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Score: 19.00
Title: Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed : the role of animal feeding trials .
Author:
Journal: Food Chem Toxicol Citation: V : 46 Suppl 1 P : S2-70 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18328408 Accession (PMID): 18328408
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed , as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms .
[ Sen. 34, subscore: 2.00 ]: With respect to the detection of potential unintended effects in whole GM food and feed , it is unlikely that substances present in small amounts and with a low toxic potential will result in any observable ( unintended ) effects in a 90-day rodent feeding study , as they would be below the no-observed-effect-level and thus of unlikely impact to human health at normal intake levels .
[ Sen. 35, subscore: 2.00 ]: Laboratory animal feeding studies of 90-days duration appear to be sufficient to pick up adverse effects of diverse compounds that would also give adverse effects after chronic exposure .
[ Sen. 37, subscore: 2.00 ]: The 90-day rodent feeding study is not designed to detect effects on reproduction or development other than effects on adult reproductive organ weights and histopathology .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The safety assessment is focussed on ( i ) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible changes in the level of natural constituents beyond normal variation , and on the characteristics of the GM food and feed , and ( ii ) the possible occurrence of unintended ( unexpected ) effects in GM plants due to genetic modification .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: In order to identify these effects a comparative phenotypic and molecular analysis of the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart is carried out , in parallel with a targeted analysis of single specific compounds , which represent important metabolic pathways in the plant like macro and micro nutrients , known anti-nutrients and toxins .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Significant differences may be indicative of the occurrence of unintended effects , which require further investigation .
[ Sen. 16, subscore: 1.00 ]: The majority of these experiments did not indicate clinical effects or histopathological abnormalities in organs or it issues of exposed animals .
[ Sen. 17, subscore: 1.00 ]: In some cases adverse effects were noted , which were difficult to interpret due to shortcomings in the studies .
[ Sen. 28, subscore: 1.00 ]: The aim of the 90-days rodent feeding study with the whole GM food and feed is to assess potential unintended effects of toxicological and/or nutritional relevance and to establish whether the GM food and feed is as safe and nutritious as its traditional comparator rather than determining qualitative and quantitative intrinsic toxicity of defined food constituents .
[ Sen. 31, subscore: 1.00 ]: A 90-day animal feeding trial has a large capacity ( sensitivity and specificity ) to detect potential toxicological effects of single well defined compounds .
[ Sen. 36, subscore: 1.00 ]: This conclusion is based on literature data from studies investigating whether toxicological effects are adequately identified in 3-month subchronic studies in rodents , by comparing findings at 3 and 24 months for a range of different chemicals .
[ Sen. 38, subscore: 1.00 ]: Analyses of available data indicate that , for a wide range of substances , reproductive and developmental effects are not potentially more sensitive endpoints than those examined in subchronic toxicity tests .
[ Sen. 39, subscore: 1.00 ]: Should there be structural alerts for reproductive/developmental effects or other indications from data available on a GM food and feed , then these tests should be considered .
[ Sen. 41, subscore: 1.00 ]: Results obtained from testing GM food and feed in rodents indicate that large ( at least 100-fold ) safety margins exist between animal exposure levels without observed adverse effects and estimated human daily intake .
Score: 18.00
Title: Dynamic analysis of QTLs on tiller number in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) with single segment substitution lines .
Author: Liu G Zhu H Zhang G Li L Ye G
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : 125 P : 143-53 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22350178 Accession (PMID): 22350178
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 5.00 ]: Most of the QTLs show significant interactions with planting seasons and cropping densities , but the additive effects of QTLs Tn3-1 and Tn3-2 , the dominant effects of QTL Tn7 and Tn8 , and the epistatic effects of 14 pairs of QTLs are stable across seasons and the dominant effect of QTL Tn3-3 and the epistatic effects of QTL pairs Tn2-1/Tn6-2 , Tn2-1/Tn9 and Tn3-3/Tn6-3 are nearly consistent across cropping densities .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 4.00 ]: Eight QTLs are detected with significant additive effects and/or additive x season and/or additive x density interaction effects at least at one developmental stage , and all QTLs have significant dominant and epistatic effects and/or interaction effects involved in .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: QTL effects including main effects ( additive , dominance and epistasis ) , QTL x season and QTL x density interaction effects were analyzed at each measured stage .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The additive , dominant and epistatic effects of the 12 QTLs as well as their interaction effects with the seasons and with the densities all display dynamic changes with the development .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: For most of the QTLs dominant effects are much bigger than additive effects , showing overdominance .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: Additive and dominant effects of these QTLs are mostly positive while epistatic effects are negative and minor .
Score: 15.00
Title: Detection and characterization of glutathione S-transferase activity in rice EF-1betabetagamma and EF-1gamma expressed in Escherichia coli .
Author: Kobayashi S Kidou S Ejiri S
Journal: Biochem . Biophys . Res . Commun . Citation: V : 288 ( 3 ) P : 509-14 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11676472 Accession (PMID): 11676472
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: EF-1beta and EF-1beta catalyze the GDP/GTP exchange on EF-1alpha .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Plant elongation factor EF-1 consists of four subunits ( EF-1alphabetabetagamma ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: This report demonstrates that rice EF-1betabetagamma and recombinant EF-1gamma possess glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) activity .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: The EF-1betabetagamma or EF-1gamma-dependent GST activity is about one-fiftieth of the rice GST activity .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: The Km values of EF-1betabetagamma , EF-1gamma , and rice GST for glutathione and 1-chloro-2 , 4-dinitrobenzene are of about the same order .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: Although recombinant EF-1gamma is heat labile , active EF-1gamma was obtained by purifying it in the presence of 20% glycerol .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: EF-1alpha .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: However , the function of EF-1gamma , a subunit detected in eukaryotes , but not in prokaryotes remained unknown .
Score: 15.00
Title: Particulate emission factors for mobile fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources .
Author: Watson JG Chow JC Chen LW Lowenthal DH Fujita EM Kuhns HD Sodeman DA Campbell DE Moosmuller H Zhu D Motallebi N
Journal: Sci Total Environ Citation: V : 409 P : 2384-96 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21458027 Accession (PMID): 21458027
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: EMFAC2007 reported higher PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs than MOBILE 6 . 2 during winter , but not during summer , and neither model captured the variability of the measured EFs .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: EFs for biomass burning measured during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment ( FLAME ) were compared with EFs from the ARB Emission Estimation System ( EES ) model .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 2.00 ]: The EES model agreed with measured EFs for fuels with low moisture content but underestimated measured EFs for fuel with moisture content >40% .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: PM emission factors ( EFs ) for gasoline and diesel-fueled vehicles and biomass combustion were measured in several recent studies .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the Gas/Diesel Split Study ( GD-Split ) , PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs for heavy-duty diesel vehicles ( HDDV ) ranged from 0 . 2 to 2 g/mile and increased with vehicle age .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: EFs for HDDV estimated with the US EPA MOBILE 6 . 2 and California Air Resources Board ( ARB ) EMFAC2007 models correlated well with measured values .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs measured for gasoline vehicles were two orders of magnitude lower than those for HDDV and did not correlate with model estimates .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the Kansas City Study , PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs for gasoline-powered vehicles ( eg , passenger cars and light trucks ) were generally <0 . 03 g/mile and were higher in winter than summer .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Total PM EFs for heavy-duty diesel military vehicles ranged from 0 . 18+/-0 . 03 and 1 . 20+/-0 . 12 g/kg fuel , corresponding to 0 . 3 and 2 g/mile , respectively .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: The highest PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs ( 76 . 8+/-37 . 5 g/kg ) were measured for wet ( >50% moisture content ) Ponderosa Pine needles .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: EFs were generally <20 g/kg when moisture content was <20% .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: Average EFs for dry chamise , rice straw , and dry grass were within a factor of three of values adopted by ARB in Californias San Joaquin Valley ( SJV ) .
Score: 13.00
Title: [ Genetic effects of mineral elements of Fe , Zn , Mn and P in black pericarp rice grains ]
Author: Zhang MW Du YQ Peng ZM He CX .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 27 ( 9 ) P : 792-9 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11132495 Accession (PMID): 11132495
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 5.00 ]: The seed direct genetic effects were more important than the maternal genetic effects for Fe , Zn , Mn contents , and seed direct additive effects constituted a major part of their genetic effects , whereas seed direct additive , maternal additive and dominant effects formed the main part in the inheritance of P content .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: The results indicated that the contents of all the four mineral elements were controlled by seed direct genetic effects , maternal genetic effects as well as by cytoplasmic effects .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Complete diallel crosses with seven varieties of black pericarp rice were conducted in one year to analyze the genetic effects on main mineral elements of Fe , Zn , Mn and P contents in kernels of parents and their F1S and F2S , using the full genetic model including triploid endosperm , cytoplasmic and maternal effects on quantitative traits of seeds in cereal crops .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The estimate values of narrow heritabilites of seed direct genetic effects were high for Fe , Zn and Mn contents , while those of seed and maternal effects were intermediate for P content .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The heritabilities of seed direct effects of the 4 mineral element contents were all highly significant .
Score: 13.00
Title: Developmental behavior of gene expression for brown rice thickness under different environments .
