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Score: 19.00
Journal: Food Chem Toxicol Citation: V : 46 Suppl 1 P : S2-70 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18328408 Accession (PMID): 18328408
Abstract: In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified ( GM ) plant derived food and feed are discussed , in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed . The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed , as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms . In Section 1 the mandate , scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed . Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants , such as maize , soybeans , oilseed rape and cotton , modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance . Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed , which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics , such as rice containing beta-carotene , soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content , or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids , are considered . The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach , ie the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended ( unexpected ) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment , safety for humans and animals , and nutritional quality . Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular , compositional , phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart . The safety assessment is focussed on ( i ) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible changes in the level of natural constituents beyond normal variation , and on the characteristics of the GM food and feed , and ( ii ) the possible occurrence of unintended ( unexpected ) effects in GM plants due to genetic modification . In order to identify these effects a comparative phenotypic and molecular analysis of the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart is carried out , in parallel with a targeted analysis of single specific compounds , which represent important metabolic pathways in the plant like macro and micro nutrients , known anti-nutrients and toxins . Significant differences may be indicative of the occurrence of unintended effects , which require further investigation . Section 2 provides an overview of studies performed for the safety and nutritional assessment of whole food and feed . Extensive experience has been built up in recent decades from the safety and nutritional testing in animals of irradiated foods , novel foods and fruit and vegetables . These approaches are also relevant for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed . Many feeding trials have been reported in which GM foods like maize , potatoes , rice , soybeans and tomatoes have been fed to rats or mice for prolonged periods , and parameters such as body weight , feed consumption , blood chemistry , organ weights , histopathology etc have been measured . The food and feed under investigation were derived from GM plants with improved agronomic characteristics like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance . The majority of these experiments did not indicate clinical effects or histopathological abnormalities in organs or it issues of exposed animals . In some cases adverse effects were noted , which were difficult to interpret due to shortcomings in the studies . Many studies have also been carried out with feed derived from GM plants with agronomic input traits in target animal species to assess the nutritive value of the feed and their performance potential Studies in sheep , pigs , broilers , lactating dairy cows , and fish , comparing the in vivo bioavailability of nutrients from a range of GM plants with their near isogenic counterpart and commercial varieties , showed that they were comparable with those for near isogenic non-GM lines and commercial varieties . In Section 3 toxicological in vivo , in silico , and in vitro test methods are discussed which may be applied for the safety and nutritional assessment of specific compounds present in food and feed or of whole food and feed derived from GM plants . Moreover the purpose , potential and limitations of the 90-day rodent feeding trial for the safety and nutritional testing of whole food and feed have been examined . Methods for single and repeated dose toxicity testing , reproductive and developmental toxicity testing and immunotoxicity testing , as described in OECD guideline tests for single well-defined chemicals are discussed and considered to be adequate for the safety testing of single substances including new products in GM food and feed . Various in silico and in vitro methods may contribute to the safety assessment of GM plant derived food and feed and components thereof , like ( i ) in silico searches for sequence homology and/or structural similarity of novel proteins or their degradation products to known toxic or allergenic proteins , ( ii ) simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in order to study the digestive stability of newly expressed proteins and in vitro systems for analysis of the stability of the novel protein under heat or other processing conditions , and ( iii ) in vitro genotoxicity test methods that screen for point mutations , chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage/repair . The current performance of the safety assessment of whole foods is mainly based on the protocols for low-molecular-weight chemicals such as pharmaceuticals , industrial chemicals , pesticides , food additives and contaminants . However without adaptation , these protocols have limitations for testing of whole food and feed . This primarily results from the fact that defined single substances can be dosed to laboratory animals at very large multiples of the expected human exposure , thus giving a large margin of safety . In contrast foodstuffs are bulky , lead to satiation and can only be included in the diet at much lower multiples of expected human intakes . When testing whole foods , the possible highest concentration of the GM food and feed in the laboratory animal diet may be limited because of nutritional imbalance of the diet , or by the presence of compounds with a known toxicological profile . The aim of the 90-days rodent feeding study with the whole GM food and feed is to assess potential unintended effects of toxicological and/or nutritional relevance and to establish whether the GM food and feed is as safe and nutritious as its traditional comparator rather than determining qualitative and quantitative intrinsic toxicity of defined food constituents . The design of the study should be adapted from the OECD 90-day rodent toxicity study . The precise study design has to take into account the nature of the food and feed and the characteristics of the new trait ( s ) and their intended role in the GM food and feed . A 90-day animal feeding trial has a large capacity ( sensitivity and specificity ) to detect potential toxicological effects of single well defined compounds . This can be concluded from data reported on the toxicology of a wide range of industrial chemicals , pharmaceuticals , food substances , environmental , and agricultural chemicals . It is possible to model the sensitivity of the rat subchronic feeding study for the detection of hypothetically increased amount of compounds such as anti-nutrients , toxicants or secondary metabolites . With respect to the detection of potential unintended effects in whole GM food and feed , it is unlikely that substances present in small amounts and with a low toxic potential will result in any observable ( unintended ) effects in a 90-day rodent feeding study , as they would be below the no-observed-effect-level and thus of unlikely impact to human health at normal intake levels . Laboratory animal feeding studies of 90-days duration appear to be sufficient to pick up adverse effects of diverse compounds that would also give adverse effects after chronic exposure . This conclusion is based on literature data from studies investigating whether toxicological effects are adequately identified in 3-month subchronic studies in rodents , by comparing findings at 3 and 24 months for a range of different chemicals . The 90-day rodent feeding study is not designed to detect effects on reproduction or development other than effects on adult reproductive organ weights and histopathology . Analyses of available data indicate that , for a wide range of substances , reproductive and developmental effects are not potentially more sensitive endpoints than those examined in subchronic toxicity tests . Should there be structural alerts for reproductive/developmental effects or other indications from data available on a GM food and feed , then these tests should be considered . By relating the estimated daily intake , or theoretical maximum daily intake per capita for a given whole food ( or the sum of its individual commercial constituents ) to that consumed on average per rat per day in the subchronic 90-day feeding study , it is possible to establish the margin of exposure ( safety margin ) for consumers . Results obtained from testing GM food and feed in rodents indicate that large ( at least 100-fold ) safety margins exist between animal exposure levels without observed adverse effects and estimated human daily intake . Results of feeding studies with feed derived from GM plants with improved agronomic properties , carried out in a wide range of livestock species , are discussed . The studies did not show any biologically relevant differences in the parameters tested between control and test animals . ( ABSTRACT TRUNCATED )
Score: 18.00
Author: Liu G Zhu H Zhang G Li L Ye G
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : 125 P : 143-53 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22350178 Accession (PMID): 22350178
Abstract: Twelve single segment substitution lines ( SSSLs ) in rice , which contain quantitative trait loci ( QTLs ) for tiller number detected previously , were used to study dynamic expression of the QTLs in this study . These SSSLs and their recipient , Hua-Jing-Xian 74 ( HJX74 ) , were used to produce 78 crossing combinations first , and then these combinations and their parents were grown in two planting seasons with three cropping densities . Tiller number was measured at seven developmental stages . QTL effects including main effects ( additive , dominance and epistasis ) , QTL x season and QTL x density interaction effects were analyzed at each measured stage . The additive , dominant and epistatic effects of the 12 QTLs as well as their interaction effects with the seasons and with the densities all display dynamic changes with the development . Eight QTLs are detected with significant additive effects and/or additive x season and/or additive x density interaction effects at least at one developmental stage , and all QTLs have significant dominant and epistatic effects and/or interaction effects involved in . For most of the QTLs dominant effects are much bigger than additive effects , showing overdominance . Each QTL interacts at least with eight other QTLs . Additive and dominant effects of these QTLs are mostly positive while epistatic effects are negative and minor . Most of the QTLs show significant interactions with planting seasons and cropping densities , but the additive effects of QTLs Tn3-1 and Tn3-2 , the dominant effects of QTL Tn7 and Tn8 , and the epistatic effects of 14 pairs of QTLs are stable across seasons and the dominant effect of QTL Tn3-3 and the epistatic effects of QTL pairs Tn2-1/Tn6-2 , Tn2-1/Tn9 and Tn3-3/Tn6-3 are nearly consistent across cropping densities . This paper is the first report of dynamics on dominances and epistasis of QTLs for tiller number in rice and provides abundant information , which is useful to improve rice tiller number via heterosis and/or QTL pyramiding .
Score: 15.00
Author: Kobayashi S Kidou S Ejiri S
Journal: Biochem . Biophys . Res . Commun . Citation: V : 288 ( 3 ) P : 509-14 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11676472 Accession (PMID): 11676472
Abstract: Plant elongation factor EF-1 consists of four subunits ( EF-1alphabetabetagamma ) . EF-1alpha . GTP catalyses the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome . EF-1beta and EF-1beta catalyze the GDP/GTP exchange on EF-1alpha . GDP . However , the function of EF-1gamma , a subunit detected in eukaryotes , but not in prokaryotes remained unknown . This report demonstrates that rice EF-1betabetagamma and recombinant EF-1gamma possess glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) activity . The EF-1betabetagamma or EF-1gamma-dependent GST activity is about one-fiftieth of the rice GST activity . The Km values of EF-1betabetagamma , EF-1gamma , and rice GST for glutathione and 1-chloro-2 , 4-dinitrobenzene are of about the same order . Although recombinant EF-1gamma is heat labile , active EF-1gamma was obtained by purifying it in the presence of 20% glycerol .
Score: 15.00
Author: Watson JG Chow JC Chen LW Lowenthal DH Fujita EM Kuhns HD Sodeman DA Campbell DE Moosmuller H Zhu D Motallebi N
Journal: Sci Total Environ Citation: V : 409 P : 2384-96 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21458027 Accession (PMID): 21458027
Abstract: PM emission factors ( EFs ) for gasoline and diesel-fueled vehicles and biomass combustion were measured in several recent studies . In the Gas/Diesel Split Study ( GD-Split ) , PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs for heavy-duty diesel vehicles ( HDDV ) ranged from 0 . 2 to 2 g/mile and increased with vehicle age . EFs for HDDV estimated with the US EPA MOBILE 6 . 2 and California Air Resources Board ( ARB ) EMFAC2007 models correlated well with measured values . PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs measured for gasoline vehicles were two orders of magnitude lower than those for HDDV and did not correlate with model estimates . In the Kansas City Study , PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs for gasoline-powered vehicles ( eg , passenger cars and light trucks ) were generally <0 . 03 g/mile and were higher in winter than summer . EMFAC2007 reported higher PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs than MOBILE 6 . 2 during winter , but not during summer , and neither model captured the variability of the measured EFs . Total PM EFs for heavy-duty diesel military vehicles ranged from 0 . 18+/-0 . 03 and 1 . 20+/-0 . 12 g/kg fuel , corresponding to 0 . 3 and 2 g/mile , respectively . These values are comparable to those of on-road HDDV . EFs for biomass burning measured during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment ( FLAME ) were compared with EFs from the ARB Emission Estimation System ( EES ) model . The highest PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs ( 76 . 8+/-37 . 5 g/kg ) were measured for wet ( >50% moisture content ) Ponderosa Pine needles . EFs were generally <20 g/kg when moisture content was <20% . The EES model agreed with measured EFs for fuels with low moisture content but underestimated measured EFs for fuel with moisture content >40% . Average EFs for dry chamise , rice straw , and dry grass were within a factor of three of values adopted by ARB in Californias San Joaquin Valley ( SJV ) . Discrepancies between measured and modeled emission factors suggest that there may be important uncertainties in current PM ( 2 . 5 ) emission inventories .
Score: 13.00
Author: Zhang MW Du YQ Peng ZM He CX .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 27 ( 9 ) P : 792-9 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11132495 Accession (PMID): 11132495
Abstract: Complete diallel crosses with seven varieties of black pericarp rice were conducted in one year to analyze the genetic effects on main mineral elements of Fe , Zn , Mn and P contents in kernels of parents and their F1S and F2S , using the full genetic model including triploid endosperm , cytoplasmic and maternal effects on quantitative traits of seeds in cereal crops . The results indicated that the contents of all the four mineral elements were controlled by seed direct genetic effects , maternal genetic effects as well as by cytoplasmic effects . The seed direct genetic effects were more important than the maternal genetic effects for Fe , Zn , Mn contents , and seed direct additive effects constituted a major part of their genetic effects , whereas seed direct additive , maternal additive and dominant effects formed the main part in the inheritance of P content . The heritabilities of seed direct effects of the 4 mineral element contents were all highly significant . The estimate values of narrow heritabilites of seed direct genetic effects were high for Fe , Zn and Mn contents , while those of seed and maternal effects were intermediate for P content . Therefore , more attention should be paid to the single plant selection and single grain selection based on the seed mineral element contents of hybrid offspring .
