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Condition Concatenation Type Data Entry Comparison Numerics Sentence Range Exact Match? Case Sensitive? Literatures Fields
0 && keyword TRYP > 0 sentence no no oryza body, title, abstract


499 matches found in 345 documents. Results sorted by score (hits) .
Score: 11.00
Title: Infrared photodissociation of a water molecule from a flexible molecule-H ( 2 ) O complex : Rates and conformational product yields following XH stretch excitation .
Author: Clarkson JR Herbert JM Zwier TS .
Journal: Citation: V : 126 ( 13 ) P : 134306 Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17430031 Accession (PMID): 17430031
Abstract: Infrared-ultraviolet hole-burning and hole-filling spectroscopies have been used to study IR-induced dissociation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and tryptamineD ( 2 ) O complexes . Upon complexation of a single water molecule , the seven conformational isomers of tryptamine collapse to a single structure that retains the same ethylamine side chain conformation present in the most highly populated conformer of tryptamine monomer . Infrared excitation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O complex was carried out using a series of infrared absorptions spanning the range of 2470-3715 cm ( -1 ) . The authors have determined the conformational product yield over this range and the dissociation rate near threshold , where it is slow enough to be measured by our methods . The observed threshold for dissociation occurred at 2872 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and at 2869 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineD ( 2 ) O , with no dissociation occurring on the time scale of the experiment ( approximately 2 mus ) at 2745 cm ( -1 ) . The dissociation time constants varied from approximately 200 ns for the 2869 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineD ( 2 ) O to approximately 25 ns for the 2872 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineH ( 2 ) O This large isotope dependence is associated with a zero-point energy effect that increases the binding energy of the deuterated complex by approximately 190 cm ( -1 ) , thereby reducing the excess energy available at the same excitation energy . At all higher energies , the dissociation lifetime was shorter than the pulse duration of our lasers ( 8 ns ) . At all wavelengths , the observed products in the presence of collisions are dominated by conformers A and B of tryptamine monomer , with small contributions from the other minor conformers . In addition , right at threshold ( 2869 cm ( -1 ) ) , tryptamineD ( 2 ) O dissociates exclusively to conformer A in the absence of collisions with helium , while both A and B conformational products are observed in the presence of collisions with helium . Using resolution-of-identity approximation to second-order Moller-Plesset binding energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit and harmonic vibrational frequencies and transition states calculated at the density functional limit B3LYP6-31+G ( * ) level of theory , Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus ( RRKM ) predictions for the dissociation , isomerization , and water shuttling rates as a function of energy are made . At threshold , the experimental dissociation rate is almost 10 ( 3 ) faster than RRKM predictions . Reasons for this apparent non-RRKM behavior will be discussed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Infrared-ultraviolet hole-burning and hole-filling spectroscopies have been used to study IR-induced dissociation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and tryptamineD ( 2 ) O complexes .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: Upon complexation of a single water molecule , the seven conformational isomers of tryptamine collapse to a single structure that retains the same ethylamine side chain conformation present in the most highly populated conformer of tryptamine monomer .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: The observed threshold for dissociation occurred at 2872 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineH ( 2 ) O and at 2869 cm ( -1 ) in tryptamineD ( 2 ) O , with no dissociation occurring on the time scale of the experiment ( approximately 2 mus ) at 2745 cm ( -1 ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The dissociation time constants varied from approximately 200 ns for the 2869 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineD ( 2 ) O to approximately 25 ns for the 2872 cm ( -1 ) band of tryptamineH ( 2 ) O This large isotope dependence is associated with a zero-point energy effect that increases the binding energy of the deuterated complex by approximately 190 cm ( -1 ) , thereby reducing the excess energy available at the same excitation energy .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Infrared excitation of the tryptamineH ( 2 ) O complex was carried out using a series of infrared absorptions spanning the range of 2470-3715 cm ( -1 ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: At all wavelengths , the observed products in the presence of collisions are dominated by conformers A and B of tryptamine monomer , with small contributions from the other minor conformers .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition , right at threshold ( 2869 cm ( -1 ) ) , tryptamineD ( 2 ) O dissociates exclusively to conformer A in the absence of collisions with helium , while both A and B conformational products are observed in the presence of collisions with helium .
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Score: 10.00
Title: In vitro inhibition of the activation of Pro-matrix Metalloproteinase 1 ( Pro-MMP-1 ) and Pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 ( Pro-MMP-9 ) by rice and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitors .
Author: Bawadi HA Antunes TM Shih F Losso JN .
Journal: J Agric . Food Chem . Citation: V : 52 ( 15 ) P : 4730-6 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15264907 Accession (PMID): 15264907
Abstract: The in vitro inhibitory activity of the rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( rBBI ) or soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( sBBI ) against trypsin-catalyzed activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 1 or 9 ( pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 ) , respectively , was investigated using electrophoresis with silver staining , heparin-enhanced zymography , biotinylated gelatin , Biotrak assay , and fluorescence quenched substrate hydrolysis . rBBI at concentrations of 0 . 08-0 . 352 mg/mL dose-dependently inhibited the in vitro activation of 45 microg/mL pro-MMP-1 by trypsin . Heparin-enhanced zymography analysis of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin-activated MMP-1 , and a mixture of pro-MMP-1-trypsin-rBBI showed clear zones associated with trypsin-activated MMP-1 and the absence of clear zones in lanes containing pro-MMP-1 or a mixture of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin , and rBBI . The results of the Biotrak assay also indicated that rBBI dose-dependently suppressed the activation of pro-MMP-1 by trypsin . sBBI dose-dependently inhibited the activation of 100 microg/mL of pro-MMP-9 by trypsin . Biotinylated gelatin assays demonstrated that pro-MMP-9 or pro-MMP-9 in the presence of trypsin and BBI did not hydrolyze gelatin , whereas p-aminophenylmercury acetate ( APMA ) -activated MMP-9 and trypsin-activated MMP-9 caused significant hydrolysis of gelatin . Quenched fluorescence substrate hydrolysis for total MMP activity showed that pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 did not hydrolyze the substrate Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 ; active MMP-1 or MMP-9 hydrolyzed the substrate , but lower substrate hydrolysis was obtained when pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 was incubated with trypsin in the presence of increasing concentrations of rBBI . The results are discussed in light of the role of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in the process of angiogenesis and the potential of rBBI or sBBI as a functional food ingredient .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: Heparin-enhanced zymography analysis of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin-activated MMP-1 , and a mixture of pro-MMP-1-trypsin-rBBI showed clear zones associated with trypsin-activated MMP-1 and the absence of clear zones in lanes containing pro-MMP-1 or a mixture of pro-MMP-1 , trypsin , and rBBI .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: The in vitro inhibitory activity of the rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( rBBI ) or soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( sBBI ) against trypsin-catalyzed activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 1 or 9 ( pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 ) , respectively , was investigated using electrophoresis with silver staining , heparin-enhanced zymography , biotinylated gelatin , Biotrak assay , and fluorescence quenched substrate hydrolysis . rBBI at concentrations of 0 . 08-0 . 352 mg/mL dose-dependently inhibited the in vitro activation of 45 microg/mL pro-MMP-1 by trypsin .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The results of the Biotrak assay also indicated that rBBI dose-dependently suppressed the activation of pro-MMP-1 by trypsin . sBBI dose-dependently inhibited the activation of 100 microg/mL of pro-MMP-9 by trypsin .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: Biotinylated gelatin assays demonstrated that pro-MMP-9 or pro-MMP-9 in the presence of trypsin and BBI did not hydrolyze gelatin , whereas p-aminophenylmercury acetate ( APMA ) -activated MMP-9 and trypsin-activated MMP-9 caused significant hydrolysis of gelatin .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Quenched fluorescence substrate hydrolysis for total MMP activity showed that pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 did not hydrolyze the substrate Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 ; active MMP-1 or MMP-9 hydrolyzed the substrate , but lower substrate hydrolysis was obtained when pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9 was incubated with trypsin in the presence of increasing concentrations of rBBI .
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Score: 10.00
Title: Probing the role of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolism in defense responses against Bipolaris oryzae infection in rice leaves by a suicide substrate of tryptophan decarboxylase .
Author: Ishihara A Nakao T Mashimo Y Murai M Ichimaru N Tanaka C Nakajima H Wakasa K Miyagawa H
Journal: Phytochemistry Citation: V : 72 P : 7-13 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21112065 Accession (PMID): 21112065
Abstract: Tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites , including serotonin and its hydroxycinnamic acid amides , markedly accumulate in rice leaves in response to pathogen attack . These compounds have been implicated in the physical defense system against pathogen invasion by being deposited in cell walls . Serotonin is biosynthesized from tryptophan via tryptamine , and tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) catalyzes the first committed reaction . In this study , ( S ) -alpha- ( fluoromethyl ) tryptophan ( S-alphaFMT ) was utilized to investigate the effects of the inhibition of TDC on the defense responses of rice leaves . S-alphaFMT , enantiospecifically synthesized from L-tryptophan , effectively inhibited TDC activity extracted from rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae . The inhibition rate increased dependently on the incubation time , indicating that S-alphaFMT served as a suicide substrate . Treatment of rice seedlings with S-alphaFMT suppressed accumulation of serotonin , tryptamine , and hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin in a dose-dependent manner in B oryzae-inoculated leaves . The lesions formed on seedlings treated with S-alphaFMT lacked deposition of brown materials , and those leaves were severely damaged in comparison with leaves without S-alphaFMT treatment . Administrating tryptamine to S-alphaFMT-treated leaves restored accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites as well as deposition of brown material In addition , tryptamine administration reduced damage caused by fungal infection . Accordingly , the accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites was suggested to be part of the effective defense mechanism of rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 3.00 ]: Serotonin is biosynthesized from tryptophan via tryptamine , and tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) catalyzes the first committed reaction .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 3.00 ]: Administrating tryptamine to S-alphaFMT-treated leaves restored accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites as well as deposition of brown material In addition , tryptamine administration reduced damage caused by fungal infection .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites , including serotonin and its hydroxycinnamic acid amides , markedly accumulate in rice leaves in response to pathogen attack .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , ( S ) -alpha- ( fluoromethyl ) tryptophan ( S-alphaFMT ) was utilized to investigate the effects of the inhibition of TDC on the defense responses of rice leaves .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Treatment of rice seedlings with S-alphaFMT suppressed accumulation of serotonin , tryptamine , and hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin in a dose-dependent manner in B oryzae-inoculated leaves .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Accordingly , the accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites was suggested to be part of the effective defense mechanism of rice .
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Score: 7.00
Title: Identification of target genes conferring ethanol stress tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on DNA microarray data analysis .
Author: Hirasawa T Yoshikawa K Nakakura Y Nagahisa K Furusawa C Katakura Y Shimizu H Shioya S
Journal: J Biotechnol Citation: V : 131 P : 34-44 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17604866 Accession (PMID): 17604866
Abstract: During industrial production process using yeast , cells are exposed to the stress due to the accumulation of ethanol , which affects the cell growth activity and productivity of target products , thus , the ethanol stress-tolerant yeast strains are highly desired . To identify the target gene ( s ) for constructing ethanol stress tolerant yeast strains , we obtained the gene expression profiles of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , namely , a laboratory strain and a strain used for brewing Japanese rice wine ( sake ) , in the presence of 5% ( v/v ) ethanol , using DNA microarray . For the selection of target genes for breeding ethanol stress tolerant strains , clustering of DNA microarray data was performed . For further selection , the ethanol sensitivity of the knockout mutants in each of which the gene selected by DNA microarray analysis is deleted , was also investigated . The integration of the DNA microarray data and the ethanol sensitivity data of knockout strains suggests that the enhancement of expression of genes related to tryptophan biosynthesis might confer the ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells . Indeed , the strains overexpressing tryptophan biosynthesis genes showed a stress tolerance to 5% ethanol . Moreover , the addition of tryptophan to the culture medium and overexpression of tryptophan permease gene conferred ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells . These results indicate that overexpression of the genes for trypophan biosynthesis increases the ethanol stress tolerance . Tryptophan supplementation to culture and overexpression of the tryptophan permease gene are also effective for the increase in ethanol stress tolerance . Our methodology for the selection of target genes for constructing ethanol stress tolerant strains , based on the data of DNA microarray analysis and phenotypes of knockout mutants , was validated .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Moreover , the addition of tryptophan to the culture medium and overexpression of tryptophan permease gene conferred ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: Tryptophan supplementation to culture and overexpression of the tryptophan permease gene are also effective for the increase in ethanol stress tolerance .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The integration of the DNA microarray data and the ethanol sensitivity data of knockout strains suggests that the enhancement of expression of genes related to tryptophan biosynthesis might confer the ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Indeed , the strains overexpressing tryptophan biosynthesis genes showed a stress tolerance to 5% ethanol .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results indicate that overexpression of the genes for trypophan biosynthesis increases the ethanol stress tolerance .
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Score: 7.00
Title: Serotonin accumulation in transgenic rice by over-expressing tryptophan decarboxylase results in a dark brown phenotype and stunted growth .
Author: Kanjanaphachoat P Wei BY Lo SF Wang IW Wang CS Yu SM Yen ML Chiu SH Lai CC Chen LJ
Journal: Plant Mol Biol Citation: V : 78 P : 525-43 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22297847 Accession (PMID): 22297847
Abstract: A mutant M47286 with a stunted growth , low fertility and dark-brown phenotype was identified from a T-DNA-tagged rice mutant library . This mutant contained a copy of the T-DNA tag inserted at the location where the expression of two putative tryptophan decarboxylase genes , TDC-1 and TDC-3 , were activated . Enzymatic assays of both recombinant proteins showed tryptophan decarboxylase activities that converted tryptophan to tryptamine , which could be converted to serotonin by a constitutively expressed tryptamine 5 hydroxylase ( T5H ) in rice plants . Over-expression of TDC-1 and TDC-3 in transgenic rice recapitulated the stunted growth , darkbrown phenotype and resulted in a low fertility similar to M47286 . The degree of stunted growth and dark-brown color was proportional to the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3 . The levels of tryptamine and serotonin accumulation in these transgenic rice lines were also directly correlated with the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3 . A mass spectrometry assay demonstrated that the darkbrown leaves and hulls in the TDC-overexpressing transgenic rice were caused by the accumulation of serotonin dimer and that the stunted growth and low fertility were also caused by the accumulation of serotonin and serotonin dimer , but not tryptamine . These results represent the first evidence that over-expression of TDC results in stunted growth , low fertility and the accumulation of serotonin , which when converted to serotonin dimer , leads to a dark brown plant color .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 4.00 ]: Enzymatic assays of both recombinant proteins showed tryptophan decarboxylase activities that converted tryptophan to tryptamine , which could be converted to serotonin by a constitutively expressed tryptamine 5 hydroxylase ( T5H ) in rice plants .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: This mutant contained a copy of the T-DNA tag inserted at the location where the expression of two putative tryptophan decarboxylase genes , TDC-1 and TDC-3 , were activated .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The levels of tryptamine and serotonin accumulation in these transgenic rice lines were also directly correlated with the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3 .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: A mass spectrometry assay demonstrated that the darkbrown leaves and hulls in the TDC-overexpressing transgenic rice were caused by the accumulation of serotonin dimer and that the stunted growth and low fertility were also caused by the accumulation of serotonin and serotonin dimer , but not tryptamine .
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Score: 7.00
Title: Primary structure of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase from horse muscle . II . Amino acid sequence of cyanogen bromide peptides CB1-CB4 and CB6-CB14 , sequence of methionine-containing regions , and complete sequence of the enzyme .
Author: Merrett M
Journal: J Biol . Chem . Citation: V : 256 ( 20 ) P : 10293-305 Year: 1981 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub7287713 Accession (PMID): 7287713
Abstract: The amino acid sequences of 13 of the 14 cyanogen bromide peptides of horse muscle 3-phosphoglycerate kinase have been determined . These peptides together constitute 75% of the structure of the enzyme . Except for the smallest peptides , automated sequence analysis of the parent peptide was employed together with the automated or manual ( 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl ( dansyl ) -Edman method ) sequencing of relevant peptides obtained by proteolytic digestion . In the case of the five smallest peptides , all between 6 and 11 residues in length , sequences were derived from analyses of the intact peptides . CB14a , a peptide produced in low yield during the preparation of the cyanogen bromide fragments , was helpful in the sequence analysis of CB14 . This peptide appeared to have arisen as the result of a cyanogen bromide cleavage on the carboxyl side of a tryptophanyl residue . The sequences of these 13 cyanogen bromide peptides , together with that of CB1 , reported previously ( Hardy , G W , Darbre , A , and Merrett , M ( 1981 ) J Biol . Chem . 256 , 10284-10292 ) , have been combined with data obtained from the sequence analysis of tryptic peptides derived from the methionine-containing regions of the enzyme to determine the complete sequence . Isolation of these overlap peptides was facilitated by the labeling of methionyl residues with iodo [ 2-14C ] acetic acid prior to tryptic digestion . Tryptophan-containing tryptic peptides were also isolated , and their sequence analysis enabled the positions of the four tryptophanyl residues to be established . In this way , the problem caused by tryptophan degradation during the preparation of the cyanogen bromide fragments was overcome . The NH2 terminus of CB1 , the NH2-terminal cyanogen bromide peptide , was identified as N-acetyl serine by mass spectrometry . The alignment of the cyanogen bromide fragments of horse muscle 3-phosphoglycerate kinase described here is in complete agreement with that based on X-ray analysis of the enzyme reported previously ( Banks , R D , Blake , C C F , Evans , P R , Haser , R , Rice , D W , Hardy , G W , Merrett , M , and Phillips , A W ( 1979 ) Nature 279 , 773-777 ) . The complete structure is comprised of 416 residues and has a molecular weight of 44 , 519 .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 3.00 ]: Tryptophan-containing tryptic peptides were also isolated , and their sequence analysis enabled the positions of the four tryptophanyl residues to be established .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: This peptide appeared to have arisen as the result of a cyanogen bromide cleavage on the carboxyl side of a tryptophanyl residue .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The sequences of these 13 cyanogen bromide peptides , together with that of CB1 , reported previously ( Hardy , G W , Darbre , A , and Merrett , M ( 1981 ) J Biol . Chem . 256 , 10284-10292 ) , have been combined with data obtained from the sequence analysis of tryptic peptides derived from the methionine-containing regions of the enzyme to determine the complete sequence .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Isolation of these overlap peptides was facilitated by the labeling of methionyl residues with iodo [ 2-14C ] acetic acid prior to tryptic digestion .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this way , the problem caused by tryptophan degradation during the preparation of the cyanogen bromide fragments was overcome .
