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Score: 10.00
Title: Expression of a rice homeobox gene causes altered morphology of transgenic plants .
Author: Matsuoka M Ichikawa H Saito A Tada Y Fujimura T Kano-Murakami Y
Journal: Plant Cell Citation: V : 5 ( 9 ) P : 1039-48 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8104574 Accession (PMID): 8104574
Abstract: We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a homeobox sequence from rice . DNA sequence analysis of this clone , which was designated as Oryza sativa homeobox 1 ( OSH1 ) , and a genomic clone encoding the OSH1 sequence have shown that the OSH1 gene consists of five exons and encodes a polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues . Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis has shown that OSH1 is a single-copy gene located near the phytochrome gene on chromosome 3 . Introduction of the cloned OSH1 gene into rice resulted in altered leaf morphology , which was similar to that of the maize morphological mutant Knotted-1 ( Kn1 ) , indicating that OSH1 is a rice gene homologous to the maize Kn1 gene . RNA gel blot analysis has shown that the gene is primarily expressed in the shoot apices of young rice seedlings . This finding is supported by results of transformation experiments in which the 5 flanking region of the gene directed expression of a reporter gene in the shoot apex , particularly in stipules , of transgenic Arabidopsis . To elucidate the biological function of the OSH1 gene product , the coding region was introduced into Arabidopsis under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter . Almost all transformants showed abnormal morphology . The typical phenotype was the formation of clumps of abundant vegetative and reproductive shoot apices containing meristems and leaf primordia , which did not form elongated shoots . Some transformants with a less severe phenotype formed elongated shoots but had abnormally shaped leaves and flowers with stunted sepals , petals , and stamens . The abnormal phenotypes were inherited , and the level of expression of the introduced OSH1 correlates with the severity of the phenotype . These findings indicate that the abnormal morphologies of the transgenic plants are caused by the expression of the OSH1 gene product and , therefore , that OSH1 is related to the plant development process .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: DNA sequence analysis of this clone , which was designated as Oryza sativa homeobox 1 ( OSH1 ) , and a genomic clone encoding the OSH1 sequence have shown that the OSH1 gene consists of five exons and encodes a polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: Introduction of the cloned OSH1 gene into rice resulted in altered leaf morphology , which was similar to that of the maize morphological mutant Knotted-1 ( Kn1 ) , indicating that OSH1 is a rice gene homologous to the maize Kn1 gene .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 2.00 ]: These findings indicate that the abnormal morphologies of the transgenic plants are caused by the expression of the OSH1 gene product and , therefore , that OSH1 is related to the plant development process .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis has shown that OSH1 is a single-copy gene located near the phytochrome gene on chromosome 3 .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: To elucidate the biological function of the OSH1 gene product , the coding region was introduced into Arabidopsis under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: The abnormal phenotypes were inherited , and the level of expression of the introduced OSH1 correlates with the severity of the phenotype .
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Score: 9.00
Title: Isolation and characterization of a rice homebox gene , OSH15 .
Author: Sato Y Sentoku N Nagato Y Matsuoka M
Journal: Plant Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 38 ( 6 ) P : 983-98 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9869405 Accession (PMID): 9869405
Abstract: In many eukaryotic organisms including plants , homeobox genes are thought to be master regulators that establish the cellular or regional identities and specify the fundamental body plan . We isolated and characterized a cDNA designated OSH15 ( Oryza sativa homeobox 15 ) that encodes a KNOTTED-type homeodomain protein . Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the OSH15 cDNA showed a dramatically altered morphological phenotype caused by disturbance of specific aspects of tobacco development , thereby indicating the involvement of OSH15 in plant development . We analyzed the in situ mRNA localization of OSH15 through the whole plant life cycle , comparing the expression pattern with that of another rice homeobox gene , OSH1 . In early embryogenesis , both genes were expressed as the same pattern at a region where the shoot apical meristem would develop later . In late embryogenesis , the expression pattern of the two genes became different . Whereas the expression of OSH1 continued within the shoot apical meristem , OSH15 expression within the shoot apical meristem ceased but became observable in a ring shaped pattern at the boundaries of some embryonic organs . This pattern of expression was similar to that observed around vegetative or reproductive shoots , or the floral meristem in mature plants . RNA in situ localization data suggest that OSH15 may play roles in the shoot organization during early embryogenesis and thereafter , OSH15 may be involved in morphogenetic events around the shoot apical meristem .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the OSH15 cDNA showed a dramatically altered morphological phenotype caused by disturbance of specific aspects of tobacco development , thereby indicating the involvement of OSH15 in plant development .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: We analyzed the in situ mRNA localization of OSH15 through the whole plant life cycle , comparing the expression pattern with that of another rice homeobox gene , OSH1 .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Whereas the expression of OSH1 continued within the shoot apical meristem , OSH15 expression within the shoot apical meristem ceased but became observable in a ring shaped pattern at the boundaries of some embryonic organs .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: RNA in situ localization data suggest that OSH15 may play roles in the shoot organization during early embryogenesis and thereafter , OSH15 may be involved in morphogenetic events around the shoot apical meristem .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: We isolated and characterized a cDNA designated OSH15 ( Oryza sativa homeobox 15 ) that encodes a KNOTTED-type homeodomain protein .