Score: 13.00
Author: Shi CH Wu JG Wu P
Journal: Genesis Citation: V : 33 ( 4 ) P : 185-90 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12203916 Accession (PMID): 12203916
Abstract: The dynamic changes of genetic effects , including main effects , and genotype x environment ( GE ) interaction effects on brown rice thickness ( BRT ) across environments were investigated by using the developmental genetic models . Seven cytoplasmic male sterile lines of indica rice ( Oryza sativa L ) as females and five restoring lines as males were used in a factorial design to produce grains of F ( 1 ) s and F ( 2 ) s in two environments ( years ) for developmental genetic analysis . The results indicate that genetic effects , especially GE interaction effects of triploid endosperm genes , cytoplasm genes , and diploid maternal plant genes were important to the performance of BRT at various filling stages of rice . The BRT was genetically controlled by the net genetic effects of genes expressed at the early and late filling stages ( 1-7 days and 15-21 days after flowering , respectively ) . The differences in net genetic effects under different environments for endosperm , cytoplasm , and maternal plant genes were found , and the net GE interaction effects were more important to BRT at the early filling and mature stages of rice . Some net genetic effects , especially for net cytoplasm effects spasmodically expressed , were detected among filling stages . Higher additive and cytoplasm main effects , along with their interaction effects , were found , which would be useful for selection for BRT in breeding programs . The predicated genetic effects at different filling stages show that the parents of V20 and Xieqingzao were better than others for improving BRT of progenies .
Score: 13.00
Author: Hubbard TJ Denegar CR .
Journal: Citation: V : 39 ( 3 ) P : 278-279 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15496998 Accession (PMID): 15496998
Abstract: REFERENCE : Bleakley C , McDonough S , MacAuley D The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injury : a systematic review of randomized controlled trials . Am J Sport Med . 2004 ; 32 : 251-261 . CLINICAL QUESTION : What is the clinical evidence base for cryotherapy use? DATA SOURCES : Studies were identified by using a computer-based literature search on a total of 8 databases : MEDLINE , Proquest , ISI Web of Science , Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health ( CINAHL ) on Ovid , Allied and Complementary Medicine Database ( AMED ) on Ovid , Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness , and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register ( Central ) . This was supplemented with citation tracking of relevant primary and review articles . Search terms included surgery , orthopaedics , sports injury , soft it issue injury , sprains and strains , contusions , athletic injury , acute , compression , cryotherapy , ice , RICE , andcold . STUDY SELECTION : To be included in the review , each study had to fulfill the following conditions : be a randomized , controlled trial of human subjects ; be published in English as a full paper ; include patients recovering from acute soft it issue or orthopaedic surgical interventions who received cryotherapy in inpatient , outpatient , or home-based treatment , in isolation or in combination with placebo or other therapies ; provide comparisons with no treatment , placebo , a different mode or protocol of cryotherapy , or other physiotherapeutic interventions ; and have outcome measures that included function ( subjective or objective ) , pain , swelling , or range of motion . DATA EXTRACTION : The study population , interventions , outcomes , follow-up , and reported results of the assessed trials were extracted and tabulated . The primary outcome measures were pain , swelling , and range of motion . Only 2 groups reported adequate data for return to normal function . All eligible articles were rated for methodologic quality using the PEDro scale . The PEDro scale is a checklist that examines the believability ( internal validity ) and the interpretability of trial quality . The 11-item checklist yields a maximum score of 10 if all criteria are satisfied . The intraclass correlation coefficient and kappa values are similar to those reported for 3 other frequently used quality scales ( Chalmers Scale , Jadad Scale , and Maastricht List ) . Two reviewers graded the articles , a method that has been reported to be more reliable than one evaluator . MAIN RESULTS : Specific search criteria identified 55 articles for review , of which 22 were eligible randomized , controlled clinical trials . The articles scores on the PEDro scale were low , ranging from 1 to 5 , with an average score of 3 . 4 . Five studies provided adequate information on the subjects baseline data , and only 3 studies concealed allocation during subject recruitment . No studies blinded their therapists administration of therapy , and just 1 study blinded subjects . Only 1 study included an intention-to-treat analysis . The average number of subjects in the studies was 66 . 7 ; however , only 1 group undertook a power analysis . The types of injuries varied widely ( eg , acute or surgical ) . No authors investigated subjects with muscle contusions or strains , and only 5 groups studied subjects with acute ligament sprains . The remaining 17 groups examined patients recovering from operative procedures ( anterior cruciate ligament repair , knee arthroscopy , lateral retinacular release , total knee and hip arthroplasties , and carpal tunnel release ) . Additionally , the mode of cryotherapy varied widely , as did the duration and frequency of cryotherapy application . The time period when cryotherapy was applied after injury ranged from immediately after injury to 1 to 3 days postinjury . Adequate information on the actual surface temperature of the cooling device was not provided in the selected studies . Most authors recorded outcome variables over short periods ( 1 week ) , with the longest reporting follow-ups of pain , swelling , and range of motion recorded at 4 weeks postinjury . Data in that study were insufficient to calculate effect size . Nine studies did not provide data of the key outcome measures , so individual study effect estimates could not be calculated . A total of 12 treatment comparisons were made . Ice submersion with simultaneous exercises was significantly more effective than heat and contrast therapy plus simultaneous exercises at reducing swelling . Ice was reported to be no different from ice and low-frequency or high-frequency electric stimulation in effect on swelling , pain , and range of motion . Ice alone seemed to be more effective than applying no form of cryotherapy after minor knee surgery in terms of pain , but no differences were reported for range of motion and girth . Continuous cryotherapy was associated with a significantly greater decrease in pain and wrist circumference after surgery than intermittent cryotherapy . Evidence was marginal that a single simultaneous treatment with ice and compression is no more effective than no cryotherapy after an ankle sprain . The authors reported ice to be no more effective than rehabilitation only with regard to pain , swelling , and range of motion . Ice and compression seemed to be significantly more effective than ice alone in terms of decreasing pain . Additionally , ice , compression , and a placebo injection reduced pain more than a placebo injection alone . Lastly , in 8 studies , there seemed to be little difference in the effectiveness of ice and compression compared with compression alone . Only 2 of the 8 groups reported significant differences in favor of ice and compression . CONCLUSIONS : Based on the available evidence , cryotherapy seems to be effective in decreasing pain . In comparison with other rehabilitation techniques , the efficacy of cryotherapy has been questioned . The exact effect of cryotherapy on more frequently treated acute injuries ( eg , muscle strains and contusions ) has not been fully elucidated . Additionally , the low methodologic quality of the available evidence is of concern . Many more high-quality studies are required to create evidence-based guidelines on the use of cryotherapy . These must focus on developing modes , durations , and frequencies of ice application that will optimize outcomes after injury .
Score: 12.00
Author: Krupa SV Kickert RN .
Journal: Environ . Pollut . Citation: V : 61 ( 4 ) P : 263-393 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15092357 Accession (PMID): 15092357
Abstract: There is a fast growing and an extremely serious international scientific , public and political concern regarding mans influence on the global climate . The decrease in stratospheric ozone ( O3 ) and the consequent possible increase in ultraviolet-B ( UV-B ) is a critical issue . In addition , tropospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) , nitrous oxide ( N2O ) and methane ( CH4 ) are increasing . These phenomena , coupled with mans use of chlorofluorocarbons ( CFCs ) , chlorocarbons ( CCs ) , and organo-bromines ( OBs ) are considered to result in the modification of the earths O3 column and altered interactions between the stratosphere and the troposphere . A result of such interactions could be the global warming . As opposed to these processes , tropospheric O3 concentrations appear to be increasing in some parts of the world ( eg North America ) . Such tropospheric increases in O3 and particulate matter may offset any predicted increases in UV-B at those locations . Presently most general circulation models ( GCMs ) used to predict climate change are one or two-dimensional models . Application of satisfactory three-dimensional models is limited by the available computer power . Recent studies on radiative cloud forcing show that clouds may have an excess cooling effect to compensate for a doubling of global CO2 concentrations . There is a great deal of geographic patchiness or variability in climate . Use of global level average values fails to account for this variability . For example , in North America : 1 . there may be a decrease in the stratospheric O3 column ( 1-3% ) ; however , there appears to be an increase in tropospheric O3 concentrations ( 1-2%/year ) to compensate up to 20-30% loss in the total O3 column ; 2 . there appears to be an increase in tropospheric CO2 , N2O and CH4 at the rate of roughly 0 . 8% , 0 . 3% and 1-2% , respectively , per year ; 3 . there is a decrease in erythemal UV-B ; and 4 . there is a cooling of tropospheric air temperature due to radiative cloud forcing . The effects of UV-B , CO2 and O3 on plants have been studied under growth chamber , greenhouse and field conditions . Few studies , if any , have examined the joint effects of more than one variable on plant response . There are methodological problems associated with many of these experiments . Thus , while results obtained from these studies can assist in our understanding , they must be viewed with caution in the context of the real world and predictions into the future . Biomass responses of plants to enhanced UV-B can be negative ( adverse effect ) ; positive ( stimulatory effect ) or no effect ( tolerant ) . Sensitivity rankings have been developed for both crop and tree species . However , such rankings for UV-B do not consider dose-response curves . There are inconsistencies between the results obtained under controlled conditions versus field observations . Some of these inconsistencies appear due to the differences in responses between cultivars and varieties of a given plant species ; and differences in the experimental methodology and protocol used . Nevertheless , based on the available literature , listings of sensitive crop and native plant species to UV-B are provided . Historically , plant biologists have studied the effects of CO2 on plants for many decades . Experiments have been performed under growth chamber , greenhouse and field conditions . Evidence is presented for various plant species in the form of relative yield increases due to CO2 enrichment . Sensitivity rankings ( biomass response ) are agein provided for crops and native plant species . However , most publications on the numerical analysis of cause-effect relationships do not consider sensitivity analysis of the mode used . Ozone is considered to be the most phytotoxic regional scale air pollutant . In the pre-occupation of loss in the O3 column , any increases in tropospheric O3 concentrations may be undermined relative to vegetation effects . As with the other stress factors , the effects of O3 have been studied both under controlled and field conditions . Thboth under controlled and field conditions . The numerical explanation of cause-effect relationships of O3 is a much debated subject at the present time . Much of the controversy is directed toward the definition of the highly stochastic , O3 exposure dynamics in time and space . Nevertheless , sensitivity rankings ( biomass response ) are provided for crops and native vegetation . The joint effects of UV-B , CO2 and O3 are poorly understood . Based on the literature of plant response to individual stress factors and chemical and physical climatology of North America , we conclude that nine different crops may be sensitive to the joint effects : three grain and six vegetable crops ( sorghum , oat , rice , pea , bean , potato , lettuce , cucumber and tomato ) . In North America , we consider Ponderosa and loblolly pines as vulnerable among tree species . This conclusion should be moderated by the fact that there are few , if any , data on hardwood species . In conclusion there is much concern for global climate change and its possible effects on vegetation . While this is necessary , such a concern and any predictions must be tempered by the lack of sufficient knowledge . Experiments must be designed on an integrated and realistic basis to answer the question more definitively . This would require very close co-operation and communication among scientists from multiple disciplines . Decision makers must realize this need .
Score: 12.00
Author: Tao D Xu P Zhou J Deng X Li J Deng W Yang J Yang G Li Q Hu F
Journal: BMC Genet Citation: V : 12 P : 53 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21631950 Accession (PMID): 21631950
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Cytoplasmic effects on agronomic traits--involving cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes of either different species or different cultivars--are well documented in wheat but have seldom been demonstrated in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) . To detect cytoplasmic effects , we introgressed the nuclear genomes of three indica cultivars--Guichao 2 , Jiangchengkugu , and Dianrui 449--into the cytoplasms of six indica cultivars - Dijiaowujian , Shenglixian , Zhuzhan , Nantehao , Aizizhan , and Peta . These 18 nuclear substitution lines were evaluated during the winter season of 2005 in Sanya , Hainan , China , and during the summer season of 2006 in Kunming , Yunnan , China . The effects of 6 cytoplasm sources , 3 nucleus sources , 2 locations and their interactions were estimated for plant height , panicle length , panicle number per plant , spikelet number per panicle , grain weight , filled-grain ratio , and yield per plot . RESULTS : For five of the seven traits , analysis of variance showed that there were no significant cytoplasmic effects or interactions involving cytoplasmic effects . The effect of cytoplasm on 1000-grain weight was highly significant . Mean 1000-grain weight over the two locations in four of the six cytoplasms clustered close to the overall mean , whereas plants with Nantehao cytoplasm had a high , and those with Peta cytoplasm a low mean grain weight . There was a highly significant three-way interaction affecting filled-grain ratio . At Sanya , cytoplasms varied in very narrow ranges within nuclear backgrounds . Strong cytoplasmic effects were observed only at Kunming and in only two of the three nuclear backgrounds ; in the Jianchenkugu nuclear background , there was no evidence of strong cytoplasmic effects at either location . In the Dianrui 449 and Guichao 2 nuclear background evaluated at Kunming , filled-grain ratios of the six cytoplasms showed striking rank shifts CONCLUSIONS : We detected cytoplasmic variation for two agronomically important traits in indica rice . The cytoplasm source had a significant effect on grain weight across the two experimental locations . There was also a significant cytoplasmic effect on filled-grain ratio , but only in two of three nuclear background and at one of the two locations . The results extend our previous findings with japonica rice , suggesting that the selection of appropriate cytoplasmic germplasm is broadly important in rice breeding , and that cytoplasmic effects on some traits , such as filled-grain ratio , can not be generalized ; effects should be evaluated in the nuclear backgrounds of interest and at multiple locations .
