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Score: 15.00
Title: Purification and characterization of a high molecular mass serine carboxypeptidase from Monascus pilosus .
Author: Liu F Tachibana S Taira T Ishihara M Kato F Yasuda M
Journal: J Ind . Microbiol . Biotechnol . Citation: V : 31 ( 12 ) P : 572-80 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15592905 Accession (PMID): 15592905
Abstract: Two serine carboxypeptidases , MpiCP-1 and MpiCP-2 , were purified to homogeneity from Monascus pilosus IFO 4480 . MpiCP-1 is a homodimer with a native molecular mass of 125 kDa composed of two identical subunits of 61 kDa , while MpiCP-2 is a high mass homooligomer with a native molecular mass of 2 , 263 kDa composed of about 38 identical subunits of 59 kDa . This is unique among carboxypeptidases and distinguishes MpiCP-2 as the largest known carboxypeptidase . The two purified enzymes were both acidic glycoproteins . MpiCP-1 has an isoelectric point of 3 . 7 and a carbohydrate content of 11% , while for MpiCP-2 these values were 4 . 0 and 33% , respectively . The optimum pH and temperature were around 4 . 0 and 50 degrees C for MpiCP-1 , and 3 . 5 and 50 degrees C for MpiCP-2 . MpiCP-1 was stable over a broad range of pH between 2 . 0 and 8 . 0 at 37 degrees C for 1 h , and up to 55 degrees C for 15 min at pH 6 . 0 , but MpiCP-2 was stable in a narrow range of pH between 5 . 5 and 6 . 5 , and up to 50 degrees C for 15 min at pH 6 . 0 . Phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride strongly inhibited MpiCP-1 and completely inhibited MpiCP-2 , suggesting that they are both serine carboxypeptidases . Of the substrates tested , benzyloxycarbonyl-L : -tyrosyl-L : -glutamic acid ( Z-Tyr-Glu ) was the best for both enzymes . The Km , Vmax , Kcat and Kcat/Km values of MpiCP-1 for Z-Tyr-Glu at pH 4 . 0 and 37 degrees C were 1 . 33 mM , 1 . 49 mM min ( -1 ) , 723 s ( -1 ) and 545 mM ( -1 ) s ( -1 ) , and those of MpiCP-2 at pH 3 . 5 and 37 degrees C were 1 . 55 mM , 1 . 54 mM min ( -1 ) , 2 , 039 s ( -1 ) and 1 , 318 mM ( -1 ) s ( -1 ) , respectively .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Two serine carboxypeptidases , MpiCP-1 and MpiCP-2 , were purified to homogeneity from Monascus pilosus IFO 4480 .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: MpiCP-1 is a homodimer with a native molecular mass of 125 kDa composed of two identical subunits of 61 kDa , while MpiCP-2 is a high mass homooligomer with a native molecular mass of 2 , 263 kDa composed of about 38 identical subunits of 59 kDa .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: MpiCP-1 has an isoelectric point of 3 . 7 and a carbohydrate content of 11% , while for MpiCP-2 these values were 4 . 0 and 33% , respectively .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The optimum pH and temperature were around 4 . 0 and 50 degrees C for MpiCP-1 , and 3 . 5 and 50 degrees C for MpiCP-2 .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: MpiCP-1 was stable over a broad range of pH between 2 . 0 and 8 . 0 at 37 degrees C for 1 h , and up to 55 degrees C for 15 min at pH 6 . 0 , but MpiCP-2 was stable in a narrow range of pH between 5 . 5 and 6 . 5 , and up to 50 degrees C for 15 min at pH 6 . 0 .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: Phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride strongly inhibited MpiCP-1 and completely inhibited MpiCP-2 , suggesting that they are both serine carboxypeptidases .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: The Km , Vmax , Kcat and Kcat/Km values of MpiCP-1 for Z-Tyr-Glu at pH 4 . 0 and 37 degrees C were 1 . 33 mM , 1 . 49 mM min ( -1 ) , 723 s ( -1 ) and 545 mM ( -1 ) s ( -1 ) , and those of MpiCP-2 at pH 3 . 5 and 37 degrees C were 1 . 55 mM , 1 . 54 mM min ( -1 ) , 2 , 039 s ( -1 ) and 1 , 318 mM ( -1 ) s ( -1 ) , respectively .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: This is unique among carboxypeptidases and distinguishes MpiCP-2 as the largest known carboxypeptidase .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 15.00
Title: Tissue culture-induced transpositional activity of mPing is correlated with cytosine methylation in rice .