Author: Shi CH Wu JG Wu P
Journal: Genesis Citation: V : 33 ( 4 ) P : 185-90 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12203916 Accession (PMID): 12203916
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 3.00 ]: The dynamic changes of genetic effects , including main effects , and genotype x environment ( GE ) interaction effects on brown rice thickness ( BRT ) across environments were investigated by using the developmental genetic models .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The results indicate that genetic effects , especially GE interaction effects of triploid endosperm genes , cytoplasm genes , and diploid maternal plant genes were important to the performance of BRT at various filling stages of rice .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The differences in net genetic effects under different environments for endosperm , cytoplasm , and maternal plant genes were found , and the net GE interaction effects were more important to BRT at the early filling and mature stages of rice .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Some net genetic effects , especially for net cytoplasm effects spasmodically expressed , were detected among filling stages .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Higher additive and cytoplasm main effects , along with their interaction effects , were found , which would be useful for selection for BRT in breeding programs .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The BRT was genetically controlled by the net genetic effects of genes expressed at the early and late filling stages ( 1-7 days and 15-21 days after flowering , respectively ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The predicated genetic effects at different filling stages show that the parents of V20 and Xieqingzao were better than others for improving BRT of progenies .
Score: 13.00
Title: Does Cryotherapy Improve Outcomes With Soft it issue Injury?
Author: Hubbard TJ Denegar CR .
Journal: Citation: V : 39 ( 3 ) P : 278-279 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15496998 Accession (PMID): 15496998
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: DATA SOURCES : Studies were identified by using a computer-based literature search on a total of 8 databases : MEDLINE , Proquest , ISI Web of Science , Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health ( CINAHL ) on Ovid , Allied and Complementary Medicine Database ( AMED ) on Ovid , Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness , and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register ( Central ) .
[ Sen. 30, subscore: 1.00 ]: Data in that study were insufficient to calculate effect size .
[ Sen. 31, subscore: 1.00 ]: Nine studies did not provide data of the key outcome measures , so individual study effect estimates could not be calculated .
[ Sen. 33, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ice submersion with simultaneous exercises was significantly more effective than heat and contrast therapy plus simultaneous exercises at reducing swelling .
[ Sen. 34, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ice was reported to be no different from ice and low-frequency or high-frequency electric stimulation in effect on swelling , pain , and range of motion .
[ Sen. 35, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ice alone seemed to be more effective than applying no form of cryotherapy after minor knee surgery in terms of pain , but no differences were reported for range of motion and girth .
[ Sen. 37, subscore: 1.00 ]: Evidence was marginal that a single simultaneous treatment with ice and compression is no more effective than no cryotherapy after an ankle sprain .
[ Sen. 38, subscore: 1.00 ]: The authors reported ice to be no more effective than rehabilitation only with regard to pain , swelling , and range of motion .
[ Sen. 39, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ice and compression seemed to be significantly more effective than ice alone in terms of decreasing pain .
[ Sen. 41, subscore: 1.00 ]: Lastly , in 8 studies , there seemed to be little difference in the effectiveness of ice and compression compared with compression alone .
[ Sen. 43, subscore: 1.00 ]: CONCLUSIONS : Based on the available evidence , cryotherapy seems to be effective in decreasing pain .
[ Sen. 44, subscore: 1.00 ]: In comparison with other rehabilitation techniques , the efficacy of cryotherapy has been questioned .
[ Sen. 45, subscore: 1.00 ]: The exact effect of cryotherapy on more frequently treated acute injuries ( eg , muscle strains and contusions ) has not been fully elucidated .
Score: 12.00
Title: The Greenhouse effect : impacts of ultraviolet-B ( UV-B ) radiation , carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) , and ozone ( O3 ) on vegetation .
Author: Krupa SV Kickert RN .
Journal: Environ . Pollut . Citation: V : 61 ( 4 ) P : 263-393 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15092357 Accession (PMID): 15092357
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 18, subscore: 3.00 ]: Biomass responses of plants to enhanced UV-B can be negative ( adverse effect ) ; positive ( stimulatory effect ) or no effect ( tolerant ) .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Recent studies on radiative cloud forcing show that clouds may have an excess cooling effect to compensate for a doubling of global CO2 concentrations .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effects of UV-B , CO2 and O3 on plants have been studied under growth chamber , greenhouse and field conditions .
[ Sen. 15, subscore: 1.00 ]: Few studies , if any , have examined the joint effects of more than one variable on plant response .
[ Sen. 24, subscore: 1.00 ]: Historically , plant biologists have studied the effects of CO2 on plants for many decades .
[ Sen. 30, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the pre-occupation of loss in the O3 column , any increases in tropospheric O3 concentrations may be undermined relative to vegetation effects .
[ Sen. 31, subscore: 1.00 ]: As with the other stress factors , the effects of O3 have been studied both under controlled and field conditions .
[ Sen. 36, subscore: 1.00 ]: The joint effects of UV-B , CO2 and O3 are poorly understood .
[ Sen. 37, subscore: 1.00 ]: Based on the literature of plant response to individual stress factors and chemical and physical climatology of North America , we conclude that nine different crops may be sensitive to the joint effects : three grain and six vegetable crops ( sorghum , oat , rice , pea , bean , potato , lettuce , cucumber and tomato ) .
[ Sen. 40, subscore: 1.00 ]: In conclusion there is much concern for global climate change and its possible effects on vegetation .
Score: 12.00
Title: Cytoplasm affects grain weight and filled-grain ratio in indica rice .
Author: Tao D Xu P Zhou J Deng X Li J Deng W Yang J Yang G Li Q Hu F
Journal: BMC Genet Citation: V : 12 P : 53 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21631950 Accession (PMID): 21631950
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: RESULTS : For five of the seven traits , analysis of variance showed that there were no significant cytoplasmic effects or interactions involving cytoplasmic effects .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: Strong cytoplasmic effects were observed only at Kunming and in only two of the three nuclear backgrounds ; in the Jianchenkugu nuclear background , there was no evidence of strong cytoplasmic effects at either location .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 2.00 ]: The results extend our previous findings with japonica rice , suggesting that the selection of appropriate cytoplasmic germplasm is broadly important in rice breeding , and that cytoplasmic effects on some traits , such as filled-grain ratio , can not be generalized ; effects should be evaluated in the nuclear backgrounds of interest and at multiple locations .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Cytoplasmic effects on agronomic traits--involving cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes of either different species or different cultivars--are well documented in wheat but have seldom been demonstrated in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: To detect cytoplasmic effects , we introgressed the nuclear genomes of three indica cultivars--Guichao 2 , Jiangchengkugu , and Dianrui 449--into the cytoplasms of six indica cultivars - Dijiaowujian , Shenglixian , Zhuzhan , Nantehao , Aizizhan , and Peta .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effects of 6 cytoplasm sources , 3 nucleus sources , 2 locations and their interactions were estimated for plant height , panicle length , panicle number per plant , spikelet number per panicle , grain weight , filled-grain ratio , and yield per plot .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effect of cytoplasm on 1000-grain weight was highly significant .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: The cytoplasm source had a significant effect on grain weight across the two experimental locations .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: There was also a significant cytoplasmic effect on filled-grain ratio , but only in two of three nuclear background and at one of the two locations .
Score: 11.00
Title: Heat-stress induced synthesis of chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor ( EF-Tu ) in a heat-tolerant maize line .
Author: Bhadula SK Elthon TE Habben JE Helentjaris TG Jiao S Ristic Z
Journal: Planta Citation: V : 212 ( 3 ) P : 359-66 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11289600 Accession (PMID): 11289600
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: A full-length maize EF-Tu cDNA ( Zmeftu1 ) , previously isolated from the B73 line of maize , was used as a probe for northern blot analysis of RNA extracted from the ZPBL 1304 maize line ( the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of Zmeftu1 are 88% identical to the rice EF-Tu sequence ) .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 2.00 ]: An increase in EF-Tu transcript levels during heat stress was accompanied by increased levels of the EF-Tu protein .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 2.00 ]: The maize EF-Tu polypeptides showed > 80% sequence similarity with the bacterial EF-Tu , which has recently been shown to function as a molecular chaperone and to play a role in the protection of other proteins from thermal denaturation ( Caldas et al , 1998 , J Biol . Chem . 273 : 11478-11482 ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Of the five polypeptides of 45 kDa , three polypeptides , including the two most abundant ones , yielded amino acid sequences similar to the chloroplast and bacterial protein synthesis elongation factor ( EF-Tu ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: This was further confirmed using an antibody raised against maize EF-Tu , which showed a very strong reaction with the 45-kDa heatshock protein ( s ) .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Northern blots showed a 1 . 85-fold increase in steady-state levels of EF-Tu mRNA during heat stress .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: Isolated chloroplasts from heat-stressed plants also had higher levels of EF-Tu as compared to control chloroplasts .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: It is hypothesized that chloroplast EF-Tu of the ZPBL 1304 maize line plays an important role in the development of thermotolerance .
Score: 11.00
Title: Endocannabinoids and pain : spinal and peripheral analgesia in inflammation and neuropathy .