Score: 11.00
Author: Bhadula SK Elthon TE Habben JE Helentjaris TG Jiao S Ristic Z
Journal: Planta Citation: V : 212 ( 3 ) P : 359-66 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11289600 Accession (PMID): 11289600
Abstract: A heat-tolerant maize ( Zea mays L ) line , ZPBL 1304 , synthesizes a unique set of five heat-shock polypeptides of 45 kDa . Previous studies suggested that these polypeptides might play a role in the development of thermotolerance in maize ( Ristic et al , 1996 , J Plant Physiol . 149 : 424-432 ; Ristic et al , 1998 , J Plant Physiol . 153 : 497-505 ) . In the present study , we isolated these polypeptides , sequenced them , and investigated their subcellular distribution and origin . Of the five polypeptides of 45 kDa , three polypeptides , including the two most abundant ones , yielded amino acid sequences similar to the chloroplast and bacterial protein synthesis elongation factor ( EF-Tu ) . This was further confirmed using an antibody raised against maize EF-Tu , which showed a very strong reaction with the 45-kDa heatshock protein ( s ) . Studies on subcellular distribution and origin revealed that the 45-kDa polypeptides were localized to the chloroplasts , and were likely of nuclear origin . A full-length maize EF-Tu cDNA ( Zmeftu1 ) , previously isolated from the B73 line of maize , was used as a probe for northern blot analysis of RNA extracted from the ZPBL 1304 maize line ( the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of Zmeftu1 are 88% identical to the rice EF-Tu sequence ) . Northern blots showed a 1 . 85-fold increase in steady-state levels of EF-Tu mRNA during heat stress . An increase in EF-Tu transcript levels during heat stress was accompanied by increased levels of the EF-Tu protein . Isolated chloroplasts from heat-stressed plants also had higher levels of EF-Tu as compared to control chloroplasts . The maize EF-Tu polypeptides showed > 80% sequence similarity with the bacterial EF-Tu , which has recently been shown to function as a molecular chaperone and to play a role in the protection of other proteins from thermal denaturation ( Caldas et al , 1998 , J Biol . Chem . 273 : 11478-11482 ) . It is hypothesized that chloroplast EF-Tu of the ZPBL 1304 maize line plays an important role in the development of thermotolerance .
Score: 11.00
Author: Rice AS Farquhar-Smith WP Nagy I
Journal: Prostaglandins Leukot . Essent . Fatty Acids Citation: V : 66 ( 2-3 ) P : 243-56 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12052040 Accession (PMID): 12052040
Abstract: Analgesia is an important physiological function of the endocannabinoid system and one of significant clinical relevance . This review discusses the analgesic effects of endocannabinoids at spinal and peripheral levels , firstly by describing the physiological framework for analgesia and secondly by reviewing the evidence for analgesic effects of endocannabinoids obtained using animal models of clinical pain conditions . In the spinal cord , CB ( 1 ) receptors have been demonstrated in laminae of the dorsal horn intimately concerned with the processing of nociceptive information and the modulation thereof . Similarly , CB ( 1 ) receptors have been demonstrated on the cell bodies of primary afferent neurones ; however , the exact phenotype of cells which express this receptor requires further elucidation . Local administration , peptide release and electrophysiological studies support the concept of spinally mediated endocannabinoid-induced analgesia . Whilst a proportion of the peripheral analgesic effect of endocannabinoids can be attributed to a neuronal mechanism acting through CB ( 1 ) receptors expressed by primary afferent neurones , the antiinflammatory actions of endocannabinoids , mediated through CB ( 2 ) receptors , also appears to contribute to local analgesic effects . Possible mechanisms of this CB ( 2 ) -mediated effect include the attenuation of NGF-induced mast cell degranulation and of neutrophil accumulation , both of which are processes known to contribute to the generation of inflammatory hyperalgesia . The analgesic effects of cannabinoids have been demonstrated in models of somatic and visceral inflammatory pain and of neuropathic pain , the latter being an important area of therapeutic need . Analgesia is one of the principal therapeutic targets of cannabinoids . This review will discuss the analgesic effects of endocannabinoids in relation to two areas of therapeutic need , persistent inflammation and neuropathic pain . The more general aspects of the role of cannabinoids , endogenous and exogenous , in analgesia have been recently reviewed elsewhere ( Rice , Curr Opi Invest Drugs 2001 ; 2 : 399-414 ; Pertwee , Prog Neurobil 2001 ; 63 : 569-611 ; Rice , Mackie , In : Evers A S , ed . Anesthetic Pharmacology : Physiologic Principles and Clinical Practice . St Louis : Harcourt Health Sciences , 2002 ) . Since a major goal in the development of cannabinoid-based analgesics is to divorce the antinociceptive effects from the psychotrophic effects , the discussion will focus on the antinociceptive effects produced at the spinal cord and/or peripheral level as these areas are the most attractive targets in this regard . A mechanistic discussion of the "framework" for analgesia will be followed by a description of studies examining the role of endocannabinoids in relieving pain ; since the elucidation of these effects was undertaken using synthetic cannabinoids , reference will also be made to such studies , in the context of endocannabinoids .
Score: 11.00
Author: Zhang MW Guo BJ Peng ZM .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 29 ( 8 ) P : 688-95 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12200859 Accession (PMID): 12200859
Abstract: Complete diallel crosses with 7 varieties of indica black pericarp rice were conducted to analyze the genetic effects on grain shape traits such as 100-grain weight , grain length , grain width and length/width and their genetic correlations with main mineral elements of Fe , Zn , Mn and P contents in kernels of parents and their F1s and F2s , by using the full genetic model including seed , cytoplasmic and maternal effects on quantitative traits of seeds in cereal crops . The results indicated that the grain shape traits were controlled by seed direct genetic effects , maternal genetic effects as well as by cytoplasmic effects . The seed direct genetic effects were more important than the maternal genetic effects for grain shape traits , and seed direct additive effects constituted a major part of their genetic effects . The narrow heritabilities of seed direct effects were high for 100-grain weight , grain width and grain length/grain width , while those of seed and maternal effects were intermediate for grain length . Therefore , more attention should be paid to the single seed selection on the 100-grain weight , grain width and grain length/grain width in early generations of hybrid offspring , while in the case of grain length , attention should be paid to single plant selection and single seed selection in late generations . The results also showed that there existed significant genetic correlations of seed direct additive , seed direct dominance , cytoplasm , maternal additive and maternal dominance between most of grain shape traits such as 100-grain weight , grain length , grain width , grain length/grain width and main mineral elements of Fe , Zn , Mn and P contents in grains . The improvement for nutrient quality traits of main mineral elements Fe , Zn , Mn and P contents in indica black pericarp rice could be realized by the indirect selection of grain shape traits in speciality rice quality breeding .
Score: 11.00
Author: Zhuang JY Fan YY Rao ZM Wu JL Xia YW Zheng KL .
Journal: Citation: V : 105 ( 8 ) P : 1137-1145 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12582891 Accession (PMID): 12582891
Abstract: A linkage map consisting of 158 DNA markers were constructed by using a recombinant inbred line ( RIL ) population derived from the indica-indica rice cross Zhenshan 97B x Milyang 46 . Quantitative trait loci ( QTLs ) conditioning grain yield and five yield component traits were determined at the one-locus and two-locus levels , and genotype-by-environment ( GE ) interactions were analyzed . Thirty-one QTLs were detected to have significant additive effects for yield traits , of which 12 also exhibited significant epistatic effects . Sixteen significant additive-by-additive ( AA ) interactions were detected , of which nine occurred between QTLs with own additive effects ( M ( ep ) QTLs ) , four occurred between QTLs showing epistatic effects only ( epQTLs ) , and three occurred between M ( ep ) QTLs and epQTLs . Significant GE interactions were found for six QTLs with additive effects and one AA interaction . Generally , the contributions to the phenotypic variation were higher due to QTL main effects than to epistatic effects . The detection of additive effects and AA effects of a QTL interfered with each other , indicating that the detection of QTLs with main effects , as well as the magnitude and directions of the additive effects , might vary depending on their interactions with other loci .
Score: 11.00
Author: Yang JL Zhang L Li YY You JF Wu P Zheng SJ .
Journal: Ann . Bot . Citation: V : 97 ( 4 ) P : 579-84 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16446286 Accession (PMID): 16446286
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS : Aluminium ( Al ) stimulates the efflux of citrate from apices of rice bean ( Vigna umbellata ) roots . This response is delayed at least 3 h when roots are exposed to 50 microm Al , indicating that some inducible processes leading to citrate efflux are involved . The physiological bases responsible for the delayed response were examined here . METHODS : The effects of several antagonists of anion channels and citrate carriers , and of the protein synthesis inhibitor , cycloheximide ( CHM ) on Al-stimulated citrate efflux and/or citrate content were examined by high-pressure liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) or an enzymatic method . KEY RESULTS : Both anion channel inhibitors and citrate carrier inhibitors can inhibit Al-stimulated citrate efflux , with anthracene-9-carboxylic acid ( A-9-C , an anion channel inhibitor ) and phenylisothiocyanate ( PI , a citrate carrier inhibitor ) the most effective inhibitors . A 6 h pulse of 50 microm Al induced a significant increase of citrate content in root apices and release of citrate . However , the increase in citrate content preceded the efflux . Furthermore , the release of citrate stimulated by the pulse treatment was inhibited by both A-9-C and PI , indicating the importance of the citrate carrier on the mitochondrial membrane and the anion channel on the plasma membrane for the Al-stimulated citrate efflux . CHM ( 20 microm ) also significantly inhibited Al-stimulated citrate efflux , confirming that de novo protein synthesis is required for Al-stimulated citrate efflux . CONCLUSIONS : These results indicate that the activation of genes possibly encoding citrate transporters plays a critical role in Al-stimulated citrate efflux .
Score: 11.00
Author: Furutani A Takaoka M Sanada H Noguchi Y Oku T Tsuno K Ochiai H Tsuge S
Journal: Mol Plant Microbe Interact Citation: V : 22 P : 96-106 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19061406 Accession (PMID): 19061406
Abstract: Many gram-negative bacteria secrete so-called effector proteins via a type III secretion ( T3S ) system . Through genome screening for genes encoding potential T3S effectors , 60 candidates were selected from rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae MAFF311018 using these criteria : i ) homologs of known T3S effectors in plant-pathogenic bacteria , ii ) genes with expression regulated by hrp regulatory protein HrpX , or iii ) proteins with N-terminal amino acid patterns associated with T3S substrates of Pseudomonas syringae . Of effector candidates tested with the Bordetella pertussis calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter for translocation into plant cells , 16 proteins were translocated in a T3S system-dependent manner . Of these 16 proteins , nine were homologs of known effectors in other plant-pathogenic bacteria and seven were not . Most of the effectors were widely conserved in Xanthomonas spp . ; however , some were specific to X oryzae . Interestingly , all these effectors were expressed in an HrpX-dependent manner , suggesting coregulation of effectors and the T3S system . In X campestris pv . vesicatoria , HpaB and HpaC ( HpaP in X oryzae pv . oryzae ) have a central role in recruiting T3S substrates to the secretion apparatus . Secretion of all but one effector was reduced in both HpaB ( ) and HpaP ( ) mutant strains , indicating that HpaB and HpaP are widely involved in efficient secretion of the effectors .