Author: Ngezahayo F Xu C Wang H Jiang L Pang J Liu B
Journal: BMC Plant Biol Citation: V : 9 P : 91 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19604382 Accession (PMID): 19604382
Abstract: BACKGROUND : mPing is an endogenous MITE in the rice genome , which is quiescent under normal conditions but can be induced towards mobilization under various stresses . The cellular mechanism responsible for modulating the activity of mPing remains unknown . Cytosine methylation is a major epigenetic modification in most eukaryotes , and the primary function of which is to serve as a genome defense system including taming activity of transposable elements ( TEs ) . Given that it issue-culture is capable of inducing both methylation alteration and mPing transposition in certain rice genotypes , it provides a tractable system to investigate the possible relationship between the two phenomena . RESULTS : mPing transposition and cytosine methylation alteration were measured in callus and regenerated plants in three rice ( ssp . indica ) genotypes , V14 , V27 and R09 . All three genotypes showed transposition of mPing , though at various frequencies . Cytosine methylation alteration occurred both at the mPing-flanks and at random loci sampled globally in callus and regenerated plants of all three genotypes . However , a sharp difference in the changing patterns was noted between the mPing-flanks and random genomic loci , with a particular type of methylation modification , ie , CNG hypermethylation , occurred predominantly at the mPing-flanks . Pearsons test on pairwise correlations indicated that mPing activity is positively correlated with specific patterns of methylation alteration at random genomic loci , while the elements immobility is positively correlated with methylation levels of the mPings 5-flanks . Bisulfite sequencing of two mPing-containing loci showed that whereas for the immobile locus loss of CG methylation in the 5-flank was accompanied by an increase in CHG methylation , together with an overall increase in methylation of all three types ( CG , CHG and CHH ) in the mPing-body region , for the active locus erasure of CG methylation in the 5-flank was not followed by such a change . CONCLUSION : Our results documented that it issue culture-induced mPing activity in rice ssp . indica is correlated with alteration in cytosine methylation patterns at both random genomic loci and the elements flanks , while the stability of mPing positively correlates with enhanced methylation levels of both the flanks and probably the elements per se . Thus , our results implicate a possible role of cytosine methylation in maintaining mPing stability under normal conditions , and in releasing the elements activity as a consequence of epigenetic perturbation in a locus-specific manner under certain stress conditions .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: However , a sharp difference in the changing patterns was noted between the mPing-flanks and random genomic loci , with a particular type of methylation modification , ie , CNG hypermethylation , occurred predominantly at the mPing-flanks .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: Pearsons test on pairwise correlations indicated that mPing activity is positively correlated with specific patterns of methylation alteration at random genomic loci , while the elements immobility is positively correlated with methylation levels of the mPings 5-flanks .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: Bisulfite sequencing of two mPing-containing loci showed that whereas for the immobile locus loss of CG methylation in the 5-flank was accompanied by an increase in CHG methylation , together with an overall increase in methylation of all three types ( CG , CHG and CHH ) in the mPing-body region , for the active locus erasure of CG methylation in the 5-flank was not followed by such a change .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 2.00 ]: CONCLUSION : Our results documented that it issue culture-induced mPing activity in rice ssp . indica is correlated with alteration in cytosine methylation patterns at both random genomic loci and the elements flanks , while the stability of mPing positively correlates with enhanced methylation levels of both the flanks and probably the elements per se .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : mPing is an endogenous MITE in the rice genome , which is quiescent under normal conditions but can be induced towards mobilization under various stresses .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The cellular mechanism responsible for modulating the activity of mPing remains unknown .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Given that it issue-culture is capable of inducing both methylation alteration and mPing transposition in certain rice genotypes , it provides a tractable system to investigate the possible relationship between the two phenomena .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: RESULTS : mPing transposition and cytosine methylation alteration were measured in callus and regenerated plants in three rice ( ssp . indica ) genotypes , V14 , V27 and R09 .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: All three genotypes showed transposition of mPing , though at various frequencies .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Cytosine methylation alteration occurred both at the mPing-flanks and at random loci sampled globally in callus and regenerated plants of all three genotypes .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: Thus , our results implicate a possible role of cytosine methylation in maintaining mPing stability under normal conditions , and in releasing the elements activity as a consequence of epigenetic perturbation in a locus-specific manner under certain stress conditions .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 13.00
Title: In planta mobilization of mPing and its putative autonomous element Pong in rice by hydrostatic pressurization .
