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16143 matches found in 10766 documents. Search time: 0.249 seconds.
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Score: 19.00
Title: Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed : the role of animal feeding trials .
Year: 2008
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18328408
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed , as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms .
[ Sen. 34, subscore: 2.00 ]: With respect to the detection of potential unintended effects in whole GM food and feed , it is unlikely that substances present in small amounts and with a low toxic potential will result in any observable ( unintended ) effects in a 90-day rodent feeding study , as they would be below the no-observed-effect-level and thus of unlikely impact to human health at normal intake levels .
[ Sen. 35, subscore: 2.00 ]: Laboratory animal feeding studies of 90-days duration appear to be sufficient to pick up adverse effects of diverse compounds that would also give adverse effects after chronic exposure .
[ Sen. 37, subscore: 2.00 ]: The 90-day rodent feeding study is not designed to detect effects on reproduction or development other than effects on adult reproductive organ weights and histopathology .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The safety assessment is focussed on ( i ) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible changes in the level of natural constituents beyond normal variation , and on the characteristics of the GM food and feed , and ( ii ) the possible occurrence of unintended ( unexpected ) effects in GM plants due to genetic modification .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: In order to identify these effects a comparative phenotypic and molecular analysis of the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart is carried out , in parallel with a targeted analysis of single specific compounds , which represent important metabolic pathways in the plant like macro and micro nutrients , known anti-nutrients and toxins .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Significant differences may be indicative of the occurrence of unintended effects , which require further investigation .
[ Sen. 16, subscore: 1.00 ]: The majority of these experiments did not indicate clinical effects or histopathological abnormalities in organs or it issues of exposed animals .
[ Sen. 17, subscore: 1.00 ]: In some cases adverse effects were noted , which were difficult to interpret due to shortcomings in the studies .
[ Sen. 28, subscore: 1.00 ]: The aim of the 90-days rodent feeding study with the whole GM food and feed is to assess potential unintended effects of toxicological and/or nutritional relevance and to establish whether the GM food and feed is as safe and nutritious as its traditional comparator rather than determining qualitative and quantitative intrinsic toxicity of defined food constituents .
[ Sen. 31, subscore: 1.00 ]: A 90-day animal feeding trial has a large capacity ( sensitivity and specificity ) to detect potential toxicological effects of single well defined compounds .
[ Sen. 36, subscore: 1.00 ]: This conclusion is based on literature data from studies investigating whether toxicological effects are adequately identified in 3-month subchronic studies in rodents , by comparing findings at 3 and 24 months for a range of different chemicals .
[ Sen. 38, subscore: 1.00 ]: Analyses of available data indicate that , for a wide range of substances , reproductive and developmental effects are not potentially more sensitive endpoints than those examined in subchronic toxicity tests .
[ Sen. 39, subscore: 1.00 ]: Should there be structural alerts for reproductive/developmental effects or other indications from data available on a GM food and feed , then these tests should be considered .
[ Sen. 41, subscore: 1.00 ]: Results obtained from testing GM food and feed in rodents indicate that large ( at least 100-fold ) safety margins exist between animal exposure levels without observed adverse effects and estimated human daily intake .
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Score: 18.00
Title: Dynamic analysis of QTLs on tiller number in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) with single segment substitution lines .
Author: Liu G Zhu H Zhang G Li L Ye G
Year: 2012
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22350178
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 5.00 ]: Most of the QTLs show significant interactions with planting seasons and cropping densities , but the additive effects of QTLs Tn3-1 and Tn3-2 , the dominant effects of QTL Tn7 and Tn8 , and the epistatic effects of 14 pairs of QTLs are stable across seasons and the dominant effect of QTL Tn3-3 and the epistatic effects of QTL pairs Tn2-1/Tn6-2 , Tn2-1/Tn9 and Tn3-3/Tn6-3 are nearly consistent across cropping densities .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 4.00 ]: Eight QTLs are detected with significant additive effects and/or additive x season and/or additive x density interaction effects at least at one developmental stage , and all QTLs have significant dominant and epistatic effects and/or interaction effects involved in .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: QTL effects including main effects ( additive , dominance and epistasis ) , QTL x season and QTL x density interaction effects were analyzed at each measured stage .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The additive , dominant and epistatic effects of the 12 QTLs as well as their interaction effects with the seasons and with the densities all display dynamic changes with the development .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: For most of the QTLs dominant effects are much bigger than additive effects , showing overdominance .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: Additive and dominant effects of these QTLs are mostly positive while epistatic effects are negative and minor .