Score: 11.00
Author: Renfrew MJ Craig D Dyson L McCormick F Rice S King SE Misso K Stenhouse E Williams AF
Journal: Health Technol Assess Citation: V : 13 P : 1-146 , iii-iv Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19728934 Accession (PMID): 19728934
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions that promote or inhibit breastfeeding or feeding with breastmilk for infants admitted to neonatal units , and to identify an agenda for future research . DATA SOURCES : Electronic databases were searched ( including MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process Citations , EMBASE , CINAHL , Maternity and Infant Care , PsycINFO , British Nursing Index and Archive , Health Management Information Consortium , Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials , Science Citation Index , Pascal , Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences , MetaRegister of Controlled Trials , Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness , Health Technology Assessment Database , National Research Register ) from inception to February 2008 . Advisors identified further published or unpublished material REVIEW METHODS : All papers fulfilled eligibility criteria covering participants , interventions , study design and outcomes . Results from primary studies were assessed and summarised in a qualitative synthesis for each type of intervention and across types of intervention . To estimate long-term cost utility , a decision tree was developed to synthesise data on enhanced staff contact , breastmilk effectiveness , incidence of necrotising enterocolitis ( NEC ) and sepsis , resource use , survival and utilities . RESULTS : Forty-eight studies met the selection criteria for the effectiveness review , of which 65% ( 31/48 ) were RCTs , and 17% ( 8/48 ) were conducted in the UK . Seven were rated as good quality and 28 as moderate quality . No studies met the selection criteria for the health economics review . There is strong evidence that short periods of kangaroo skin-to-skin contact increased the duration of any breastfeeding for 1 month after discharge [ risk ratio ( RR ) 4 . 76 , 95% confidence interval ( CI ) 1 . 19 to 19 . 10 ] and for more than 6 weeks ( RR 1 . 95 , 95% CI 1 . 03 to 3 . 70 ) among clinically stable infants in industrialised settings . There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of peer support at home ( in Manila ) for mothers of term , low birthweight infants on any breastfeeding up to 24 weeks ( RR 2 . 18 , 95% CI 1 . 45 to 3 . 29 ) and exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 6 months ( RR 65 . 94 , 95% CI 4 . 12 to 1055 . 70 ) , and for the effectiveness of peer support in hospital and at home for mothers of infants in Special Care Baby Units on providing any breastmilk at 12 weeks [ odds ratio ( OR ) 2 . 81 , 95% CI 1 . 11 to 7 . 14 ; p = 0 . 01 ] . There is more limited evidence for the effectiveness of skilled professional support in a US Neonatal Intensive Care Unit on infants receiving any breastmilk at discharge ( OR 2 . 0 , 95% CI 1 . 2 to 3 . 2 , p = 0 . 004 ) . Multidisciplinary staff training may increase knowledge and can increase initiation rates and duration of breastfeeding , although evidence is limited . Lack of staff training is an important barrier to implementation of effective interventions . Baby Friendly accreditation of the associated maternity hospital results in improvements in several breastfeeding-related outcomes for infants in neonatal units . Limited evidence suggests that cup feeding ( versus bottle feeding ) may increase breastfeeding at discharge and reduce the frequency of oxygen desaturation . Breastmilk expression using simultaneous pumping with an electric pump has advantages in the first 2 weeks . Pharmaceutical galactagogues have little benefit among mothers who have recently given birth . Our economic analysis found that additional skilled professional support in hospital was more effective and less costly ( due to reduced neonatal illness ) than normal staff contact . Additional support ranged from 0 . 009 quality-adjusted life-years ( QALYs ) to 0 . 251 QALYs more beneficial per infant and ranged from 66 pounds to 586 pounds cheaper per infant across the birthweight subpopulations . Donor milk would become cost-effective given improved mechanisms for its provision . CONCLUSIONS : Despite the limitations of the evidence base , kangaroo skin-to-skin contact , peer support , simultaneous breastmilk pumping , multidisciplinary staff training and the Baby Friendly accreditation of the associated maternity hospital have been shown to be effective , and skilled support from trained staff in hospital has been shown to be potentially cost-effective . All these point to future research priorities . Many of these interventions inter-relate : it is unlikely that specific clinical interventions will be effective if used alone . There is a need for national surveillance of feeding , health and cost outcomes for infants and mothers in neonatal units ; to assist this goal , we propose consensus definitions of the initiation and duration of breastfeeding/breastmilk feeding with specific reference to infants admitted to neonatal units and their mothers .
Score: 11.00
Author: Oanh NT Bich TL Tipayarom D Manadhar BR Prapat P Simpson CD Liu LJ
Journal: Atmos Environ Citation: V : 45 P : 493-502 Year: 2011 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21243095 Accession (PMID): 21243095
Abstract: Emission from field burning of crop residue , a common practice in many parts of the world today , has potential effects on air quality , atmosphere and climate . This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter ( PM ) emission from rice straw ( RS ) burning using both in situ experiments ( 11 spread field burning ) and laboratory hood experiments ( 3 pile and 6 spread burning ) that were conducted during 2003-2006 in Thailand . The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors ( EF ) in the field experiments . The obtained EFs varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission . In the hood experiments , EFs were found to be depending on the burning types ( spread or pile ) , moisture content and the combustion efficiency . In addition , in the field experiments , burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions , ie wind . Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF ( 20+/-8 g kg ( -1 ) RS ) than hood spread burning ( 4 . 7+/-2 . 2 g kg ( -1 ) RS ) . The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM ( 2 . 5 ) with EF of 5 . 1+/-0 . 7 g m ( -2 ) or 8 . 3+/-2 . 7 g kg ( -1 ) RS burned . The coarse PM fraction ( PM ( 10-2 . 5 ) ) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small , hence the resulting EF of PM ( 10 ) ( 9 . 4+/-3 . 5 g kg ( -1 ) RS ) was not significantly higher than PM ( 2 . 5 ) . PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges ( from <0 . 4 mum to >9 . 0 mum ) . The largest fractions of PM , EC and OC were associated with PM ( 1 . 1 ) . The most significant components in PM ( 2 . 5 ) and PM ( 10 ) include OC , water soluble ions and levoglucosan . Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols ( eg , acetylsyringone ) , PAHs ( eg , fluoranthene and pyrene ) , organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission . Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission . For illustration , an estimation of the annual RS field burning in Thailand was made using the obtained in situ field burning EFs and preliminary burning activity data .
Score: 10.00
Author: Radetski CM Rosa SM Rosa EV De Souza Sierra MM Simonatto EL .
Journal: Citation: V : 23 ( 5 ) P : 537-45 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12090258 Accession (PMID): 12090258
Abstract: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of ozonation as a technique to treat textile effluents . This performance evaluation was made using physico-chemical parameters and phytotoxic endpoints ( ie biomass growth enzyme activities - catalase and peroxidase ) . After ozonation , the color absorbance ( 523 nm ) was reduced by 80 . 9% and the pH decreased from 10 . 9 to approximately 7 . 5 while COD reduction reached nearly 87% . Phytotoxicity tests carried out in solution with three plant species ( ie soybean , rice and wheat ) allowed us to compare toxicity data of both , raw and ozonated effluents . The biomass ( fresh weight ) of the 3 plant species clearly decreases as a function of the increase in raw effluent concentration with LOEC values of 100% for rice and wheat , and 50% for soybean . Activities of catalase and peroxidase in the 3 plant species exposed to the raw textile effluent were significantly different from plant controls . The LOEC values for catalase were 6 . 2% ( in wheat and soybean plants ) , and 25% ( in rice plants ) , while for peroxidase the LOEC values were 6 . 2% ( in rice plants ) , 25% ( in soybean plants ) , and 50% ( in wheat plants ) . Reduction in the phytotoxicity of textile effluent samples after ozonation is likely due to the elimination of the toxic organic fraction oxidized during this process . Regarding endpoint sensitivity , our results showed that biomass endpoint was less sensitive than biochemical endpoint . In conclusion , ozonation was relatively effective in reducing physico-chemical parameters and phytotoxic effects of textile effluents . Plant enzyme assays used in this study proved to be a sensitive tool in order to determine the toxicity of industrial effluents and may be used to evaluate efficiency of established ( or emergent ) wastewater treatment technology .
Score: 10.00
Author: Wissuwa M
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 133 ( 4 ) P : 1947-58 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14605228 Accession (PMID): 14605228
Abstract: Genotypic differences in phosphorus ( P ) uptake from P-deficient soils may be due to higher root growth or higher external root efficiency ( micrograms of P taken up per square centimeter of root surface area ) . Both factors are highly interrelated because any additional P provided by externally efficient roots will also stimulate root growth . It will be necessary to separate both factors to identify a primary mechanism to formulate hypotheses on pathways and genes causing genotypic differences in P uptake . For this purpose , a plant growth model was developed for rice ( Oryza sativa ) grown under highly P-deficient conditions . Model simulations showed that small changes in root growth-related parameters had big effects on P uptake . Increasing root fineness or the internal efficiency for root dry matter production ( dry matter accumulated per unit P distributed to roots ) by 22% was sufficient to increase P uptake by a factor of three . That same effect could be achieved by a 33% increase in external root efficiency . However , the direct effect of increasing external root efficiency accounted for little over 10% of the 3-fold increase in P uptake . The remaining 90% was due to enhanced root growth as a result of higher P uptake per unit root size . These results demonstrate that large genotypic differences in P uptake from a P-deficient soil can be caused by rather small changes in tolerance mechanisms . Such changes will be particularly difficult to detect for external efficiency because they are likely overshadowed by secondary root growth effects .
Score: 10.00
Author: Wu JG Shi CH Zhang XM Katsura T
Journal: Hereditas Citation: V : 141 ( 2 ) P : 128-34 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15660973 Accession (PMID): 15660973
Abstract: Genetic main effects and genotype x environment ( GE ) interaction effects for 7 non-essential amino acids in milled rice were analyzed for two year data by using the genetic models based on mixed linear model approaches for quantitative traits of triploid endosperm . Nine cytoplasmic , male sterile lines as females and five restoring lines as males were introduced in a diallel cross in two environments . It was found that the content of non-essential amino acids including Asp , Ser , Glu , Gly and Tyr were mainly controlled by genetic main effects , whereas the content of Ala or Pro was mainly affected by GE effects . In genetic main effects , the cytoplasmic and maternal genetic effects were preponderant for all traits of non-essential amino acids , indicating that selection for improving these traits based on the maternal plant would be more effective than on seeds . The total narrow-sense heritabilities for non-essential amino acids were 70 . 9-85 . 9% . By predicating the genetic effects of parents , the total genetic effects from Xieqingzao , V20 , Zuo 5 and Zhenshan 97 were mainly negative and these parents would decrease the content of most essential amino acids . Since parents of Zhenan 3 , Yinchao 1 , T49 , 26715 , 102 and 1391 had possessed a positive value of most total genetic effects , these parents could be chosen as optimal parents for increasing the content of most non-essential amino acids .
Score: 10.00
Author: Gu XY Kianian SF Foley ME .
Journal: Heredity Citation: V : 96 ( 1 ) P : 93-9 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16189540 Accession (PMID): 16189540
Abstract: Seed dormancy is a key adaptive trait under polygenic control in many plants . We introduced the chromosomal regions containing the dormancy QTLs qSD1 , qSD7-1 , and qSD12 from an accession of weedy rice into a nondormant genetic background to examine component genetic effects and their interactions with time of afterripening ( DAR ) . A BC4F2 plant , which was heterozygous for the three loci , was selected to develop the BC4F3 population . Single point analysis detected only qSD7-1 and qSD12 ( R2 = 38-72% ) at 10 , 30 , and 50 DAR in the population . However , multiple linear regression analysis detected genetic effects of the three QTLs and their trigenic epistasis , an environmental effect of DAR ( E ) , and interactions of E with qSD12 and with the qSD1 x qSD7-1 and qSD7-1 x qSD12 epistases . The linear model demonstrates that QTL main effects varied with DAR , and that some epistasis or epistasis-by-DAR interactions partially counteract the main effects . The three QTLs were isolated as single Mendelian factors from the BC4F3 population and estimated for component genic effects based on the BC4F4 populations . Isolation improved estimation of the qSD1 effect and confirmed the major effect of qSD12 . The qSD1 and qSD12 loci displayed a gene-additive effect . The qSD7-1 , which was further narrowed to a chromosomal region encompassing the red pericarp color gene Rc , displayed gene additive and dominant effects .
Score: 10.00
Author: Chung IM Kim JT Kim SH .