Author: Lin X Long L Shan X Zhang S Shen S Liu B
Journal: J Exp . Bot . Citation: V : 57 ( 10 ) P : 2313-23 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16818484 Accession (PMID): 16818484
Abstract: The miniature Ping ( mPing ) is a recently discovered endogenous miniature inverted repeat transposable element ( MITE ) in rice , which can be mobilized by it issue culture or irradiation . It is reported here that mPing , together with one of its putative transposase-encoding partners , Pong , was efficiently mobilized in somatic cells of intact rice plants of two distinct cultivars derived from germinating seeds subjected to high hydrostatic pressure , whereas the other autonomous element of mPing , Ping , remained static in the plants studied . mPing excision was detected in several plants of both cultivars in the treated generation ( P0 ) , which were selected based on their novel phenotypes . Southern blot analysis and transposon-display assay on selfed progenies ( P1 generation ) of two selected P0 plants , one from each of the cultivars , revealed polymorphic banding patterns consistent with mobilization of mPing and Pong . Various mPing excisions and de novo insertions , as detected by element-bracketing , locus-specific PCR assays , occurred in the different P1 plants of both cultivars . Pong excision at one locus for each cultivar was also detected by using a Pong internal primer together with locus-specific flanking primers in the P1 plants . In contrast to the pressurized plants , immobility of both mPing and Pong in control plants , and the absence of within-cultivar heterozygosity at the analysed loci were verified by Southern blotting and/or locus-assay . Sequencing at 18 mPing empty donor sites isolated from the pressurized plants indicated properties characteristic of the element excision . Sequence-based mapping of 10 identified mPing de novo insertions from P1 progenies of pressurized plants indicated that all were in unique or low-copy regions , conforming with the targeting propensity of mPing . No evidence for further mPing activity was detected in the P2 plants tested . In spite of the high activity of mPing and Pong in the pressurized plants , amplified fragment length polymorphism ( AFLP ) analysis denoted their general genomic stability , and several potentially active retrotransposons also remained largely immobile . Further investigation showed that the same hydrostatic pressure treatments also caused mobilization of mPing in the standard laboratory cultivar for japonica rice , Nipponbare . Thus , a simple and robust approach for in planta MITE-mobilization in rice has been established by using high hydrostatic pressure treatment , which may be useful as an alternative for gene-tagging in this important crop plant .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: It is reported here that mPing , together with one of its putative transposase-encoding partners , Pong , was efficiently mobilized in somatic cells of intact rice plants of two distinct cultivars derived from germinating seeds subjected to high hydrostatic pressure , whereas the other autonomous element of mPing , Ping , remained static in the plants studied . mPing excision was detected in several plants of both cultivars in the treated generation ( P0 ) , which were selected based on their novel phenotypes .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: Sequence-based mapping of 10 identified mPing de novo insertions from P1 progenies of pressurized plants indicated that all were in unique or low-copy regions , conforming with the targeting propensity of mPing .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The miniature Ping ( mPing ) is a recently discovered endogenous miniature inverted repeat transposable element ( MITE ) in rice , which can be mobilized by it issue culture or irradiation .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Southern blot analysis and transposon-display assay on selfed progenies ( P1 generation ) of two selected P0 plants , one from each of the cultivars , revealed polymorphic banding patterns consistent with mobilization of mPing and Pong .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Various mPing excisions and de novo insertions , as detected by element-bracketing , locus-specific PCR assays , occurred in the different P1 plants of both cultivars .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: In contrast to the pressurized plants , immobility of both mPing and Pong in control plants , and the absence of within-cultivar heterozygosity at the analysed loci were verified by Southern blotting and/or locus-assay .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sequencing at 18 mPing empty donor sites isolated from the pressurized plants indicated properties characteristic of the element excision .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: No evidence for further mPing activity was detected in the P2 plants tested .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: In spite of the high activity of mPing and Pong in the pressurized plants , amplified fragment length polymorphism ( AFLP ) analysis denoted their general genomic stability , and several potentially active retrotransposons also remained largely immobile .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Further investigation showed that the same hydrostatic pressure treatments also caused mobilization of mPing in the standard laboratory cultivar for japonica rice , Nipponbare .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 13.00