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Score: 15.00
Title: Detection and characterization of glutathione S-transferase activity in rice EF-1betabetagamma and EF-1gamma expressed in Escherichia coli .
Author: Kobayashi S Kidou S Ejiri S
Year: 2001
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11676472
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: EF-1beta and EF-1beta catalyze the GDP/GTP exchange on EF-1alpha .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Plant elongation factor EF-1 consists of four subunits ( EF-1alphabetabetagamma ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: This report demonstrates that rice EF-1betabetagamma and recombinant EF-1gamma possess glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) activity .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: The EF-1betabetagamma or EF-1gamma-dependent GST activity is about one-fiftieth of the rice GST activity .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: The Km values of EF-1betabetagamma , EF-1gamma , and rice GST for glutathione and 1-chloro-2 , 4-dinitrobenzene are of about the same order .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: Although recombinant EF-1gamma is heat labile , active EF-1gamma was obtained by purifying it in the presence of 20% glycerol .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: EF-1alpha .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: However , the function of EF-1gamma , a subunit detected in eukaryotes , but not in prokaryotes remained unknown .
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Score: 15.00
Title: Particulate emission factors for mobile fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources .
Author: Watson JG Chow JC Chen LW Lowenthal DH Fujita EM Kuhns HD Sodeman DA Campbell DE Moosmuller H Zhu D Motallebi N
Year: 2011
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21458027
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: EMFAC2007 reported higher PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs than MOBILE 6 . 2 during winter , but not during summer , and neither model captured the variability of the measured EFs .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: EFs for biomass burning measured during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment ( FLAME ) were compared with EFs from the ARB Emission Estimation System ( EES ) model .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 2.00 ]: The EES model agreed with measured EFs for fuels with low moisture content but underestimated measured EFs for fuel with moisture content >40% .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: PM emission factors ( EFs ) for gasoline and diesel-fueled vehicles and biomass combustion were measured in several recent studies .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the Gas/Diesel Split Study ( GD-Split ) , PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs for heavy-duty diesel vehicles ( HDDV ) ranged from 0 . 2 to 2 g/mile and increased with vehicle age .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: EFs for HDDV estimated with the US EPA MOBILE 6 . 2 and California Air Resources Board ( ARB ) EMFAC2007 models correlated well with measured values .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs measured for gasoline vehicles were two orders of magnitude lower than those for HDDV and did not correlate with model estimates .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the Kansas City Study , PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs for gasoline-powered vehicles ( eg , passenger cars and light trucks ) were generally <0 . 03 g/mile and were higher in winter than summer .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Total PM EFs for heavy-duty diesel military vehicles ranged from 0 . 18+/-0 . 03 and 1 . 20+/-0 . 12 g/kg fuel , corresponding to 0 . 3 and 2 g/mile , respectively .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: The highest PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs ( 76 . 8+/-37 . 5 g/kg ) were measured for wet ( >50% moisture content ) Ponderosa Pine needles .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: EFs were generally <20 g/kg when moisture content was <20% .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: Average EFs for dry chamise , rice straw , and dry grass were within a factor of three of values adopted by ARB in Californias San Joaquin Valley ( SJV ) .
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Score: 13.00
Title: [ Genetic effects of mineral elements of Fe , Zn , Mn and P in black pericarp rice grains ]
Author: Zhang MW Du YQ Peng ZM He CX .
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11132495
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 5.00 ]: The seed direct genetic effects were more important than the maternal genetic effects for Fe , Zn , Mn contents , and seed direct additive effects constituted a major part of their genetic effects , whereas seed direct additive , maternal additive and dominant effects formed the main part in the inheritance of P content .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: The results indicated that the contents of all the four mineral elements were controlled by seed direct genetic effects , maternal genetic effects as well as by cytoplasmic effects .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Complete diallel crosses with seven varieties of black pericarp rice were conducted in one year to analyze the genetic effects on main mineral elements of Fe , Zn , Mn and P contents in kernels of parents and their F1S and F2S , using the full genetic model including triploid endosperm , cytoplasmic and maternal effects on quantitative traits of seeds in cereal crops .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The estimate values of narrow heritabilites of seed direct genetic effects were high for Fe , Zn and Mn contents , while those of seed and maternal effects were intermediate for P content .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The heritabilities of seed direct effects of the 4 mineral element contents were all highly significant .