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Score: 8.00
Title: Positive Autoregulation of a KNOX Gene Is Essential for Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance in Rice .
Author: Tsuda K Ito Y Sato Y Kurata N
Journal: Plant Cell Citation: V : P : Year: 2011 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22207572 Accession (PMID): 22207572
Abstract: Self-maintenance of the shoot apical meristem ( SAM ) , from which aerial organs are formed throughout the life cycle , is crucial in plant development . Class I Knotted1-like homeobox ( KNOX ) genes restrict cell differentiation and play an indispensable role in maintaining the SAM . However , the mechanism that positively regulates their expression is unknown . Here , we show that expression of a rice ( Oryza sativa ) KNOX gene , Oryza sativa homeobox1 ( OSH1 ) , is positively regulated by direct autoregulation . Interestingly , loss-of-function mutants of OSH1 lose the SAM just after germination but can be rescued to grow until reproductive development when they are regenerated from callus . Double mutants of osh1 and d6 , a loss-of-function mutant of OSH15 , fail to establish the SAM both in embryogenesis and regeneration . Expression analyses in these mutants reveal that KNOX gene expression is positively regulated by the phytohormone cytokinin and by KNOX genes themselves . We demonstrate that OSH1 directly binds to five KNOX loci , including OSH1 and OSH15 , through evolutionarily conserved cis-elements and that the positive autoregulation of OSH1 is indispensable for its own expression and SAM maintenance . Thus , the maintenance of the indeterminate state mediated by positive autoregulation of a KNOX gene is an indispensable mechanism of self-maintenance of the SAM .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 4.00 ]: We demonstrate that OSH1 directly binds to five KNOX loci , including OSH1 and OSH15 , through evolutionarily conserved cis-elements and that the positive autoregulation of OSH1 is indispensable for its own expression and SAM maintenance .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Double mutants of osh1 and d6 , a loss-of-function mutant of OSH15 , fail to establish the SAM both in embryogenesis and regeneration .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Here , we show that expression of a rice ( Oryza sativa ) KNOX gene , Oryza sativa homeobox1 ( OSH1 ) , is positively regulated by direct autoregulation .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Interestingly , loss-of-function mutants of OSH1 lose the SAM just after germination but can be rescued to grow until reproductive development when they are regenerated from callus .
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Score: 7.00
Title: A rice homeobox gene , OSH1 , is expressed before organ differentiation in a specific region during early embryogenesis .