Title: Expression of the maize proteinase inhibitor ( mpi ) gene in rice plants enhances resistance against the striped stem borer ( Chilo suppressalis ) : effects on larval growth and insect gut proteinases .
Author: Vila L Quilis J Meynard D Breitler JC MarfEV Murillo I Vassal JM Messeguer J Guiderdoni E San Segundo B
Journal: Plant Biotechnol . J Citation: V : 3 ( 2 ) P : 187-202 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17173619 Accession (PMID): 17173619
Abstract: The maize proteinase inhibitor ( mpi ) gene was introduced into two elite japonica rice varieties . Both constitutive expression of the mpi gene driven by the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter and wound-inducible expression of the mpi gene driven by its own promoter resulted in the accumulation of MPI protein in the transgenic plants . No effect on plant phenotype was observed in mpi-expressing lines . The stability of transgene expression through successive generations of mpi rice lines ( up to the T ( 4 ) generation ) and the production of functional MPI protein were confirmed . Expression of the mpi gene in rice enhanced resistance to the striped stem borer ( Chilo suppressalis ) , one of the most important pests of rice . In addition , transgenic mpi plants were evaluated in terms of their effects on the growth of C suppressalis larvae and the insect digestive proteolytic system . An important dose-dependent reduction of larval weight of C suppressalis larvae fed on mpi rice , compared with larvae fed on untransformed rice plants , was observed . Analysis of the digestive proteolytic activity from the gut of C suppressalis demonstrated that larvae adapted to mpi transgene expression by increasing the complement of digestive proteolytic activity : the serine and cysteine endoproteinases as well as the exopeptidases leucine aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidases A and B However , the induction of such proteolytic activity did not prevent the deleterious effects of MPI on larval growth . The introduction of the mpi gene into rice plants can thus be considered as a promising strategy to protect rice plants against striped stem borer .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: Both constitutive expression of the mpi gene driven by the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter and wound-inducible expression of the mpi gene driven by its own promoter resulted in the accumulation of MPI protein in the transgenic plants .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: The stability of transgene expression through successive generations of mpi rice lines ( up to the T ( 4 ) generation ) and the production of functional MPI protein were confirmed .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: Analysis of the digestive proteolytic activity from the gut of C suppressalis demonstrated that larvae adapted to mpi transgene expression by increasing the complement of digestive proteolytic activity : the serine and cysteine endoproteinases as well as the exopeptidases leucine aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidases A and B However , the induction of such proteolytic activity did not prevent the deleterious effects of MPI on larval growth .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The maize proteinase inhibitor ( mpi ) gene was introduced into two elite japonica rice varieties .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: No effect on plant phenotype was observed in mpi-expressing lines .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Expression of the mpi gene in rice enhanced resistance to the striped stem borer ( Chilo suppressalis ) , one of the most important pests of rice .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition , transgenic mpi plants were evaluated in terms of their effects on the growth of C suppressalis larvae and the insect digestive proteolytic system .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: An important dose-dependent reduction of larval weight of C suppressalis larvae fed on mpi rice , compared with larvae fed on untransformed rice plants , was observed .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: The introduction of the mpi gene into rice plants can thus be considered as a promising strategy to protect rice plants against striped stem borer .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 7.00
Title: Transpositional activation of mPing in an asymmetric nuclear somatic cell hybrid of rice and Zizania latifolia was accompanied by massive element loss .