Author: Rice AS Farquhar-Smith WP Nagy I
Journal: Prostaglandins Leukot . Essent . Fatty Acids Citation: V : 66 ( 2-3 ) P : 243-56 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12052040 Accession (PMID): 12052040
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 3.00 ]: Since a major goal in the development of cannabinoid-based analgesics is to divorce the antinociceptive effects from the psychotrophic effects , the discussion will focus on the antinociceptive effects produced at the spinal cord and/or peripheral level as these areas are the most attractive targets in this regard .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: This review discusses the analgesic effects of endocannabinoids at spinal and peripheral levels , firstly by describing the physiological framework for analgesia and secondly by reviewing the evidence for analgesic effects of endocannabinoids obtained using animal models of clinical pain conditions . In the spinal cord , CB ( 1 ) receptors have been demonstrated in laminae of the dorsal horn intimately concerned with the processing of nociceptive information and the modulation thereof .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Whilst a proportion of the peripheral analgesic effect of endocannabinoids can be attributed to a neuronal mechanism acting through CB ( 1 ) receptors expressed by primary afferent neurones , the antiinflammatory actions of endocannabinoids , mediated through CB ( 2 ) receptors , also appears to contribute to local analgesic effects .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Possible mechanisms of this CB ( 2 ) -mediated effect include the attenuation of NGF-induced mast cell degranulation and of neutrophil accumulation , both of which are processes known to contribute to the generation of inflammatory hyperalgesia . The analgesic effects of cannabinoids have been demonstrated in models of somatic and visceral inflammatory pain and of neuropathic pain , the latter being an important area of therapeutic need . Analgesia is one of the principal therapeutic targets of cannabinoids .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: This review will discuss the analgesic effects of endocannabinoids in relation to two areas of therapeutic need , persistent inflammation and neuropathic pain .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: A mechanistic discussion of the "framework" for analgesia will be followed by a description of studies examining the role of endocannabinoids in relieving pain ; since the elucidation of these effects was undertaken using synthetic cannabinoids , reference will also be made to such studies , in the context of endocannabinoids .
Score: 11.00
Title: [ Genetic effects on grain shape traits of indica black pericarp rice and their genetic correlations with main mineral element contents in grains ]
Author: Zhang MW Guo BJ Peng ZM .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 29 ( 8 ) P : 688-95 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12200859 Accession (PMID): 12200859
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 4.00 ]: The seed direct genetic effects were more important than the maternal genetic effects for grain shape traits , and seed direct additive effects constituted a major part of their genetic effects .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: The results indicated that the grain shape traits were controlled by seed direct genetic effects , maternal genetic effects as well as by cytoplasmic effects .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Complete diallel crosses with 7 varieties of indica black pericarp rice were conducted to analyze the genetic effects on grain shape traits such as 100-grain weight , grain length , grain width and length/width and their genetic correlations with main mineral elements of Fe , Zn , Mn and P contents in kernels of parents and their F1s and F2s , by using the full genetic model including seed , cytoplasmic and maternal effects on quantitative traits of seeds in cereal crops .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: The narrow heritabilities of seed direct effects were high for 100-grain weight , grain width and grain length/grain width , while those of seed and maternal effects were intermediate for grain length .
Score: 11.00
Title: Analysis on additive effects and additive-by-additive epistatic effects of QTLs for yield traits in a recombinant inbred line population of rice .
Author: Zhuang JY Fan YY Rao ZM Wu JL Xia YW Zheng KL .
Journal: Citation: V : 105 ( 8 ) P : 1137-1145 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12582891 Accession (PMID): 12582891
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 4.00 ]: The detection of additive effects and AA effects of a QTL interfered with each other , indicating that the detection of QTLs with main effects , as well as the magnitude and directions of the additive effects , might vary depending on their interactions with other loci .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: Thirty-one QTLs were detected to have significant additive effects for yield traits , of which 12 also exhibited significant epistatic effects .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: Sixteen significant additive-by-additive ( AA ) interactions were detected , of which nine occurred between QTLs with own additive effects ( M ( ep ) QTLs ) , four occurred between QTLs showing epistatic effects only ( epQTLs ) , and three occurred between M ( ep ) QTLs and epQTLs .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Generally , the contributions to the phenotypic variation were higher due to QTL main effects than to epistatic effects .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Significant GE interactions were found for six QTLs with additive effects and one AA interaction .
Score: 11.00
Title: Citrate transporters play a critical role in aluminium-stimulated citrate efflux in rice bean ( Vigna umbellata ) roots .
Author: Yang JL Zhang L Li YY You JF Wu P Zheng SJ .
Journal: Ann . Bot . Citation: V : 97 ( 4 ) P : 579-84 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16446286 Accession (PMID): 16446286
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: METHODS : The effects of several antagonists of anion channels and citrate carriers , and of the protein synthesis inhibitor , cycloheximide ( CHM ) on Al-stimulated citrate efflux and/or citrate content were examined by high-pressure liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) or an enzymatic method .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: KEY RESULTS : Both anion channel inhibitors and citrate carrier inhibitors can inhibit Al-stimulated citrate efflux , with anthracene-9-carboxylic acid ( A-9-C , an anion channel inhibitor ) and phenylisothiocyanate ( PI , a citrate carrier inhibitor ) the most effective inhibitors .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: CHM ( 20 microm ) also significantly inhibited Al-stimulated citrate efflux , confirming that de novo protein synthesis is required for Al-stimulated citrate efflux .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND AND AIMS : Aluminium ( Al ) stimulates the efflux of citrate from apices of rice bean ( Vigna umbellata ) roots .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: This response is delayed at least 3 h when roots are exposed to 50 microm Al , indicating that some inducible processes leading to citrate efflux are involved .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: However , the increase in citrate content preceded the efflux .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Furthermore , the release of citrate stimulated by the pulse treatment was inhibited by both A-9-C and PI , indicating the importance of the citrate carrier on the mitochondrial membrane and the anion channel on the plasma membrane for the Al-stimulated citrate efflux .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: CONCLUSIONS : These results indicate that the activation of genes possibly encoding citrate transporters plays a critical role in Al-stimulated citrate efflux .
Score: 11.00
Title: Identification of novel type III secretion effectors in Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae .
Author: Furutani A Takaoka M Sanada H Noguchi Y Oku T Tsuno K Ochiai H Tsuge S
Journal: Mol Plant Microbe Interact Citation: V : 22 P : 96-106 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19061406 Accession (PMID): 19061406
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 3.00 ]: Secretion of all but one effector was reduced in both HpaB ( ) and HpaP ( ) mutant strains , indicating that HpaB and HpaP are widely involved in efficient secretion of the effectors .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Interestingly , all these effectors were expressed in an HrpX-dependent manner , suggesting coregulation of effectors and the T3S system .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Many gram-negative bacteria secrete so-called effector proteins via a type III secretion ( T3S ) system .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Through genome screening for genes encoding potential T3S effectors , 60 candidates were selected from rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: oryzae MAFF311018 using these criteria : i ) homologs of known T3S effectors in plant-pathogenic bacteria , ii ) genes with expression regulated by hrp regulatory protein HrpX , or iii ) proteins with N-terminal amino acid patterns associated with T3S substrates of Pseudomonas syringae .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Of effector candidates tested with the Bordetella pertussis calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter for translocation into plant cells , 16 proteins were translocated in a T3S system-dependent manner .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Of these 16 proteins , nine were homologs of known effectors in other plant-pathogenic bacteria and seven were not .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Most of the effectors were widely conserved in Xanthomonas spp . ; however , some were specific to X oryzae .
Score: 11.00
Title: Breastfeeding promotion for infants in neonatal units : a systematic review and economic analysis .
Author: Renfrew MJ Craig D Dyson L McCormick F Rice S King SE Misso K Stenhouse E Williams AF
Journal: Health Technol Assess Citation: V : 13 P : 1-146 , iii-iv Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19728934 Accession (PMID): 19728934
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of peer support at home ( in Manila ) for mothers of term , low birthweight infants on any breastfeeding up to 24 weeks ( RR 2 . 18 , 95% CI 1 . 45 to 3 . 29 ) and exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 6 months ( RR 65 . 94 , 95% CI 4 . 12 to 1055 . 70 ) , and for the effectiveness of peer support in hospital and at home for mothers of infants in Special Care Baby Units on providing any breastmilk at 12 weeks [ odds ratio ( OR ) 2 . 81 , 95% CI 1 . 11 to 7 . 14 ; p = 0 . 01 ] .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions that promote or inhibit breastfeeding or feeding with breastmilk for infants admitted to neonatal units , and to identify an agenda for future research .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: DATA SOURCES : Electronic databases were searched ( including MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process Citations , EMBASE , CINAHL , Maternity and Infant Care , PsycINFO , British Nursing Index and Archive , Health Management Information Consortium , Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials , Science Citation Index , Pascal , Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences , MetaRegister of Controlled Trials , Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness , Health Technology Assessment Database , National Research Register ) from inception to February 2008 .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: To estimate long-term cost utility , a decision tree was developed to synthesise data on enhanced staff contact , breastmilk effectiveness , incidence of necrotising enterocolitis ( NEC ) and sepsis , resource use , survival and utilities .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: RESULTS : Forty-eight studies met the selection criteria for the effectiveness review , of which 65% ( 31/48 ) were RCTs , and 17% ( 8/48 ) were conducted in the UK .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: There is more limited evidence for the effectiveness of skilled professional support in a US Neonatal Intensive Care Unit on infants receiving any breastmilk at discharge ( OR 2 . 0 , 95% CI 1 . 2 to 3 . 2 , p = 0 . 004 ) .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: Lack of staff training is an important barrier to implementation of effective interventions .