Author: Sato Y Hong SK Tagiri A Kitano H Yamamoto N Nagato Y Matsuoka M
Journal: Proc . Natl . Acad . Sci . USA Citation: V : 93 ( 15 ) P : 8117-22 Year: 1996 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8755613 Accession (PMID): 8755613
Abstract: Homeobox genes encode a large family of homeodomain proteins that play a key role in the pattern formation of animal embryos . By analogy , homeobox genes in plants are thought to mediate important processes in their embryogenesis , but there is very little evidence to support this notion . Here we described the temporal and spatial expression patterns of a rice homeobox gene , OSH1 , during rice embryogenesis . In situ hybridization analysis revealed that in the wild-type embryo , OSH1 was first expressed at the globular stage , much earlier than organogenesis started , in a ventral region where shoot apical meristem and epiblast would later develop . This localized expression of OSH1 indicates that the cellular differentiation has already occurred at this stage . At later stages after organogenesis had initiated , OSH1 expression was observed in shoot apical meristem [ except in the L1 ( tunica ) layer ] , epiblast , radicle , and their intervening it issues in descending strength of expression level with embryonic maturation . We also performed in situ hybridization analysis with a rice organless embryo mutant , orl1 , that develops no embryonic organs . In the orl1 embryo , the expression pattern of OSH1 was the same as that in the wild-type embryo in spite of the lack of embryonic organs . This shows that OSH1 is not directly associated with organ differentiation , but may be related to a regulatory process before or independent of the organ determination . The results described here strongly suggest that , like animal homeobox genes , OSH1 plays an important role in regionalization of cell identity during early embryogenesis .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Here we described the temporal and spatial expression patterns of a rice homeobox gene , OSH1 , during rice embryogenesis .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In situ hybridization analysis revealed that in the wild-type embryo , OSH1 was first expressed at the globular stage , much earlier than organogenesis started , in a ventral region where shoot apical meristem and epiblast would later develop .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: This localized expression of OSH1 indicates that the cellular differentiation has already occurred at this stage .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: At later stages after organogenesis had initiated , OSH1 expression was observed in shoot apical meristem [ except in the L1 ( tunica ) layer ] , epiblast , radicle , and their intervening it issues in descending strength of expression level with embryonic maturation .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the orl1 embryo , the expression pattern of OSH1 was the same as that in the wild-type embryo in spite of the lack of embryonic organs .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: This shows that OSH1 is not directly associated with organ differentiation , but may be related to a regulatory process before or independent of the organ determination .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: The results described here strongly suggest that , like animal homeobox genes , OSH1 plays an important role in regionalization of cell identity during early embryogenesis .
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Score: 6.00
Title: A rice homeotic gene , OSH1 , causes unusual phenotypes in transgenic tobacco
Author: Kano-Murakami Y Yanai T Tagiri A Matsuoka M
Journal: FEBS Lett . Citation: V : 334 ( 3 ) P : 365-8 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub7902297 Accession (PMID): 7902297
Abstract: A rice gene , OSH1 , which shares homology with animal homeobox genes , has been isolated . We have introduced the OSH1 cDNA into tobacco in order to examine its function . Expression of the OSH1 cDNA in tobacco induced morphological abnormalities in the leaves , petals and stems of the transformants suggesting that OSH1 functions as a morphological regulator . OSH1 cDNA expression was analyzed under the control of three different promoters . This work revealed that not only the level of OSH1 expression but also the site and timing of the expression affect the morphology of the plant .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: Expression of the OSH1 cDNA in tobacco induced morphological abnormalities in the leaves , petals and stems of the transformants suggesting that OSH1 functions as a morphological regulator .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A rice gene , OSH1 , which shares homology with animal homeobox genes , has been isolated .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: We have introduced the OSH1 cDNA into tobacco in order to examine its function .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: OSH1 cDNA expression was analyzed under the control of three different promoters .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: This work revealed that not only the level of OSH1 expression but also the site and timing of the expression affect the morphology of the plant .
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Score: 6.00
Title: Decreased GA1 content caused by the overexpression of OSH1 is accompanied by suppression of GA 20-oxidase gene expression .
Author: Kusaba S Fukumoto M Honda C Yamaguchi I Sakamoto T Kano-Murakami Y
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 117 ( 4 ) P : 1179-84 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9701574 Accession (PMID): 9701574
Abstract: We previously reported that overexpression of the rice homeobox gene OSH1 led to altered morphology and hormone levels in transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L ) plants . Among the hormones whose levels were changed , GA1 was dramatically reduced . Here we report the results of our analysis on the regulatory mechanism ( s ) of OSH1 on GA metabolism . GA53 and GA20 , precursors of GA1 , were applied separately to transgenic tobacco plants exhibiting severely changed morphology due to overexpression of OSH1 . Only treatment with the end product of GA 20-oxidase , GA20 , resulted in a striking promotion of stem elongation in transgenic tobacco plants . The internal GA1 and GA20 contents in OSH1-transformed tobacco were dramatically reduced compared with those of wild-type plants , whereas the level of GA19 , a mid-product of GA 20-oxidase , was 25% of the wild-type level . We have isolated a cDNA encoding a putative tobacco GA 20-oxidase , which is mainly expressed in vegetative stem it issue . RNA-blot analysis revealed that GA 20-oxidase gene expression was suppressed in stem it issue of OSH1-transformed tobacco plants . Based on these results , we conclude that overexpression of OSH1 causes a reduction of the level of GA1 by suppressing GA 20-oxidase expression .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: We previously reported that overexpression of the rice homeobox gene OSH1 led to altered morphology and hormone levels in transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L ) plants .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Here we report the results of our analysis on the regulatory mechanism ( s ) of OSH1 on GA metabolism .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: GA53 and GA20 , precursors of GA1 , were applied separately to transgenic tobacco plants exhibiting severely changed morphology due to overexpression of OSH1 .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The internal GA1 and GA20 contents in OSH1-transformed tobacco were dramatically reduced compared with those of wild-type plants , whereas the level of GA19 , a mid-product of GA 20-oxidase , was 25% of the wild-type level .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: RNA-blot analysis revealed that GA 20-oxidase gene expression was suppressed in stem it issue of OSH1-transformed tobacco plants .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Based on these results , we conclude that overexpression of OSH1 causes a reduction of the level of GA1 by suppressing GA 20-oxidase expression .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Loss-of-function mutations in the rice homeobox gene OSH15 affect the architecture of internodes resulting in dwarf plants .