Journal: J Agric . Food Chem . Citation: V : 54 ( 7 ) P : 2527-36 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16569039 Accession (PMID): 16569039
Abstract: Rice ( Oryza sativa L ) hull extracts were used in a bioassay to evaluate the allelopathic potential of rice on the germination and growth of barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crus-galli P Beauv . var . oryzicola Ohwi ) , to quantify momilactone A and B levels in rice hull germplasm and to assess the inhibitory bioactivity of momilactone A and B as a potential natural source of herbicide for weed control in paddy fields . Four varieties of weeds including E crus-galli P Beauv . var . oryzicola Ohwi , Monochoria vaginalis var . plantaginea , Scirpus juncoides , and Eleocharis kuroguwai were tested in the paddy field . Of 99 rice varieties , the top five including Noindari exhibited inhibition effects greater than 50% in average inhibition of dry weight ( AIDW ) . Noindari among them exerted the strongest effect ( 55 . 6% ) . The next five in the ranking exhibited inhibition effects of greater than 40% . Also , 46 varieties had inhibition effects between 20 and 40% , and 29 varieties had inhibition effects greater than 10% . Fourteen varieties had very low inhibitory effects ( less than 10% ) , the lowest of which was Heunbe ( 4 . 7% ) . These varieties showed a mean inhibition of 19 . 8% for germination rate ( GR ) , 9 . 9% for germination percentage ( GP ) , 16 . 6% for leaf dry weight ( LDW ) , 38 . 9% for straw dry weight ( SDW ) , and 26 . 8% for root dry weight ( RDW ) . Rice varieties were classified into six categories based on their total momilactones ( TMs ) ( momilactone A + momilactone B ) . The highest level of momilactone A was found in the Baekna rice variety ( 34 . 7 microg g ( -1 ) ) , and Baekgwangok contained the highest level of momilactone B ( 37 . 8 microg g ( -1 ) ) . In allelopathic potential with genetic properties and morphological characteristics , the total inhibition rate ( TIR ) was 18 . 3% for Korean rice varieties , 19 . 0% for middle maturing varieties , 17 . 8% for colorless hull varieties , 18 . 3% for awn varieties , and 19 . 0% for colorless awn varieties . In addition , Korean varieties showed higher TMs ( 4 . 5 microg g ( -1 ) ) as compared with varieties that were late maturing ( 4 . 4 microg g ( -1 ) ) , had colorless hulls ( 4 . 1 microg g ( -1 ) ) , awns ( 4 . 7 microg g ( -1 ) ) , and colorless awns ( 4 . 8 microg g ( -1 ) ) . Momilactone A levels were generally higher than momilactone B levels . Total inhibition rates on barnyard grass correlated with average inhibitions of germination ( AIG ) ( r2 = 0 . 62*** ) , AIDW ( r2 = 0 . 92*** ) , and were affected by the inhibition rate of GP ( r2 = 0 . 57*** ) . Regions of origin for rice varieties correlated with the AIG ( r2 = -0 . 23*** ) , and maturing time showed a positive correlation with SDW ( r2 = 0 . 15** ) and RDW ( r2 = 0 . 19** ) . Levels of momilactones were also correlated with the region of origin ( r2 = -0 . 32*** ) , maturing time ( r2 = 0 . 13*** ) , and awns ( momilactone A , r2 = 0 . 23*** ; momilactone B , r2 = 0 . 14** ) , suggesting that rice varieties with awns , Korean varieties , and varieties with later maturing times contain higher levels of momilactone . Also , the investigation of the momilactone A and B bioactivity ( 0 , 250 , 500 , 1000 , 2000 , and 4000 g a . i . /ha ) for weed control in paddy fields indicated that momilactones A and B exhibited no toxicity ( 0 in all concentrations ) against rice plants , and the inhibitory bioactivity on weeds with momilactone A was higher than that of momilactone B When compared with no momilactone control , the highest inhibitory effect ( 50% ) on E crus-galli P Beauv . var . oryzicola Ohwi was shown on the 14th day after the application of momiactone A The inhibitory effect increased with the concentration of the compound from 250 to 4000 g a . i . /ha . Furthermore , momilactone A showed greater suppression than momliactone B toward toward E crus-galli P Beauv . var . oryzicola Ohwi , M vaginalis var . plantaginea , S juncoides , and E kuroguwai . In broad weed species , momilactone A showed the highest inhibitory effect ( 90% in 4000 g a . i . /ha ) on S juncoides , 14 days after the application as compared with no momilactone control . Further studies on allelopathic effects and momilactones from the germplasm of rice varieties using genetic properties and morphological characteristics may facilitate the development of rice varieties with higher allelopathic potential Momilactones A and B present in rice hulls may serve as a potential natural herbicide source for weed control in paddy fields reducing the dependence on synthetic herbicides .
Score: 10.00
Author: Han SF Deng RL Xu HR Cao YF Wang XY Xiao K
Journal: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao Citation: V : 18 P : Jul-62 Year: 2007 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18260448 Accession (PMID): 18260448
Abstract: Using six rice varieties with different phosphorus ( P ) use efficiency as the materials , the photosynthesis and active-oxygen-scavenging enzyme activities of the rice varieties under different P conditions were studied . Under deficient P condition , the photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) and soluble protein content ( pro ) were all gradually decreased with the growth process in the six tested varieties . The Pn and pro were always lower under deficient P condition than those under sufficient P condition . The Pn ( ranging from 10 . 06-10 . 83 micromol CO2 x m ( -2 ) x s ( -1 ) ) , chlorophyll content ( ranging from 3 . 32-3 . 56 mg x g ( -1 ) FM ) and pro ( ranging from 33 . 08-33 . 95 mg x g ( -1 ) FM ) were all the highest in varieties with high-P efficiency , then in varieties with mid-P efficiency , and the lowest in varieties with low-P efficiency . There were no obvious differences on stomatal conductance ( Gs ) among the varieties . Meanwhile , the superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) activities of the tested varieties were all decreased with the process of deficient P stress . The SOD activities were also shown to be the highest in the varieties with high-P efficiency , then in the varieties with mid-P efficiency , and the lowest in the varieties with low-P efficiency under deficient P conditions . The malondialdehyde ( MDA ) contents in the tested varieties showed a reverse pattern of the SOD activities , with the highest in varieties with low-P efficiency and lowest in varieties with high-P efficiency . There was not an obvious change pattern on POD activity among the tested varieties under different P conditions . Under deficient P condition , the higher SOD activity and lower peroxidation degree of cell membrane system play important roles in improving the photosynthesis of the varieties with high-P efficiency .
Score: 10.00
Author: Liu G Zhang Z Zhu H Zhao F Ding X Zeng R Li W Zhang G
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : 116 P : 923-31 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18274724 Accession (PMID): 18274724
Abstract: A novel population consisting of 35 single-segment substitution lines ( SSSLs ) originating from crosses between the recipient parent , Hua-jing-xian 74 ( HJX74 ) , and 17 donor parents was evaluated in six cropping season environments to reveal the genetic basis of genetic main effect ( G ) and genotype-by-environment interaction effect ( GE ) for panicle number ( PN ) in rice . Subsets of lines were grown in up to six environments . An indirect analysis method was applied , in which the total genetic effect was first partitioned into G and GE by using the mixed linear-model approach , and then QTL ( quantitative trait locus ) analyses on these effects were conducted separately . At least 18 QTLs for PN in rice were detected and identified on 9 of 12 rice chromosomes . A single QTL effect ( a + ae ) ranging from -1 . 5 to 1 . 2 was divided into two components , additive effect ( a ) and additive x environment interaction effect ( ae ) . A total number of 9 and 16 QTLs were identified with a ranging from -0 . 4 to 0 . 6 and ae ranging from -1 . 0 to 0 . 6 , respectively , the former being stable but the latter unstable across environments . Three types of QTLs were suggested according to their effects expressed . Two QTLs ( Pn-1b and Pn-6d ) expressed stably across environments due to the association with only a , nine QTLs ( Pn-1a , Pn-3c , Pn-3d , Pn-4 , Pn-6a , Pn-6b , Pn-8 , Pn-9 and Pn-12 ) with only ae were unstable , and the remaining seven of QTLs were identified with both a and ae , which also were unstable across environments . This is the first report on the detection of QE ( QTL-by-environment interaction effect ) of QTLs with SSSLs . Our results illustrate the efficiency of characterizing QTLs and analyzing action of QTLs through SSSLs , and further demonstrate that QE is an important property of many QTLs . Information provided in this paper could be used in the application of marker-assisted selection to manipulate PN in rice .
Score: 10.00
Author: Clerico M Faggiano F Palace J Rice G Tintore M Durelli L
Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Citation: V : P : CD005278 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18425915 Accession (PMID): 18425915
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Immunomodulatory drugs have been shown to be only modestly effective in clinically definite relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis ( RRMS ) . It has been hypothesized that their efficacy could be higher if used at the first appearance of symptoms , that is in the clinically isolated syndromes ( CIS ) suggestive of demyelinating events , a pathology which carries a high risk to convert to clinically definite MS ( CDMS ) . OBJECTIVES : The objective of this review was to assess the effects of immunomodulatory drugs compared to placebo in adults in preventing conversion from CIS to CDMS which means the prevention of a second attack . SEARCH STRATEGY : We searched the Cochrane MS Group Trials Register ( June 2007 ) , Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials ( CENTRAL ) The Cochrane Library Issue 3 , 2007 , MEDLINE ( January 1966 to June 2007 ) , EMBASE ( January 1974 to June 2007 ) and reference lists of articles . We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field . SELECTION CRITERIA : The trials selected were double-blind , placebo-controlled , randomised trials of CIS patients treated with immunomodulatory drugs . DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS : Study selection have been independently done by two reviewers . Two further reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted and analysed data . Study authors were contacted for additional informations . Adverse effects information was collected from the trials . MAIN RESULTS : Only three trials tested the efficacy of interferon ( IFN ) beta including a total of 1160 participants ( 639 treatment , 521 placebo ) ; no trial tested the efficacy of glatiramer acetate ( GA ) . The metanalyses showed that the proportion of patients converting to CDMS was significantly lower in IFN beta-treated than in placebo-treated patients both after one year ( pooled OR 0 . 53 ; 95% CI , 0 . 40 to 0 . 71 ; p <0 . 0001 ) as well as after two years of follow-up ( pooled OR 0 . 52 ; 95% CI , 0 . 38 to 0 . 70 ; p <0 . 0001 ) . Early treatment with IFN beta was associated with the side effect profile reported by the randomised controlled trials with this drug . Since side effects were reported with some heterogeneity in the three studies the metanalysis was possible only for the frequency of serious adverse events , not significantly different in IFN beta-treated or placebo-treated patients . AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS : The efficacy of IFN beta treatment on preventing the conversion from CIS to CDMS was confirmed over two years of follow-up . Since patients had some clinical heterogeneity ( length of follow-up , clinical findings of initial attack ) , it could be useful for the clinical practice to further analyse the efficacy of IFN beta treatment in different patient subgroups .
Score: 10.00
Author: Chamberlain SA Holland JN
Journal: Ecology Citation: V : 89 P : 1364-74 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18543629 Accession (PMID): 18543629
Abstract: Interspecific interactions are often mediated by the interplay between resource supply and consumer density . The supply of a resource and a consumers density response to it may in turn yield context-dependent use of other resources . Such consumer-resource interactions occur not only for predator-prey and competitive interactions , but for mutualistic ones as well . For example , consumer-resource interactions between ants and extrafloral nectar ( EFN ) plants are often mutualistic , as EFN resources attract and reward ants which protect plants from herbivory . Yet , ants also commonly exploit floral resources , leading to antagonistic consumer-resource interactions by disrupting pollination and plant reproduction . EFN resources associated with mutualistic ant-plant interactions may also mediate antagonistic ant-flower interactions through the aggregative density response of ants on plants , which could either exacerbate ant-flower interactions or alternatively satiate and distract ants from floral resources . In this study , we examined how EFN resources mediate the density response of ants on senita cacti in the Sonoran Desert and their context-dependent use of floral resources . Removal of EFN resources reduced the aggregative density of ants on plants , both on hourly and daily time scales . Yet , the increased aggregative ant density on plants with EFN resources decreased rather than increased ant use of floral resources , including contacts with and time spent in flowers . Behavioral assays showed no confounding effect of floral deterrents on ant-flower interactions . Thus , ant use of floral resources depends on the supply of EFN resources , which mediates the potential for both mutualistic and antagonistic interactions by increasing the aggregative density of ants protecting plants , while concurrently distracting ants from floral resources . Nevertheless , only certain years and populations of study showed an increase in plant reproduction through herbivore protection or ant distraction from floral resources . Despite pronounced effects of EFN resources mediating the aggregative density of ants on plants and their context-dependent use of floral resources , consumer-resource interactions remained largely commensalistic .
Score: 10.00
Journal: Environ Health Perspect Citation: V : 116 P : 1568-75 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19057713 Accession (PMID): 19057713
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Assessing adverse effects from environmental chemical exposure is integral to public health policies . Toxicology assays identifying early biological changes from chemical exposure are increasing our ability to evaluate links between early biological disturbances and subsequent overt downstream effects . A workshop was held to consider how the resulting data inform consideration of an "adverse effect" in the context of hazard identification and risk assessment . OBJECTIVES : Our objective here is to review what is known about the relationships between chemical exposure , early biological effects ( upstream events ) , and later overt effects ( downstream events ) through three case studies ( thyroid hormone disruption , antiandrogen effects , immune system disruption ) and to consider how to evaluate hazard and risk when early biological effect data are available . DISCUSSION : Each case study presents data on the toxicity pathways linking early biological perturbations with downstream overt effects . Case studies also emphasize several factors that can influence risk of overt disease as a result from early biological perturbations , including background chemical exposures , underlying individual biological processes , and disease susceptibility . Certain effects resulting from exposure during periods of sensitivity may be irreversible . A chemical can act through multiple modes of action , resulting in similar or different overt effects . CONCLUSIONS : For certain classes of early perturbations , sufficient information on the disease process is known , so hazard and quantitative risk assessment can proceed using information on upstream biological perturbations . Upstream data will support improved approaches for considering developmental stage , background exposures , disease status , and other factors important to assessing hazard and risk for the whole population .