[ Sen. 18, subscore: 1.00 ]: Our economic analysis found that additional skilled professional support in hospital was more effective and less costly ( due to reduced neonatal illness ) than normal staff contact .
[ Sen. 21, subscore: 1.00 ]: CONCLUSIONS : Despite the limitations of the evidence base , kangaroo skin-to-skin contact , peer support , simultaneous breastmilk pumping , multidisciplinary staff training and the Baby Friendly accreditation of the associated maternity hospital have been shown to be effective , and skilled support from trained staff in hospital has been shown to be potentially cost-effective .
[ Sen. 23, subscore: 1.00 ]: Many of these interventions inter-relate : it is unlikely that specific clinical interventions will be effective if used alone .
Score: 11.00
Title: CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSION FROM OPEN BURNING OF RICE STRAW .
Author: Oanh NT Bich TL Tipayarom D Manadhar BR Prapat P Simpson CD Liu LJ
Journal: Atmos Environ Citation: V : 45 P : 493-502 Year: 2011 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21243095 Accession (PMID): 21243095
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: In the hood experiments , EFs were found to be depending on the burning types ( spread or pile ) , moisture content and the combustion efficiency .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Emission from field burning of crop residue , a common practice in many parts of the world today , has potential effects on air quality , atmosphere and climate .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors ( EF ) in the field experiments .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The obtained EFs varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition , in the field experiments , burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions , ie wind .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF ( 20+/-8 g kg ( -1 ) RS ) than hood spread burning ( 4 . 7+/-2 . 2 g kg ( -1 ) RS ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM ( 2 . 5 ) with EF of 5 . 1+/-0 . 7 g m ( -2 ) or 8 . 3+/-2 . 7 g kg ( -1 ) RS burned .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: The coarse PM fraction ( PM ( 10-2 . 5 ) ) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small , hence the resulting EF of PM ( 10 ) ( 9 . 4+/-3 . 5 g kg ( -1 ) RS ) was not significantly higher than PM ( 2 . 5 ) .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission .
[ Sen. 15, subscore: 1.00 ]: For illustration , an estimation of the annual RS field burning in Thailand was made using the obtained in situ field burning EFs and preliminary burning activity data .
Score: 10.00
Title: Ozonation of textile wastewater : physicochemical and phytotoxic aspects .
Author: Radetski CM Rosa SM Rosa EV De Souza Sierra MM Simonatto EL .
Journal: Citation: V : 23 ( 5 ) P : 537-45 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12090258 Accession (PMID): 12090258
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 3.00 ]: In conclusion , ozonation was relatively effective in reducing physico-chemical parameters and phytotoxic effects of textile effluents .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 2.00 ]: Plant enzyme assays used in this study proved to be a sensitive tool in order to determine the toxicity of industrial effluents and may be used to evaluate efficiency of established ( or emergent ) wastewater treatment technology .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of ozonation as a technique to treat textile effluents .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Phytotoxicity tests carried out in solution with three plant species ( ie soybean , rice and wheat ) allowed us to compare toxicity data of both , raw and ozonated effluents .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The biomass ( fresh weight ) of the 3 plant species clearly decreases as a function of the increase in raw effluent concentration with LOEC values of 100% for rice and wheat , and 50% for soybean .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Activities of catalase and peroxidase in the 3 plant species exposed to the raw textile effluent were significantly different from plant controls .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Reduction in the phytotoxicity of textile effluent samples after ozonation is likely due to the elimination of the toxic organic fraction oxidized during this process .
Score: 10.00
Title: How do plants achieve tolerance to phosphorus deficiency? Small causes with big effects .
Author: Wissuwa M
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 133 ( 4 ) P : 1947-58 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14605228 Accession (PMID): 14605228
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: That same effect could be achieved by a 33% increase in external root efficiency .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: However , the direct effect of increasing external root efficiency accounted for little over 10% of the 3-fold increase in P uptake .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 2.00 ]: Such changes will be particularly difficult to detect for external efficiency because they are likely overshadowed by secondary root growth effects .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Genotypic differences in phosphorus ( P ) uptake from P-deficient soils may be due to higher root growth or higher external root efficiency ( micrograms of P taken up per square centimeter of root surface area ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Both factors are highly interrelated because any additional P provided by externally efficient roots will also stimulate root growth .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Model simulations showed that small changes in root growth-related parameters had big effects on P uptake .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Increasing root fineness or the internal efficiency for root dry matter production ( dry matter accumulated per unit P distributed to roots ) by 22% was sufficient to increase P uptake by a factor of three .
Score: 10.00
Title: Genetic analysis of non-essential amino acid contents in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) across environments .
Author: Wu JG Shi CH Zhang XM Katsura T
Journal: Hereditas Citation: V : 141 ( 2 ) P : 128-34 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15660973 Accession (PMID): 15660973
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: In genetic main effects , the cytoplasmic and maternal genetic effects were preponderant for all traits of non-essential amino acids , indicating that selection for improving these traits based on the maternal plant would be more effective than on seeds .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Genetic main effects and genotype x environment ( GE ) interaction effects for 7 non-essential amino acids in milled rice were analyzed for two year data by using the genetic models based on mixed linear model approaches for quantitative traits of triploid endosperm .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: It was found that the content of non-essential amino acids including Asp , Ser , Glu , Gly and Tyr were mainly controlled by genetic main effects , whereas the content of Ala or Pro was mainly affected by GE effects .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: By predicating the genetic effects of parents , the total genetic effects from Xieqingzao , V20 , Zuo 5 and Zhenshan 97 were mainly negative and these parents would decrease the content of most essential amino acids .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Since parents of Zhenan 3 , Yinchao 1 , T49 , 26715 , 102 and 1391 had possessed a positive value of most total genetic effects , these parents could be chosen as optimal parents for increasing the content of most non-essential amino acids .
Score: 10.00
Title: Isolation of three dormancy QTLs as Mendelian factors in rice .
Author: Gu XY Kianian SF Foley ME .
Journal: Heredity Citation: V : 96 ( 1 ) P : 93-9 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16189540 Accession (PMID): 16189540
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: However , multiple linear regression analysis detected genetic effects of the three QTLs and their trigenic epistasis , an environmental effect of DAR ( E ) , and interactions of E with qSD12 and with the qSD1 x qSD7-1 and qSD7-1 x qSD12 epistases .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The linear model demonstrates that QTL main effects varied with DAR , and that some epistasis or epistasis-by-DAR interactions partially counteract the main effects .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: Isolation improved estimation of the qSD1 effect and confirmed the major effect of qSD12 .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: We introduced the chromosomal regions containing the dormancy QTLs qSD1 , qSD7-1 , and qSD12 from an accession of weedy rice into a nondormant genetic background to examine component genetic effects and their interactions with time of afterripening ( DAR ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The three QTLs were isolated as single Mendelian factors from the BC4F3 population and estimated for component genic effects based on the BC4F4 populations .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: The qSD1 and qSD12 loci displayed a gene-additive effect .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: The qSD7-1 , which was further narrowed to a chromosomal region encompassing the red pericarp color gene Rc , displayed gene additive and dominant effects .
Score: 10.00
Title: Evaluation of allelopathic potential and quantification of momilactone A , B from rice hull extracts and assessment of inhibitory bioactivity on paddy field weeds .
Author: Chung IM Kim JT Kim SH .
Journal: J Agric . Food Chem . Citation: V : 54 ( 7 ) P : 2527-36 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16569039 Accession (PMID): 16569039
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: Also , 46 varieties had inhibition effects between 20 and 40% , and 29 varieties had inhibition effects greater than 10% .
[ Sen. 17, subscore: 2.00 ]: Also , the investigation of the momilactone A and B bioactivity ( 0 , 250 , 500 , 1000 , 2000 , and 4000 g a . i . /ha ) for weed control in paddy fields indicated that momilactones A and B exhibited no toxicity ( 0 in all concentrations ) against rice plants , and the inhibitory bioactivity on weeds with momilactone A was higher than that of momilactone B When compared with no momilactone control , the highest inhibitory effect ( 50% ) on E crus-galli P Beauv . var . oryzicola Ohwi was shown on the 14th day after the application of momiactone A The inhibitory effect increased with the concentration of the compound from 250 to 4000 g a . i . /ha .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Of 99 rice varieties , the top five including Noindari exhibited inhibition effects greater than 50% in average inhibition of dry weight ( AIDW ) .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Noindari among them exerted the strongest effect ( 55 . 6% ) .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The next five in the ranking exhibited inhibition effects of greater than 40% .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Fourteen varieties had very low inhibitory effects ( less than 10% ) , the lowest of which was Heunbe ( 4 . 7% ) .
[ Sen. 19, subscore: 1.00 ]: In broad weed species , momilactone A showed the highest inhibitory effect ( 90% in 4000 g a . i . /ha ) on S juncoides , 14 days after the application as compared with no momilactone control .
[ Sen. 20, subscore: 1.00 ]: Further studies on allelopathic effects and momilactones from the germplasm of rice varieties using genetic properties and morphological characteristics may facilitate the development of rice varieties with higher allelopathic potential Momilactones A and B present in rice hulls may serve as a potential natural herbicide source for weed control in paddy fields reducing the dependence on synthetic herbicides .