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Score: 7.00
Title: The tryptophan content in protein of cereal grains and legume seeds as a function of nitrogen content . A reappraisal of tryptophan score .
Author: Delhaye S Landry J
Journal: Adv . Exp . Med . Biol . Citation: V : 398 ( ) P : 661-4 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8906341 Accession (PMID): 8906341
Abstract: The tryptophan content ( [ Trp ] ) in the dry matter ( DM ) of wheat , maize , barley , sorghum , rice , pearl millet grains , pea and broad bean seeds is evaluated from samples , with various nitrogen contents ( [ N ] DM ) and genotypes , using a procedure that has been shown to be strictly quantitative . The determination of linear correlations between [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM , and between the tryptophan content in protein ( [ Trp ] N ) and [ N ] DM or 1/ [ N ] DM for every species leads to the following observations : ( 1 ) [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM are linearly related . The data show that previous reports of similar relationships underestimate tryptophan by 10 +/- 5% owing to tryptophan degradation during alkaline hydrolysis preparatory to analysis ; ( 2 ) the linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and 1/ [ N ] DM , resulting from linear relationships [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM display coefficients of determination ( r2 ) far lower than 1 and similar to those found for linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and [ N ] DM ; ( 3 ) [ Trp ] N increases with [ N ] DM increasing for rice and pearl millet while it decreases for all other species . In conclusion : ( 1 ) linear relationships between tryptophan and nitrogen have a low predictive value ; ( 2 ) the nutritional score of tryptophan of foods and feeds , as calculated from the determination of tryptophan using a procedure involving alkaline hydrolysis , is generally underestimated by 10% .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 3.00 ]: In conclusion : ( 1 ) linear relationships between tryptophan and nitrogen have a low predictive value ; ( 2 ) the nutritional score of tryptophan of foods and feeds , as calculated from the determination of tryptophan using a procedure involving alkaline hydrolysis , is generally underestimated by 10% .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The data show that previous reports of similar relationships underestimate tryptophan by 10 +/- 5% owing to tryptophan degradation during alkaline hydrolysis preparatory to analysis ; ( 2 ) the linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and 1/ [ N ] DM , resulting from linear relationships [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM display coefficients of determination ( r2 ) far lower than 1 and similar to those found for linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and [ N ] DM ; ( 3 ) [ Trp ] N increases with [ N ] DM increasing for rice and pearl millet while it decreases for all other species .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The tryptophan content ( [ Trp ] ) in the dry matter ( DM ) of wheat , maize , barley , sorghum , rice , pearl millet grains , pea and broad bean seeds is evaluated from samples , with various nitrogen contents ( [ N ] DM ) and genotypes , using a procedure that has been shown to be strictly quantitative .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The determination of linear correlations between [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM , and between the tryptophan content in protein ( [ Trp ] N ) and [ N ] DM or 1/ [ N ] DM for every species leads to the following observations : ( 1 ) [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM are linearly related .
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Score: 6.00
Title: Characterization of tryptamine 5-hydroxylase and serotonin synthesis in rice plants .
Author: Kang S Kang K Lee K Back K
Journal: Plant Cell Rep Citation: V : 26 P : 2009-15 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17639402 Accession (PMID): 17639402
Abstract: Serotonin is a well-known pineal hormone that in mammals plays a key role in mood . In plants , serotonin is implicated in several physiological roles such as flowering , morphogenesis , and adaptation to environmental changes . However , its biosynthetic enzyme in plants has not been characterized . Therefore , we measured the serotonin content and enzyme activity responsible for serotonin biosynthesis in rice seedlings . Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase ( T5H ) , which converts tryptamine into serotonin , was found as a soluble enzyme that had maximal activity in the roots . The maximal activity of T5H was closely associated with the enriched synthesis of serotonin in roots . Tetrahydropterine-dependent T5H activity was inhibited by tyramine , tryptophan , 5-OH-tryptophan , and octopamine , but remained unaltered by dopamine in vitro . The it issues of rice seedlings grown in the presence of tryptamine exhibited a dose-dependent increase in serotonin in parallel with enhanced T5H enzyme activity . However , no significant increase in serotonin was observed in rice it issues grown in the presence of tryptophan , suggesting that tryptamine is a bottleneck intermediate substrate for serotonin synthesis .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase ( T5H ) , which converts tryptamine into serotonin , was found as a soluble enzyme that had maximal activity in the roots .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: However , no significant increase in serotonin was observed in rice it issues grown in the presence of tryptophan , suggesting that tryptamine is a bottleneck intermediate substrate for serotonin synthesis .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tetrahydropterine-dependent T5H activity was inhibited by tyramine , tryptophan , 5-OH-tryptophan , and octopamine , but remained unaltered by dopamine in vitro .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The it issues of rice seedlings grown in the presence of tryptamine exhibited a dose-dependent increase in serotonin in parallel with enhanced T5H enzyme activity .
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Score: 6.00
Title: Overproduction of indole acetic acid in Azospirillum lipoferum using the Escherichia coli trp operon .
Author: Cho MJ Gal SW Choi YJ Yoon HW Kim CY Hong JC Bahk JD .
Journal: Microb . Releases Citation: V : 1 ( 4 ) P : 197-202 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8281358 Accession (PMID): 8281358
Abstract: A recombinant plasmid carrying the trp operon from Escherichia coli , which synthesizes tryptophan from chorismate , was constructed by using a broad host range plasmid vector pRK290 ; a mutant trp plasmid for tryptophan overproduction was then selected . The physiological , biochemical , and genetic properties of the Azospirillum lipoferum KY6 , a potential nitrogen fixer of rice , harbouring the recombinant trp plasmid pMJC1 and its mutant pMJC101 , were compared with those of the wild-type bacteria . Anthranilate synthetase is known to be the trpE gene product which plays a key role in the regulatory step in the feedback control of tryptophan biosynthesis . The enzyme activity of the Azospirillum lipoferum KY6 carrying pMJC1 or pMJC101 was respectively 7 and 30-fold higher than that of the wild type in the presence of 10 ( -4 ) M tryptophan . As expected , the amount of tryptophan biosynthesis in A lipoferum KY6 ( pMJC101 ) was increased approximately 100-fold as compared with the wild type , which led to overproduction of indole acetic acid even without addition of exogenous tryptophan . Moreover , the recombinant trp plasmid was fairly stable in A lipoferum KY6 host , showing only 25% loss of the plasmid itself or the trp insert after 40 generations .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: A recombinant plasmid carrying the trp operon from Escherichia coli , which synthesizes tryptophan from chorismate , was constructed by using a broad host range plasmid vector pRK290 ; a mutant trp plasmid for tryptophan overproduction was then selected .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: As expected , the amount of tryptophan biosynthesis in A lipoferum KY6 ( pMJC101 ) was increased approximately 100-fold as compared with the wild type , which led to overproduction of indole acetic acid even without addition of exogenous tryptophan .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Anthranilate synthetase is known to be the trpE gene product which plays a key role in the regulatory step in the feedback control of tryptophan biosynthesis .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The enzyme activity of the Azospirillum lipoferum KY6 carrying pMJC1 or pMJC101 was respectively 7 and 30-fold higher than that of the wild type in the presence of 10 ( -4 ) M tryptophan .
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Score: 5.00
Title: [ Research of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca SG-11 by HPLC and GC-MS ]
Author: LEZX Song W
Journal: Citation: V : 18 ( 4 ) P : 328-31 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12541509 Accession (PMID): 12541509
Abstract: The plant growth promoting bacteria are closely associated to plant . The bacteria are used to adhering to plant rhizoplane , promoting plant growth by fixing nitrogen from atmosphere , secreting stimulating substances or producing antagonistic to plant pathogens . It was indicated that the biological nitrogen fixation played an important role in plant growth promoting function . In fact , it was verified recently by overall research that IAA does it . Therefore research of IAA production and biosynthetic pathway of plant growth-promoting bacteria is much more important . The various ways of IAA production indicated the strong or weak promoting function of bacterium to plants in general The purpose of this paper is to determine whether IAA exists in cultured medium of Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 and biosynthetic pathway of IAA , in order to opimize cultural conditions for IAA production . Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 is a plant growth promoting bacterium , isolated from rice rhizoplane , which can fix nitrogen . The supernatant of SG-11 cultured medium determined by HPLC showed that 47 . 4 mg/L of IAA existed in LB medium and 1 . 2 mg/L of IAA , in basal medium . IAA in metabolite was identified by GC/MS as well . The intermediate determination of tryptamine , indole-3-acetamide , tryptophol and indole-3-acetonitrile indirectly indicated that IAA was biosynthesized in a pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid . Meanwhile , tryptophol in metabolite of SG-11 was verified by GC/MS . The direct intermediates of indole-3-pyruvic acid and indole-3-acetaldehyde in the pathway can not be determined , because both are unstable under normal condition . As reversible conversion existed between indole-3 pyruvic aldehyde and tryptophol , the presence of tryptophol also proved the pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid in the synthesis of IAA by Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 . The results laid basis for further research of plant growth-promoting function of the bacterium .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: The intermediate determination of tryptamine , indole-3-acetamide , tryptophol and indole-3-acetonitrile indirectly indicated that IAA was biosynthesized in a pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 2.00 ]: As reversible conversion existed between indole-3 pyruvic aldehyde and tryptophol , the presence of tryptophol also proved the pathway of indole-3-pyruvic acid in the synthesis of IAA by Klebsiella axytoca SG-11 .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Meanwhile , tryptophol in metabolite of SG-11 was verified by GC/MS .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Increased tryptophan decarboxylase and monoamine oxidase activities induce Sekiguchi lesion formation in rice infected with Magnaporthe grisea .
Author: Ueno M Shibata H Kihara J Honda Y Arase S
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 36 ( 2 ) P : 215-28 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14535886 Accession (PMID): 14535886
Abstract: Sekiguchi lesion ( sl ) -mutant rice infected with Magnaporthe grisea showed increased light-dependent tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and monoamine oxidase ( MAO ) activities . TDC and MAO activities were observed before the penetration of M grisea to rice cells and maintained high levels even after Sekiguchi lesion formation . Light-dependent expression of TDC gene was observed in leaves inoculated with M grisea before Sekiguchi lesion formation . Spore germination fluid ( SGF ) of M grisea also induced Sekiguchi lesion formation accompanied by increased enzymes activities and tryptamine accumulation . Sekiguchi lesion was also induced by treatments with tryptamine and beta-phenylethylamine , which are substrates for MAO , but was not induced by non-substrates such as indole-3-propionic acid , ( +/- ) -phenylethylamine and tryptophan under light . Light-dependent induction of Sekiguchi lesion by tryptamine was significantly inhibited in the presence of MAO inhibitors , metalaxyl and semicarbazide , and H2O2-scavengers , ascorbic acid and catalase . H2O2 in M grisea-infected leaves with and without Sekiguchi lesions was demonstrated directly in situ by strong 3 , 3-diaminobenzidine ( DAB ) staining . On the other hand , H2O2 induced Sekiguchi lesions on leaves of cv . Sekiguchi-asahi under light , but not in darkness . This difference was associated with the decrease of catalase activity in infected leaves under light and the absence of decrease in darkness . We hypothesize that the H2O2-induced breakdown of cellular organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria in mesophyll cells may cause high TDC and MAO activities and the development of Sekiguchi lesion , and that the sl gene products in wild-type rice may function as a suppressor of organelle breakdown caused by chemical or environmental stress .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Sekiguchi lesion was also induced by treatments with tryptamine and beta-phenylethylamine , which are substrates for MAO , but was not induced by non-substrates such as indole-3-propionic acid , ( +/- ) -phenylethylamine and tryptophan under light .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sekiguchi lesion ( sl ) -mutant rice infected with Magnaporthe grisea showed increased light-dependent tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and monoamine oxidase ( MAO ) activities .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Spore germination fluid ( SGF ) of M grisea also induced Sekiguchi lesion formation accompanied by increased enzymes activities and tryptamine accumulation .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Light-dependent induction of Sekiguchi lesion by tryptamine was significantly inhibited in the presence of MAO inhibitors , metalaxyl and semicarbazide , and H2O2-scavengers , ascorbic acid and catalase .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Metabolic profiling of tryptophan-overproducing rice calli that express a feedback-insensitive alpha subunit of anthranilate synthase .
Author: Morino K Matsuda F Miyazawa H Sukegawa A Miyagawa H Wakasa K
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol . Citation: V : 46 ( 3 ) P : 514-21 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15695448 Accession (PMID): 15695448
Abstract: The profile of aromatic metabolites in calli was compared between wild-type rice ( Oryza sativa cv . Nipponbare ) and tryptophan-overproducing transgenic rice lines that express a gene ( OASA1D ) for a feedback-insensitive alpha subunit of anthranilate synthase . Metabolic profiling by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection of ultraviolet absorbance revealed a total of 71 peaks in both wild-type and transgenic calli . Only a limited effect on the pattern of major aromatic compounds was observed in tryptophan-accumulating transgenic rice lines , with the exception of an approximately 80-fold increase in the amount of tryptophan . Expression of OASA1D induced relatively small changes in several minor metabolites . One of the minor metabolites whose abundance was increased by OASA1D expression was purified and identified as a previously unknown indole-alkaloid glucoside . The levels of free and conjugated forms of indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) , a plant hormone derived from the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway , were determined separately by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS ) . The amounts of both free IAA and its conjugates were increased in the transgenic calli , suggesting that the activity of anthranilate synthase or the concentration of tryptophan ( or both ) is an important determinant of IAA biosynthesis .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: Only a limited effect on the pattern of major aromatic compounds was observed in tryptophan-accumulating transgenic rice lines , with the exception of an approximately 80-fold increase in the amount of tryptophan .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Nipponbare ) and tryptophan-overproducing transgenic rice lines that express a gene ( OASA1D ) for a feedback-insensitive alpha subunit of anthranilate synthase .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The levels of free and conjugated forms of indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) , a plant hormone derived from the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway , were determined separately by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The amounts of both free IAA and its conjugates were increased in the transgenic calli , suggesting that the activity of anthranilate synthase or the concentration of tryptophan ( or both ) is an important determinant of IAA biosynthesis .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Characterization of rice tryptophan decarboxylases and their direct involvement in serotonin biosynthesis in transgenic rice .
Author: Kang S Kang K Lee K Back K
Journal: Planta Citation: V : 227 P : 263-72 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17763868 Accession (PMID): 17763868
Abstract: L-Tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and L-tyrosine decarboxylase ( TYDC ) belong to a family of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylases and catalyze the conversion of tryptophan and tyrosine into tryptamine and tyramine , respectively . The rice genome has been shown to contain seven TDC or TYDC-like genes . Three of these genes for which cDNA clones were available were characterized to assign their functions using heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and rice ( Oryza sativa cv . Dongjin ) . The purified products of two of the genes were expressed in E coli and exhibited TDC activity , whereas the remaining gene could not be expressed in E coli . The recombinant TDC protein with the greatest TDC activity showed a K ( m ) of 0 . 69 mM for tryptophan , and its activity was not inhibited by phenylalanine or tyrosine , indicating a high level of substrate specificity toward tryptophan . The ectopic expression of the three cDNA clones in rice led to the abundant production of the products of the encoded enzymes , tyramine and tryptamine . The overproduction of TYDC resulted in stunted growth and a lack of seed production due to tyramine accumulation , which increased as the plant aged . In contrast , transgenic plants that produced TDC showed a normal phenotype and contained 25-fold and 11-fold higher serotonin in the leaves and seeds , respectively , than the wild-type plants . The overproduction of either tyramine or serotonin was not strongly related to the enhanced synthesis of tyramine or serotonin derivatives , such as feruloyltyramine and feruloylserotonin , which are secondary metabolites that act as phytoalexins in plants .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: L-Tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) and L-tyrosine decarboxylase ( TYDC ) belong to a family of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylases and catalyze the conversion of tryptophan and tyrosine into tryptamine and tyramine , respectively .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The recombinant TDC protein with the greatest TDC activity showed a K ( m ) of 0 . 69 mM for tryptophan , and its activity was not inhibited by phenylalanine or tyrosine , indicating a high level of substrate specificity toward tryptophan .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The ectopic expression of the three cDNA clones in rice led to the abundant production of the products of the encoded enzymes , tyramine and tryptamine .
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Score: 5.00
Title: Senescence Induced Serotonin Biosynthesis and Its Role in Delaying Senescence in Rice Leaves .