Score: 10.00
Author: Saito H Yuan Q Okumoto Y Doi K Yoshimura A Inoue H Teraishi M Tsukiyama T Tanisaka T
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : P : Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19407983 Accession (PMID): 19407983
Abstract: A recently established rice breeding program in low latitudes aims to develop varieties with extremely long basic vegetative growth ( BVG ) periods and weak photoperiod sensitivities . The Taiwanese japonica variety Taichung 65 ( T65 ) harbors a recessive allele ef1 at the Ef1 ( Early flowering 1 ) locus , thereby exhibiting an extremely long BVG period . The previous reported functional allele Ehd1 ( Early heading date 1 ) , located on chromosome 10 , encodes a B-type response regulator , thereby shortening the BVG period , whereas its nonfunctional allele ehd1 greatly prolongs the BVG period . A conventional analysis using F ( 2 ) and F ( 3 ) populations and a subsequent CAPS analysis based on the amino acid sequences of Ehd1 and ehd1 showed that Ef1 and Ehd1 were at the same locus . The CAPS analysis also indicated that the Taiwanese japonica varieties with extremely long BVG periods all harbor ef1 , but that ef1 does not exist among indica and japonica varieties in the low latitudes . Since ef1 has not been found in any japonica varieties outside Taiwan , this allele might have originated in Taiwan . Sequence analysis revealed that the mutant allele ef1-h , which prolongs the BVG period even more than ef1 does , harbors an mPing insertion in exon 2 , which causes the complete loss of gene function . Our results indicate that both ef1 or ef1-h alleles can be used as new gene sources in developing rice varieties with extremely long BVG periods for low latitudes .
Score: 10.00
Author: Koek W France CP Cheng K Rice KC
Journal: J Pharmacol Exp Ther Citation: V : 341 P : 369-76 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22319197 Accession (PMID): 22319197
Abstract: In vivo effects of GABA ( B ) receptor-positive modulators suggest them to have therapeutic potential to treat central nervous system disorders such as anxiety and drug abuse . Although these effects are thought to be mediated by positive modulation of GABA ( B ) receptors , such modulation has been examined primarily in vitro . This study further examined the in vivo properties of the GABA ( B ) receptor-positive modulators 2 , 6-di-tert-butyl-4- ( 3-hydroxy-2 , 2-dimethylpropyl ) phenol ( CGP7930 ) and ( R , S ) -5 , 7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one ( rac-BHFF ) . In pigeons discriminating baclofen from saline , gamma-hydroxybutyrate ( GHB ) produced 100% baclofen-appropriate responding , and the GABA ( B ) antagonist 3-aminopropyl ( dimethoxymethyl ) phosphinic acid ( CGP35348 ) blocked the effects of both drugs . CGP7930 and rac-BHFF produced at most 41 and 74% baclofen-appropriate responding , respectively , and enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen , but not of GHB . In pigeons discriminating GHB from saline , CGP7930 and rac-BHFF produced at most 1 and 49% GHB-appropriate responding , respectively , and enhanced the effects of baclofen , but not of GHB . Enhancement of the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen by rac-BHFF and CGP7930 is further evidence of their effectiveness as GABA ( B ) receptor-positive modulators in vivo . Furthermore , lack of complete substitution of the positive modulators rac-BHFF and CGP7930 for baclofen and GHB suggests that their discriminative stimulus effects differ from those of GABA ( B ) receptor agonists . Finally , together with converging evidence that the GABA ( B ) receptor populations mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical , the present findings suggest that these populations differ in their susceptibility to positive modulatory effects . Such differences could allow for more selective therapeutic targeting of the GABA ( B ) system .
Score: 10.00
Author: Ejiri S Kawamura R Katsumata T
Journal: Biochim . Biophys . Acta Citation: V : 1217 ( 3 ) P : 266-72 Year: 1994 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8148371 Accession (PMID): 8148371
Abstract: To establish the subunit construction of elongation factor EF-1 , interactions among four non-identical subunits of rice embryo EF-1 ( alpha , beta , beta , and gamma ) were analyzed with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis . Complexes beta beta , alpha beta , alpha beta , and beta gamma were formed by mixing the two respective subunits . However , no complex was formed between EF-1 beta and EF-1 gamma . Complexes containing three subunits like alpha beta beta , alpha beta gamma , and beta beta gamma , were formed by mixing the three respective subunits . EF-1 was reconstructed when each subunit was added in the following order , beta , beta , gamma , and alpha . The affinity of EF-1 alpha for other subunits was as follows , beta beta gamma > beta beta > beta not equal to beta . Likewise , the affinity of EF-1 gamma for other subunits was : beta beta gamma > beta >> beta . Phe-tRNA binding activity of the reconstructed EF-1 was about 90% of that of the native EF-1 . From these results , we concluded that rice embryo EF-1 is constructed of equimolar amount of four subunits , alpha , beta , beta and gamma .
Score: 9.00
Author: Fan LJ Shi CH Wu JG Zhu J Wu P
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 27 ( 10 ) P : 870-7 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11192430 Accession (PMID): 11192430
Abstract: Analysis of developmental genetic effects for brown rice thickness ( BRT ) trait in indica rice ( Oryza sativa L ) at four different filling stages was conducted and a developmental genetic model and corresponding statistical approaches for quantitative traits of triploid endosperm in cereal crops was used . The results indicated that the diploid maternal plant , triploid endosperm and cytoplasmic genetic effects were important for BRT trait at all filling stages of rice and those effects were the major effect at initial medium , filling period and mature period respectively . The additive and dominance effects were the major effect alternatively at four filling stages of rice . Significant endosperm and maternal dominance effects for BRT suggest that the utilization of heterosis for BRT is viable . The results of conditional genetic variance components shown that the expression of new quantitative genes in endosperm , cytoplasm and maternal plant for BRT was found at most filling stages of rice . The gene expression was most active at the early filling stages , especially at the second stage ( 8-14 days after flowering ) . Near to mature period ( 22-28 days after flowering ) , however , the expression of genes decreased sharply and even closed . The phenomena that the genes expressed spasmodically , ie the net genetic effects equaled to zero in some filling stages were detected for some genetic effects . Dominance and cytoplasmic correlation coefficients were significant at 0 . 05 or 0 . 01 probability level in some filling stages meanwhile there were the most strong relationship between mature period and other periods for BRT .
Score: 9.00
Author: Cao GQ Zhu J He CX Gao YM Wu P
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 28 ( 2 ) P : 135-43 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11233257 Accession (PMID): 11233257
Abstract: QTLs with epistatic effects and environmental interaction effects for final height of rice were studied by mixed-model based QTL mapping with a doubled haploid population from IR64/Azucena in four environments . The results demonstrated the importance of epistasis as a genetic basis of the quantitative traits and also revealed several important features of this phenomenon . In the results , 100 per cent of QTLs were involved in epistasis , of which 64 per cent were found with significant additive effects . This might mean that the usual estimates of the QTL additive effects could be confounded by epistatic interactions and result in biased estimation unless epistatic effect is separated . The other 36 per cent did not have any significant additive effects of their own but were involved in 48 per cent of the identified epistatic interactions . Such loci might play the role of modifying agents that tend to activate other loci or modify the action of other loci . The other features of epistasis include as follows : it was fairly common for the same locus to get involved in interactions with more than one locus ; the QTLs with relatively high magnitude of effects might also be involved in epistasis ; and epistasis was sensitive to environmental interactions for their expression . QTL x environment ( QE ) interaction effects were detected more often than QTL main effects for plant height behavior , as might indicate that gene expression could be greatly affected by environments .
Score: 9.00
Author: Cordova Rosa EV Simionatto EL de Souza Sierra MM Bertoli SL Radetski CM .
Journal: Environ . Toxicol . Chem . Citation: V : 20 ( 4 ) P : 839-45 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11345461 Accession (PMID): 11345461
Abstract: Brazilian textile mills import wastewater treatment technologies , performances of which are generally evaluated only on a physicochemical basis . Thus , a battery of bioassays was used to evaluate the performance of an ozonation system to treat textile effluents . Comparative toxicological profiles for bacteria ( Vibrio fischeri ) , algae ( Scenedesmus subspicatus ) , daphnia ( Daphnia magna ) , fish ( Poecilia reticulata ) , and plants ( soybean--Glycine max , rice--Oryza sativa , and wheat--Triticum aestivum ) , as well as genotoxic effects ( Vicia faba micronucleus assay ) , are presented for both raw and ozonated textile effluents . The relative sensitivity of bioassays ( or end points ) to textile effluents found in this study in decreasing order was plant enzymes > bacteria > algae daphnids approximately = plant biomass approximately = germination rate > fish . No significant genotoxic effect was found . We have concluded that ozonation was relatively effective in reducing toxicity of textile effluents . Bioassays used in this study proved to be sensitive and reliable tools for determining the toxicity of industrial effluents , and thus they can be used to evaluate emerging technology efficiency .
Score: 9.00
Author: Liu JX Susenbeth A Sdekum KH .
Journal: J Anim . Sci . Citation: V : 80 ( 2 ) P : 517-24 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11881936 Accession (PMID): 11881936
Abstract: In vitro gas production was measured to investigate associative effects of untreated and chemically treated rice straw ( RS ) and of RS and grass hay or mulberry leaves ( ML ) . The RS was treated with NaOH , urea , or ( NH4 ) HCO3 . Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 12 , 16 , 24 , 36 , 48 , 60 , 72 , and 96 h of incubation , and the Gompertz function was used to describe the kinetics of gas production . Treatment with NaOH , urea , and NH4HCO3 increased ( P < 0 . 05 ) gas production at 48 h by 55 , 52 , and 37% and the maximum rate of gas production of RS from 0 . 64 to 1 . 51 , 1 . 27 , and 1 . 13 mL/h , respectively . The inclusion of treated straws , hay , and ML in a mixture with RS at increasing proportions ( 25 , 50 , 75 , 100% ) elevated cumulative gas production and its rate . Maximum gas production was not different between the RS and its mixtures with the treated straws , but inclusion of hay into RS or NH4HCO3-treated RS increased the maximum gas production . Associative effects were defined as the difference between the observed gas production for the mixtures and the sum of the individual component feeds . The NaOH-treated RS , included at higher proportions , had positive associative effects at all times of incubation < 96 h ; effects were negative or absent at 96 h . No effects were observed with mixtures of RS with urea-treated RS . The NH4HCO3-treated RS mixture tended to have negative associative effects at all three levels . Positive associative effects ( P < 0 . 05 ) were observed for both RS and NH4HCO3-treated RS at almost all inclusion levels of hay or ML after 12 to 96 h of incubation . The response was more pronounced with ML than with hay . Associative effects generally declined with duration of incubation . We conclude that positive associative effects on in vitro gas production occurred more consistently when RS was incubated in mixtures with hay or ML than when incubated in mixtures with chemically treated RS .
Score: 9.00
Author: Xie JK Zhuang JY Fan YY Tu GQ Xia YW Zheng KL .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 29 ( 7 ) P : 616-21 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12143311 Accession (PMID): 12143311
Abstract: A test-cross population was established for mapping genes conditioning fertility restoration for dwarf-wild-abortive cytoplasmic male sterility ( CMS-DA ) in rice . A recombinant inbred line ( RIL ) population consisting of 210 lines was derived from the cross Xieqingzao B/Miyang 46 , in which Xieqingzao B is the maintainer line of CMS-DA Xieqingzao A , and Miyang 46 is the restorer line . Each of the RILs was crossed to Xieqingzao A , and the resulting F1s were used for phenotyping of the spikelet fertility in 1999 and 2000 . A linkage map consisting of 129 RFLP and SSLP markers was constructed . QTLs having significant main effects and/or epistatic effects for spikelet fertility were determined with QTLMAPPER 1 . 0 of mixed linear model . Background genetic variation due to main and epistatic effects of important markers was controlled . Four QTLs having significant main effects for fertility restoration were detected . A major gene qRf-10-2 was located in interval RM258-RZ811 on the long arm of chromosome 10 , and QTL qRf-1 displaying a moderate main effect was located in a position close to RG532 on chromosome 1 . Two other QTLs were located on chromosome 5 ( qRF-5 ) and the short arm of chromosome 10 ( qRf-10-1 ) , in which the main effect of qRf-5 bacame significant only in the absence of qRf-10-2 . A significant digenic interaction was detected , which occurred between QTLs qRf-1 and qRf-5 . No significant QTL by environmental interactions and epistasis by environmental interactions were detected . Analyses on the gene effects based on markers closest to the Rf genes were made , and multi-locus interactions were implied . The present results were also compared to a previous study on mapping fertility restoration genes in Milyang 46 for wild-abortive CMS Zhenshan 97A , and to other published reports . It was indicated that differences on the genetic control of fertility restoration among different rice populations were mainly attributed to variations on genes with minor main effects and epistatic effects .