Score: 10.00
Title: [ Photosynthesis and active-oxygen-scavenging enzyme activities in rice varieties with different phosphorus efficiency under phosphorus stress ]
Author: Han SF Deng RL Xu HR Cao YF Wang XY Xiao K
Journal: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao Citation: V : 18 P : Jul-62 Year: 2007 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18260448 Accession (PMID): 18260448
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: The Pn ( ranging from 10 . 06-10 . 83 micromol CO2 x m ( -2 ) x s ( -1 ) ) , chlorophyll content ( ranging from 3 . 32-3 . 56 mg x g ( -1 ) FM ) and pro ( ranging from 33 . 08-33 . 95 mg x g ( -1 ) FM ) were all the highest in varieties with high-P efficiency , then in varieties with mid-P efficiency , and the lowest in varieties with low-P efficiency .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 3.00 ]: The SOD activities were also shown to be the highest in the varieties with high-P efficiency , then in the varieties with mid-P efficiency , and the lowest in the varieties with low-P efficiency under deficient P conditions .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: The malondialdehyde ( MDA ) contents in the tested varieties showed a reverse pattern of the SOD activities , with the highest in varieties with low-P efficiency and lowest in varieties with high-P efficiency .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Using six rice varieties with different phosphorus ( P ) use efficiency as the materials , the photosynthesis and active-oxygen-scavenging enzyme activities of the rice varieties under different P conditions were studied .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Under deficient P condition , the higher SOD activity and lower peroxidation degree of cell membrane system play important roles in improving the photosynthesis of the varieties with high-P efficiency .
Score: 10.00
Title: Detection of QTLs with additive effects and additive-by-environment interaction effects on panicle number in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) with single-segment substitution lines .
Author: Liu G Zhang Z Zhu H Zhao F Ding X Zeng R Li W Zhang G
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : 116 P : 923-31 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18274724 Accession (PMID): 18274724
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 3.00 ]: A single QTL effect ( a + ae ) ranging from -1 . 5 to 1 . 2 was divided into two components , additive effect ( a ) and additive x environment interaction effect ( ae ) .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: A novel population consisting of 35 single-segment substitution lines ( SSSLs ) originating from crosses between the recipient parent , Hua-jing-xian 74 ( HJX74 ) , and 17 donor parents was evaluated in six cropping season environments to reveal the genetic basis of genetic main effect ( G ) and genotype-by-environment interaction effect ( GE ) for panicle number ( PN ) in rice .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: An indirect analysis method was applied , in which the total genetic effect was first partitioned into G and GE by using the mixed linear-model approach , and then QTL ( quantitative trait locus ) analyses on these effects were conducted separately .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Three types of QTLs were suggested according to their effects expressed .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: This is the first report on the detection of QE ( QTL-by-environment interaction effect ) of QTLs with SSSLs .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Our results illustrate the efficiency of characterizing QTLs and analyzing action of QTLs through SSSLs , and further demonstrate that QE is an important property of many QTLs .
Score: 10.00
Title: Recombinant interferon beta or glatiramer acetate for delaying conversion of the first demyelinating event to multiple sclerosis .
Author: Clerico M Faggiano F Palace J Rice G Tintore M Durelli L
Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Citation: V : P : CD005278 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18425915 Accession (PMID): 18425915
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 2.00 ]: MAIN RESULTS : Only three trials tested the efficacy of interferon ( IFN ) beta including a total of 1160 participants ( 639 treatment , 521 placebo ) ; no trial tested the efficacy of glatiramer acetate ( GA ) .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Immunomodulatory drugs have been shown to be only modestly effective in clinically definite relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis ( RRMS ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: It has been hypothesized that their efficacy could be higher if used at the first appearance of symptoms , that is in the clinically isolated syndromes ( CIS ) suggestive of demyelinating events , a pathology which carries a high risk to convert to clinically definite MS ( CDMS ) .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVES : The objective of this review was to assess the effects of immunomodulatory drugs compared to placebo in adults in preventing conversion from CIS to CDMS which means the prevention of a second attack .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Adverse effects information was collected from the trials .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: Early treatment with IFN beta was associated with the side effect profile reported by the randomised controlled trials with this drug .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: Since side effects were reported with some heterogeneity in the three studies the metanalysis was possible only for the frequency of serious adverse events , not significantly different in IFN beta-treated or placebo-treated patients .
[ Sen. 15, subscore: 1.00 ]: AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS : The efficacy of IFN beta treatment on preventing the conversion from CIS to CDMS was confirmed over two years of follow-up .
[ Sen. 16, subscore: 1.00 ]: Since patients had some clinical heterogeneity ( length of follow-up , clinical findings of initial attack ) , it could be useful for the clinical practice to further analyse the efficacy of IFN beta treatment in different patient subgroups .
Score: 10.00
Title: Density-mediated , context-dependent consumer-resource interactions between ants and extrafloral nectar plants .
Author: Chamberlain SA Holland JN
Journal: Ecology Citation: V : 89 P : 1364-74 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18543629 Accession (PMID): 18543629
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: For example , consumer-resource interactions between ants and extrafloral nectar ( EFN ) plants are often mutualistic , as EFN resources attract and reward ants which protect plants from herbivory .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 2.00 ]: Despite pronounced effects of EFN resources mediating the aggregative density of ants on plants and their context-dependent use of floral resources , consumer-resource interactions remained largely commensalistic .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: EFN resources associated with mutualistic ant-plant interactions may also mediate antagonistic ant-flower interactions through the aggregative density response of ants on plants , which could either exacerbate ant-flower interactions or alternatively satiate and distract ants from floral resources .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , we examined how EFN resources mediate the density response of ants on senita cacti in the Sonoran Desert and their context-dependent use of floral resources .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Removal of EFN resources reduced the aggregative density of ants on plants , both on hourly and daily time scales .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Yet , the increased aggregative ant density on plants with EFN resources decreased rather than increased ant use of floral resources , including contacts with and time spent in flowers .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Behavioral assays showed no confounding effect of floral deterrents on ant-flower interactions .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Thus , ant use of floral resources depends on the supply of EFN resources , which mediates the potential for both mutualistic and antagonistic interactions by increasing the aggregative density of ants protecting plants , while concurrently distracting ants from floral resources .
Score: 10.00
Title: Meeting report : moving upstream-evaluating adverse upstream end points for improved risk assessment and decision-making .
Author:
Journal: Environ Health Perspect Citation: V : 116 P : 1568-75 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19057713 Accession (PMID): 19057713
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 4.00 ]: OBJECTIVES : Our objective here is to review what is known about the relationships between chemical exposure , early biological effects ( upstream events ) , and later overt effects ( downstream events ) through three case studies ( thyroid hormone disruption , antiandrogen effects , immune system disruption ) and to consider how to evaluate hazard and risk when early biological effect data are available .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Assessing adverse effects from environmental chemical exposure is integral to public health policies .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Toxicology assays identifying early biological changes from chemical exposure are increasing our ability to evaluate links between early biological disturbances and subsequent overt downstream effects .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: A workshop was held to consider how the resulting data inform consideration of an "adverse effect" in the context of hazard identification and risk assessment .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: DISCUSSION : Each case study presents data on the toxicity pathways linking early biological perturbations with downstream overt effects .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Certain effects resulting from exposure during periods of sensitivity may be irreversible .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: A chemical can act through multiple modes of action , resulting in similar or different overt effects .
Score: 10.00
Title: Multiple alleles at Early flowering 1 locus making variation in the basic vegetative growth period in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) .
Author: Saito H Yuan Q Okumoto Y Doi K Yoshimura A Inoue H Teraishi M Tsukiyama T Tanisaka T
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : P : Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19407983 Accession (PMID): 19407983
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: The Taiwanese japonica variety Taichung 65 ( T65 ) harbors a recessive allele ef1 at the Ef1 ( Early flowering 1 ) locus , thereby exhibiting an extremely long BVG period .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The CAPS analysis also indicated that the Taiwanese japonica varieties with extremely long BVG periods all harbor ef1 , but that ef1 does not exist among indica and japonica varieties in the low latitudes .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Sequence analysis revealed that the mutant allele ef1-h , which prolongs the BVG period even more than ef1 does , harbors an mPing insertion in exon 2 , which causes the complete loss of gene function .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: Our results indicate that both ef1 or ef1-h alleles can be used as new gene sources in developing rice varieties with extremely long BVG periods for low latitudes .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: A conventional analysis using F ( 2 ) and F ( 3 ) populations and a subsequent CAPS analysis based on the amino acid sequences of Ehd1 and ehd1 showed that Ef1 and Ehd1 were at the same locus .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Since ef1 has not been found in any japonica varieties outside Taiwan , this allele might have originated in Taiwan .
Score: 10.00
Title: Effects of the GABAB receptor-positive modulators CGP7930 and rac-BHFF in baclofen and gamma-hydroxybutyrate-discriminating pigeons .