Author: Kang K Kim YS Park S Back K
Journal: Plant Physiol Citation: V : P : Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19439571 Accession (PMID): 19439571
Abstract: Serotonin , which is well known as a pineal hormone in mammals , plays a key role in conditions such as mood , eating disorders , and alcoholism . In plants , although serotonin has been suggested to be involved in several physiological roles , including flowering , morphogenesis , and adaptation to environmental changes , its regulation and functional roles are as yet not characterized at the molecular level . In this study , we found that serotonin is greatly accumulated in rice leaves undergoing senescence induced by either nutrient deprivation or detachment , and its synthesis is closely coupled with transcriptional and enzymatic induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes as well as tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) . Transgenic rice plants that overexpressed TDC accumulated higher levels of serotonin than the wild type and showed delayed senescence of rice leaves . However , transgenic rice plants , in which expression of TDC was suppressed through an RNAi system , produced less serotonin and senesced faster than the wild type , suggesting that serotonin is involved in attenuating leaf senescence . The senescence-retarding activity of serotonin is associated with its high antioxidant activity compared to either tryptophan or chlorogenic acid . Results of TDC overexpression and TDC RNAi plants suggest that TDC plays a rate-limiting role for serotonin accumulation , but the synthesis of serotonin depends on an absolute amount of tryptophan accumulation by the coordinate induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes . In addition , immunolocalization analysis revealed that serotonin was abundant in the vascular parenchyma cells , including companion cells and xylem-parenchyma cells , suggestive of its involvement in maintaining the cellular integrity of these cells for facilitating efficient nutrient recycling from senescing leaves to sink it issues during senescence .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: In this study , we found that serotonin is greatly accumulated in rice leaves undergoing senescence induced by either nutrient deprivation or detachment , and its synthesis is closely coupled with transcriptional and enzymatic induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes as well as tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Results of TDC overexpression and TDC RNAi plants suggest that TDC plays a rate-limiting role for serotonin accumulation , but the synthesis of serotonin depends on an absolute amount of tryptophan accumulation by the coordinate induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The senescence-retarding activity of serotonin is associated with its high antioxidant activity compared to either tryptophan or chlorogenic acid .
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Score: 5.00
Title: silencing coi1 in rice increases susceptibility to chewing insects and impairs inducible defense .
Author: Ye M Luo SM Xie JF Li YF Xu T Liu Y Song YY Zhu-Salzman K Zeng RS
Journal: PLoS One Citation: V : 7 P : e36214 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22558386 Accession (PMID): 22558386
Abstract: The jasmonic acid ( JA ) pathway plays a key role in plant defense responses against herbivorous insects . CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 ( COI1 ) is an F-box protein essential for all jasmonate responses . However , the precise defense function of COI1 in monocotyledonous plants , especially in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) is largely unknown . We silenced OsCOI1 in rice plants via RNA interference ( RNAi ) to determine the role of OsCOI1 in rice defense against rice leaf folder ( LF ) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis , a chewing insect , and brown planthopper ( BPH ) Nilaparvata lugens , a phloem-feeding insect . In wild-type rice plants ( WT ) , the transcripts of OsCOI1 were strongly and continuously up-regulated by LF infestation and methyl jasmonate ( MeJA ) treatment , but not by BPH infestation . The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor ( TrypPI ) , and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO ) and peroxidase ( POD ) were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation , but the activity of lipoxygenase ( LOX ) was only induced by LF . The RNAi lines with repressed expression of OsCOI1 showed reduced resistance against LF , but no change against BPH . Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content , but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content , POD and PPO activity by 62 . 3% , 48 . 5% and 27 . 2% , respectively . In addition , MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57 . 2% and 48 . 2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants . These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component , controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect ( LF ) in rice plants , and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI , POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor ( TrypPI ) , and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO ) and peroxidase ( POD ) were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation , but the activity of lipoxygenase ( LOX ) was only induced by LF .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content , but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content , POD and PPO activity by 62 . 3% , 48 . 5% and 27 . 2% , respectively .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition , MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57 . 2% and 48 . 2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component , controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect ( LF ) in rice plants , and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI , POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Some tryptophan pathways in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae .
Author: Ansari MM Sridhar R
Journal: Folia Microbiol . ( Praha ) Citation: V : 45 ( 6 ) P : 531-7 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11501419 Accession (PMID): 11501419
Abstract: Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae , the causal organism of bacterial blight of rice which produces leaf blight as well as kresek ( wilt ) symptoms in plants were tested for indole , auxin production in culture supplemented with L-tryptophan . On the basis of indoleacetic acid ( IAA ) production the isolates were grouped into IAA-positive and IAA-negative . Out of 17 isolates , 11 were IAA-positive while 6 were IAA-negative . The isolates metabolized tryptophan through two different routes and the isolates vary in the pathway of tryptophan utilization . The IAA-positive isolates converted tryptophan to IAA as the end product , whereas the IAA-negative isolates formed anthranilate as an intermediate metabolite and finally produced pyrocatechol via the kynurenine pathway . Quantification of tryptophan metabolism revealed that the maximum production of IAA and pyrocatechol in culture occurred during 2-d incubation at 30 +/- 2 degrees C
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: The isolates metabolized tryptophan through two different routes and the isolates vary in the pathway of tryptophan utilization .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The IAA-positive isolates converted tryptophan to IAA as the end product , whereas the IAA-negative isolates formed anthranilate as an intermediate metabolite and finally produced pyrocatechol via the kynurenine pathway .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Quantification of tryptophan metabolism revealed that the maximum production of IAA and pyrocatechol in culture occurred during 2-d incubation at 30 +/- 2 degrees C
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Score: 4.00
Title: Characterization of the altered anthranilate synthase in 5-methyltryptophan-resistant rice mutants .
Author: Kim DS Lee IS Jang CS Kang SY Seo YW .
Journal: Plant Cell Rep . Citation: V : 24 ( 6 ) P : 357-65 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15776237 Accession (PMID): 15776237
Abstract: In an earlier investigation , homologous mutant lines resistant to growth inhibition by 5-methyltryptophan ( 5MT ) were selected from a callus that had been irradiated with a 50-Gy gamma ray during embryo culture . In order to identify the 5MT-resistant mechanism , we have continued our investigations of these mutant lines and studied the anthranilate synthase activity of the M5 ) advanced lines by direct fluorometric detection of the anthranilate formed in both control plants and mutant lines grown on 500 microM 5MT . The anthranilate synthase activity of the mutant plants was 2 . 2 to 3-fold higher than that of the control . In a kinetic analysis with tryptophan , an anthranilate synthase of the mutant lines was insensitive to feedback inhibition . These lines showed an enhanced accumulation of storage proteins and amino acids . The increased rates of protein synthesis in the mutant lines , relative to that of the control seeds , were 17-28 . 5% . The amino acid contents were 2 . 4-fold ( MRI-40-2 ) to 2 . 6-fold ( MRI-110-6 ) higher in the MRI lines than in the control seeds , and 2 . 4-fold ( MRII-12-5 ) to 3 . 5-fold ( MRII-8-1 ) higher in the MRII lines than in the control seeds . Significant increases among the amino acids of the MR lines were observed for tryptophan , phenylalanine , and tyrosine , which had been biosynthesized through the shikimate pathway . The transcript levels of putative OASA2 , which is one of the key-regulating enzyme subunits in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway , were studied in the control and 5MT-resistant mutant lines subjected to inhibition by two tryptophan analogs ( 5MT and alphaMT ) and to other abiotic stresses ( ABA , NaCl , and cold ) . The putative OASA2 gene in the 5MT-resistant mutant lines was highly expressed in at a low 5MT concentration and at an early stage of the 5MT and alphaMT treatments . However , mRNA accumulation of the putative OASA2 gene in the mutant plants gradually decreased when the plants were subjected to abiotic stresses such as NaCl and cold . These results indicated that the 5MT resistance in the mutant lines is due to altered anthranilate synthase forms .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: The transcript levels of putative OASA2 , which is one of the key-regulating enzyme subunits in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway , were studied in the control and 5MT-resistant mutant lines subjected to inhibition by two tryptophan analogs ( 5MT and alphaMT ) and to other abiotic stresses ( ABA , NaCl , and cold ) .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In a kinetic analysis with tryptophan , an anthranilate synthase of the mutant lines was insensitive to feedback inhibition .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Significant increases among the amino acids of the MR lines were observed for tryptophan , phenylalanine , and tyrosine , which had been biosynthesized through the shikimate pathway .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Tryptophan Enhancement of Somatic Embryogenesis in Rice .
Author: Siriwardana S Nabors MW .
Journal: Citation: V : 73 ( 1 ) P : 142-146 Year: 1983 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16663163 Accession (PMID): 16663163
Abstract: Cereal embryos can produce two types of callus . One type , termed "embryogenic , " consists of small meristematic-like cells and gives rise to many plants by somatic embryogenesis if placed on a suitable regeneration medium . The other is termed "nonembryogenic" and consists of long tubular cells which gives rise to few or no plants . High concentrations of tryptophan increased the formation of embryogenic callus in three rice cultivars ( Oryza sativa L Calrose 76 , Pokkali , and IR 36 ) but not in four others ( Mahsuri , Bg 400-1 , H ( 4 ) , and Giza 159 ) . The best concentration of tryptophan for Pokkali and Calrose 76 was 100 micrograms per milliliter , and for IR 36 , 50 micrograms per milliliter . Indoleacetic acid at 100 micrograms per milliliter promoted an effect similar to that of tryptophan on Calrose 76 . The difference between japonica ( Calrose 76 , Giza 159 ) and indica ( Pokkali , IR 36 ) varieties is not the causal factor for the difference in response to tryptophan . Kinetin does not appear to be a requirement for embryogenic callus formation in Calrose 76 . Plant regeneration from Calrose 76 embryogenic callus occurred at low levels in media containing no hormones . 6-benzyladenine , or 2 , 3 , 5-triiodobenzoic acid but not indoleacetic acid at 0 . 1 to 0 . 5 micrograms per milliliter significantly increased regeneration .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: High concentrations of tryptophan increased the formation of embryogenic callus in three rice cultivars ( Oryza sativa L Calrose 76 , Pokkali , and IR 36 ) but not in four others ( Mahsuri , Bg 400-1 , H ( 4 ) , and Giza 159 ) .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The best concentration of tryptophan for Pokkali and Calrose 76 was 100 micrograms per milliliter , and for IR 36 , 50 micrograms per milliliter .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Indoleacetic acid at 100 micrograms per milliliter promoted an effect similar to that of tryptophan on Calrose 76 .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The difference between japonica ( Calrose 76 , Giza 159 ) and indica ( Pokkali , IR 36 ) varieties is not the causal factor for the difference in response to tryptophan .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Purification and Characterization of a Trypsin Inhibitor from Plathymenia foliolosa Seeds .
Author: da Silveira Ramos V de Souza Silva G das Gracas Machado Freire M Lima Tavares Machado O Postali Parra JR Rodrigues Macedo ML
Journal: J Agric Food Chem Citation: V : P : Year: 2008 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18991455 Accession (PMID): 18991455
Abstract: A novel trypsin inhibitor ( PFTI ) was isolated from Plathymenia foliolosa ( Benth . ) seeds by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G-100 , DEAE-Sepharose , and trypsin-Sepharose columns . By SDS-PAGE , PFTI yielded a single band with a M r of 19 kDa . PFTI inhibited bovine trypsin and bovine chymotrypsin with equilibrium dissociation constants ( K i ) of 4 x 10 ( -8 ) and 1 . 4 x 10 ( -6 ) M , respectively . PFTI retained more than 50% of activity at up to 50 degrees C for 30 min , but there were 80 and 100% losses of activity at 60 and 70 degrees C , respectively . DTT affected the activity or stability of PFTI . The N-terminal amino acid sequence of PFTI showed a high degree of homology with various members of the Kunitz family of inhibitors . Anagasta kuehniella is found worldwide ; this insect attacks stored grains and products of rice , oat , rye , corn , and wheat . The velvet bean caterpillar ( Anticarsia gemmatalis ) is considered the main defoliator pest of soybean in Brazil . Diatraea saccharalis , the sugar cane borer , is the major pest of sugar cane crops , and its caterpillar-feeding behavior , inside the stems , hampers control . PFTI showed significant inhibitory activity against trypsin-like proteases present in the larval midguts on A kuehniella and D saccharalis and could suppress the growth of larvae .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: A novel trypsin inhibitor ( PFTI ) was isolated from Plathymenia foliolosa ( Benth . ) seeds by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G-100 , DEAE-Sepharose , and trypsin-Sepharose columns .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: PFTI inhibited bovine trypsin and bovine chymotrypsin with equilibrium dissociation constants ( K i ) of 4 x 10 ( -8 ) and 1 . 4 x 10 ( -6 ) M , respectively .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: PFTI showed significant inhibitory activity against trypsin-like proteases present in the larval midguts on A kuehniella and D saccharalis and could suppress the growth of larvae .
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Score: 4.00
Title: cDNA cloning , heterogeneous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel trypsin-like protease from Nilaparvata lugens .
Author: Yang Z Xia X Wang X He G
Journal: Z Naturforsch C Citation: V : 65 P : 109-18 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20355330 Accession (PMID): 20355330
Abstract: A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ) strategy was used to clone diverse trypsin-like protease gene transcripts from midguts of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stal ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) . Six individual trypsin-like protease transcripts were identified . On the basis of one nucleotide sequence of the six clones , a full-length cDNA sequence ( 1902 bp ) was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends ( RACE ) . The cDNA contained an 1128-bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 375 amino acids with typical features of the trypsin-like protease . Heterogeneous expression of the coding sequence for the mature peptide in Escherichia coli cells showed that the expressed protease with a molecular weight of 27 . 0 is active , for its BApNAse activity assayed by using BApNA ( N-benzoyl-D , L-arginine-p-nitroanilide ) as substrate . The protease had its maximum activity at pH 8 . 0 and 35 degrees C A much better stability was observed at pH values above 4 . 0 and temperatures below 40 degrees C The enzyme was strongly inhibited by serine protease inhibitor . The trypsin-like protease is therefore likely one of the major digestive proteases responsible for protein hydrolysis in N lugens gut , and multiple gene families encoding digestive proteases may help in adaptation of this sap-sucker to different rice varieties .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ) strategy was used to clone diverse trypsin-like protease gene transcripts from midguts of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stal ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Six individual trypsin-like protease transcripts were identified .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The cDNA contained an 1128-bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 375 amino acids with typical features of the trypsin-like protease .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The trypsin-like protease is therefore likely one of the major digestive proteases responsible for protein hydrolysis in N lugens gut , and multiple gene families encoding digestive proteases may help in adaptation of this sap-sucker to different rice varieties .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Production of functional recombinant bovine trypsin in transgenic rice cell suspension cultures .
Author: Kim NS Yu HY Chung ND Shin YJ Kwon TH Yang MS
Journal: Protein Expr Purif Citation: V : 76 P : 121-6 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20951807 Accession (PMID): 20951807
Abstract: A synthetic bovine trypsinogen ( sbTrypsinogen ) was synthesized on the basis of rice-optimized codon usage via an overlap PCR strategy , prior to being expressed under the control of the sucrose starvation-inducible rice alpha-amylase 3D ( RAmy3D ) promoter . Secretion of trypsin into the culture medium was achieved by using the existing signal peptide . The plant expression vector was introduced into rice calli ( Oryza sativa L cv . Dongjin ) , mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens . The integration of the sbTrypsinogen gene into the chromosome of the transgenic rice callus was verified via genomic DNA PCR amplification , and sbTrypsin expression in transgenic rice suspension cells was confirmed via Northern blot analysis . Western blot analysis detected glycosylated proteins in the culture medium , having masses from 24 to 26 kDa , following induction by sugar starvation . Proteolytic activity of the rice-derived trypsin was confirmed by gelatin zymogram , and was similar to that of the commercial bovine-produced trypsin . The yields of sbTrypsin that accumulated in the transgenic rice cell suspension medium were 15 mg/L at 5 days after sugar starvation .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Proteolytic activity of the rice-derived trypsin was confirmed by gelatin zymogram , and was similar to that of the commercial bovine-produced trypsin .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A synthetic bovine trypsinogen ( sbTrypsinogen ) was synthesized on the basis of rice-optimized codon usage via an overlap PCR strategy , prior to being expressed under the control of the sucrose starvation-inducible rice alpha-amylase 3D ( RAmy3D ) promoter .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Secretion of trypsin into the culture medium was achieved by using the existing signal peptide .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Tryptophan boost caused by senescence occurred independently of cytoplasmic glutamine synthetase .
Author: Park S Lee K Kang K Kim YS Lee S Kweon SJ Back K
Journal: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Citation: V : 74 P : 2352-4 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21071852 Accession (PMID): 21071852
Abstract: We examined to determine whether senescence-induced tryptophan levels are positively associated with levels of glutamine synthetase ( GS1 ) , the initial enzyme in tryptophan biosynthesis . We generated transgenic rice plants in which GS1 was suppressed by RNA interference technology . The transgenic line showed a dramatic decrease in GS1 protein and glutamine content , but the levels of tryptophan and mRNA of the key tryptophan biosynthetic genes upon senescence were comparable to those of the wild type .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: We examined to determine whether senescence-induced tryptophan levels are positively associated with levels of glutamine synthetase ( GS1 ) , the initial enzyme in tryptophan biosynthesis .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The transgenic line showed a dramatic decrease in GS1 protein and glutamine content , but the levels of tryptophan and mRNA of the key tryptophan biosynthetic genes upon senescence were comparable to those of the wild type .
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Score: 4.00
Title: [ Study on the global and local calibration methods of tryptophan content in rice by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy ] .