Score: 9.00
Author: Igual-Adell R Oltra-Alcaraz C Soler-Company E Snchez-Snchez P Matogo-Oyana J Rodruez-Calabuig D
Journal: Citation: V : 5 ( 12 ) P : 2615-9 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15571478 Accession (PMID): 15571478
Abstract: Treatment of strongyloidiasis has been traditionally based on thiabendazole , despite its frequent gastrointestinal side effects and failure to achieve eradication of the parasite from faeces in approximately 30% of cases . Ivermectin has been shown to be more effective for treating chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis . The efficacy and tolerability of these drugs in a series of patients treated from 1999 to 2002 at the Oliva Health Centre , Valencia , Spain , are reported . A total of 88 patients diagnosed of strongyloidiasis were treated using the following regimens : thiabendazole 25 mg/kg/12 h for 3 consecutive days in 31 patients ; ivermectin 200 mug/kg as a single dose in 22 patients ; and ivermectin 200 mug/kg for 2 consecutive days in 35 patients . The efficacy and side effects were recorded . A total of 65 patients were male , and 23 female . The mean age was 64 +/- 12 years . Of the patients , 44 had worked barefoot in rice fields . Among the 31 patients treated with thiabendazole , 25 ( 78% ) met the criteria for cure ( the absence of parasite in faeces after examination of three samples collected on alternate days ) , and 5 ( 16% ) experienced side effects ( asthenia , epigastralgia and disorientation ) . Of the 22 patients treated with ivermectin on a single day , 17 ( 77% ) met the criteria for cure , and 2 ( 9% ) reported side effects ( dizziness , dyspepsia ) . Among the 35 patients treated with ivermectin on 2 consecutive days , 100% met the criteria for cure , and 0% experienced side effects . In chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis , a treatment regimen consisting of ivermectin 200 mug/kg for 2 consecutive days provided the best results with regard to efficacy and tolerability . When the eosinophilia continued after treatment , we observed a high percentage of not-cure rate ( 7 of 9 patients , 77% ) .
Score: 9.00
Author: Sommer SG Mathanpaal G Dass GT .
Journal: Environ Technol Citation: V : 26 ( 3 ) P : 303-12 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15881027 Accession (PMID): 15881027
Abstract: On commercial pig production farms in South East ( SE ) Asia , the liquid effluent is often discharged into rivers . The discharge is a hazard to the environment and to the health of people using water from the river either for consumption or for irrigation . Therefore , a simple percolation biofilter for treatment of the liquid effluent was developed . Pig slurry was treated in test-biofilters packed with different biomass for the purpose of selecting the most efficient material , thereafter the efficiency of the biofilter was examined at farm scale with demo biofilters using the most efficient material The effect of using "Effective Microorganisms" ( EM ) added to slurry that was treated with biofilter material mixed with Glenor KR+ was examined . Slurry treatment in the test-biofilters indicated that rice straw was better than coconut husks , wood shavings , rattan strips and oil palm fronds in reducing BOD . Addition of EM and Glenor KR+ to slurry and biofilter material , respectively , had no effect on the temperature of the biofilter material or on the concentrations of organic and inorganic components of the treated slurry . The BOD of slurry treated in test biofilters is reduced to between 80 and 637 mg O2 I ( -1 ) and in the demo biofilter to between 3094 and 3376 mg O2 l ( -1 ) . The concentration of BOD in the effluent is related to the BOD in the slurry being treated and the BOD concentration in slurry treated in test biofilters was lower than BOD of slurry treated in demo biofilters . The demo biofilter can reduce BOD to between 52 an 56% of the original value , and TSS , COD ( chemical oxygen demand ) and ammonium ( NH4+ ) to 41-55% of the original slurry . The treated effluent could not meet the standards for discharge to rivers . The composted biofilter material has a high content of nitrogen and phosphorus ; consequently , the fertilizer value of the compost is high . The investments costs were 123 US dollar per SPP which has to be reduced if this method should be a treatment option in practise .
Score: 9.00
Author: Bao JS Shen SQ Xia YW .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 33 ( 11 ) P : 1007-13 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17112972 Accession (PMID): 17112972
Abstract: Milled rice ( Oryza sativa L ) is composed of approximately 90% starch . The properties of starch have considerable effects on cooked rice palatability and consumer acceptability . Starch pasting viscosity parameters serve as important indices in the estimation of eating , cooking , and processing qualities of rice . In the present study , four cytoplasmic male-sterile ( CMS ) lines and eight restorer ( R ) lines have been used in an incomplete diallel cross to analyze seed effects , cytoplasmic effects , maternal gene effects , and their genotype x environment ( GE ) effects on the following starch pasting viscosity parameters : breakdown ( BD ) , consistency ( CS ) , and setback ( SB ) . The results demonstrated that the total main genetic variances ( V ( G ) ) accounted for over 64% of the total genetic variance ( V ( G ) +V ( GE ) ) for the three traits , indicating that these traits were mainly controlled by the main genetic effects in addition to the GE interaction effects . The estimated total narrow-sense heritability were 67 . 8% , 79 . 5% , and 79 . 5% for BD , CS , and SB , respectively . The general heritability ( h ( 2 ) ( G ) ) accounted for over 75% of the total heritability ( h ( 2 ) ( G ) +h ( 2 ) ( GE ) ) , indicating that early selection would be effective for those traits and the selection efficiencies were relatively stable in different environments .
Score: 9.00
Author: Yang JL You JF Li YY Wu P Zheng SJ .
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol . Citation: V : 48 ( 1 ) P : 66-73 Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17132634 Accession (PMID): 17132634
Abstract: We demonstrated that magnesium ( Mg ) can alleviate aluminum ( Al ) toxicity in rice bean [ Vigna umbellata ( Thunb . ) Ohwi & Ohashi ] more effectively than is expected from a non-specific cation response . Micromolar concentrations of Mg alleviated the inhibition of root growth by Al but not by lanthanum , and neither strontium nor barium at the micromolar level alleviates Al toxicity . Aluminum also induced citrate efflux from rice bean roots , and this response was stimulated by inclusion of 10 microM Mg in the treatment solution . The increase in the Al-induced citrate efflux by Mg paralleled the improvement in root growth , suggesting that the ameliorative effect of Mg might be related to greater citrate efflux . Vanadate ( an effective H+-ATPase inhibitor ) decreased the Al-induced citrate efflux , while addition of Mg partly restored the efflux . Mg addition also increased the activity of Al-reduced plasma membrane H+-ATPase , as well as helping to maintain the Mg and calcium contents in root apices . We propose that the addition of Mg to the toxic Al treatment helps maintain the it issue Mg content and the activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase . These changes enhanced the Al-dependent efflux of citrate which provided extra protection from Al stress .
Score: 9.00
Author: Rice VH Stead LF
Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Citation: V : P : CD001188 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18253987 Accession (PMID): 18253987
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Healthcare professionals , including nurses , frequently advise patients to improve their health by stopping smoking . Such advice may be brief , or part of more intensive interventions . OBJECTIVES : To determine the effectiveness of nursing-delivered smoking cessation interventions . SEARCH STRATEGY : We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group specialized register and CINAHL in July 2007 . SELECTION CRITERIA : Randomized trials of smoking cessation interventions delivered by nurses or health visitors with follow up of at least six months . DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS : Two authors extracted data independently . The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months of follow up . We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial , and biochemically validated rates if available . Where statistically and clinically appropriate , we pooled studies using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed effect model and reported the outcome as a risk ratio ( RR ) with 95% confidence interval ( CI ) . MAIN RESULTS : Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria . Thirty-one studies comparing a nursing intervention to a control or to usual care found the intervention to significantly increase the likelihood of quitting ( RR 1 . 28 , 95% CI 1 . 18 to 1 . 38 ) . There was heterogeneity among the study results , but pooling using a random effects model did not alter the estimate of a statistically significant effect . In a subgroup analysis there was weaker evidence that lower intensity interventions were effective ( RR 1 . 27 , 95% CI 0 . 99 to 1 . 62 ) . There was limited indirect evidence that interventions were more effective for hospital inpatients with cardiovascular disease than for inpatients with other conditions . Interventions in non-hospitalized patients also showed evidence of benefit . Nine studies comparing different nurse-delivered interventions failed to detect significant benefit from using additional components . Five studies of nurse counselling on smoking cessation during a screening health check , or as part of multifactorial secondary prevention in general practice ( not included in the main meta-analysis ) found nursing intervention to have less effect under these conditions . AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate the potential benefits of smoking cessation advice and/or counselling given by nurses to patients , with reasonable evidence that intervention is effective . The evidence of an effect is weaker when interventions are brief and are provided by nurses whose main role is not health promotion or smoking cessation . The challenge will be to incorporate smoking behaviour monitoring and smoking cessation interventions as part of standard practice , so that all patients are given an opportunity to be asked about their tobacco use and to be given advice and/or counselling to quit along with reinforcement and follow up .
Score: 9.00
Author: Sirianuntapiboon S Sansak J
Journal: J Hazard Mater Citation: V : 159 P : 404-11 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18367327 Accession (PMID): 18367327
Abstract: The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration . The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater ( STWW ) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3 , 000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time ( HRT ) of 7 . 5 days . But , the effluent NO ( 3 ) ( - ) was higher than that of the influent . Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency . The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L The system with raw textile wastewater ( TWW ) showed quite low BOD ( 5 ) TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64 . 7+/-4 . 9% and 50 . 2+/-6 . 9% , respectively . But its efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources ( BOD ( 5 ) ) . The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose ( TWW+glucose ) or Thai rice noodle wastewater ( TWW+TRNWW ) , respectively . SRT of the systems were 28+/-1 days and 31+/-2 days with TWW+glucose and TWW+TRNWW , respectively .
Score: 9.00
Author: Pandey SN Nautiyal BD Sharma CP
Journal: J Environ Biol Citation: V : 29 P : 267-70 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18831388 Accession (PMID): 18831388
Abstract: The effluent from a Lucknow based distillery ( Mohan Meakin Distillery ) was analyzed for physico-chemical and biological parameters of pollution and concentration of potentially toxic heavy metals ( Cd , Cr , Ni and Zn ) and the effect of the distillery effluent , as such and on 50% dilution with tap water was studied on seed germination and seedling growth of maize ( Zea mays L ) and rice ( Oryza sativa L ) . The effluent was wine red in colour and highly acidic ( pH approximately 55 ) and possessed decaying alcoholic smell . The effluent contained high values of different pollution parameters , particularly total solids , 3450 mgl ( -1 ) ( soluble plus suspended solids ) , alkalinity 1500 mgl ( -1 ) , biological oxygen demand ( BOD , 1649 mgl ( -1 ) ) and chemical oxygen demand ( COD , 2036 mgl ( -1 ) ) . It had very low values of dissolved oxygen ( DO , 0 . 34 mgl ( -1 ) ) . The heavy metals ( Cd , Cr , Ni and Zn ) content , particularly the nickel concentration ( 0 . 029 mg l ( -1 ) ) was high . Use of the distillery effluent , even on 1 : 1 dilution with tap water inhibited germination and early seedling growth of maize and rice . In both maize and rice , more so in the former germination % of seeds , length of radicle and plumule and the fresh and dry weight of the seedlings were significantly reduced . The emerging leaves of the seedlings also developed visible effects of toxicity some of which resembled the symptoms of nickel toxicity . Our observations suggest that the effluent , as discharged from the distillery carry a heavy load of pollutants . Its discharge into the river Gomti poses a potential threat to the aquatic life , perticularly during the summer months when the water flow in the river is drastically reduced . The distillery effluentis also harmful for irrigating crops grown along the drain carrying it .
Score: 9.00
Author: Liu G Zeng R Zhu H Zhang Z Ding X Zhao F Li W Zhang G
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : 118 P : 443-53 Year: 2009 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18949451 Accession (PMID): 18949451
Abstract: Nine single segment substitution lines ( SSSLs ) in rice , which contain quantitative trait loci ( QTLs ) for tiller number on substituted segments detected in previous studies , were selected as materials to analyse dynamic expression of the QTLs in this study . These SSSLs and their recipient parent , Hua-jing-xian 74 ( HJX74 ) , were grown in four different environments and were measured for tiller number at nine different growth stages . An indirect methodology was applied in QTL mapping through analyzing multi-environment phenotypic data . Dynamics of three types of effects ( including total effect , main effect , and QE interaction effect ) of QTLs was released . It was shown that nine QTLs exhibited statistically significant effects only at certain stages . Effects of a QTL , although insignificant at certain stages , displayed dynamic change with the growth of rice plants . Two common features of nine QTLs were detected , one is no expression within 7 days after transplanting , and the other is opposite expression existed during the whole growth period . Nine QTLs largely focused on expression in certain stages , and accordingly were suggested to partition into three types , expression in prophase , both in prophase and in anaphase , and evenly during the whole stage . It may be reasonable explanation that dynamics of main effects of QTLs are likely due to gene expression selectly at certain times , while dynamics of QE interaction effects of QTLs might attribute to the subrogation of environmental factors . Examination of the association between QE interaction effect and specified environmental factors across stages may provide useful information on how an environmental factor regulates QTL expression .