Author: Koek W France CP Cheng K Rice KC
Journal: J Pharmacol Exp Ther Citation: V : 341 P : 369-76 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22319197 Accession (PMID): 22319197
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Enhancement of the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen by rac-BHFF and CGP7930 is further evidence of their effectiveness as GABA ( B ) receptor-positive modulators in vivo .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: Finally , together with converging evidence that the GABA ( B ) receptor populations mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical , the present findings suggest that these populations differ in their susceptibility to positive modulatory effects .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: In vivo effects of GABA ( B ) receptor-positive modulators suggest them to have therapeutic potential to treat central nervous system disorders such as anxiety and drug abuse .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Although these effects are thought to be mediated by positive modulation of GABA ( B ) receptors , such modulation has been examined primarily in vitro .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In pigeons discriminating baclofen from saline , gamma-hydroxybutyrate ( GHB ) produced 100% baclofen-appropriate responding , and the GABA ( B ) antagonist 3-aminopropyl ( dimethoxymethyl ) phosphinic acid ( CGP35348 ) blocked the effects of both drugs .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: CGP7930 and rac-BHFF produced at most 41 and 74% baclofen-appropriate responding , respectively , and enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen , but not of GHB .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: In pigeons discriminating GHB from saline , CGP7930 and rac-BHFF produced at most 1 and 49% GHB-appropriate responding , respectively , and enhanced the effects of baclofen , but not of GHB .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Furthermore , lack of complete substitution of the positive modulators rac-BHFF and CGP7930 for baclofen and GHB suggests that their discriminative stimulus effects differ from those of GABA ( B ) receptor agonists .
Score: 10.00
Title: Interactions among four subunits of elongation factor 1 from rice embryo .
Author: Ejiri S Kawamura R Katsumata T
Journal: Biochim . Biophys . Acta Citation: V : 1217 ( 3 ) P : 266-72 Year: 1994 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8148371 Accession (PMID): 8148371
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: To establish the subunit construction of elongation factor EF-1 , interactions among four non-identical subunits of rice embryo EF-1 ( alpha , beta , beta , and gamma ) were analyzed with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: However , no complex was formed between EF-1 beta and EF-1 gamma .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: Phe-tRNA binding activity of the reconstructed EF-1 was about 90% of that of the native EF-1 .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: EF-1 was reconstructed when each subunit was added in the following order , beta , beta , gamma , and alpha .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The affinity of EF-1 alpha for other subunits was as follows , beta beta gamma > beta beta > beta not equal to beta .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Likewise , the affinity of EF-1 gamma for other subunits was : beta beta gamma > beta >> beta .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: From these results , we concluded that rice embryo EF-1 is constructed of equimolar amount of four subunits , alpha , beta , beta and gamma .
Score: 9.00
Title: [ Developmental genetic analysis of brown rice thickness of indica rice ( Oryza sativa L ) ]
Author: Fan LJ Shi CH Wu JG Zhu J Wu P
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 27 ( 10 ) P : 870-7 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11192430 Accession (PMID): 11192430
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: The results indicated that the diploid maternal plant , triploid endosperm and cytoplasmic genetic effects were important for BRT trait at all filling stages of rice and those effects were the major effect at initial medium , filling period and mature period respectively .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The additive and dominance effects were the major effect alternatively at four filling stages of rice .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: The phenomena that the genes expressed spasmodically , ie the net genetic effects equaled to zero in some filling stages were detected for some genetic effects .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Analysis of developmental genetic effects for brown rice thickness ( BRT ) trait in indica rice ( Oryza sativa L ) at four different filling stages was conducted and a developmental genetic model and corresponding statistical approaches for quantitative traits of triploid endosperm in cereal crops was used .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Significant endosperm and maternal dominance effects for BRT suggest that the utilization of heterosis for BRT is viable .
Score: 9.00
Title: [ QTL analysis for epistatic effects and QTL x environment interaction effects on final height of rice ( Oryza sativa L ) ]
Author: Cao GQ Zhu J He CX Gao YM Wu P
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 28 ( 2 ) P : 135-43 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11233257 Accession (PMID): 11233257
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: QTLs with epistatic effects and environmental interaction effects for final height of rice were studied by mixed-model based QTL mapping with a doubled haploid population from IR64/Azucena in four environments .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: This might mean that the usual estimates of the QTL additive effects could be confounded by epistatic interactions and result in biased estimation unless epistatic effect is separated .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: QTL x environment ( QE ) interaction effects were detected more often than QTL main effects for plant height behavior , as might indicate that gene expression could be greatly affected by environments .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the results , 100 per cent of QTLs were involved in epistasis , of which 64 per cent were found with significant additive effects .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The other 36 per cent did not have any significant additive effects of their own but were involved in 48 per cent of the identified epistatic interactions .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The other features of epistasis include as follows : it was fairly common for the same locus to get involved in interactions with more than one locus ; the QTLs with relatively high magnitude of effects might also be involved in epistasis ; and epistasis was sensitive to environmental interactions for their expression .
Score: 9.00
Title: Toxicity-based criteria for the evaluation of textile wastewater treatment efficiency .
Author: Cordova Rosa EV Simionatto EL de Souza Sierra MM Bertoli SL Radetski CM .
Journal: Environ . Toxicol . Chem . Citation: V : 20 ( 4 ) P : 839-45 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11345461 Accession (PMID): 11345461
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: Comparative toxicological profiles for bacteria ( Vibrio fischeri ) , algae ( Scenedesmus subspicatus ) , daphnia ( Daphnia magna ) , fish ( Poecilia reticulata ) , and plants ( soybean--Glycine max , rice--Oryza sativa , and wheat--Triticum aestivum ) , as well as genotoxic effects ( Vicia faba micronucleus assay ) , are presented for both raw and ozonated textile effluents .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: We have concluded that ozonation was relatively effective in reducing toxicity of textile effluents .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Bioassays used in this study proved to be sensitive and reliable tools for determining the toxicity of industrial effluents , and thus they can be used to evaluate emerging technology efficiency .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Thus , a battery of bioassays was used to evaluate the performance of an ozonation system to treat textile effluents .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The relative sensitivity of bioassays ( or end points ) to textile effluents found in this study in decreasing order was plant enzymes > bacteria > algae daphnids approximately = plant biomass approximately = germination rate > fish .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: No significant genotoxic effect was found .
Score: 9.00
Title: In vitro gas production measurements to evaluate interactions between untreated and chemically treated rice straws , grass hay , and mulberry leaves .
Author: Liu JX Susenbeth A Sdekum KH .
Journal: J Anim . Sci . Citation: V : 80 ( 2 ) P : 517-24 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11881936 Accession (PMID): 11881936
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: The NaOH-treated RS , included at higher proportions , had positive associative effects at all times of incubation < 96 h ; effects were negative or absent at 96 h .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: In vitro gas production was measured to investigate associative effects of untreated and chemically treated rice straw ( RS ) and of RS and grass hay or mulberry leaves ( ML ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Associative effects were defined as the difference between the observed gas production for the mixtures and the sum of the individual component feeds .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: No effects were observed with mixtures of RS with urea-treated RS .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: The NH4HCO3-treated RS mixture tended to have negative associative effects at all three levels .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Positive associative effects ( P < 0 . 05 ) were observed for both RS and NH4HCO3-treated RS at almost all inclusion levels of hay or ML after 12 to 96 h of incubation .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: Associative effects generally declined with duration of incubation .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: We conclude that positive associative effects on in vitro gas production occurred more consistently when RS was incubated in mixtures with hay or ML than when incubated in mixtures with chemically treated RS .
Score: 9.00
Title: [ Mapping of fertility-restoring genes with main effects and epistatic effects for CMS-DA in rice ]
Author: Xie JK Zhuang JY Fan YY Tu GQ Xia YW Zheng KL .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 29 ( 7 ) P : 616-21 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12143311 Accession (PMID): 12143311
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: QTLs having significant main effects and/or epistatic effects for spikelet fertility were determined with QTLMAPPER 1 . 0 of mixed linear model .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 2.00 ]: It was indicated that differences on the genetic control of fertility restoration among different rice populations were mainly attributed to variations on genes with minor main effects and epistatic effects .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Background genetic variation due to main and epistatic effects of important markers was controlled .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Four QTLs having significant main effects for fertility restoration were detected .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: A major gene qRf-10-2 was located in interval RM258-RZ811 on the long arm of chromosome 10 , and QTL qRf-1 displaying a moderate main effect was located in a position close to RG532 on chromosome 1 .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Two other QTLs were located on chromosome 5 ( qRF-5 ) and the short arm of chromosome 10 ( qRf-10-1 ) , in which the main effect of qRf-5 bacame significant only in the absence of qRf-10-2 .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: Analyses on the gene effects based on markers closest to the Rf genes were made , and multi-locus interactions were implied .
Score: 9.00
Title: Efficacy and safety of ivermectin and thiabendazole in the treatment of strongyloidiasis .
Author: Igual-Adell R Oltra-Alcaraz C Soler-Company E Snchez-Snchez P Matogo-Oyana J Rodruez-Calabuig D
Journal: Citation: V : 5 ( 12 ) P : 2615-9 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15571478 Accession (PMID): 15571478
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The efficacy and side effects were recorded .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Treatment of strongyloidiasis has been traditionally based on thiabendazole , despite its frequent gastrointestinal side effects and failure to achieve eradication of the parasite from faeces in approximately 30% of cases .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ivermectin has been shown to be more effective for treating chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The efficacy and tolerability of these drugs in a series of patients treated from 1999 to 2002 at the Oliva Health Centre , Valencia , Spain , are reported .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Among the 31 patients treated with thiabendazole , 25 ( 78% ) met the criteria for cure ( the absence of parasite in faeces after examination of three samples collected on alternate days ) , and 5 ( 16% ) experienced side effects ( asthenia , epigastralgia and disorientation ) .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Of the 22 patients treated with ivermectin on a single day , 17 ( 77% ) met the criteria for cure , and 2 ( 9% ) reported side effects ( dizziness , dyspepsia ) .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Among the 35 patients treated with ivermectin on 2 consecutive days , 100% met the criteria for cure , and 0% experienced side effects .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: In chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis , a treatment regimen consisting of ivermectin 200 mug/kg for 2 consecutive days provided the best results with regard to efficacy and tolerability .