Author: Shan XH Ou XF Liu ZL Dong YZ Lin XY Li XW Liu B
Journal: Theor Appl Genet Citation: V : 119 P : 1325-33 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19711051 Accession (PMID): 19711051
Abstract: We have reported previously that the most active miniature inverted terminal repeat transposable element ( MITE ) of rice , mPing , was transpositionally mobilized in several rice recombinant inbred lines ( RILs ) derived from an introgressive hybridization between rice and wild rice ( Zizania latifolia Griseb . ) . To further study the phenomenon of hybridization-induced mPing activity , we undertook the present study to investigate the elements behavior in a highly asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid ( SH6 ) of rice and Z latifolia , which is similar in genomic composition to that of the RILs , though probably contains more introgressed alien chromatins from the donor species than the RILs . We found that mPing , together with its transposase-donor , Pong , underwent rampant transpositional activation in the somatic hybrid ( SH6 ) . Because possible effects of protoplast isolation and cell culture can be ruled out , we attribute the transpositional activation of mPing and Pong in SH6 to the process of asymmetric somatic hybridization , namely , one-step introgression of multiple chromatin segments of the donor species Z latifolia into the recipient rice genome . A salient feature of mPing transposition in the somatic hybrid is that the elements activation was accompanied by massive loss of its original copies , ie , abortive transpositions , which was not observed in previously reported cases of mPing activity . These data not only corroborated our earlier finding that wide hybridization and introgression may trigger transpositional activation of otherwise quiescent transposable elements , but also suggest that transpositional mobilization of a MITE like mPing can be accompanied by dramatic reduction of its original copy numbers under certain conditions , thus provide novel insights into the dynamics of MITEs in the course of genome evolution .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: A salient feature of mPing transposition in the somatic hybrid is that the elements activation was accompanied by massive loss of its original copies , ie , abortive transpositions , which was not observed in previously reported cases of mPing activity .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: We have reported previously that the most active miniature inverted terminal repeat transposable element ( MITE ) of rice , mPing , was transpositionally mobilized in several rice recombinant inbred lines ( RILs ) derived from an introgressive hybridization between rice and wild rice ( Zizania latifolia Griseb . ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: To further study the phenomenon of hybridization-induced mPing activity , we undertook the present study to investigate the elements behavior in a highly asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid ( SH6 ) of rice and Z latifolia , which is similar in genomic composition to that of the RILs , though probably contains more introgressed alien chromatins from the donor species than the RILs .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: We found that mPing , together with its transposase-donor , Pong , underwent rampant transpositional activation in the somatic hybrid ( SH6 ) .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Because possible effects of protoplast isolation and cell culture can be ruled out , we attribute the transpositional activation of mPing and Pong in SH6 to the process of asymmetric somatic hybridization , namely , one-step introgression of multiple chromatin segments of the donor species Z latifolia into the recipient rice genome .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: These data not only corroborated our earlier finding that wide hybridization and introgression may trigger transpositional activation of otherwise quiescent transposable elements , but also suggest that transpositional mobilization of a MITE like mPing can be accompanied by dramatic reduction of its original copy numbers under certain conditions , thus provide novel insights into the dynamics of MITEs in the course of genome evolution .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
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