Author: Zhang B Zhang DP Zhang WB Wang KM Li G Yao YZ Wu JG Shi CH
Journal: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi Citation: V : 31 P : 73-6 Year: 2011 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21428060 Accession (PMID): 21428060
Abstract: Tryptophan is one of the essential amino acids in human , and also considered as an important limiting amino acid in rice . Alkali hydrolysis method was used to determine the tryptophan content of 272 representative samples selected from the 1 256 samples in four years . Based on the milled rice flour spectroscopy , by comparing the prediction abilities of the equations with global calibrations and local calibration , the global calibration method with MPLS and the local calibration method were better than others . Their calibration models could be introduced to application because of low standard errors of prediction for both methods ( 0 . 007% ) and high coefficients of determination ( 87 . 1% and 87 . 4% , respectively ) . Furthermore , the prediction ability of the equation based on the brown rice spectroscopy could be still used for determination application though their effects were worse than that of the milled rice flour spectroscopy . It was concluded that the equation could be directly used to estimate the content of tryptophan in milled rice , and the technology of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy developed in this study could be applied in selecting breeding materials for higher tryptophan content and in quality control during rice processing .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: It was concluded that the equation could be directly used to estimate the content of tryptophan in milled rice , and the technology of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy developed in this study could be applied in selecting breeding materials for higher tryptophan content and in quality control during rice processing .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tryptophan is one of the essential amino acids in human , and also considered as an important limiting amino acid in rice .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Alkali hydrolysis method was used to determine the tryptophan content of 272 representative samples selected from the 1 256 samples in four years .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Pathological Study of Blood Parasites in Rice Field Frogs , Hoplobatrachus rugulosus ( Wiegmann , 1834 ) .
Author: Sailasuta A Satetasit J Chutmongkonkul M
Journal: Vet Med Int Citation: V : 2011 P : 850568 Year: 2011 Type: PubMed-not-MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21918731 Accession (PMID): 21918731
Abstract: One hundred and forty adult rice field frogs , Hoplobatrachus rugulosus ( Wiegmann , 1834 ) , were collected in Srakaew province , Thailand . For blood parasite examination , thin blood smears were made and routinely stained with Giemsa . The results showed that 70% of the frogs ( 98/140 ) were infected with 5 species of blood parasites , including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism , Trypanosoma chattoni , Hepatozoon sp . a , Hepatozoon sp . b , and Lankesterella minima . Pathological examination of the liver , lung , spleen , and kidney of the frogs that were apparently infected with one of these blood parasites were collected and processed by routine histology and subsequently stained with haematoxylin and eosin . Histopathological findings associated with the Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism and Trypanosoma chattoni-infected frogs showed no pathological lesions . Hepatozoon sp . a and Hepatozoon sp . b-infected frogs developed inflammatory lesions predominantly in the liver , demonstrating granuloma-like lesions with Hepatozoon sp . meronts at the centre . Tissue sections of Lankesterella minima-infected frogs also showed lesions . Liver and spleen showed inflammatory lesions with an accumulation of melanomacrophage centres ( MMCs ) surrounding the meronts and merozoites . It is suggested that Hepatozoon sp . a , Hepatozoon sp . b , and Lankesterella minima-infections are capable of producing inflammatory lesions in the visceral organs of rice field frogs , and the severity of lesions is tentatively related to levels of parasitemia .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The results showed that 70% of the frogs ( 98/140 ) were infected with 5 species of blood parasites , including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism , Trypanosoma chattoni , Hepatozoon sp . a , Hepatozoon sp . b , and Lankesterella minima .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Histopathological findings associated with the Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism and Trypanosoma chattoni-infected frogs showed no pathological lesions .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Cloning and characterization of trypsin and chymotrypsin-like genes in the striped rice stem borer , Chilo suppressalis .
Author: Ge ZY Wan PJ Han ZJ
Journal: Genome Citation: V : 55 P : 281-8 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22432944 Accession (PMID): 22432944
Abstract: Serine proteinases including trypsins and chymotrypsins play various important roles in insects , including food digestion , immune defense , and zymogen activation . Studies on insect serine proteinases could reveal their feeding preference ( polyphagous and monophagous ) and facilitate identification of protease inhibitors , which can be engineered for pest management . In this paper , 11 transcripts encoding trypsin and chymotrypsin-like proteins were cloned from the striped rice stem borer , Chilo suppressalis ( Walker ) . All the predicted proteins share high sequence similarity with known trypsin and chymotrypsin-like proteins from either lepidopterans or dipterans , and most of the proteins have conserved motifs that are characteristics of serine proteinases . Among the 11 cloned genes , six were expressed predominantly and one exclusively in the midgut of the insect , three were expressed relatively evenly in examined it issues , and one was not expressed in either the gut or hemolymph based on RT-PCR results . The seven genes that were predominantly or exclusively expressed in the gut were also affected by feeding on different host plants . The genes that were expressed in the gut and were affected by host plants are likely to encode digestive proteinases . The identification of trypsin and chymotrypsin-like genes in this insect species is the first step towards further comparative studies and for identification of insect-specific proteinase inhibitors , which might be engineered to protect rice plants against the striped rice stem borer , which is one of the destructive pests of rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Serine proteinases including trypsins and chymotrypsins play various important roles in insects , including food digestion , immune defense , and zymogen activation .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this paper , 11 transcripts encoding trypsin and chymotrypsin-like proteins were cloned from the striped rice stem borer , Chilo suppressalis ( Walker ) .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: All the predicted proteins share high sequence similarity with known trypsin and chymotrypsin-like proteins from either lepidopterans or dipterans , and most of the proteins have conserved motifs that are characteristics of serine proteinases .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The identification of trypsin and chymotrypsin-like genes in this insect species is the first step towards further comparative studies and for identification of insect-specific proteinase inhibitors , which might be engineered to protect rice plants against the striped rice stem borer , which is one of the destructive pests of rice .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Stability and specificity of rice bran trypsin inhibitor .
Author: Tashiro M Maki Z
Journal: J Nutr . Sci . Vitaminol . Citation: V : 32 ( 6 ) P : 591-9 Year: 1986 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3108471 Accession (PMID): 3108471
Abstract: The stability and inhibitory specificity of rice bran trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) was investigated in an attempt to understand its nutritional significance . RBTI retained about 100% of its original activity over a pH range from 4 to 10 during 24-h incubation at 37 degrees C In heat treatment , RBTI at acidic and neutral pH values still possessed about 50% of its initial activity after 30-min incubation at 100 degrees C , although it was completely inactivated during 15-min incubation at pH 10 and 100 degrees C The effects of metal ions and some reagents on RBTI were examined and it was found that Hg ion reduced RBTIs inhibitory activity : The inhibitor lost 30-100% of its original activity upon incubation with a reducing , an oxidizing or a thiol reagent . Digestion tests on RBTI indicated that alpha-chymotrypsin did not affect the inhibitory activity and pepsin caused only a 30% loss of the initial inhibitory activity after 24-h digestion . To determine inhibitory specificity , bovine , hog , rat , and human trypsins were used as target enzymes bound to an immobilized RBTI column . Titrations of the purified enzymes with RBTI showed that bovine , hog , and rat trypsins were powerfully inhibited by the inhibitor , while human trypsin was only weakly inhibited .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Titrations of the purified enzymes with RBTI showed that bovine , hog , and rat trypsins were powerfully inhibited by the inhibitor , while human trypsin was only weakly inhibited .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The stability and inhibitory specificity of rice bran trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) was investigated in an attempt to understand its nutritional significance .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: To determine inhibitory specificity , bovine , hog , rat , and human trypsins were used as target enzymes bound to an immobilized RBTI column .
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Score: 4.00
Title: Nutritional significance of a rice bran concentrate with trypsin inhibitor activity .
Author: Maki Z Tashiro M
Journal: J Nutr . Sci . Vitaminol . Citation: V : 29 ( 3 ) P : 293-302 Year: 1983 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub6619992 Accession (PMID): 6619992
Abstract: A rice bran protein concentrate ( RBPC ) was prepared from de-fatted rice bran by extraction with a 1% sodium chloride solution and by acetone-precipitation . This protein concentrate contained 45% protein , which was as good as casein in terms of protein quality being judged from the results of amino acid analysis . On the other hand , RBPC possessed the trypsin inhibitor activity corresponding to the complete inhibition of about 6 mg of bovine trypsin per 1 g of dry material The activity was , however , completely destroyed by autoclaving RBPC for 30 min at 121 degrees C In vitro digestion tests showed that RBPC was easily digested by pepsin but was resistant to the attack by trypsin , compared with autoclaved RBPC . Concerning in vivo digestion , however , there was no significant difference in apparent nitrogen digestibility between RBPC and the heated RBPC . In growth experiments with weanling rats fed a 10% level of protein diet , growth depression and the tendency of slight pancreatic hypertrophy were observed in rats receiving a RBPC diet . It is presumed that one of the reasons which explains these phenomena is the presence of trypsin inhibitor in RBPC .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 3.00 ]: On the other hand , RBPC possessed the trypsin inhibitor activity corresponding to the complete inhibition of about 6 mg of bovine trypsin per 1 g of dry material The activity was , however , completely destroyed by autoclaving RBPC for 30 min at 121 degrees C In vitro digestion tests showed that RBPC was easily digested by pepsin but was resistant to the attack by trypsin , compared with autoclaved RBPC .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: It is presumed that one of the reasons which explains these phenomena is the presence of trypsin inhibitor in RBPC .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Identification of novel serine proteinase gene transcripts in the midguts of two tropical insect pests , Scirpophaga incertulas ( Wk . ) and Helicoverpa armigera ( Hb . ) .
Author: Mazumdar-Leighton S Babu CR Bennett J
Journal: Insect Biochem . Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 30 ( 1 ) P : 57-68 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10646971 Accession (PMID): 10646971
Abstract: We have used RT PCR and 3RACE to identify diverse serine proteinase genes expressed in the midguts of the rice yellow stem borer ( Scirpophaga incertulas ) and Asian corn borer ( Helicoverpa armigera ) . The RT-PCR primers encoded the conserved regions around the active site histidine57 and serine195 of Drosophila melanogaster alpha trypsin , including aspartate189 of the specificity pocket . These primers amplified three transcripts ( SiP1-3 ) from midguts of S incertulas , and two transcripts ( HaP1-2 ) from midguts of H armigera . The five RT PCR products were sequenced to permit design of gene-specific forward primers for use with anchored oligo dT primers in 3RACE . Sequencing of the 3RACE products indicated that SiP1 , SiP2 and HaP1 encoded trypsin-like serine proteinases , while HaP2 encoded a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases . The SiP3 transcript proved to be an abundant 960 nt mRNA encoding a trypsin-like protein in which the active site serine195 was replaced by aspartate . The possible functions of this unusual protein are discussed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The RT-PCR primers encoded the conserved regions around the active site histidine57 and serine195 of Drosophila melanogaster alpha trypsin , including aspartate189 of the specificity pocket .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sequencing of the 3RACE products indicated that SiP1 , SiP2 and HaP1 encoded trypsin-like serine proteinases , while HaP2 encoded a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The SiP3 transcript proved to be an abundant 960 nt mRNA encoding a trypsin-like protein in which the active site serine195 was replaced by aspartate .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Putative protein digestion in a sap-sucking homopteran plant pest ( rice brown plant hopper ; Nilaparvata lugens : Delphacidae ) --identification of trypsin-like and cathepsin B-like proteases .
Author: Foissac X Edwards MG Du JP Gatehouse AM Gatehouse JA .
Journal: Insect Biochem . Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 32 ( 9 ) P : 967-78 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12213233 Accession (PMID): 12213233
Abstract: Sap-sucking phytophagous insect species of the order Hemiptera have been assumed not to carry out digestive proteolysis , but instead to rely on free amino acids in the phloem and xylem saps for their nutritional requirements . Extracts prepared from isolated guts of rice brown planthopper ( Nilaparvata lugens ) , a homopteran crop pest , were shown to contain protease activity , with hydrolysis of both protein and synthetic peptide substrates being observed . Assays with specific inhibitors suggested that a trypsin-like serine protease was responsible for most of hydrolytic activity against synthetic substrates . A cDNA library was prepared from RNA extracted from N lugens gut it issue , and screened for protease-encoding sequences . cDNAs for a cathepsin B-like protease and a trypsin-like protease were isolated and fully characterised ; the latter exhibits a novel C-terminal region and an unusual activation mechanism , and represents a small gene family . Soya bean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor ( SKTI ) is an effective inhibitor of protein hydrolysis by N lugens gut extracts in vitro , explaining why transgenic rice plants expressing this protein are partially resistant to the insect ( Mol . Breed . 5 ( 1999 ) 1 ) . It is suggested that digestive proteolysis may be widespread in sap-sucking homoptera , and can make a significant contribution to nutrition .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Assays with specific inhibitors suggested that a trypsin-like serine protease was responsible for most of hydrolytic activity against synthetic substrates .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: A cDNA library was prepared from RNA extracted from N lugens gut it issue , and screened for protease-encoding sequences . cDNAs for a cathepsin B-like protease and a trypsin-like protease were isolated and fully characterised ; the latter exhibits a novel C-terminal region and an unusual activation mechanism , and represents a small gene family .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Soya bean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor ( SKTI ) is an effective inhibitor of protein hydrolysis by N lugens gut extracts in vitro , explaining why transgenic rice plants expressing this protein are partially resistant to the insect ( Mol . Breed . 5 ( 1999 ) 1 ) .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Transgenic expression of trypsin inhibitor CMe from barley in indica and japonica rice , confers resistance to the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae .
Author: Alfonso-Rub J Ortego F Castaera P Carbonero P Daz I
Journal: Transgenic Res . Citation: V : 12 ( 1 ) P : 23-31 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12650522 Accession (PMID): 12650522
Abstract: Indica and japonica rice ( Oryza sativa L ) plants were transformed by particle bombardment with the Itr1 gene encoding the barley trypsin inhibitor BTI-CMe , under the control of its own promoter that confers endosperm specificity , and the maize ubiquitin promoter . From 38 independent transgenic lines of indica ( breeding line IR58 ) and 15 of the japonica ( cv Senia ) selected , 22 and 11 , respectively , expressed the barley inhibitor at detectable levels . The transgene was correctly translated as indicated by western blot analysis with a level of expression in R3 seeds up to 0 . 31% ( IR58 ) and 0 . 43% ( Senia ) of the total extracted protein . The functional integrity of BTI-CMe was confirmed by trypsin activity assays in liquid media and by activity staining gels , performed with seed extracts . The significant reduction of the survival rate of the rice weevil ( Sitophilus oryzae , Coleoptera : Curculionidae ) reared on homozygous transgenic indica and japonica rice seeds expressing the BTI-CMe , compared to non-transformed controls , and the decrease in the trypsin-like activity of insect crude midgut extracts , confirmed the utility of this proteinase inhibitor gene for the control of important storage pests .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Indica and japonica rice ( Oryza sativa L ) plants were transformed by particle bombardment with the Itr1 gene encoding the barley trypsin inhibitor BTI-CMe , under the control of its own promoter that confers endosperm specificity , and the maize ubiquitin promoter .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The functional integrity of BTI-CMe was confirmed by trypsin activity assays in liquid media and by activity staining gels , performed with seed extracts .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The significant reduction of the survival rate of the rice weevil ( Sitophilus oryzae , Coleoptera : Curculionidae ) reared on homozygous transgenic indica and japonica rice seeds expressing the BTI-CMe , compared to non-transformed controls , and the decrease in the trypsin-like activity of insect crude midgut extracts , confirmed the utility of this proteinase inhibitor gene for the control of important storage pests .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Hydrogen breath test with low-dose rice flour for assessment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency .
Author: Casellas F Guarner L Antoln M Malagelada JR .
Journal: Pancreas Citation: V : 29 ( 4 ) P : 306-10 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15502647 Accession (PMID): 15502647
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : The hydrogen ( H2 ) breath test is widely used in the assessment of carbohydrate malabsorption . Severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency markedly diminishes pancreatic amylase production and results in malabsorption of complex carbohydrates . Thus , the H2 breath test with low-dose rice flour starch was tested to determine its value in detecting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency by comparison with a direct measurement of pancreatic function . METHODS : Ten patients with clinically suspected pancreatic insufficiency confirmed with a duodenal perfusion technique and measurement of trypsin and lipase output after cerulein stimulation were included . An H2-rice flour breath test was performed by orally administering 30 g of rice flour . End-alveolar breath samples were obtained before rice load and at 30-minute intervals thereafter for the next 5 hours . RESULTS : The results are expressed as median ( percentile 25-75 ) . Patients included 8 men and 2 women with moderate to severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis , pancreatectomy , or cystic fibrosis . Stimulated duodenal output of lipase and trypsin was abnormally low in all patients ( median release , 1 . 7 ; range , 0 . 5-4 . 5 and 0 . 8 , range , 0 . 1-11 . 3 KU/h , respectively ) . Basal H2 excretion was 9 ppm ( range , 7-17 ) and delta increase over basal H2 excretion was 4 ppm ( range , 1-6 ) . Correlation between H2-rice breath test and basal or stimulated duodenal output of lipase and trypsin was not significant . CONCLUSION : In exocrine pancreatic insufficiency , an oral load of 30 g rice flour slightly raises H2 excretion in breath . This increase is not useful for detecting pancreatic insufficiency due to poor sensitivity and because it is influenced by extrapancreatic factors such as small bowel bacterial overgrowth .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: METHODS : Ten patients with clinically suspected pancreatic insufficiency confirmed with a duodenal perfusion technique and measurement of trypsin and lipase output after cerulein stimulation were included .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Stimulated duodenal output of lipase and trypsin was abnormally low in all patients ( median release , 1 . 7 ; range , 0 . 5-4 . 5 and 0 . 8 , range , 0 . 1-11 . 3 KU/h , respectively ) .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Correlation between H2-rice breath test and basal or stimulated duodenal output of lipase and trypsin was not significant .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Genetically modified rice seeds accumulating GLP-1 analogue stimulate insulin secretion from a mouse pancreatic beta-cell line .