Score: 9.00
Title: A simple biofilter for treatment of pig slurry in Malaysia .
Author: Sommer SG Mathanpaal G Dass GT .
Journal: Environ Technol Citation: V : 26 ( 3 ) P : 303-12 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15881027 Accession (PMID): 15881027
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 4.00 ]: Pig slurry was treated in test-biofilters packed with different biomass for the purpose of selecting the most efficient material , thereafter the efficiency of the biofilter was examined at farm scale with demo biofilters using the most efficient material The effect of using "Effective Microorganisms" ( EM ) added to slurry that was treated with biofilter material mixed with Glenor KR+ was examined .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: On commercial pig production farms in South East ( SE ) Asia , the liquid effluent is often discharged into rivers .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Therefore , a simple percolation biofilter for treatment of the liquid effluent was developed .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Addition of EM and Glenor KR+ to slurry and biofilter material , respectively , had no effect on the temperature of the biofilter material or on the concentrations of organic and inorganic components of the treated slurry .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The concentration of BOD in the effluent is related to the BOD in the slurry being treated and the BOD concentration in slurry treated in test biofilters was lower than BOD of slurry treated in demo biofilters .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: The treated effluent could not meet the standards for discharge to rivers .
Score: 9.00
Title: Analysis of genotype x environment interaction effects for starch pasting viscosity characteristics in Indica rice .
Author: Bao JS Shen SQ Xia YW .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 33 ( 11 ) P : 1007-13 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17112972 Accession (PMID): 17112972
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 4.00 ]: In the present study , four cytoplasmic male-sterile ( CMS ) lines and eight restorer ( R ) lines have been used in an incomplete diallel cross to analyze seed effects , cytoplasmic effects , maternal gene effects , and their genotype x environment ( GE ) effects on the following starch pasting viscosity parameters : breakdown ( BD ) , consistency ( CS ) , and setback ( SB ) .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The results demonstrated that the total main genetic variances ( V ( G ) ) accounted for over 64% of the total genetic variance ( V ( G ) +V ( GE ) ) for the three traits , indicating that these traits were mainly controlled by the main genetic effects in addition to the GE interaction effects .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: The general heritability ( h ( 2 ) ( G ) ) accounted for over 75% of the total heritability ( h ( 2 ) ( G ) +h ( 2 ) ( GE ) ) , indicating that early selection would be effective for those traits and the selection efficiencies were relatively stable in different environments .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The properties of starch have considerable effects on cooked rice palatability and consumer acceptability .
Score: 9.00
Title: Magnesium enhances aluminum-induced citrate secretion in rice bean roots ( Vigna umbellata ) by restoring plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity .
Author: Yang JL You JF Li YY Wu P Zheng SJ .
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol . Citation: V : 48 ( 1 ) P : 66-73 Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17132634 Accession (PMID): 17132634
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: The increase in the Al-induced citrate efflux by Mg paralleled the improvement in root growth , suggesting that the ameliorative effect of Mg might be related to greater citrate efflux .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 3.00 ]: Vanadate ( an effective H+-ATPase inhibitor ) decreased the Al-induced citrate efflux , while addition of Mg partly restored the efflux .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: We demonstrated that magnesium ( Mg ) can alleviate aluminum ( Al ) toxicity in rice bean [ Vigna umbellata ( Thunb . ) Ohwi & Ohashi ] more effectively than is expected from a non-specific cation response .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Aluminum also induced citrate efflux from rice bean roots , and this response was stimulated by inclusion of 10 microM Mg in the treatment solution .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: These changes enhanced the Al-dependent efflux of citrate which provided extra protection from Al stress .
Score: 9.00
Title: Nursing interventions for smoking cessation .
Author: Rice VH Stead LF
Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Citation: V : P : CD001188 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18253987 Accession (PMID): 18253987
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 2.00 ]: There was heterogeneity among the study results , but pooling using a random effects model did not alter the estimate of a statistically significant effect .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVES : To determine the effectiveness of nursing-delivered smoking cessation interventions .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Where statistically and clinically appropriate , we pooled studies using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed effect model and reported the outcome as a risk ratio ( RR ) with 95% confidence interval ( CI ) .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: In a subgroup analysis there was weaker evidence that lower intensity interventions were effective ( RR 1 . 27 , 95% CI 0 . 99 to 1 . 62 ) .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: There was limited indirect evidence that interventions were more effective for hospital inpatients with cardiovascular disease than for inpatients with other conditions .
[ Sen. 17, subscore: 1.00 ]: Five studies of nurse counselling on smoking cessation during a screening health check , or as part of multifactorial secondary prevention in general practice ( not included in the main meta-analysis ) found nursing intervention to have less effect under these conditions .
[ Sen. 18, subscore: 1.00 ]: AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate the potential benefits of smoking cessation advice and/or counselling given by nurses to patients , with reasonable evidence that intervention is effective .
[ Sen. 19, subscore: 1.00 ]: The evidence of an effect is weaker when interventions are brief and are provided by nurses whose main role is not health promotion or smoking cessation .
Score: 9.00
Title: Treatability studies with granular activated carbon ( GAC ) and sequencing batch reactor ( SBR ) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes .
Author: Sirianuntapiboon S Sansak J
Journal: J Hazard Mater Citation: V : 159 P : 404-11 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18367327 Accession (PMID): 18367327
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L The system with raw textile wastewater ( TWW ) showed quite low BOD ( 5 ) TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64 . 7+/-4 . 9% and 50 . 2+/-6 . 9% , respectively .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater ( STWW ) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3 , 000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time ( HRT ) of 7 . 5 days .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: But , the effluent NO ( 3 ) ( - ) was higher than that of the influent .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: But its efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources ( BOD ( 5 ) ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose ( TWW+glucose ) or Thai rice noodle wastewater ( TWW+TRNWW ) , respectively .
Score: 9.00
Title: Pollution level in distillery effluent and its phytotoxic effect on seed germination and early growth of maize and rice .
Author: Pandey SN Nautiyal BD Sharma CP
Journal: J Environ Biol Citation: V : 29 P : 267-70 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18831388 Accession (PMID): 18831388
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 3.00 ]: The effluent from a Lucknow based distillery ( Mohan Meakin Distillery ) was analyzed for physico-chemical and biological parameters of pollution and concentration of potentially toxic heavy metals ( Cd , Cr , Ni and Zn ) and the effect of the distillery effluent , as such and on 50% dilution with tap water was studied on seed germination and seedling growth of maize ( Zea mays L ) and rice ( Oryza sativa L ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effluent was wine red in colour and highly acidic ( pH approximately 55 ) and possessed decaying alcoholic smell .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effluent contained high values of different pollution parameters , particularly total solids , 3450 mgl ( -1 ) ( soluble plus suspended solids ) , alkalinity 1500 mgl ( -1 ) , biological oxygen demand ( BOD , 1649 mgl ( -1 ) ) and chemical oxygen demand ( COD , 2036 mgl ( -1 ) ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Use of the distillery effluent , even on 1 : 1 dilution with tap water inhibited germination and early seedling growth of maize and rice .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The emerging leaves of the seedlings also developed visible effects of toxicity some of which resembled the symptoms of nickel toxicity .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Our observations suggest that the effluent , as discharged from the distillery carry a heavy load of pollutants .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: The distillery effluentis also harmful for irrigating crops grown along the drain carrying it .
Score: 9.00
Title: Dynamic expression of nine QTLs for tiller number detected with single segment substitution lines in rice .
Author: Liu G Zeng R Zhu H Zhang Z Ding X Zhao F Li W Zhang G
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : 118 P : 443-53 Year: 2009 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18949451 Accession (PMID): 18949451
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 4.00 ]: Dynamics of three types of effects ( including total effect , main effect , and QE interaction effect ) of QTLs was released .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: It may be reasonable explanation that dynamics of main effects of QTLs are likely due to gene expression selectly at certain times , while dynamics of QE interaction effects of QTLs might attribute to the subrogation of environmental factors .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: It was shown that nine QTLs exhibited statistically significant effects only at certain stages .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Effects of a QTL , although insignificant at certain stages , displayed dynamic change with the growth of rice plants .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Examination of the association between QE interaction effect and specified environmental factors across stages may provide useful information on how an environmental factor regulates QTL expression .
Score: 9.00
Title: Identification and characterization of large-effect quantitative trait loci for grain yield under lowland drought stress in rice using bulk-segregant analysis .