Author: Sato Y Sentoku N Miura Y Hirochika H Kitano H Matsuoka M
Journal: EMBO J Citation: V : 18 ( 4 ) P : 992-1002 Year: 1999 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10022841 Accession (PMID): 10022841
Abstract: The rice homeobox gene OSH15 ( Oryza sativa homeobox ) is a member of the knotted1-type homeobox gene family . We report here on the identification and characterization of a loss-of-function mutation in OSH15 from a library of retrotransposon-tagged lines of rice . Based on the phenotype and map position , we have identified three independent deletion alleles of the locus among conventional morphological mutants . All of these recessive mutations , which are considered to be null alleles , exhibit defects in internode elongation . Introduction of a 14 kbp genomic DNA fragment that includes all exons , introns and 5- and 3- flanking sequences of OSH15 complemented the defects in internode elongation , confirming that they were caused by the loss-of-function of OSH15 . Internodes of the mutants had abnormal-shaped epidermal and hypodermal cells and showed an unusual arrangement of small vascular bundles . These mutations demonstrate a role for OSH15 in the development of rice internodes . This is the first evidence that the knotted1-type homeobox genes have roles other than shoot apical meristem formation and/or maintenance in plant development .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Introduction of a 14 kbp genomic DNA fragment that includes all exons , introns and 5- and 3- flanking sequences of OSH15 complemented the defects in internode elongation , confirming that they were caused by the loss-of-function of OSH15 .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice homeobox gene OSH15 ( Oryza sativa homeobox ) is a member of the knotted1-type homeobox gene family .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: We report here on the identification and characterization of a loss-of-function mutation in OSH15 from a library of retrotransposon-tagged lines of rice .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: These mutations demonstrate a role for OSH15 in the development of rice internodes .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Initiation of shoot apical meristem in rice : characterization of four SHOOTLESS genes .
Author: Satoh N Hong SK Nishimura A Matsuoka M Kitano H Nagato Y
Journal: Development Citation: V : 126 ( 16 ) P : 3629-36 Year: 1999 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10409508 Accession (PMID): 10409508
Abstract: The regulatory mechanism of shoot apical meristem ( SAM ) initiation is an important subject in developmental plant biology . We characterized nine recessive mutations derived from four independent loci ( SHL1-SHL4 ) causing the deletion of the SAM . Radicles were produced in these mutant embryos . Concomitant with the loss of SAM , two embryo-specific organs , coleoptile and epiblast , were lost , but the scutellum was formed normally . Therefore , differentiation of radicle and scutellum is regulated independently of SAM , but that of coleoptile and epiblast may depend on SAM . Regeneration experiments using adventitious shoots from the scutellum-derived calli showed that no adventitious shoots were regenerated in any shl mutant . However , small adventitious leaves were observed in both mutant and wild-type calli , but they soon became necrotic and showed no extensive growth . Thus , leaf primordia can initiate in the absence of SAM , but their extensive growth requires the SAM . An in situ hybridization experiment using a rice homeobox gene , OSH1 , as a probe revealed that shl1 and shl2 modified the expression domain of OSH1 , but normal expression of OSH1 was observed in shl3 and shl4 embryos . Accordingly , SHL1 and SHL2 function upstream of OSH1 , and SHL3 and SHL4 downstream or independently of OSH1 . These shl mutants are useful for elucidating the genetic program driving SAM initiation and for unraveling the interrelationships among various organs in grass embryos .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 3.00 ]: An in situ hybridization experiment using a rice homeobox gene , OSH1 , as a probe revealed that shl1 and shl2 modified the expression domain of OSH1 , but normal expression of OSH1 was observed in shl3 and shl4 embryos .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: Accordingly , SHL1 and SHL2 function upstream of OSH1 , and SHL3 and SHL4 downstream or independently of OSH1 .