Author: Sugita K Endo-Kasahara S Tada Y Lijun Y Yasuda H Hayashi Y Jomori T Ebinuma H Takaiwa F
Journal: FEBS Lett . Citation: V : 579 ( 5 ) P : 1085-8 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15710395 Accession (PMID): 15710395
Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 ( 7-36 ) amide ( GLP-1 ) is the most potent physiological insulinotropic hormone in humans . We produced large amounts of a GLP-1 analogue , [ Ser8 , Gln26 , Asp34 ] -GLP-1 , which is resistant to trypsin-digestion , as part of a chimeric rice seed storage protein , a 26 kDa globulin , in genetically modified rice seeds . Junction sites between GLP-1 analogue and globulin were replaced by tryptic cleavage sites . The highest level of GLP-1 analogue accumulation was approximately 20-50 microg per seed . We found that GLP-1 analogue derived from trypsin-digested genetically modified rice seeds stimulated insulin secretion from a mouse pancreatic beta-cell line , MIN6 .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: We produced large amounts of a GLP-1 analogue , [ Ser8 , Gln26 , Asp34 ] -GLP-1 , which is resistant to trypsin-digestion , as part of a chimeric rice seed storage protein , a 26 kDa globulin , in genetically modified rice seeds .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Junction sites between GLP-1 analogue and globulin were replaced by tryptic cleavage sites .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: We found that GLP-1 analogue derived from trypsin-digested genetically modified rice seeds stimulated insulin secretion from a mouse pancreatic beta-cell line , MIN6 .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Structure-based in vitro engineering of the anthranilate synthase , a metabolic key enzyme in the plant tryptophan pathway .
Author: Kanno T Komatsu A Kasai K Dubouzet JG Sakurai M Ikejiri-Kanno Y Wakasa K Tozawa Y
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 138 ( 4 ) P : 2260-8 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16040654 Accession (PMID): 16040654
Abstract: Rice ( Oryza sativa ) anthranilate synthase alpha-subunit , OASA2 , was modified by in vitro mutagenesis based on structural information from bacterial homologs . Twenty-four amino acid residues , predicted as putative tryptophan binding sites or their proximal regions in the OASA2 sequence , were selected and 36 mutant OASA2 genes were constructed by PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis . Corresponding mutant proteins were synthesized in a combination of two in vitro systems , transcription with a bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase and translation with a wheat-embryo cell-free system . Enzymatic functions of the mutant proteins were simultaneously examined , and we found six mutants with elevated catalytic activity and five mutants with enhanced tolerance to feedback inhibition by tryptophan . Moreover , we observed that some sets of specific combinations of the novel mutations additively conferred both characteristics to the mutant enzymes . The functions of the mutant enzymes were confirmed in vivo . The free tryptophan content of mutant rice calli expressing OASA2 enzyme with a double mutation was 30-fold of that of untransformed calli . Thus , our in vitro approach utilizing structural information of bacterial homologs is a potent technique to generate designer enzymes with predefined functions .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Twenty-four amino acid residues , predicted as putative tryptophan binding sites or their proximal regions in the OASA2 sequence , were selected and 36 mutant OASA2 genes were constructed by PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Enzymatic functions of the mutant proteins were simultaneously examined , and we found six mutants with elevated catalytic activity and five mutants with enhanced tolerance to feedback inhibition by tryptophan .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The free tryptophan content of mutant rice calli expressing OASA2 enzyme with a double mutation was 30-fold of that of untransformed calli .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Action of Corn and Rice-inactivating Proteins on a Purified Nitrate Reductase from Chlorella vulgaris .
Author: Yamaya T Solomonson LP Oaks A
Journal: Citation: V : 65 ( 1 ) P : 146-150 Year: 1980 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16661131 Accession (PMID): 16661131
Abstract: When nitrate reductase ( NR ) purified from Chlorella was incubated with NR-inactivating proteins purified from corn roots and rice cell suspension cultures or with trypsin there was a loss in NADH-NR and NADH cytochrome c reductase ( NADH-CR ) activities with time whereas the reduced methylviologen NR ( MV-NR ) remained active . When NADH-NR and NADH-CR activities were inactivated completely by the incubation with corn protein , the major protein band obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shifted from an R ( F ) value of 0 . 12 to an R ( F ) of 0 . 25 and reduced MV-NR activity moved to the new position on the gel . When NADH-NR and NADH-CR activities were partially inactivated by the corn protein , NADH-NR activity was detected in an intermediate position ( R ( F ) value of 0 . 18 ) . Incubation with trypsin also caused a change in the NR protein migration pattern ( R ( F ) value of 0 . 20 ) . This protein band also had reduced MV-NR activity . Thus , the corn inactivator degrades NR in a fashion similar to but not identical with trypsin . The incubation of NR with rice inactivating protein resulted in a loss of NADH-NR but had no effect on the migration of NR protein or on the reduced MV-NR activity or mobility suggesting that the rice protein binds to Chlorella NR .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: When nitrate reductase ( NR ) purified from Chlorella was incubated with NR-inactivating proteins purified from corn roots and rice cell suspension cultures or with trypsin there was a loss in NADH-NR and NADH cytochrome c reductase ( NADH-CR ) activities with time whereas the reduced methylviologen NR ( MV-NR ) remained active .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Incubation with trypsin also caused a change in the NR protein migration pattern ( R ( F ) value of 0 . 20 ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Thus , the corn inactivator degrades NR in a fashion similar to but not identical with trypsin .
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Score: 3.00
Title: An antibiotic-free medium for the xenic cultivation of Entamoeba gingivalis .
Author: Gannon JT Linke HA .
Journal: Int . J Parasitol . Citation: V : 21 ( 4 ) P : 403-7 Year: 1991 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1717390 Accession (PMID): 1717390
Abstract: Diamonds TYI-S-33 ( Trypticase-Yeast Extract-Iron-Serum ) medium was used as the basis for a new antibiotic-free medium for xenic growth of Entamoeba gingivalis . Nutritional requirements of the oral protozoan were determined in an effort to optimize growth . TYI-S-33 medium did not support E gingivalis growth prior to modification . The changes included : ( a ) deletion of L-cysteine . HCl and thioctic acid , ( b ) substitution of glucose for dextran I ( mol . wt 185 , 000 ) or rice starch , ( c ) reduction of concentrations of tryptone ( 2 . 5 g l-1 ) , yeast extract ( 1 . 25 g l-1 ) and dextran I ( 1 g l-1 ) , ( d ) increased concentration of ferric ammonium citrate ( 0 . 2 g l-1 ) , and ( e ) addition of gastric mucin ( 2 . 4 g l-1 ) . Dextran I was chosen as the major carbon source ; its use in the medium limited growth of accompanying bacteria . This new antibiotic-free medium significantly increased E gingivalis growth ( 16-20 E gingivalis trophozoites observed per field ) as compared to growth in Diamonds TYSGM-9 ( Trypticase-Yeast Extract-Serum-Gastric Mucin ) medium ( six to 10 E gingivalis trophozoites observed per field ) .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Diamonds TYI-S-33 ( Trypticase-Yeast Extract-Iron-Serum ) medium was used as the basis for a new antibiotic-free medium for xenic growth of Entamoeba gingivalis .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The changes included : ( a ) deletion of L-cysteine . HCl and thioctic acid , ( b ) substitution of glucose for dextran I ( mol . wt 185 , 000 ) or rice starch , ( c ) reduction of concentrations of tryptone ( 2 . 5 g l-1 ) , yeast extract ( 1 . 25 g l-1 ) and dextran I ( 1 g l-1 ) , ( d ) increased concentration of ferric ammonium citrate ( 0 . 2 g l-1 ) , and ( e ) addition of gastric mucin ( 2 . 4 g l-1 ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: This new antibiotic-free medium significantly increased E gingivalis growth ( 16-20 E gingivalis trophozoites observed per field ) as compared to growth in Diamonds TYSGM-9 ( Trypticase-Yeast Extract-Serum-Gastric Mucin ) medium ( six to 10 E gingivalis trophozoites observed per field ) .
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Score: 3.00
Title: The ileum and carbohydrate-mediated feedback regulation of postprandial pancreaticobiliary secretion in normal humans .
Author: Jain NK Boivin M Zinsmeister AR DiMagno EP .
Journal: Pancreas Citation: V : 6 ( 5 ) P : 495-505 Year: 1991 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1719522 Accession (PMID): 1719522
Abstract: We investigated the effect of perfusing carbohydrate into the ileum on postprandial pancreaticobiliary secretion and the relationships among carbohydrate in the ileum , pancreaticobiliary secretion , and gastric emptying . Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated with a multilumen oroileal tube . A metal labeled with 111In-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid ( 400 calories ; 60% carbohydrate , 20% protein , 20% fat ) was then infused into the stomach , and a carbohydrate solution ( rice starch + glucose ) was perfused into the terminal ileum at rates ( mg/min ) of 0 ( saline ; n = 6 ) , 12 . 5 ( n = 4 ) , 25 ( n = 4 ) , 50 ( n = 2 ) , and 100 ( n = 2 ) . To prevent digestion of the carbohydrate in the ileum , an amylase inhibitor ( 3 . 3 mg/ml ) was added to the perfusate used in half of the subjects . Postprandially , we measured outputs of amylase , trypsin , and bile acids in the duodenum , the amount of carbohydrate in the ileum , and gastric emptying . During the second postprandial hour the rate of gastric emptying was inversely related to the amount of carbohydrate in the ileum ( p less than 0 . 01 ) and was directly correlated with pancreaticobiliary secretion ( p less than 0 . 05 ) . However , as the amount of unabsorbed carbohydrate in the ileum increased , the ratio of amylase to trypsin secretion increased ( p less than 0 . 005 ) . Postprandially carbohydrate in the ileum induces changes of upper-gut function that should increase digestion and absorption of carbohydrate since gastric emptying ( and delivery of carbohydrate to the duodenum ) slows and pancreatic amylase secretion increases relative to trypsin secretion and gastric emptying .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Postprandially , we measured outputs of amylase , trypsin , and bile acids in the duodenum , the amount of carbohydrate in the ileum , and gastric emptying .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: However , as the amount of unabsorbed carbohydrate in the ileum increased , the ratio of amylase to trypsin secretion increased ( p less than 0 . 005 ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Postprandially carbohydrate in the ileum induces changes of upper-gut function that should increase digestion and absorption of carbohydrate since gastric emptying ( and delivery of carbohydrate to the duodenum ) slows and pancreatic amylase secretion increases relative to trypsin secretion and gastric emptying .
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Score: 3.00
Title: The tryptophan pathway is involved in the defense responses of rice against pathogenic infection via serotonin production .
Author: Ishihara A Hashimoto Y Tanaka C Dubouzet JG Nakao T Matsuda F Nishioka T Miyagawa H Wakasa K
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 54 P : 481-95 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18266919 Accession (PMID): 18266919
Abstract: The upregulation of the tryptophan ( Trp ) pathway in rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae was indicated by : ( i ) enhanced enzyme activity of anthranilate synthase ( AS ) , which regulates metabolic flux in the Trp pathway ; ( ii ) elevated levels of the AS ( OASA2 , OASB1 , and OASB2 ) transcripts ; and ( iii ) increases in the contents of anthranilate , indole , and Trp . The measurement of the contents of Trp-derived metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry revealed that serotonin and its hydroxycinnamic acid amides were accumulated in infected leaves . Serotonin accumulation was preceded by a transient increase in the tryptamine content and by marked activation of Trp decarboxylase , indicating that enhanced Trp production is linked to the formation of serotonin from Trp via tryptamine . Feeding of radiolabeled serotonin to inoculated leaves demonstrated that serotonin is incorporated into the cell walls of lesion it issue . The leaves of a propagating-type lesion mimic mutant ( sl , Sekiguchi lesion ) lacked both serotonin production and deposition of unextractable brown material at the infection sites , and showed increased susceptibility to B oryzae infection . Treating the mutant with serotonin restored deposition of brown material at the lesion site . In addition , the serotonin treatment suppressed the growth of fungal hyphae in the leaf it issues of the sl mutant . These findings indicated that the activation of the Trp pathway is involved in the establishment of effective physical defenses by producing serotonin in rice leaves .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: Serotonin accumulation was preceded by a transient increase in the tryptamine content and by marked activation of Trp decarboxylase , indicating that enhanced Trp production is linked to the formation of serotonin from Trp via tryptamine .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The upregulation of the tryptophan ( Trp ) pathway in rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae was indicated by : ( i ) enhanced enzyme activity of anthranilate synthase ( AS ) , which regulates metabolic flux in the Trp pathway ; ( ii ) elevated levels of the AS ( OASA2 , OASB1 , and OASB2 ) transcripts ; and ( iii ) increases in the contents of anthranilate , indole , and Trp .
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Score: 3.00
Title: A Kunitz trypsin inhibitor of Entada scandens seeds : another member with single disulfide bridge .
Author: Lingaraju MH Gowda LR
Journal: Biochim Biophys Acta Citation: V : 1784 P : 850-5 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18359299 Accession (PMID): 18359299
Abstract: Sword bean ( Entada scandens ) is a tree climber that belongs to Mimosoideae , a subfamily of Leguminosae . A potent Kunitz type trypsin inhibitor ( ESTI ) was purified to homogeneity from Entada scandens seeds by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation , affinity chromatography on trypsin-Sepharose and DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography . ESTI is a single polypeptide chain of 19 , 766 Da . Both native PAGE as well as isoelectric focusing showed a single inhibitor species with a pI of 7 . 43 . MALDI-TOF analysis also confirmed the monomeric nature . The amino-terminal sequence of ESTI reveals significant homology to the Kunitz-type protease inhibitors of legume plants . ESTI is unique in that it contains a single disulfide bridge , and unlike other inhibitors from Mimosoideae species is a single chain polypeptide . ESTI inhibited bovine trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1 : 1 and the apparent K ( i ) was 4 . 9 x 10 ( -9 ) M In vitro assay showed that ESTI inhibited the midgut proteinase of the fifth instar larvae of Rice moth ( Corcyra cephalonica ) with an IC ( 50 ) of 26 . 4+/-0 . 01 nM . ESTI exhibits a mixed type competitive inhibition at lower concentration and pure competitive at higher inhibitor concentrations . Phylogenetic analyses depicted a clear divergence of single disulfide containing inhibitors from other tree legume Kunitz inhibitors . The homology of ESTI to Kunitz inhibitors together with the absence of Bowman-Birk type inhibitors in sword bean further supports the theory that there exists an evolutionary relationship between the families of inhibitors found in Leguminosae .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: A potent Kunitz type trypsin inhibitor ( ESTI ) was purified to homogeneity from Entada scandens seeds by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation , affinity chromatography on trypsin-Sepharose and DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: ESTI inhibited bovine trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1 : 1 and the apparent K ( i ) was 4 . 9 x 10 ( -9 ) M In vitro assay showed that ESTI inhibited the midgut proteinase of the fifth instar larvae of Rice moth ( Corcyra cephalonica ) with an IC ( 50 ) of 26 . 4+/-0 . 01 nM .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Regulatory effects of an inhibitor from Plathymenia foliolosa seeds on the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella ( Lepidoptera ) .
Author: Ramos Vda S Freire MG Parra JR Macedo ML
Journal: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Citation: V : 152 P : 255-61 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19007900 Accession (PMID): 19007900
Abstract: The Mediterranean flour moth , Anagasta kuehniella , is one of the most important insect pests of grains , reported worldwide , feeding on stored grains and products of rice , rye , corn and wheat . Plants synthesize a variety of molecules , including trypsin inhibitors , to defend themselves against attack by insects . In this study , a trypsin inhibitor ( PFTI ) was purified from Plathymenia foliolosa ( Benth . ) seeds and was tested for insect growth regulatory effect . The survival and mass of A kuehniella larvae feeding on control seeds were about 82 . 7% and 5 mg , respectively , whereas survival on seeds containing 0 . 7% PFTI was about 56% , while a 66 . 1% reduction in the average mass of the larvae was observed . The results from dietary utilization experiments with A kuehniella larvae showed a reduction in efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food , and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost The level of trypsin was significantly decreased in larval midgut and increased in the feces of larvae reared on a diet containing 0 . 7% PFTI . Results indicate that PFTI possesses a toxic effect against A kuehniella larvae .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Plants synthesize a variety of molecules , including trypsin inhibitors , to defend themselves against attack by insects .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , a trypsin inhibitor ( PFTI ) was purified from Plathymenia foliolosa ( Benth . ) seeds and was tested for insect growth regulatory effect .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The results from dietary utilization experiments with A kuehniella larvae showed a reduction in efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food , and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost The level of trypsin was significantly decreased in larval midgut and increased in the feces of larvae reared on a diet containing 0 . 7% PFTI .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Digestion rate of dietary starch affects systemic circulation of amino acids in weaned pigs .
Author: Yin F Zhang Z Huang J Yin Y
Journal: Br J Nutr Citation: V : 103 P : 1404-12 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20102672 Accession (PMID): 20102672
Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of dietary starch and its digestive behaviour on the systemic circulating amino acids ( AA ) in weaned pigs . Eighteen weanling pigs surgically fitted with a catheter in the jugular vein were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups . Sticky rice starch ( SRS ) was hydrolysed more quickly in vitro ( P < 0 . 05 ) than maize starch ( MS ) and resistant starch ( RS ) , and was almost completely hydrolysed within 4 h . The in vivo digestibility of dietary starch in different segments of the small intestine was significantly different . SRS was digested ( 81 . 9 % ; P < 0 . 05 ) in the anterior jejunum , but not more than half of the MS and RS was digested in the same segment of the small intestine . The digestibilities of isoleucine , leucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , valine , alanine , aspartate and serine in the SRS group were higher than in the MS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) , and all nutritionally indispensable and dispensable AA in the SRS group were higher when compared with those in the RS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) . The serum concentrations of nutritionally indispensable AA , proline and serine in the three groups were increased to a peak point within 1 . 5 h postprandially then decreased gradually ; however , the time that serum concentrations of alanine , aspartate , glutamate and glycine in each group increased to a peak point was different . The concentrations of nutritionally indispensable AA , including arginine , cystine , histidine , isoleucine , leucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , tyrosine and valine at 09 . 30 hours and arginine , cystine , histidine , isoleucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , tyrosine and valine at 13 . 30 hours in the SRS group were higher than in the MS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) ; all nutritionally indispensable AA in the SRS group were higher than in the RS group at 09 . 30 and 13 . 30 hours ( P < 0 . 05 ) , respectively . We conclude that dietary starches digested rapidly in vitro have higher digestibility in the anterior small intestine of pigs . Diets containing rapidly digestible starch ameliorate the digestive and absorptive function and regulate AA metabolism to beneficially increase the entry of dietary AA into the systemic circulation in pigs .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: The concentrations of nutritionally indispensable AA , including arginine , cystine , histidine , isoleucine , leucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , tyrosine and valine at 09 . 30 hours and arginine , cystine , histidine , isoleucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , tyrosine and valine at 13 . 30 hours in the SRS group were higher than in the MS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) ; all nutritionally indispensable AA in the SRS group were higher than in the RS group at 09 . 30 and 13 . 30 hours ( P < 0 . 05 ) , respectively .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The digestibilities of isoleucine , leucine , methionine , phenylalanine , threonine , tryptophan , valine , alanine , aspartate and serine in the SRS group were higher than in the MS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) , and all nutritionally indispensable and dispensable AA in the SRS group were higher when compared with those in the RS group ( P < 0 . 05 ) .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Sekiguchi lesion gene encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that catalyzes conversion of tryptamine to serotonin in rice .
