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Score: 19.00
Title: Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed : the role of animal feeding trials .
Journal: Food Chem Toxicol Citation: V : 46 Suppl 1 P : S2-70 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18328408 Accession (PMID): 18328408
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed , as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms .
[ Sen. 34, subscore: 2.00 ]: With respect to the detection of potential unintended effects in whole GM food and feed , it is unlikely that substances present in small amounts and with a low toxic potential will result in any observable ( unintended ) effects in a 90-day rodent feeding study , as they would be below the no-observed-effect-level and thus of unlikely impact to human health at normal intake levels .
[ Sen. 35, subscore: 2.00 ]: Laboratory animal feeding studies of 90-days duration appear to be sufficient to pick up adverse effects of diverse compounds that would also give adverse effects after chronic exposure .
[ Sen. 37, subscore: 2.00 ]: The 90-day rodent feeding study is not designed to detect effects on reproduction or development other than effects on adult reproductive organ weights and histopathology .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The safety assessment is focussed on ( i ) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible changes in the level of natural constituents beyond normal variation , and on the characteristics of the GM food and feed , and ( ii ) the possible occurrence of unintended ( unexpected ) effects in GM plants due to genetic modification .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: In order to identify these effects a comparative phenotypic and molecular analysis of the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart is carried out , in parallel with a targeted analysis of single specific compounds , which represent important metabolic pathways in the plant like macro and micro nutrients , known anti-nutrients and toxins .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Significant differences may be indicative of the occurrence of unintended effects , which require further investigation .
[ Sen. 16, subscore: 1.00 ]: The majority of these experiments did not indicate clinical effects or histopathological abnormalities in organs or it issues of exposed animals .
[ Sen. 17, subscore: 1.00 ]: In some cases adverse effects were noted , which were difficult to interpret due to shortcomings in the studies .
[ Sen. 28, subscore: 1.00 ]: The aim of the 90-days rodent feeding study with the whole GM food and feed is to assess potential unintended effects of toxicological and/or nutritional relevance and to establish whether the GM food and feed is as safe and nutritious as its traditional comparator rather than determining qualitative and quantitative intrinsic toxicity of defined food constituents .
[ Sen. 31, subscore: 1.00 ]: A 90-day animal feeding trial has a large capacity ( sensitivity and specificity ) to detect potential toxicological effects of single well defined compounds .
[ Sen. 36, subscore: 1.00 ]: This conclusion is based on literature data from studies investigating whether toxicological effects are adequately identified in 3-month subchronic studies in rodents , by comparing findings at 3 and 24 months for a range of different chemicals .
[ Sen. 38, subscore: 1.00 ]: Analyses of available data indicate that , for a wide range of substances , reproductive and developmental effects are not potentially more sensitive endpoints than those examined in subchronic toxicity tests .
[ Sen. 39, subscore: 1.00 ]: Should there be structural alerts for reproductive/developmental effects or other indications from data available on a GM food and feed , then these tests should be considered .
[ Sen. 41, subscore: 1.00 ]: Results obtained from testing GM food and feed in rodents indicate that large ( at least 100-fold ) safety margins exist between animal exposure levels without observed adverse effects and estimated human daily intake .
Score: 18.00
Title: Dynamic analysis of QTLs on tiller number in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) with single segment substitution lines .
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : 125 P : 143-53 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22350178 Accession (PMID): 22350178
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 5.00 ]: Most of the QTLs show significant interactions with planting seasons and cropping densities , but the additive effects of QTLs Tn3-1 and Tn3-2 , the dominant effects of QTL Tn7 and Tn8 , and the epistatic effects of 14 pairs of QTLs are stable across seasons and the dominant effect of QTL Tn3-3 and the epistatic effects of QTL pairs Tn2-1/Tn6-2 , Tn2-1/Tn9 and Tn3-3/Tn6-3 are nearly consistent across cropping densities .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 4.00 ]: Eight QTLs are detected with significant additive effects and/or additive x season and/or additive x density interaction effects at least at one developmental stage , and all QTLs have significant dominant and epistatic effects and/or interaction effects involved in .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: QTL effects including main effects ( additive , dominance and epistasis ) , QTL x season and QTL x density interaction effects were analyzed at each measured stage .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The additive , dominant and epistatic effects of the 12 QTLs as well as their interaction effects with the seasons and with the densities all display dynamic changes with the development .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: For most of the QTLs dominant effects are much bigger than additive effects , showing overdominance .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: Additive and dominant effects of these QTLs are mostly positive while epistatic effects are negative and minor .