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Score: 4.00
Title: KNOX homeobox genes are sufficient in maintaining cultured cells in an undifferentiated state in rice .
Author: Ito Y Eiguchi M Kurata N
Journal: Genesis Citation: V : 30 ( 4 ) P : 231-8 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11536429 Accession (PMID): 11536429
Abstract: We produced transgenic rice calli , which constitutively express each of four KNOX family class 1 homeobox genes of rice , OSH1 , OSH16 , OSH15 , and OSH71 , and found that constitutive and ectopic expression of such genes inhibits normal regeneration from transformed calli , which showed continuous growth around their shoot-regenerating stages . Transgenic calli transferred onto regeneration medium began to display green spots , a sign of regeneration , but most of the transformants continued to propagate green spots at given stages . In the normal shoot-regeneration process of calli , expression of endogenous OSH1 was restricted in presumptive shoot-regenerating regions of calli and not observed in other areas . This restricted expression pattern should be required for further differentiation of the regenerating shoots . Thus our present results support the proposed function that KNOX family class 1 homeobox genes play a role in the formation and maintenance of the undetermined meristematic state of cells .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 3.00 ]: We produced transgenic rice calli , which constitutively express each of four KNOX family class 1 homeobox genes of rice , OSH1 , OSH16 , OSH15 , and OSH71 , and found that constitutive and ectopic expression of such genes inhibits normal regeneration from transformed calli , which showed continuous growth around their shoot-regenerating stages .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the normal shoot-regeneration process of calli , expression of endogenous OSH1 was restricted in presumptive shoot-regenerating regions of calli and not observed in other areas .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Abnormal cell divisions in leaf primordia caused by the expression of the rice homeobox gene OSH1 lead to altered morphology of leaves in transgenic tobacco
Author: Sato Y Tamaoki M Murakami T Yamamoto N Kano-Murakami Y Matsuoka M
Journal: Mol . Gen . Genet . Citation: V : 251 ( 1 ) P : 13-22 Year: 1996 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8628242 Accession (PMID): 8628242
Abstract: Transgenic tobacco plants were generated carrying a rice homeobox gene , OSH1 , controlled by the promoter of a gene encoding a tobacco pathogenesis-related protein ( PR1a ) . These lines were morphologically abnormal , with wrinkled and/or lobed leaves . Histological analysis of shoot apex primordia indicates arrest of lateral leaf blade expansion , often resulting in asymmetric and anisotrophic growth of leaf blades . Other notable abnormalities included abnormal or arrested development of leaf lateral veins . Interestingly , OHS1 expression was undetectable in mature leaves with the aberrant morphological features . Thus , OSH1 expression in mature leaves is not necessary for abnormal leaf development . Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses indicate that PR1a-OSH1 is expressed only in the shoot apical meristem and in very young leaf primordia . Therefore , the aberrant morphological features are an indirect consequence of ectopic OSH1 gene expression . The only abnormality observed in it issues expressing the transgene was periclinal ( rather than anticlinal ) division in mesophyll cells during leaf blade initiation . This generates thicker leaf blades and disrupts the mesophyll cell layers , from which vascular it issues differentiate . The OSH1 product appears to affect the mechanism controlling the orientation of the plane of cell division , resulting in abnormal periclinal division of mesophyll cell , which in turn results in the gross morphological abnormalities observed in the transgenic lines .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Transgenic tobacco plants were generated carrying a rice homeobox gene , OSH1 , controlled by the promoter of a gene encoding a tobacco pathogenesis-related protein ( PR1a ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Thus , OSH1 expression in mature leaves is not necessary for abnormal leaf development .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Therefore , the aberrant morphological features are an indirect consequence of ectopic OSH1 gene expression .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: The OSH1 product appears to affect the mechanism controlling the orientation of the plane of cell division , resulting in abnormal periclinal division of mesophyll cell , which in turn results in the gross morphological abnormalities observed in the transgenic lines .
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