Author: Fujiwara T Maisonneuve S Isshiki M Mizutani M Chen L Wong HL Kawasaki T Shimamoto K
Journal: J Biol Chem Citation: V : 285 P : 11308-13 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20150424 Accession (PMID): 20150424
Abstract: Serotonin is a well known neurotransmitter in mammals and plays an important role in various mental functions in humans . In plants , the serotonin biosynthesis pathway and its function are not well understood . The rice sekiguchi lesion ( sl ) mutants accumulate tryptamine , a candidate substrate for serotonin biosynthesis . We isolated the SL gene by map-based cloning and found that it encodes CYP71P1 in a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase family . A recombinant SL protein exhibited tryptamine 5-hydroxylase enzyme activity and catalyzed the conversion of tryptamine to serotonin . This pathway is novel and has not been reported in mammals . Expression of SL was induced by the N-acetylchitooligosaccharide ( chitin ) elicitor and by infection with Magnaporthe grisea , a causal agent for rice blast disease . Exogenously applied serotonin induced defense gene expression and cell death in rice suspension cultures and increased resistance to rice blast infection in plants . We also found that serotonin-induced defense gene expression is mediated by the RacGTPase pathway and by the G alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein . These results suggest that serotonin plays an important role in rice innate immunity .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: A recombinant SL protein exhibited tryptamine 5-hydroxylase enzyme activity and catalyzed the conversion of tryptamine to serotonin .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice sekiguchi lesion ( sl ) mutants accumulate tryptamine , a candidate substrate for serotonin biosynthesis .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Application of response surface methodology and artificial neural networks for optimization of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 production by Escherichia coli in medium containing byproduct glycerol .
Author: Giordano PC Martinez HD Iglesias AA Beccaria AJ Goicoechea HC
Journal: Bioresour Technol Citation: V : 101 P : 7537-7544 Year: 2010 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20576568 Accession (PMID): 20576568
Abstract: Production of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 ( OsHb1 ) by Escherichia coli was maximized in shake-flask cultures in media containing tryptone , yeast extract , sodium chloride and byproduct glycerol from biodiesel production . Response surface methodology ( RSM ) and artificial neural networks ( ANNs ) , followed by multiple response optimization through a desirability function were applied to evaluate the amount of OsHb1 produced . The results obtained by the application of ANNs were more reliable since better statistical parameters were obtained . The optimal conditions were ( gL ( -1 ) ) , tryptone , 42 . 69 ; yeast extract , 20 . 11 ; sodium chloride , 17 . 77 ; and byproduct glycerol , 0 . 33 . A maximum recombinant protein concentration of 3 . 50gL ( -1 ) and a minimum biomass concentration of 18 . 48gL ( -1 ) were obtained under these conditions . Although the concentrations of tryptone , yeast extract and sodium chloride are relatively high , the increase in the yield with respect to biomass formed ( Y ( P/X ) ) overcomes this disadvantage .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Production of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 ( OsHb1 ) by Escherichia coli was maximized in shake-flask cultures in media containing tryptone , yeast extract , sodium chloride and byproduct glycerol from biodiesel production .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The optimal conditions were ( gL ( -1 ) ) , tryptone , 42 . 69 ; yeast extract , 20 . 11 ; sodium chloride , 17 . 77 ; and byproduct glycerol , 0 . 33 .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Although the concentrations of tryptone , yeast extract and sodium chloride are relatively high , the increase in the yield with respect to biomass formed ( Y ( P/X ) ) overcomes this disadvantage .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Application of response surface methodology and artificial neural networks for optimization of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 production by Escherichia coli in medium containing byproduct glycerol .
Author: Giordano PC Martinez HD Iglesias AA Beccaria AJ Goicoechea HC
Journal: Bioresour Technol Citation: V : 101 P : 7537-44 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20578289 Accession (PMID): 20578289
Abstract: Production of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 ( OsHb1 ) by Escherichia coli was maximized in shake-flask cultures in media containing tryptone , yeast extract , sodium chloride and byproduct glycerol from biodiesel production . Response surface methodology ( RSM ) and artificial neural networks ( ANNs ) , followed by multiple response optimization through a desirability function were applied to evaluate the amount of OsHb1 produced . The results obtained by the application of ANNs were more reliable since better statistical parameters were obtained . The optimal conditions were ( g L ( -1 ) ) , tryptone , 42 . 69 ; yeast extract , 20 . 11 ; sodium chloride , 17 . 77 ; and byproduct glycerol , 0 . 33 . A maximum recombinant protein concentration of 3 . 50 g L ( -1 ) and a minimum biomass concentration of 18 . 48 g L ( -1 ) were obtained under these conditions . Although the concentrations of tryptone , yeast extract and sodium chloride are relatively high , the increase in the yield with respect to biomass formed ( Y ( P/X ) ) overcomes this disadvantage .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Production of recombinant Oryza sativa non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 ( OsHb1 ) by Escherichia coli was maximized in shake-flask cultures in media containing tryptone , yeast extract , sodium chloride and byproduct glycerol from biodiesel production .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The optimal conditions were ( g L ( -1 ) ) , tryptone , 42 . 69 ; yeast extract , 20 . 11 ; sodium chloride , 17 . 77 ; and byproduct glycerol , 0 . 33 .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Although the concentrations of tryptone , yeast extract and sodium chloride are relatively high , the increase in the yield with respect to biomass formed ( Y ( P/X ) ) overcomes this disadvantage .
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Score: 3.00
Title: A trypsin-like protease in rice green semi-looper , Naranga aenescens moore ( lepidoptera : Noctuidae ) : purification and characterization .
Author: Zibaee A Bandani AR Fazeli-Dinan M Zibaee I Sendi JJ Maleki FA
Journal: Arch Insect Biochem Physiol Citation: V : P : Year: 2011 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21678486 Accession (PMID): 21678486
Abstract: The rice green semi looper , Naranga aenescens Moore ( Lepidoptera : Noctuidae ) causes severe damage to rice fields in Eastern Asia and Middle East We demonstrate that two types of serine proteases are active in the midgut of the third instar larvae of N aenescens , but trypsin-like proteases are considerably more active than chymotrypsin-like proteases . To develop better control strategies , purification and biochemical characterization of a major trypsin-like digestive protease from the midgut of the third instar larvae of N aenescens was achieved by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography . After the final purification step , the enzyme was purified 9 . 62-fold with a recovery of 16 . 1% and a specific activity of 4 . 12 U/mg protein and a molecular mass of approximately 88 . 5 kDa . Biochemical characterization indicated that the purified protease had highest activity at pH 10 and 30 degrees C and was stable for up to 6 h under those conditions . Divalent cations , especially Ca ( 2+ ) , Mg ( 2+ ) , and Cu ( 2+ ) , increased the enzyme activity and synthetic inhibitors that target trypsin-like activity caused a significant reduction in caseinolytic activity . These data may be used to develop inhibitors that decrease the damage of N aenescens to rice cultivars in the field . ( c ) 2011 Wiley Periodicals , Inc .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice green semi looper , Naranga aenescens Moore ( Lepidoptera : Noctuidae ) causes severe damage to rice fields in Eastern Asia and Middle East We demonstrate that two types of serine proteases are active in the midgut of the third instar larvae of N aenescens , but trypsin-like proteases are considerably more active than chymotrypsin-like proteases .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: To develop better control strategies , purification and biochemical characterization of a major trypsin-like digestive protease from the midgut of the third instar larvae of N aenescens was achieved by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Divalent cations , especially Ca ( 2+ ) , Mg ( 2+ ) , and Cu ( 2+ ) , increased the enzyme activity and synthetic inhibitors that target trypsin-like activity caused a significant reduction in caseinolytic activity .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase-deficient Sekiguchi rice induces synthesis of 5-hydroxytryptophan and N-acetyltryptamine but decreases melatonin biosynthesis during senescence process of detached leaves .
Author: Park S Lee K Kim YS Back K
Journal: J Pineal Res Citation: V : 52 P : 211-6 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21884550 Accession (PMID): 21884550
Abstract: Melatonin biosynthesis was examined in Sekiguchi mutant rice lacking functional tryptamine 5-hydroxylase ( T5H ) activity , which is the terminal enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis in rice . During senescence process , the leaves of Sekiguchi mutant rice produced more tryptamine and N-acetyltryptamine compared with the wild-type Asahi leaves . Even though T5H activity is absent , Sekiguchi leaves produce low levels of serotonin derived from 5-hydroxytryptophan , which was found to be synthesized during senescence process . Accordingly , both rice cultivars exhibited similar levels of N-acetylserotonin until 6 days of senescence induction ; however , only Asahi leaves continued to accumulate N-acetylserotonin after 6 days . In contrast , a large amount of N-acetyltryptamine was accumulated in Sekiguchi leaves , indicating that tryptamine was efficiently utilized as substrate by the rice arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme . An increase in N-acetyltryptamine in Sekiguchi had an inhibitory effect on synthesis of melatonin because little melatonin was produced in Sekiguchi leaves at 6 days of senescence induction , even in the presence of equivalent levels of N-acetylserotonin in both cultivars . The exogenous treatment of 0 . 1 mmN-acetyltryptamine during senescence process completely blocked melatonin synthesis .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Melatonin biosynthesis was examined in Sekiguchi mutant rice lacking functional tryptamine 5-hydroxylase ( T5H ) activity , which is the terminal enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis in rice .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: During senescence process , the leaves of Sekiguchi mutant rice produced more tryptamine and N-acetyltryptamine compared with the wild-type Asahi leaves .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: In contrast , a large amount of N-acetyltryptamine was accumulated in Sekiguchi leaves , indicating that tryptamine was efficiently utilized as substrate by the rice arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Biosynthesis and emission of insect herbivory-induced volatile indole in rice .
Author: Zhuang X Fiesselmann A Zhao N Chen H Frey M Chen F
Journal: Phytochemistry Citation: V : 73 P : 15-22 Year: 2012 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22000657 Accession (PMID): 22000657
Abstract: Insect-damaged rice plants emit a complex mixture of volatiles that are highly attractive to parasitic wasps . Indole is one constituent of insect-induced rice volatiles , and is produced in plants by the enzyme indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase ( IGL ) . The alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase ( TSA ) is the IGL that catalyses the conversion of indole-3-glycerol phosphate to indole in the alpha-reaction of tryptophan synthesis ; however , TSA is only active in the complex with the beta-subunit of tryptophan synthase and is not capable of producing free indole . In maize a TSA homolog , ZmIgl , is the structural gene responsible for volatile indole biosynthesis . Bioinformatic analysis based on the ZmIgl-sequence indicated that the rice genome contains five homologous genes . Three homologs Os03g58260 , Os03g58300 and Os07g08430 , have detectable transcript levels in seedling it issue and were expressed in both insect-damaged and control rice plants . Only Os03g58300 , however , was up-regulated by insect feeding . Recombinant proteins of the three rice genes were tested for IGL activity . Os03g58300 had a low K ( m ) for indole-3-glycerol phosphate and a high k ( cat ) , and hence can efficiently produce indole . Os07g08430 exhibited biochemical properties resembling characterized TSAs . In contrast , Os03g58260 was inactive as a monomer . Analysis of Os03g58300 expression and indole emission provides further support that Os03g58300 is the bona fide rice IGL for biosynthesis of indole , in analogy to maize , this gene is termed OsIgl . Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rice genes are localized in two distinct clades together with the maize genes ZmIgl and ZmBx1 ( Os03g58300 ) and ZmTSA ( Os03g58260 and Os07g08430 ) . The genes in the two clades have distinct enzyme activities and gene structures in terms of intron/exon organization . These results suggest that OsIgl evolved after the split of monocot and dicot lineages and before the diversification of the Poaceae .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 3.00 ]: The alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase ( TSA ) is the IGL that catalyses the conversion of indole-3-glycerol phosphate to indole in the alpha-reaction of tryptophan synthesis ; however , TSA is only active in the complex with the beta-subunit of tryptophan synthase and is not capable of producing free indole .
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Score: 3.00
Title: A large increase in IAA during development of rice grains correlates with the expression of tryptophan aminotransferase OsTAR1 and a grain-specific YUCCA .
Author: Abu-Zaitoon YM Bennett K Normanly J Nonhebel HM
Journal: Physiol Plant Citation: V : P : Year: 2012 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22582989 Accession (PMID): 22582989
Abstract: The indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) content of developing grains of Oryza sativa subsp . japonica was measured by combined liquid chromatography , tandem mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode . The increase from 50 ng g ( -1 ) fresh weight to 2 . 9 microg g ( -1 ) fresh weight from 1 to 14 days after pollination was much larger than that previously reported by enzyme-linked immunoassay methods . The largest increase in IAA content coincided with the start of the major starch deposition phase of grain-fill . The increase in IAA content was strongly correlated with the expression of putative IAA biosynthesis genes , OsYUC9 , OsYUC11 and OsTAR1 , measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction . These results confirm the importance of the tryptophan aminotransferase/YUCCA pathway in this system . All three genes were expressed in endosperm ; expression of OsYUC11 appeared to be confined to endosperm it issue . Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OsYUC11 and AtYUC10 belong to a separate clade of YUCCAs , which do not have orthologues outside the Angiosperms . This clade may have evolved with a specific role in endosperm . Expression of tryptophan decarboxylase in developing rice grains did not correlate with IAA levels , indicating that tryptamine is unlikely to be important for IAA synthesis in this system . In light of these observations , we hypothesize that IAA production in developing rice grains is controlled via expression of OsTAR1 , OsYUC9 , OsYUC11 and that IAA may be important during starch deposition in addition to its previously suggested role early in grain development .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: Expression of tryptophan decarboxylase in developing rice grains did not correlate with IAA levels , indicating that tryptamine is unlikely to be important for IAA synthesis in this system .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results confirm the importance of the tryptophan aminotransferase/YUCCA pathway in this system .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Mechanistic Examination of C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) Bond Cleavages of Tryptophan Residues during Dissociations of Molecular Peptide Radical Cations .
Author: Song T Ma CY Chu IK Siu CK Laskin J
Journal: J Phys Chem A Citation: V : P : Year: 2012 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22697598 Accession (PMID): 22697598
Abstract: In this study , we used collision-induced dissociation ( CID ) to examine the gas-phase fragmentations of [ G ( n ) W ] ( *+ ) ( n = 2-4 ) and [ GXW ] ( *+ ) ( X = C , S , L , F , Y , Q ) species . The C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage of a C-terminal decarboxylated tryptophan residue ( [ M - CO ( 2 ) ] ( *+ ) ) can generate [ M - CO ( 2 ) - 116 ] ( + ) , [ M - CO ( 2 ) - 117 ] ( *+ ) , and [ 1H-indole ] ( *+ ) ( m/z 117 ) species as possible product ions . Competition between the formation of [ M - CO ( 2 ) - 116 ] ( + ) and [ 1H-indole ] ( *+ ) systems implies the existence of a proton-bound dimer formed between the indole ring and peptide backbone . Formation of such a proton-bound dimer is facile via a protonation of the tryptophan gamma-carbon atom as suggested by density functional theory ( DFT ) calculations . DFT calculations also suggested the initially formed ion 2 , the decarboxylated species that is active against C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage , can efficiently isomerize to form a more stable pi-radical isomer ( ion 9 ) as supported by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus ( RRKM ) modeling . The C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage of a tryptophan residue also can occur directly from peptide radical cations containing a basic residue . CID of [ WG ( n ) R ] ( *+ ) ( n = 1-3 ) radical cations consistently resulted in predominant formation of [ M - 116 ] ( + ) product ions . It appears that the basic arginine residue tightly sequesters the proton and allows the charge-remote C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage to prevail over the charge-directed one . DFT calculations predicted that the barrier for the former is 6 . 2 kcal mol ( -1 ) lower than that of the latter . Furthermore , the pathway involving a salt-bridge intermediate also was accessible during such a bond cleavage event .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage of a C-terminal decarboxylated tryptophan residue ( [ M - CO ( 2 ) ] ( *+ ) ) can generate [ M - CO ( 2 ) - 116 ] ( + ) , [ M - CO ( 2 ) - 117 ] ( *+ ) , and [ 1H-indole ] ( *+ ) ( m/z 117 ) species as possible product ions .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Formation of such a proton-bound dimer is facile via a protonation of the tryptophan gamma-carbon atom as suggested by density functional theory ( DFT ) calculations .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The C ( beta ) -C ( gamma ) bond cleavage of a tryptophan residue also can occur directly from peptide radical cations containing a basic residue .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from rice bran .