Author: Venuprasad R Dalid CO Del Valle M Zhao D Espiritu M Sta Cruz MT Amante M Kumar A Atlin GN
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : P : Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19841886 Accession (PMID): 19841886
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 2.00 ]: Results of this study indicate that BSA is an effective method of identifying QTL alleles with large effects on rice yield under severe drought stress .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: An F ( 4 : 5 ) population of 490 recombinant inbred lines ( RILs ) from the cross Apo/ ( 2* ) Swarna was used to detect quantitative trait loci ( QTL ) with large effects on grain yield under drought stress using bulk-segregant analysis ( BSA ) .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effects of these QTL were tested in a total of eight hydrological environments over a period of 3 years .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The QTL linked to RM416 ( DTY ( 3 . 1 ) ) had a large effect on grain yield under severe lowland drought stress , explaining about 31% of genetic variance for the trait ( P < 0 . 0001 ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: To our knowledge this is the first reported QTL that has a large effect on yield in both lowland drought and aerobic environments .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: The QTL linked to RM324 ( DTY ( 2 . 1 ) ) had a highly significant effect on grain yield in lowland drought stress ( R ( 2 ) = 13-16% ) and in two aerobic trials .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effect of these QTL on grain yield was verified to be not mainly due to phenology differences .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Effects of DTY ( 3 . 1 ) on yield under stress have been observed in several other rice mapping populations studied at IRRI .
Score: 9.00
Title: Normal water irrigation as an alternative to effluent irrigation in improving rice grain yield and properties of a paper mill effluent affected soil .
Author: Boruah D Hazarika S
Journal: J Environ Sci Eng Citation: V : 52 P : 221-8 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21391395 Accession (PMID): 21391395
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: Luit ) was grown under controlled conditions in paper mill effluent contaminated soil and irrigated with undiluted paper mill effluent as well as normal water and compared the results against a control treatment consisting of similar unaffected soil irrigated with normal water .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 2.00 ]: The adverse effect of the paper mill effluent on the crop as well as on the affected soil could be reduced significantly through normal water irrigation .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effluent was alkaline ( pH 7 . 5 ) , containing high soluble salts ( EC 2 . 93 dS m ( -1 ) ) , chloride ( 600 mg L ( -1 ) ) and total dissolved solids ( 1875 mg L ( -1 ) ) .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: At maximum tillering ( MT ) stage effluent irrigation significantly ( P < 0 . 05 ) reduced the leaf numbers per hill and leaf area by 19 . 8 and 36 . 4 % , respectively .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Effluent irrigated crop recorded significant reduction in the dry matter production ( 17 . 5-24 . 9% ) and grain yield ( 19% ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Higher concentration of sodium , calcium and magnesium in the effluent irrigated soil affected K uptake .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Available soil P was lowest while available N , K , S and exchangeable and water soluble Na , K , Ca , Mg were highest in effluent irrigated soil .
Score: 9.00
Title: Geo-additive modelling of malaria in Burundi .
Author: Nkurunziza H Gebhardt A Pilz J
Journal: Malar J Citation: V : 10 P : 234 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21835010 Accession (PMID): 21835010
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 15, subscore: 2.00 ]: The effects of climatic covariates and the effects of other spatial determinants are estimated simultaneously in a unified regression framework .
[ Sen. 17, subscore: 2.00 ]: CONCLUSIONS : In this paper , semiparametric models are used to model the effects of both climatic covariates and spatial effects on malaria distribution in Burundi .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: The spatial effect is split into structured ( correlated ) and unstructured ( uncorrelated ) components .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effects of the continuous covariates are modelled by cubic p-splines with 20 equidistant knots and second order random walk penalty .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: For the spatially correlated effect , Markov random field prior is chosen .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: The spatially uncorrelated effects are assumed to be i . i . d .
[ Sen. 19, subscore: 1.00 ]: From the spatial effects , important spatial patterns of malaria that are related to factors other than climatic variables are identified .
Score: 9.00
Title: Changes in the efficiency of fertiliser use in China .
Author: Jin J
Journal: J Sci Food Agric Citation: V : 92 P : 1006-9 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22234968 Accession (PMID): 22234968
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 3.00 ]: Both agronomic efficiency and crop recovery efficiency of N are significantly lower than the average N use efficiency reported in international literature for other countries .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: Research conducted through the International Plant Nutrition ( IPNI ) cooperative network in China in 2000-2006 indicates that agronomic efficiencies of N fertiliser ( yield increase per kilogram from the application of 1 kg N ) for rice , wheat and maize are 11 . 7 kg , 10 . 8 kg and 12 . 2 kg grain per kilogram of N , respectively , while crop recovery efficiency of N ( percentage of N taken up by plant in total N applied ) with rice , wheat and maize were 24 . 8% , 35 . 7% and 30 . 5% , respectively .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Results of three nationwide fertiliser efficiency studies in recent history in China are reviewed .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The results indicate that after a long history using organic recycling to maintain soil fertility in China , nitrogen ( N ) became the first yield-limiting nutrient in the first national fertiliser efficiency study in 1935-1940 .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: With N fertilisation being used , phosphorus ( P ) and potassium ( K ) deficiencies were gradually revealed and developed in the following national fertiliser efficiency studies in 1958-1962 and 1981-1983 .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Current agronomic efficiency of P and K are also discussed .
Score: 9.00
Title: Effects of the delta opioid receptor agonist SNC80 on pain-related depression of intracranial self-stimulation ( ICSS ) in rats .
Author: Negus SS Rosenberg MB Altarifi AA OConnell RH Folk JE Rice KC
Journal: J Pain Citation: V : 13 P : 317-27 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22424913 Accession (PMID): 22424913
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: These findings support continued consideration of delta agonists as candidate analgesics to treat prodepressant effects of pain and illustrate the potential for diametrically opposite effects of drug treatments on preclinical measures of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The delta opioid receptor agonist SNC80 produces both antinociceptive and antidepressant effects in rodents .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: This profile suggests that SNC80 may also reverse prodepressant effects of pain .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Accordingly , this study compared SNC80 effects in complementary assays of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior in rats .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: When administered once per week to minimize acute tolerance , SNC80 ( 1-10 mg/kg IP ) decreased acid-stimulated stretching but had little effect on acid-induced depression of ICSS .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: More frequent SNC80 administration produced tolerance to SNC80 effects on acid-stimulated stretching , but unmasked antinociception in the assay of acid-depressed ICSS .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: SNC80 did not facilitate ICSS in the absence of pain , and effects of SNC80 were not duplicated by ARM390 , a reputed delta agonist congener of SNC80 that does not internalize delta receptors .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: PERSPECTIVE : The delta opioid agonist SNC80 blocked pain-related depression of intracranial self-stimulation in rats , suggesting that delta agonists may be useful to treat prodepressant effects of pain .
Score: 9.00
Title: Engineering a polymeric gene delivery vector based on poly ( ethylenimine ) and hyaluronic acid .
Author: Needham CJ Williams AK Chew SA Kasper FK Mikos AG
Journal: Biomacromolecules Citation: V : 13 P : 1429-37 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22455481 Accession (PMID): 22455481
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 3.00 ]: Additionally , molar incorporation of HA , as opposed to the saccharide length and HA mass incorporation , had the greatest effect on zeta potential but a minor effect on both cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: In this work , the effects of primary amines , ligand targeting , and overall charge on the effectiveness of branched poly ( ethylenimine ) -hyaluronic acid conjugate ( bPEI-HA ) zwitterionic gene delivery vectors are investigated .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: It was found that the length of the hyaluronic acid ( HA ) oligosaccharide had the most significant effect on cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency with human mesenchymal stem cells .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: To elucidate the relative importance of each of these parameters , we explored the zeta potential , cytotoxicity , and transfection efficiency for a variety of formulations of bPEI-HA .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Test groups of bPEI incorporating HA with a length of 10 saccharides had significantly higher transfection efficiency ( 14 . 6 +/- 2 . 0% ) and lower cytotoxicity than other formulations tested , with the cytotoxicity of the group containing the greatest mass of 10 saccharide showing similar results as the positive controls at the highest polymer concentration ( 100 mug/mL ) .
Score: 9.00
Title: Effect of oil-based formulations of acaripathogenic fungi to control Rhipicephalus microplus ticks under laboratory conditions .
Author: Camargo MG Golo PS Angelo IC Perinotto WM Sa FA Quinelato S Bittencourt VR
Journal: Vet Parasitol Citation: V : 188 P : 140-7 Year: 2012 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22480883 Accession (PMID): 22480883
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: The present study evaluated the efficacy of oil-based formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato ( s . l . ) , isolate Ma 959 , and Beauveria bassiana , isolate Bb 986 , on different Rhipicephalus microplus stages , comparing the efficacy between aqueous suspensions and 10 , 15 and 20% mineral oil formulations .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 2.00 ]: M anisopliae s . l . and B bassiana formulated in mineral oil reached 93 . 69% and 21 . 67% efficacy , respectively , while M anisopliae s . l . and B bassiana aqueous suspensions attained 18 . 70% and 1 . 72% efficacy , respectively .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: M anisopliae s . l . and B bassiana oil-based formulations were more effective than aqueous suspensions against R microplus eggs , larvae and engorged females , however , there was no significant difference between the three oil concentrations used .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: M anisopliae s . l . oil-based formulations caused significant effects in all biological parameters of engorged females while B bassiana oil-based formulations modified significantly the nutritional index only .
[ Sen. 15, subscore: 1.00 ]: Larva from oil-based control groups showed mortality at day 15 after treatment , which indicated a possible toxic effect of the oil for this R microplus stage .
[ Sen. 16, subscore: 1.00 ]: The results showed that the fungal mineral oil formulations tested were more effective than the aqueous suspension .
[ Sen. 19, subscore: 1.00 ]: Mineral oil was effective as an adjuvant in formulations of M anisopliae s . l . , Ma 959 , and B bassiana , Bb 986 , for the control of R microplus under laboratory conditions .
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