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Score: 13.00
Title: Developmental behavior of gene expression for brown rice thickness under different environments .
Author: Shi CH Wu JG Wu P
Year: 2002
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12203916
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 3.00 ]: The dynamic changes of genetic effects , including main effects , and genotype x environment ( GE ) interaction effects on brown rice thickness ( BRT ) across environments were investigated by using the developmental genetic models .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The results indicate that genetic effects , especially GE interaction effects of triploid endosperm genes , cytoplasm genes , and diploid maternal plant genes were important to the performance of BRT at various filling stages of rice .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The differences in net genetic effects under different environments for endosperm , cytoplasm , and maternal plant genes were found , and the net GE interaction effects were more important to BRT at the early filling and mature stages of rice .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Some net genetic effects , especially for net cytoplasm effects spasmodically expressed , were detected among filling stages .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Higher additive and cytoplasm main effects , along with their interaction effects , were found , which would be useful for selection for BRT in breeding programs .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The BRT was genetically controlled by the net genetic effects of genes expressed at the early and late filling stages ( 1-7 days and 15-21 days after flowering , respectively ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The predicated genetic effects at different filling stages show that the parents of V20 and Xieqingzao were better than others for improving BRT of progenies .
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Score: 13.00
Title: Does Cryotherapy Improve Outcomes With Soft it issue Injury?
Author: Hubbard TJ Denegar CR .
Year: 2004
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15496998
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: DATA SOURCES : Studies were identified by using a computer-based literature search on a total of 8 databases : MEDLINE , Proquest , ISI Web of Science , Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health ( CINAHL ) on Ovid , Allied and Complementary Medicine Database ( AMED ) on Ovid , Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness , and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register ( Central ) .
[ Sen. 30, subscore: 1.00 ]: Data in that study were insufficient to calculate effect size .
[ Sen. 31, subscore: 1.00 ]: Nine studies did not provide data of the key outcome measures , so individual study effect estimates could not be calculated .
[ Sen. 33, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ice submersion with simultaneous exercises was significantly more effective than heat and contrast therapy plus simultaneous exercises at reducing swelling .
[ Sen. 34, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ice was reported to be no different from ice and low-frequency or high-frequency electric stimulation in effect on swelling , pain , and range of motion .
[ Sen. 35, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ice alone seemed to be more effective than applying no form of cryotherapy after minor knee surgery in terms of pain , but no differences were reported for range of motion and girth .
[ Sen. 37, subscore: 1.00 ]: Evidence was marginal that a single simultaneous treatment with ice and compression is no more effective than no cryotherapy after an ankle sprain .
[ Sen. 38, subscore: 1.00 ]: The authors reported ice to be no more effective than rehabilitation only with regard to pain , swelling , and range of motion .
[ Sen. 39, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ice and compression seemed to be significantly more effective than ice alone in terms of decreasing pain .
[ Sen. 41, subscore: 1.00 ]: Lastly , in 8 studies , there seemed to be little difference in the effectiveness of ice and compression compared with compression alone .
[ Sen. 43, subscore: 1.00 ]: CONCLUSIONS : Based on the available evidence , cryotherapy seems to be effective in decreasing pain .
[ Sen. 44, subscore: 1.00 ]: In comparison with other rehabilitation techniques , the efficacy of cryotherapy has been questioned .
[ Sen. 45, subscore: 1.00 ]: The exact effect of cryotherapy on more frequently treated acute injuries ( eg , muscle strains and contusions ) has not been fully elucidated .
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Score: 12.00
Title: The Greenhouse effect : impacts of ultraviolet-B ( UV-B ) radiation , carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) , and ozone ( O3 ) on vegetation .
Author: Krupa SV Kickert RN .
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15092357
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 18, subscore: 3.00 ]: Biomass responses of plants to enhanced UV-B can be negative ( adverse effect ) ; positive ( stimulatory effect ) or no effect ( tolerant ) .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Recent studies on radiative cloud forcing show that clouds may have an excess cooling effect to compensate for a doubling of global CO2 concentrations .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effects of UV-B , CO2 and O3 on plants have been studied under growth chamber , greenhouse and field conditions .
[ Sen. 15, subscore: 1.00 ]: Few studies , if any , have examined the joint effects of more than one variable on plant response .
[ Sen. 24, subscore: 1.00 ]: Historically , plant biologists have studied the effects of CO2 on plants for many decades .