Score: 9.00
Author: Venuprasad R Dalid CO Del Valle M Zhao D Espiritu M Sta Cruz MT Amante M Kumar A Atlin GN
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : P : Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19841886 Accession (PMID): 19841886
Abstract: An F ( 4 : 5 ) population of 490 recombinant inbred lines ( RILs ) from the cross Apo/ ( 2* ) Swarna was used to detect quantitative trait loci ( QTL ) with large effects on grain yield under drought stress using bulk-segregant analysis ( BSA ) . Swarna is an important rainfed lowland rice variety grown on millions of hectares in Asia , but is highly susceptible to drought and aerobic soil conditions . Apo is an aerobic-adapted variety with moderate tolerance to drought . Two rice microsatellite ( RM ) markers , RM324 , and RM416 , located on chromosomes 2 and 3 , respectively , were shown via BSA to be strongly associated with yield under lowland drought stress . The effects of these QTL were tested in a total of eight hydrological environments over a period of 3 years . The QTL linked to RM416 ( DTY ( 3 . 1 ) ) had a large effect on grain yield under severe lowland drought stress , explaining about 31% of genetic variance for the trait ( P < 0 . 0001 ) . It also explained considerable variance for yield under mild stress in lowland conditions and aerobic environments . To our knowledge this is the first reported QTL that has a large effect on yield in both lowland drought and aerobic environments . The QTL linked to RM324 ( DTY ( 2 . 1 ) ) had a highly significant effect on grain yield in lowland drought stress ( R ( 2 ) = 13-16% ) and in two aerobic trials . The effect of these QTL on grain yield was verified to be not mainly due to phenology differences . Effects of DTY ( 3 . 1 ) on yield under stress have been observed in several other rice mapping populations studied at IRRI . Results of this study indicate that BSA is an effective method of identifying QTL alleles with large effects on rice yield under severe drought stress . The Apo alleles for these large-effect QTL for grain yield under drought and aerobic conditions may be immediately exploited in marker-assisted-breeding to improve the drought tolerance of Swarna .
Score: 9.00
Author: Boruah D Hazarika S
Journal: J Environ Sci Eng Citation: V : 52 P : 221-8 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21391395 Accession (PMID): 21391395
Abstract: Rice crop ( var . Luit ) was grown under controlled conditions in paper mill effluent contaminated soil and irrigated with undiluted paper mill effluent as well as normal water and compared the results against a control treatment consisting of similar unaffected soil irrigated with normal water . The effluent was alkaline ( pH 7 . 5 ) , containing high soluble salts ( EC 2 . 93 dS m ( -1 ) ) , chloride ( 600 mg L ( -1 ) ) and total dissolved solids ( 1875 mg L ( -1 ) ) . At maximum tillering ( MT ) stage effluent irrigation significantly ( P < 0 . 05 ) reduced the leaf numbers per hill and leaf area by 19 . 8 and 36 . 4 % , respectively . Tiller number and maximum root length were reduced by 19 . 3% and 12 . 5% , respectively at fifty percent flowering ( FF ) stage . Effluent irrigated crop recorded significant reduction in the dry matter production ( 17 . 5-24 . 9% ) and grain yield ( 19% ) . Unfilled grain was increased by 10 . 7% . Higher concentration of sodium , calcium and magnesium in the effluent irrigated soil affected K uptake . Available soil P was lowest while available N , K , S and exchangeable and water soluble Na , K , Ca , Mg were highest in effluent irrigated soil . Chloride content found to increase ( 3-7 folds ) while microbial biomass carbon reduced ( 10-37% ) . The adverse effect of the paper mill effluent on the crop as well as on the affected soil could be reduced significantly through normal water irrigation .
Score: 9.00
Author: Nkurunziza H Gebhardt A Pilz J
Journal: Malar J Citation: V : 10 P : 234 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21835010 Accession (PMID): 21835010
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Malaria is a major public health issue in Burundi in terms of both morbidity and mortality , with around 2 . 5 million clinical cases and more than 15 , 000 deaths each year . It is still the single main cause of mortality in pregnant women and children below five years of age . Because of the severe health and economic burden of malaria , there is still a growing need for methods that will help to understand the influencing factors . Several studies/researches have been done on the subject yielding different results as which factors are most responsible for the increase in malaria transmission . This paper considers the modelling of the dependence of malaria cases on spatial determinants and climatic covariates including rainfall , temperature and humidity in Burundi . METHODS : The analysis carried out in this work exploits real monthly data collected in the area of Burundi over 12 years ( 1996-2007 ) . Semi-parametric regression models are used . The spatial analysis is based on a geo-additive model using provinces as the geographic units of study . The spatial effect is split into structured ( correlated ) and unstructured ( uncorrelated ) components . Inference is fully Bayesian and uses Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques . The effects of the continuous covariates are modelled by cubic p-splines with 20 equidistant knots and second order random walk penalty . For the spatially correlated effect , Markov random field prior is chosen . The spatially uncorrelated effects are assumed to be i . i . d . Gaussian . The effects of climatic covariates and the effects of other spatial determinants are estimated simultaneously in a unified regression framework . RESULTS : The results obtained from the proposed model suggest that although malaria incidence in a given month is strongly positively associated with the minimum temperature of the previous months , regional patterns of malaria that are related to factors other than climatic variables have been identified , without being able to explain them . CONCLUSIONS : In this paper , semiparametric models are used to model the effects of both climatic covariates and spatial effects on malaria distribution in Burundi . The results obtained from the proposed models suggest a strong positive association between malaria incidence in a given month and the minimum temperature of the previous month . From the spatial effects , important spatial patterns of malaria that are related to factors other than climatic variables are identified . Potential explanations ( factors ) could be related to socio-economic conditions , food shortage , limited access to health care service , precarious housing , promiscuity , poor hygienic conditions , limited access to drinking water , land use ( rice paddies for example ) , displacement of the population ( due to armed conflicts ) .
Score: 9.00
Author: Jin J
Journal: J Sci Food Agric Citation: V : 92 P : 1006-9 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22234968 Accession (PMID): 22234968
Abstract: Results of three nationwide fertiliser efficiency studies in recent history in China are reviewed . The results indicate that after a long history using organic recycling to maintain soil fertility in China , nitrogen ( N ) became the first yield-limiting nutrient in the first national fertiliser efficiency study in 1935-1940 . With N fertilisation being used , phosphorus ( P ) and potassium ( K ) deficiencies were gradually revealed and developed in the following national fertiliser efficiency studies in 1958-1962 and 1981-1983 . Research conducted through the International Plant Nutrition ( IPNI ) cooperative network in China in 2000-2006 indicates that agronomic efficiencies of N fertiliser ( yield increase per kilogram from the application of 1 kg N ) for rice , wheat and maize are 11 . 7 kg , 10 . 8 kg and 12 . 2 kg grain per kilogram of N , respectively , while crop recovery efficiency of N ( percentage of N taken up by plant in total N applied ) with rice , wheat and maize were 24 . 8% , 35 . 7% and 30 . 5% , respectively . Both agronomic efficiency and crop recovery efficiency of N are significantly lower than the average N use efficiency reported in international literature for other countries . Current agronomic efficiency of P and K are also discussed . Measures to improve fertiliser use in China are discussed .
Score: 9.00
Author: Negus SS Rosenberg MB Altarifi AA OConnell RH Folk JE Rice KC
Journal: J Pain Citation: V : 13 P : 317-27 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22424913 Accession (PMID): 22424913
Abstract: The delta opioid receptor agonist SNC80 produces both antinociceptive and antidepressant effects in rodents . This profile suggests that SNC80 may also reverse prodepressant effects of pain . Accordingly , this study compared SNC80 effects in complementary assays of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior in rats . Intraperitoneal injection of dilute acid served as an acute noxious visceral stimulus in rats to stimulate abdominal stretching ( a pain-stimulated behavior ) or depress intracranial self-stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle ( ICSS ; a pain-depressed behavior ) . When administered once per week to minimize acute tolerance , SNC80 ( 1-10 mg/kg IP ) decreased acid-stimulated stretching but had little effect on acid-induced depression of ICSS . More frequent SNC80 administration produced tolerance to SNC80 effects on acid-stimulated stretching , but unmasked antinociception in the assay of acid-depressed ICSS . SNC80 did not facilitate ICSS in the absence of pain , and effects of SNC80 were not duplicated by ARM390 , a reputed delta agonist congener of SNC80 that does not internalize delta receptors . These findings support continued consideration of delta agonists as candidate analgesics to treat prodepressant effects of pain and illustrate the potential for diametrically opposite effects of drug treatments on preclinical measures of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior . PERSPECTIVE : The delta opioid agonist SNC80 blocked pain-related depression of intracranial self-stimulation in rats , suggesting that delta agonists may be useful to treat prodepressant effects of pain . Repeated SNC80 produced tolerance to SNC80 antinociception in a conventional assay of pain-stimulated behavior but unmasked SNC80 antinociception in an assay of pain-depressed behavior .
Score: 9.00
Author: Needham CJ Williams AK Chew SA Kasper FK Mikos AG
Journal: Biomacromolecules Citation: V : 13 P : 1429-37 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22455481 Accession (PMID): 22455481
Abstract: In this work , the effects of primary amines , ligand targeting , and overall charge on the effectiveness of branched poly ( ethylenimine ) -hyaluronic acid conjugate ( bPEI-HA ) zwitterionic gene delivery vectors are investigated . To elucidate the relative importance of each of these parameters , we explored the zeta potential , cytotoxicity , and transfection efficiency for a variety of formulations of bPEI-HA . It was found that the length of the hyaluronic acid ( HA ) oligosaccharide had the most significant effect on cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency with human mesenchymal stem cells . Test groups of bPEI incorporating HA with a length of 10 saccharides had significantly higher transfection efficiency ( 14 . 6 +/- 2 . 0% ) and lower cytotoxicity than other formulations tested , with the cytotoxicity of the group containing the greatest mass of 10 saccharide showing similar results as the positive controls at the highest polymer concentration ( 100 mug/mL ) . Additionally , molar incorporation of HA , as opposed to the saccharide length and HA mass incorporation , had the greatest effect on zeta potential but a minor effect on both cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency . This work demonstrates the relative importance of each of these tunable design criteria when creating a zwitterionic polymeric gene delivery vector and provides useful specific information regarding the design of bPEI-HA gene delivery vectors .
Score: 9.00
Author: Camargo MG Golo PS Angelo IC Perinotto WM Sa FA Quinelato S Bittencourt VR
Journal: Vet Parasitol Citation: V : 188 P : 140-7 Year: 2012 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22480883 Accession (PMID): 22480883
Abstract: The formulations of acaripathogenic fungi to control ticks have been widely studied . The present study evaluated the efficacy of oil-based formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato ( s . l . ) , isolate Ma 959 , and Beauveria bassiana , isolate Bb 986 , on different Rhipicephalus microplus stages , comparing the efficacy between aqueous suspensions and 10 , 15 and 20% mineral oil formulations . Twelve groups were formed : one aqueous control group ; three mineral oil control groups , at 10 , 15 or 20% ; two aqueous fungal suspensions of M anisopliae s . l . or B bassiana ; and three formulations of M anisopliae ( s . l . ) or B bassiana containing 10 , 15 , and 20% mineral oil . To prepare aqueous suspensions and oily formulations , fungal isolates were cultivated on rice grains in polypropylene bags . The conidial suspensions and formulations had a concentration of 10 ( 8 ) conidia/mL . Bioassays were repeated twice . After treatment , the following biological parameters of engorged females were evaluated : hatching percentage , egg production index , nutritional index , and percentage of tick control . The following parameters were evaluated in the bioassays with eggs : period of incubation , period of hatch , and hatching percentage . Mortality was evaluated in bioassays with larvae . M anisopliae s . l . and B bassiana oil-based formulations were more effective than aqueous suspensions against R microplus eggs , larvae and engorged females , however , there was no significant difference between the three oil concentrations used . M anisopliae s . l . and B bassiana formulated in mineral oil reached 93 . 69% and 21 . 67% efficacy , respectively , while M anisopliae s . l . and B bassiana aqueous suspensions attained 18 . 70% and 1 . 72% efficacy , respectively . M anisopliae s . l . oil-based formulations caused significant effects in all biological parameters of engorged females while B bassiana oil-based formulations modified significantly the nutritional index only . Eggs treated with M anisopliae s . l . and B bassiana oil-based formulations showed hatching rates that decreased 102 . 5 and 3 . 65 times , respectively . In the bioassay with larvae , M anisopliae s . l . oil-based formulations caused nearly 100% mortality five days after treatment , while larva treated with B bassiana oil-based formulations reached 100% mortality at day 20 after treatment . Larva from oil-based control groups showed mortality at day 15 after treatment , which indicated a possible toxic effect of the oil for this R microplus stage . The results showed that the fungal mineral oil formulations tested were more effective than the aqueous suspension . Oil-based formulations at 10 , 15 and 20% enhanced the activity of M anisopliae s . l . Ma 959 , and B bassiana Bb 986 , isolates against R microplus eggs , larvae , and engorged females tick . Mineral oil was effective as an adjuvant in formulations of M anisopliae s . l . , Ma 959 , and B bassiana , Bb 986 , for the control of R microplus under laboratory conditions .

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