Author: Tashiro M Maki Z
Journal: J Nutr . Sci . Vitaminol . Citation: V : 25 ( 3 ) P : 255-64 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub501453 Accession (PMID): 501453
Abstract: A trypsin inhibitor was isolated and purified from the bran of rice , Oryza sativa , by extraction with 1% sodium chloride , heat treatment , ammonium sulfate precipitation , ion-exchange chromatography on a CM-Sephadex C-25 and gel filtration on a Sephadex G-75 . The final preparation was homogeneous by electrophoretic analysis . Rice bran trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) had a molecular weight of about 14 , 500 and an isoelectric point of 8 . 07 . The amino acids , acid composition was characterized by high contents of basic amino acids , aspartic acid , glutamic acid , proline and cystine . BRTI inhibited bovine trypsin at an inhibitor-enzyme molar ratio of 1 : 1 . 6 . It displayed , however , nobility to inhibit alpha-chymotrypsin , pepsin , papain and subtilisin BPN .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A trypsin inhibitor was isolated and purified from the bran of rice , Oryza sativa , by extraction with 1% sodium chloride , heat treatment , ammonium sulfate precipitation , ion-exchange chromatography on a CM-Sephadex C-25 and gel filtration on a Sephadex G-75 .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Rice bran trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) had a molecular weight of about 14 , 500 and an isoelectric point of 8 . 07 .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: BRTI inhibited bovine trypsin at an inhibitor-enzyme molar ratio of 1 : 1 . 6 .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Lysine and tryptophan in cereal-based diets for adult human subjects .
Author: Clark HE Bailey LB Brewer MF .
Journal: Am . J Clin . Nutr . Citation: V : 30 ( 5 ) P : 674-80 Year: 1977 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub855810 Accession (PMID): 855810
Abstract: A basic diet containing rice , wheat , and corn that furnished 6 . 0 g of nitrogen per day was consumed by health young adults . Two levels of lysine , 900 and 1800 mg , and three of tryptophan , 260 , 390 , and 520 mg , were tested . Lysine exerted a significant effect ( P less than 0 . 05 ) on nitrogen retention but tryptophan did not . When consumed in conjunction with at least twice the reported minimal requirements of other essential amino acids , 900 mg of lysine induced mean daily balances of 0 . 15 +/- 0 . 18 , 0 . 19 +/- 0 . 14 , and 0 . 22 +/- 0 . 21 g , respectively , in response to the three levels of tryptophan ; and 1800 mg of lysine caused retentions of 0 . 75 +/- 0 . 14 , 0 . 77 +/- 0 . 21 and 0 . 71 +/- 0 . 15 g . These findings are discussed in relation to fulfillment of protein and amino acid requirements of adult human subjects .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Two levels of lysine , 900 and 1800 mg , and three of tryptophan , 260 , 390 , and 520 mg , were tested .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Lysine exerted a significant effect ( P less than 0 . 05 ) on nitrogen retention but tryptophan did not .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: When consumed in conjunction with at least twice the reported minimal requirements of other essential amino acids , 900 mg of lysine induced mean daily balances of 0 . 15 +/- 0 . 18 , 0 . 19 +/- 0 . 14 , and 0 . 22 +/- 0 . 21 g , respectively , in response to the three levels of tryptophan ; and 1800 mg of lysine caused retentions of 0 . 75 +/- 0 . 14 , 0 . 77 +/- 0 . 21 and 0 . 71 +/- 0 . 15 g .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Changes in activity , antigenicity , and molecular size of rice bran trypsin inhibitor by in vitro digestion .
Author: Tashiro M Ikegami S
Journal: J Nutr . Sci . Vitaminol . Citation: V : 42 ( 4 ) P : 367-76 Year: 1996 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8906637 Accession (PMID): 8906637
Abstract: Rice bran trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) was digested by pepsin alone or by pepsin and pancreatin with or without bovine serum albumin ( BSA ) to clarify the changes in trypsin inhibitory activity , apparent antigenicity , and molecular size of RBTI . In vitro pepsin digestion of RBTI in the absence of BSA caused the gradual loss of the trypsin inhibitory activity and antigenicity . This was mostly due to a progressive degradation of the native 14 . 5-kDa RBTI molecule to small molecular mass products . The presence of BSA in the digestion mixture prevented the RBTI degradation and was accompanied with a considerable protection of the activity and antigenicity . Similar results were also given by in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion . These findings suggest that RBTI may be present in its active form in the gastrointestinal tract when fed to animals , especially with a dietary protein .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Rice bran trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) was digested by pepsin alone or by pepsin and pancreatin with or without bovine serum albumin ( BSA ) to clarify the changes in trypsin inhibitory activity , apparent antigenicity , and molecular size of RBTI .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: In vitro pepsin digestion of RBTI in the absence of BSA caused the gradual loss of the trypsin inhibitory activity and antigenicity .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Anti-aflatoxigenic activity of Lactobacillus casei pseudoplantarum .
Author: Gourama H Bullerman LB .
Journal: Int . J Food Microbiol . Citation: V : 34 ( 2 ) P : 131-43 Year: 1997 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9039560 Accession (PMID): 9039560
Abstract: Lactobacillus casei pseudoplantarum 371 isolated from a silage inoculant was found to inhibit aflatoxins B1 and G1 biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus subsp . parasiticus NRRI . 2999 , in liquid medium . The inhibitory activity in the Lactobacillus cell-free supernatant was found to be sensitive to proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin , but resistant to pepsin . Lab-Lemco tryptone broth ( LTB ) , supplemented with 20% of dialyzed protein concentrate of the supernatant , totally inhibited the production of aflatoxins B1 and G1 . When the protein concentrate was digested with trypsin , the production of aflatoxins B1 and G1 was restored . The inhibitory activity of the supernatant was inactivated within 10 min at 100 degrees C A flavus grown in the Lactobacillus cell-free supernatant did not produce a mutagenic response in the Salmonella mutagenicity test However , Lactobacillus casei pseudo plantarum 371 did not have an effect on aflatoxin production and mold growth as measured by ergosterol and plate count , when the organisms were inoculated together on sterile steamed rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The inhibitory activity in the Lactobacillus cell-free supernatant was found to be sensitive to proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin , but resistant to pepsin .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Lab-Lemco tryptone broth ( LTB ) , supplemented with 20% of dialyzed protein concentrate of the supernatant , totally inhibited the production of aflatoxins B1 and G1 .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: When the protein concentrate was digested with trypsin , the production of aflatoxins B1 and G1 was restored .
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Score: 3.00
Title: Biochemical characteristics of a rice ( Oryza sativa L , IR36 ) G-protein alpha-subunit expressed in Escherichia coli .
Author: Seo HS Choi CH Lee SY Cho MJ Bahk JD .
Journal: Biochem . J Citation: V : 324 ( Pt 1 ) ( ) P : 273-81 Year: 1997 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9164867 Accession (PMID): 9164867
Abstract: A cDNA encoding the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein in rice ( RGA1 ) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and then isolated by Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography . The molecular mass of RGA1 bearing a His tag was approx . 49 kDa . Immunoblot analysis using anti-RGA1 revealed that the RGA1 protein is most abundant in seedling leaves and least abundant in mature roots . It exists at particularly high levels in the immature embryo after pellicle extrusion . In addition , the RGA1 antiserum exhibited a difference in binding affinity for Galpha proteins from monocots ( maize and rice ) and dicots ( Arabidopsis , pea , soya bean and tomato ) ; whereas it cross-reacted with Galpha proteins of monocots , it did not with those of dicot plants . When bound to guanosine 5- ( gamma-thio ) triphosphate ( GTP [ S ] ) , the RGA1 protein was partially protected from tryptic proteolysis . In the presence of GTP [ S ] , trypsin cleaved the RGA1 protein into four fragments 24 , 14 , 11 and 5 kDa in size . When RGA1 was bound to GDP , only the 5 kDa polypeptide was seen on SDS/PAGE after trypsin digestion . Photoaffinity labelling with [ alpha-32P ] GTP and a GTP [ S ] -binding assay revealed that RGA1 incorporated 32P and showed specific binding to a guanine nucleotide . Guanidine binding of RGA1 was affected by the concentration of MgCl2 ( maximum at 2 mM ) . The rate of guanine nucleotide binding of RGA1 ( kon , GTP [ S ] =0 . 0141+/-0 . 0014 min-1 ) and , at steady state , the kcat value for GTP hydrolysis ( 0 . 0075+/-0 . 0001 min-1 ) were very low even at 2 mM MgCl2 . The binding affinity for the nucleotides examined was in the order GTP-S >/= GTP > GDP > CTP > ATP >/= dTTP .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: When bound to guanosine 5- ( gamma-thio ) triphosphate ( GTP [ S ] ) , the RGA1 protein was partially protected from tryptic proteolysis .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the presence of GTP [ S ] , trypsin cleaved the RGA1 protein into four fragments 24 , 14 , 11 and 5 kDa in size .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: When RGA1 was bound to GDP , only the 5 kDa polypeptide was seen on SDS/PAGE after trypsin digestion .
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Score: 2.00
Title: The maize major allergen , which is responsible for food-induced allergic reactions , is a lipid transfer protein .
Author: Pastorello EA Farioli L Pravettoni V Ispano M Scibola E Trambaioli C Giuffrida MG Ansaloni R Godovac-Zimmermann J Conti A Fortunato D Ortolani C
Journal: J Allergy Clin . Immunol . Citation: V : 106 ( 4 ) P : 744-51 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11031346 Accession (PMID): 11031346
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Cereals are the most important nutritional component in the human diet . Food-induced allergic reactions to these substances therefore have serious implications , and exhaustive diagnosis is required . Such diagnosis is still difficult because of the incomplete knowledge about major cereal allergens . In particular , few food-induced allergic reactions to maize have been reported , and no information on the allergenic proteins is available . OBJECTIVE : Having observed several anaphylactic reactions to maize , we planned a study to identify maize major allergens and cross-reactivity with other cereals , as well as to peach because the majority of patients also reacted to Prunoideae fruits . METHODS : Twenty-two patients with systemic symptoms after maize ingestion and positive skin prick test responses and serum-specific IgE antibodies to maize were selected . The IgE-reactivity pattern was identified by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting . The major allergen identified was then purified by HPLC and characterized by mass spectrometry , determination of the isoelectric point value , and N-terminal amino acid sequencing . RESULTS : Sera from 19 ( 86% ) of the 22 patients recognized a 9-kd protein , thus confirming this as the maize major allergen . This protein had an isoelectric point of greater than 9 , a molecular mass of 9047 . 0 d , and no glycosylation . Determination of its N-terminal sequence showed that it was a lipid transfer protein ( LTP ) . By using immunoblotting-inhibition experiments , we demonstrated that the LTP cross-reacts completely with rice and peach LTPs but not with wheat or barley LTPs . N-terminal sequence of the 16-kd allergen ( recognized by 36% of patients ) showed it to be the maize inhibitor of trypsin . This protein cross-reacts completely with grass , wheat , barley , and rice trypsin inhibitors . CONCLUSION : The major allergen of maize is an LTP with a molecular weight of 9 kd that is highly homologous with the peach LTP , the major allergen of the Prunoideae subfamily .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: N-terminal sequence of the 16-kd allergen ( recognized by 36% of patients ) showed it to be the maize inhibitor of trypsin .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: This protein cross-reacts completely with grass , wheat , barley , and rice trypsin inhibitors .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Chloroplast fructose-1 , 6-bisphosphatase from Oryza differs in salt tolerance property from the Porteresia enzyme and is protected by osmolytes .
Author: Ghosh S Bagchi S Lahiri Majumder A
Journal: Citation: V : 160 ( 6 ) P : 1171-1181 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11337074 Accession (PMID): 11337074
Abstract: Salinity exerted a distinctly differential effect on fructose-1 , 6-bisphosphatase ( EC . 3 . 1 . 3 . 11 ) isolated from salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice ( Oryza sativa ) varieties . Cytosolic and chloroplastic isoforms of the enzyme from salt-sensitive rice seedlings exhibited decreased catalytic activity during growth in the presence of salt . Furthermore , chloroplastic fructose 1 , 6-bisphosphatase purified from salt-sensitive ( O sativa cv . IR26 ) and from the wild halophytic rice Porteresia coarctata differed in their in vitro salt tolerance property although they exhibited otherwise identical biochemical and immunological properties . This decline in enzyme activity was not correlated with de novo synthesis of the chloroplastic fructose-1 , 6-bisphosphatase protein in the presence of salt . The inhibitory effect of increasing concentration of NaCl on in vitro enzymatic activity could be prevented by preincubation of the enzyme with a number of osmolytes with an effectiveness in the order polyol>sugars . Further , the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the purified rice enzyme is altered in vitro with increasing NaCl concentration which could be prevented by preincubation with inositol . Purified chloroplastic fructose-1 . 6-bisphosphatase from P coarctata however , exhibits no such inhibition of enzyme activity in vitro or alteration in tryptophan fluorescence with increasing NaCl concentration .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Further , the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the purified rice enzyme is altered in vitro with increasing NaCl concentration which could be prevented by preincubation with inositol .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Purified chloroplastic fructose-1 . 6-bisphosphatase from P coarctata however , exhibits no such inhibition of enzyme activity in vitro or alteration in tryptophan fluorescence with increasing NaCl concentration .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Three GC base pairs required for the efficient aminoacylation of tRNATrp by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase from Bacillus subtilis .
Author: Xu F Jiang G Li W He X Jin Y Wang D
Journal: Biochemistry Citation: V : 41 ( 25 ) P : 8087-92 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12069601 Accession (PMID): 12069601
Abstract: Acceptor stem is an essential region in the recognition of tRNAs by their cognate aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase . In this study , a library containing 20 nt random region and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase ( TrpRS ) from Bacillus subtilis were used for in vitro selection to find a new structural feature in the tRNA ( Trp ) acceptor stem sequence that is required for B subtilis TrpRS recognition . After three rounds of selection , the TrpRS binding RNAs dominate the RNA pool . The aptamers share a common structure of three GC base pairs , which was also found in the acceptor stem of wild-type B subtilis tRNA ( Trp ) . A series of tRNA ( Trp ) variants was prepared by in vitro transcription , and their efficiencies of tryptophanylation ( k ( cat ) /K ( M ) ) were measured with the aid of TrpRS from B subtilis . The mutants that possess the three GC base pairs and G73 discriminator base exhibit almost the same aminoacylation efficiencies as B subtilis tRNA ( Trp ) , while the G73 discriminator base itself can not confer efficient aminoacylation to the tRNA ( Trp ) molecule . Thus , these three base pairs ( G2 . C71 , G3 . C70 , and G4 . C69 ) in the B subtilis tRNA ( Trp ) acceptor stem were established to be new identity elements , and their importance was between the previously characterized major element G73 and minor elements A1/U72 and G5/C68 . The minimum set of identity elements that is required to confer efficient aminoacylation by B subtilis TrpRS included G73 , G2 . C71 , G3 . C70 , and G4 . C69 .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , a library containing 20 nt random region and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase ( TrpRS ) from Bacillus subtilis were used for in vitro selection to find a new structural feature in the tRNA ( Trp ) acceptor stem sequence that is required for B subtilis TrpRS recognition .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: A series of tRNA ( Trp ) variants was prepared by in vitro transcription , and their efficiencies of tryptophanylation ( k ( cat ) /K ( M ) ) were measured with the aid of TrpRS from B subtilis .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Mitochondrial tRNA ( Trp ) s Imply a Eubacterial Origin .
Author: Chen L Jin YX Wang DB .
Journal: Citation: V : 32 ( 2 ) P : 100-104 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12098783 Accession (PMID): 12098783
Abstract: Three mitochondrial tRNA ( Trp ) s genes from Oryza sativa , Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces serevisea were constructed . In vitro transcripts of these mitochondrial tRNA ( Trp ) s genes were able to be tryptophanylated by Bacillus subtilis tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase ( TrpRS ) , but could not be catalyzed by TrpRS from rat liver . Kinetic assay showed that B subtilis TrpRS had half the binding capacity for mitochondrial tRNA ( Trp ) s than for wild type tRNA ( Trp ) . While in the catalytic efficiency , the k ( cat ) /K ( m ) value of mitochondrial tRNA ( Trp ) s from Osativa and Sserevisea by Bsubtilis enzyme was reduced by 400-fold and 1 200-fold respectively as that of Bsubtilis tRNA ( Trp ) . Experimental results suggested that mitochondrial tRNA ( Trp ) s implied a eubacterial origin .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: In vitro transcripts of these mitochondrial tRNA ( Trp ) s genes were able to be tryptophanylated by Bacillus subtilis tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase ( TrpRS ) , but could not be catalyzed by TrpRS from rat liver .
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Score: 2.00
Title: [ Nutritional studies with rice bran ]
Author: Guerra MJ Jaff WG .
Journal: Citation: V : 25 ( 4 ) P : 401-17 Year: 1975 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1220617 Accession (PMID): 1220617
Abstract: The nutritional value and proximate chemical composition of five samples of rice bran taken from different varieties of rice grown in Venezuela was studied . Thiamin , niacin , riboflavin and tryptophan , lysine , methionine and cystine were analyzed . The apparent protein digestibility was between 59 an 74% , and the Protein Efficiency Ratio ( PER ) between 1 . 19 and 2 . 31 . The supplementation with threonine increased the Protein Efficiency Ratio in 12% , but supplementation with tryptophan did not improve it neither alone nor combined with threonine . Combinations with corn and soyflour that simulate formulas for infants showed that there is a protein supplementation in these mixtures . Some combinations with corn , soy flour , and rice bran had the same PER as casein . The rice bran is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals in these combinations . The results showed that rice bran has potential value for human consumption .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Thiamin , niacin , riboflavin and tryptophan , lysine , methionine and cystine were analyzed .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The supplementation with threonine increased the Protein Efficiency Ratio in 12% , but supplementation with tryptophan did not improve it neither alone nor combined with threonine .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Expression of alpha-expansin and expansin-like genes in deepwater rice .