Score: 15.00
Title: Detection and characterization of glutathione S-transferase activity in rice EF-1betabetagamma and EF-1gamma expressed in Escherichia coli .
Journal: Biochem . Biophys . Res . Commun . Citation: V : 288 ( 3 ) P : 509-14 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11676472 Accession (PMID): 11676472
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: EF-1beta and EF-1beta catalyze the GDP/GTP exchange on EF-1alpha .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Plant elongation factor EF-1 consists of four subunits ( EF-1alphabetabetagamma ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: This report demonstrates that rice EF-1betabetagamma and recombinant EF-1gamma possess glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) activity .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: The EF-1betabetagamma or EF-1gamma-dependent GST activity is about one-fiftieth of the rice GST activity .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: The Km values of EF-1betabetagamma , EF-1gamma , and rice GST for glutathione and 1-chloro-2 , 4-dinitrobenzene are of about the same order .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: Although recombinant EF-1gamma is heat labile , active EF-1gamma was obtained by purifying it in the presence of 20% glycerol .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: EF-1alpha .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: However , the function of EF-1gamma , a subunit detected in eukaryotes , but not in prokaryotes remained unknown .
Score: 15.00
Title: Particulate emission factors for mobile fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources .
Journal: Sci Total Environ Citation: V : 409 P : 2384-96 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21458027 Accession (PMID): 21458027
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: EMFAC2007 reported higher PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs than MOBILE 6 . 2 during winter , but not during summer , and neither model captured the variability of the measured EFs .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: EFs for biomass burning measured during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment ( FLAME ) were compared with EFs from the ARB Emission Estimation System ( EES ) model .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 2.00 ]: The EES model agreed with measured EFs for fuels with low moisture content but underestimated measured EFs for fuel with moisture content >40% .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: PM emission factors ( EFs ) for gasoline and diesel-fueled vehicles and biomass combustion were measured in several recent studies .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the Gas/Diesel Split Study ( GD-Split ) , PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs for heavy-duty diesel vehicles ( HDDV ) ranged from 0 . 2 to 2 g/mile and increased with vehicle age .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: EFs for HDDV estimated with the US EPA MOBILE 6 . 2 and California Air Resources Board ( ARB ) EMFAC2007 models correlated well with measured values .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs measured for gasoline vehicles were two orders of magnitude lower than those for HDDV and did not correlate with model estimates .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the Kansas City Study , PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs for gasoline-powered vehicles ( eg , passenger cars and light trucks ) were generally <0 . 03 g/mile and were higher in winter than summer .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Total PM EFs for heavy-duty diesel military vehicles ranged from 0 . 18+/-0 . 03 and 1 . 20+/-0 . 12 g/kg fuel , corresponding to 0 . 3 and 2 g/mile , respectively .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: The highest PM ( 2 . 5 ) EFs ( 76 . 8+/-37 . 5 g/kg ) were measured for wet ( >50% moisture content ) Ponderosa Pine needles .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: EFs were generally <20 g/kg when moisture content was <20% .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: Average EFs for dry chamise , rice straw , and dry grass were within a factor of three of values adopted by ARB in Californias San Joaquin Valley ( SJV ) .
Score: 13.00
Title: [ Genetic effects of mineral elements of Fe , Zn , Mn and P in black pericarp rice grains ]
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 27 ( 9 ) P : 792-9 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11132495 Accession (PMID): 11132495
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 5.00 ]: The seed direct genetic effects were more important than the maternal genetic effects for Fe , Zn , Mn contents , and seed direct additive effects constituted a major part of their genetic effects , whereas seed direct additive , maternal additive and dominant effects formed the main part in the inheritance of P content .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: The results indicated that the contents of all the four mineral elements were controlled by seed direct genetic effects , maternal genetic effects as well as by cytoplasmic effects .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Complete diallel crosses with seven varieties of black pericarp rice were conducted in one year to analyze the genetic effects on main mineral elements of Fe , Zn , Mn and P contents in kernels of parents and their F1S and F2S , using the full genetic model including triploid endosperm , cytoplasmic and maternal effects on quantitative traits of seeds in cereal crops .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The estimate values of narrow heritabilites of seed direct genetic effects were high for Fe , Zn and Mn contents , while those of seed and maternal effects were intermediate for P content .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The heritabilities of seed direct effects of the 4 mineral element contents were all highly significant .
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