[ Sen. 30, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the pre-occupation of loss in the O3 column , any increases in tropospheric O3 concentrations may be undermined relative to vegetation effects .
[ Sen. 31, subscore: 1.00 ]: As with the other stress factors , the effects of O3 have been studied both under controlled and field conditions .
[ Sen. 36, subscore: 1.00 ]: The joint effects of UV-B , CO2 and O3 are poorly understood .
[ Sen. 37, subscore: 1.00 ]: Based on the literature of plant response to individual stress factors and chemical and physical climatology of North America , we conclude that nine different crops may be sensitive to the joint effects : three grain and six vegetable crops ( sorghum , oat , rice , pea , bean , potato , lettuce , cucumber and tomato ) .
[ Sen. 40, subscore: 1.00 ]: In conclusion there is much concern for global climate change and its possible effects on vegetation .
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Score: 12.00
Title: Cytoplasm affects grain weight and filled-grain ratio in indica rice .
Author: Tao D Xu P Zhou J Deng X Li J Deng W Yang J Yang G Li Q Hu F
Year: 2011
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21631950
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: RESULTS : For five of the seven traits , analysis of variance showed that there were no significant cytoplasmic effects or interactions involving cytoplasmic effects .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: Strong cytoplasmic effects were observed only at Kunming and in only two of the three nuclear backgrounds ; in the Jianchenkugu nuclear background , there was no evidence of strong cytoplasmic effects at either location .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 2.00 ]: The results extend our previous findings with japonica rice , suggesting that the selection of appropriate cytoplasmic germplasm is broadly important in rice breeding , and that cytoplasmic effects on some traits , such as filled-grain ratio , can not be generalized ; effects should be evaluated in the nuclear backgrounds of interest and at multiple locations .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Cytoplasmic effects on agronomic traits--involving cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes of either different species or different cultivars--are well documented in wheat but have seldom been demonstrated in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: To detect cytoplasmic effects , we introgressed the nuclear genomes of three indica cultivars--Guichao 2 , Jiangchengkugu , and Dianrui 449--into the cytoplasms of six indica cultivars - Dijiaowujian , Shenglixian , Zhuzhan , Nantehao , Aizizhan , and Peta .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effects of 6 cytoplasm sources , 3 nucleus sources , 2 locations and their interactions were estimated for plant height , panicle length , panicle number per plant , spikelet number per panicle , grain weight , filled-grain ratio , and yield per plot .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effect of cytoplasm on 1000-grain weight was highly significant .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: The cytoplasm source had a significant effect on grain weight across the two experimental locations .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: There was also a significant cytoplasmic effect on filled-grain ratio , but only in two of three nuclear background and at one of the two locations .
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Score: 11.00
Title: Heat-stress induced synthesis of chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor ( EF-Tu ) in a heat-tolerant maize line .
Author: Bhadula SK Elthon TE Habben JE Helentjaris TG Jiao S Ristic Z
Year: 2001
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11289600
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: A full-length maize EF-Tu cDNA ( Zmeftu1 ) , previously isolated from the B73 line of maize , was used as a probe for northern blot analysis of RNA extracted from the ZPBL 1304 maize line ( the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of Zmeftu1 are 88% identical to the rice EF-Tu sequence ) .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 2.00 ]: An increase in EF-Tu transcript levels during heat stress was accompanied by increased levels of the EF-Tu protein .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 2.00 ]: The maize EF-Tu polypeptides showed > 80% sequence similarity with the bacterial EF-Tu , which has recently been shown to function as a molecular chaperone and to play a role in the protection of other proteins from thermal denaturation ( Caldas et al , 1998 , J Biol . Chem . 273 : 11478-11482 ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Of the five polypeptides of 45 kDa , three polypeptides , including the two most abundant ones , yielded amino acid sequences similar to the chloroplast and bacterial protein synthesis elongation factor ( EF-Tu ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: This was further confirmed using an antibody raised against maize EF-Tu , which showed a very strong reaction with the 45-kDa heatshock protein ( s ) .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Northern blots showed a 1 . 85-fold increase in steady-state levels of EF-Tu mRNA during heat stress .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: Isolated chloroplasts from heat-stressed plants also had higher levels of EF-Tu as compared to control chloroplasts .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: It is hypothesized that chloroplast EF-Tu of the ZPBL 1304 maize line plays an important role in the development of thermotolerance .
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