is related to the plant development process .
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Score: 9.00
Title: Isolation and characterization of a rice homebox gene , OSH15 .
Author: Sato Y Sentoku N Nagato Y Matsuoka M
Journal: Plant Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 38 ( 6 ) P : 983-98 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9869405 Accession (PMID): 9869405
Abstract: In many eukaryotic organisms including plants , homeobox genes are thought to be master regulators that establish the cellular or regional identities and specify the fundamental body plan . We isolated and characterized a cDNA designated OSH15 ( Oryza sativa homeobox 15 ) that encodes a KNOTTED-type homeodomain protein . Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the OSH15 cDNA showed a dramatically altered morphological phenotype caused by disturbance of specific aspects of tobacco development , thereby indicating the involvement of OSH15 in plant development . We analyzed the in situ mRNA localization of OSH15 through the whole plant life cycle , comparing the expression pattern with that of another rice homeobox gene , OSH1 . In early embryogenesis , both genes were expressed as the same pattern at a region where the shoot apical meristem would develop later . In late embryogenesis , the expression pattern of the two genes became different . Whereas the expression of OSH1 continued within the shoot apical meristem , OSH15 expression within the shoot apical meristem ceased but became observable in a ring shaped pattern at the boundaries of some embryonic organs . This pattern of expression was similar to that observed around vegetative or reproductive shoots , or the floral meristem in mature plants . RNA in situ localization data suggest that OSH15 may play roles in the shoot organization during early embryogenesis and thereafter , OSH15 may be involved in morphogenetic events around the shoot apical meristem .
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Score: 8.00
Title: Positive Autoregulation of a KNOX Gene Is Essential for Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance in Rice .
Author: Tsuda K Ito Y Sato Y Kurata N
Journal: Plant Cell Citation: V : P : Year: 2011 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22207572 Accession (PMID): 22207572
Abstract: Self-maintenance of the shoot apical meristem ( SAM ) , from which aerial organs are formed throughout the life cycle , is crucial in plant development . Class I Knotted1-like homeobox ( KNOX ) genes restrict cell differentiation and play an indispensable role in maintaining the SAM . However , the mechanism that positively regulates their expression is unknown . Here , we show that expression of a rice ( Oryza sativa ) KNOX gene , Oryza sativa homeobox1 ( OSH1 ) , is positively regulated by direct autoregulation . Interestingly , loss-of-function mutants of OSH1 lose the SAM just after germination but can be rescued to grow until reproductive development when they are regenerated from callus . Double mutants of osh1 and d6 , a loss-of-function mutant of OSH15 , fail to establish the SAM both in embryogenesis and regeneration . Expression analyses in these mutants reveal that KNOX gene expression is positively regulated by the phytohormone cytokinin and by KNOX genes themselves . We demonstrate that OSH1 directly binds to five KNOX loci , including OSH1 and OSH15 , through evolutionarily conserved cis-elements and that the positive autoregulation of OSH1 is indispensable for its own expression and SAM maintenance . Thus , the maintenance of the indeterminate state mediated by positive autoregulation of a KNOX gene is an indispensable mechanism of self-maintenance of the SAM .
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Score: 7.00
Title: A rice homeobox gene , OSH1 , is expressed before organ differentiation in a specific region during early embryogenesis .
Author: Sato Y Hong SK Tagiri A Kitano H Yamamoto N Nagato Y Matsuoka M
Journal: Proc . Natl . Acad . Sci . USA Citation: V : 93 ( 15 ) P : 8117-22 Year: 1996 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8755613 Accession (PMID): 8755613
Abstract: Homeobox genes encode a large family of homeodomain proteins that play a key role in the pattern formation of animal embryos . By analogy , homeobox genes in plants are thought to mediate important processes in their embryogenesis , but there is very little evidence to support this notion . Here we described the temporal and spatial expression patterns of a rice homeobox gene , OSH1 , during rice embryogenesis . In situ hybridization analysis revealed that in the wild-type embryo , OSH1 was first expressed at the globular stage , much earlier than organogenesis started , in a ventral region where shoot apical meristem and epiblast would later develop . This localized expression of OSH1 indicates that the cellular differentiation has already occurred at this stage . At later stages after organogenesis had initiated , OSH1 expression was observed in shoot apical meristem [ except in the L1 ( tunica ) layer ] , epiblast , radicle , and their intervening it issues in descending strength of expression level with embryonic maturation . We also performed in situ hybridization analysis with a rice organless embryo mutant , orl1 , that develops no embryonic organs . In the orl1 embryo , the expression pattern of OSH1 was the same as that in the wild-type embryo in spite of the lack of embryonic organs . This shows that OSH1 is not directly associated with organ differentiation , but may be related to a regulatory process before or independent of the organ determination . The results described here strongly suggest that , like animal homeobox genes , OSH1 plays an important role in regionalization of cell identity during early embryogenesis .
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Score: 6.00
Title: A rice homeotic gene , OSH1 , causes unusual phenotypes in transgenic tobacco
Author: Kano-Murakami Y Yanai T Tagiri A Matsuoka M
Journal: FEBS Lett . Citation: V : 334 ( 3 ) P : 365-8 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub7902297 Accession (PMID): 7902297
Abstract: A rice gene , OSH1 , which shares homology with animal homeobox genes , has been isolated . We have introduced the OSH1 cDNA into tobacco in order to examine its function . Expression of the OSH1 cDNA in tobacco induced morphological abnormalities in the leaves , petals and stems of the transformants suggesting that OSH1 functions as a morphological regulator . OSH1 cDNA expression was analyzed under the control of three different promoters . This work revealed that not only the level of OSH1 expression but also the site and timing of the expression affect the morphology of the plant .
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