Author: Lee Y Kende H
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 130 ( 3 ) P : 1396-405 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12428004 Accession (PMID): 12428004
Abstract: Previously , we have studied the expression and regulation of four alpha and 14 beta-expansin genes in deepwater rice ( Oryza sativa ) . We now report on the structure , expression , and regulation of 22 additional alpha-expansin ( Os-EXP ) genes , four expansin-like ( Os-EXPL ) genes , and one expansin-related ( Os-EXPR ) gene , which have recently been identified in the expressed sequence tag and genomic databases of rice . Alpha-expansins are characterized by a series of conserved Cys residues in the N-terminal half of the protein , a histidine-phenylalanine-aspartate ( HFD ) motif in the central region , and a series of tryptophan residues near the carboxyl terminus . Of the 22 additional alpha-expansin genes , five are expressed in internodes and leaves , three in coleoptiles , and nine in roots , with high transcript levels in the growing regions of these organs . Transcripts of five alpha-expansin genes were found in roots only . Expression of five alpha-expansin genes was induced in the internode by treatment with gibberellin ( GA ) and by wounding . The wound response resulted from excising stem sections or from piercing pinholes into the stem of intact plants . EXPL proteins lack the HFD motif and have two additional Cys residues in their C and N-terminal regions . The positions of conserved tryptophan residues at the C-terminal region are different from those of alpha and beta-expansins . Expression of the Os-EXPL3 gene is correlated with elongation and slightly induced by applied GA . However , the expression of the Os-EXPL1 and Os-EXPL2 genes showed limited correlation with cell elongation and was not induced by GA . We found no expression of the Os-EXPR1 gene in the organs examined .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Alpha-expansins are characterized by a series of conserved Cys residues in the N-terminal half of the protein , a histidine-phenylalanine-aspartate ( HFD ) motif in the central region , and a series of tryptophan residues near the carboxyl terminus .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: The positions of conserved tryptophan residues at the C-terminal region are different from those of alpha and beta-expansins .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Melatonin , serotonin , and tryptamine in some egyptian food and medicinal plants .
Author: Badria FA .
Journal: Citation: V : 5 ( 3 ) P : 153-7 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12495587 Accession (PMID): 12495587
Abstract: The mammalian pineal hormone melatonin ( N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine ) , an aminoindole produced by the metabolism of serotonin ( 5-hydroxytryptamine ) , has been shown to be a potent scavenger for the highly toxic hydroxyl radical Three substances that are very important in animal physiology ( eg , in brain metabolism ) are noradrenaline , histamine , and serotonin ; all three occur in plants . Here we report that serotonin , tryptamine , and melatonin were found in some edible and medicinal plants in Egypt . The results of this screening showed that the pulp of underripe and ripe yellow banana contains 5-hydroxytryptamine at concentrations of 31 . 4 and 18 . 5 ng/g , respectively . Corn , rice , barley grains , and ginger showed the highest concentrations of melatonin , at 187 . 8 , 149 . 8 , 87 . 3 , 142 . 3 ng/100 g , respectively . On the other hand , potato samples were free from all indolamines . Pomegranate and strawberry showed a low level of indolamines ( 8-12 microg/g serotonin , 4-9 microg/g tryptamine , and 13-29 ng/100 g melatonin ) .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Here we report that serotonin , tryptamine , and melatonin were found in some edible and medicinal plants in Egypt .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Pomegranate and strawberry showed a low level of indolamines ( 8-12 microg/g serotonin , 4-9 microg/g tryptamine , and 13-29 ng/100 g melatonin ) .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Proteolytic gut activities in the rice water weevil , Lissorhoptrus brevirostris Suffrian ( Coleoptera : Curculionidae ) .
Author: Hernndez CA Pujol M Alfonso-RubEJ Armas R Coll Y Prez M Gonzlez A Ruiz M Castaera P Ortego F
Journal: Arch . Insect Biochem . Physiol . Citation: V : 53 ( 1 ) P : 19-29 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12701111 Accession (PMID): 12701111
Abstract: Digestive endoprotease activities of the rice water weevil , Lissorhoptrus brevirostris Suffrian ( Coleoptera : Curculionidae ) , were characterized based on the ability of gut extracts to hydrolyze specific synthetic substrates , optimal pH , and hydrolysis sensitivity to protease inhibitors . Larvae of this species were found to use a complex proteolytic system that includes cathepsin D- , cathepsin B- , trypsin- , and chymotrypsin-like activities . Trypsin-like activity was evenly distributed among the anterior , middle , and posterior portions of the gut , whereas cathepsin B and cathepsin D-like activities were mainly located in the anterior and middle sections , and the chymotrypsin-like activity was highest in the middle and posterior sections . Gelatin-containing native-PAGE gels indicated the presence of several aspartyl , cysteine , and serine protease forms and confirmed the spatial organization of the proteolytic digestive process .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Larvae of this species were found to use a complex proteolytic system that includes cathepsin D- , cathepsin B- , trypsin- , and chymotrypsin-like activities .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Trypsin-like activity was evenly distributed among the anterior , middle , and posterior portions of the gut , whereas cathepsin B and cathepsin D-like activities were mainly located in the anterior and middle sections , and the chymotrypsin-like activity was highest in the middle and posterior sections .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Towards an analysis of the rice mitochondrial proteome .
Author: Heazlewood JL Howell KA Whelan J Millar AH .
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 132 ( 1 ) P : 230-42 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12746528 Accession (PMID): 12746528
Abstract: Purified rice ( Oryza sativa ) mitochondrial proteins have been arrayed by isoelectric focusing/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( PAGE ) , by blue-native ( BN ) PAGE , and by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ( LC ) separation ( LC-mass spectrometry [ MS ] ) . From these protein arrays , we have identified a range of rice mitochondrial proteins , including hydrophilic/hydrophobic proteins ( grand average of hydropathicity = -1 . 27 to +0 . 84 ) , highly basic and acid proteins ( isoelectric point = 4 . 0-12 . 5 ) , and proteins over a large molecular mass range ( 6 . 7-252 kD ) , using proteomic approaches . BN PAGE provided a detailed picture of electron transport chain protein complexes . A total of 232 protein spots from isoelectric focusing/PAGE and BN PAGE separations were excised , trypsin digested , and analyzed by tandem MS ( MS/MS ) . Using this dataset , 149 of the protein spots ( the products of 91 nonredundant genes ) were identified by searching translated rice open reading frames from genomic sequence and six-frame translated rice expressed sequence tags . Sequence comparison allowed us to assign functions to a subset of 85 proteins , including many of the major function categories expected for this organelle . A further six spots were matched to rice sequences for which no specific function has yet been determined . Complete digestion of mitochondrial proteins with trypsin yielded a peptide mixture that was analyzed directly by reverse-phase LC via organic solvent elution from a C-18 column ( LC-MS ) . These data yielded 170 MS/MS spectra that matched 72 sequence entries from open reading frame and expressed sequence tag databases . Forty-five of these were obtained using LC-MS alone , whereas 28 proteins were identified by both LC-MS and gel-based separations . In total , 136 nonredundant rice proteins were identified , including a new set of 23 proteins of unknown function located in plant mitochondria . We also report the first direct identification , to our knowledge , of PPR ( pentatricopeptide repeat ) proteins in the plant mitochondrial proteome . This dataset provides the first extensive picture , to our knowledge , of mitochondrial functions in a model monocot plant .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: A total of 232 protein spots from isoelectric focusing/PAGE and BN PAGE separations were excised , trypsin digested , and analyzed by tandem MS ( MS/MS ) .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Complete digestion of mitochondrial proteins with trypsin yielded a peptide mixture that was analyzed directly by reverse-phase LC via organic solvent elution from a C-18 column ( LC-MS ) .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Bioactive proteins and peptides from food sources . Applications of bioprocesses used in isolation and recovery .
Author: Kitts DD Weiler K
Journal: Curr . Pharm . Des . Citation: V : 9 ( 16 ) P : 1309-23 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12769739 Accession (PMID): 12769739
Abstract: There are many examples of biologically active food proteins , with physiological significance beyond the pure nutritional requirements that concern available nitrogen for normal growth and maintenance . Moreover , there are many physiologically active peptides , derived by protease activity from various food protein sources ; however , relationships between structural properties and functional activities have not been completely elucidated . Many bioactive peptides have in common structural properties that include a relatively short peptide residue length ( eg 2-9 amino acids ) , possessing hydrophobic amino acid residues in addition to proline , lysine or arginine groups . Bioactive peptides are also resistant to the action of digestion peptidases . Antihypertensive peptides , known as Angiotensin I converting enzyme ( ACE ) inhibitors have been derived from milk , corn and fish protein sources . Peptides with opioid activities are derived from wheat gluten or casein , following digestion with pepsin . Exorphins , or opioid peptides derived from food proteins such as wheat and milk ( eg exogenous sources ) have similar structure to endogenous opioid peptides , with a tyrosine residue located at the amino terminal or bioactive site . Immunomodulatory peptides derived from tryptic hydrolysates of rice and soybean proteins act to stimulate superoxide anions ( reactive oxygen species-ROS ) , which triggers non-specific immune defense systems . Antioxidant properties that prevent peroxidation of essential fatty acids have also been shown for peptides derived from milk proteins . The addition of a Leu or Pro residue to the N-terminus of a His-His , dipeptide will enhance antioxidant activity and facilitate further synergy with non-peptide antioxidants ( eg BHT ) . We also show herein , that the tryptic digests of casein yielding caseinophosphopeptides exhibits both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity due to both metal ion sequestering and quenching of ROS . The separation and purification of bioactive peptides which will involve development of automated and continuous systems is an important field for Food chemists . Much effort has been given to develop selective column chromatography methods that can replace batch methods of salting out , or using solvent extraction to isolate and purify bioactive peptides . Advances here will enable recovery of bioactive peptides with minimal destruction thus enabling utilization by returning these active peptides to functional food or specific nutraceutical applications .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Immunomodulatory peptides derived from tryptic hydrolysates of rice and soybean proteins act to stimulate superoxide anions ( reactive oxygen species-ROS ) , which triggers non-specific immune defense systems .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: We also show herein , that the tryptic digests of casein yielding caseinophosphopeptides exhibits both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity due to both metal ion sequestering and quenching of ROS .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a novel type of Bowman-Birk inhibitor gene family in rice .
Author: Qu LJ Chen J Liu M Pan N Okamoto H Lin Z Li C Li D Wang J Zhu G Zhao X Chen X Gu H Chen Z
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 133 ( 2 ) P : 560-70 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12972663 Accession (PMID): 12972663
Abstract: Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( BBI ) genes encode serine protease inhibitors that have repetitive cysteine-rich domains with reactive sites for the trypsin or chymotrypsin family . We have identified seven BBI genes from japonica rice ( Oryza sativa subsp . japonica var Teqing ) . All of the genes identified were found in a single cluster on the southern end of the long arm of rice chromosome 1 . Four of the seven BBI genes have two repetitive cysteine-rich domains , whereas one has a truncated domain with only one reactive site . We have also identified three novel BBI genes , each of which possesses three repetitive domains instead of two . In situ hybridization analyses indicated that the accumulation of rice BBI transcripts was differentially regulated in germinating embryos and also in the leaves , roots , and flower organs at later developmental stages . Different members of the rice BBI gene family displayed different expression patterns during rice seed germination , and wounding induced the expression of rice BBI transcripts . The three-domain BBIs had higher expression levels than the two-domain BBIs . It was also found that the mRNA of rice BBI genes was present in abundant amounts in scutellar epithelium and aleurone layer cells . RBBI3-1 , one of the three-domain RBBI , exhibited in vitro trypsin-inhibiting activity but no chymotrypsin-inhibiting activity . Overexpression of RBBI2-3 in transgenic rice plants resulted in resistance to the fungal pathogen Pyricularia oryzae , indicating that proteinase inhibitors confer resistance against the fungal pathogen in vivo and that they might play a role in the defense system of the rice plant .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Bowman-Birk inhibitor ( BBI ) genes encode serine protease inhibitors that have repetitive cysteine-rich domains with reactive sites for the trypsin or chymotrypsin family .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: RBBI3-1 , one of the three-domain RBBI , exhibited in vitro trypsin-inhibiting activity but no chymotrypsin-inhibiting activity .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Molecular biology of pyridine nucleotide and nicotine biosynthesis .
Author: Katoh A Hashimoto T
Journal: Front . Biosci . Citation: V : 9 ( ) P : 1577-86 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14977569 Accession (PMID): 14977569
Abstract: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( NAD ) is a ubiquitous coenzyme in oxidation-reduction reactions . Recent animal and fungal studies show that it also plays important roles in transcriptional regulation , longevity , and age-associated diseases . NAD is synthesized de novo from aspartic acid in E coli or from tryptophan in animals , by way of quinolinic acid . Although the number of biochemical studies on NAD is very limited , a bioinformatic search of genome databases suggests that Arabidopsis ( dicots ) synthesizes NAD from aspartic acid whereas rice ( monocots ) may utilize both aspartate and tryptophan as starting amino acids . The salvage pathway recycles the breakdown products of NAD metabolism . In tobacco , an intermediate in the de novo NAD synthetic pathway supplies the pyridine ring moiety of nicotine alkaloids . Gene expression studies in tobacco suggest that part of the NAD pathway is coordinately regulated with nicotine biosynthesis .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: NAD is synthesized de novo from aspartic acid in E coli or from tryptophan in animals , by way of quinolinic acid .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Although the number of biochemical studies on NAD is very limited , a bioinformatic search of genome databases suggests that Arabidopsis ( dicots ) synthesizes NAD from aspartic acid whereas rice ( monocots ) may utilize both aspartate and tryptophan as starting amino acids .
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Score: 2.00
Title: [ Immunotoxicologic assessment of transgenetic rice ]
Author: Chen X Zhuo Q Piao J Yang X
Journal: Citation: V : 33 ( 1 ) P : 77-80 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15098485 Accession (PMID): 15098485
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To assess the immunotoxicologic aspect of transgenetic plant . METHODS : BALB/C mice were fed with food composed by transgenic rice ( into which cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene was introduced ) or nontransgenetic rice ( which has the same gene composition as the transgenic rice except for the cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene ) for 30 days . All food is made according to the composition of AIN-93G . In the end , all kinds of immunotoxicologic indexes of mice of every group were compared such as body weight , guts index , blood routine test , lymphocyte sort , serum antibody titter , plaque forming cell , delayed hypersensitivity response , macrophage function test RESULTS : All immunotoxicologic indexes of mice fed either by transgenic rice or nontransgenetic rice have no differences to those of mice fed by normal food . CONCLUSION : Transgenic rice is substantially equivilent to nontransgenetic rice in immunotoxicologic aspect .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: METHODS : BALB/C mice were fed with food composed by transgenic rice ( into which cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene was introduced ) or nontransgenetic rice ( which has the same gene composition as the transgenic rice except for the cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene ) for 30 days .
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Score: 2.00
Title: In vitro reconstitution of rice anthranilate synthase : distinct functional properties of the alpha subunits OASA1 and OASA2 .
Author: Kanno T Kasai K Ikejiri-Kanno Y Wakasa K Tozawa Y
Journal: Plant Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 54 ( 1 ) P : 11-22 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15159631 Accession (PMID): 15159631
Abstract: Anthranilate synthase ( AS ) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of various indole compounds including tryptophan . AS consists of two subunits , alpha and beta , and converts chorismate to anthranilate . Two or more AS alpha-subunit genes have been identified and characterized in several land plants . Although alpha subunits of AS induced by elicitation have been suggested to play significant roles in secondary metabolism , the biochemical and precise functional properties of individual AS isozymes have remained unclear . We have previously identified and characterized two AS alpha-subunit genes ( OASA1 and OASA2 ) in rice ( Oryza sativa ) . To provide further insight into the enzymatic functions of AS isozymes in rice , we have now isolated rice cDNAs encoding the AS beta subunits OASB1 and OASB2 and reconstituted AS isozymes in vitro with the wheat germ cell-free system for protein expression . Both OASB subunits conferred glutamine-dependent AS activity on either OASA1 or OASA2 , indicating the absence of a marked functional difference between the two beta subunits in terms of amidotransferase activity . Furthermore , both OASA subunits required assembly with a beta subunit to achieve maximal enzymatic activity even with NH ( 4 ) ( + ) as the amino donor . The V ( max ) and K ( i ) for tryptophan of the OASA1-OASB1 isozyme with glutamine as the amino donor , however , were 2 . 4 and 7 . 5 times , respectively , those of OASA2-OASB1 , suggesting that AS isozymes containing OASA1 possess a higher activity and are less sensitive to feedback inhibition than those containing OASA2 . Our biochemical characterization of reconstituted AS isozymes has thus revealed distinct functional properties of these isozymes in rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Anthranilate synthase ( AS ) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of various indole compounds including tryptophan .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: The V ( max ) and K ( i ) for tryptophan of the OASA1-OASB1 isozyme with glutamine as the amino donor , however , were 2 . 4 and 7 . 5 times , respectively , those of OASA2-OASB1 , suggesting that AS isozymes containing OASA1 possess a higher activity and are less sensitive to feedback inhibition than those containing OASA2 .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies .
Author: Tzen JT Huang AH .
Journal: J Cell Biol . Citation: V : 117 ( 2 ) P : 327-35 Year: 1992 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1560029 Accession (PMID): 1560029
Abstract: Storage triacylglycerols ( TAG ) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies . An oil body has a matrix of TAG , which is surrounded by phospholipids ( PL ) and alkaline proteins , termed oleosins . Oil bodies isolated from mature maize ( Zea mays ) embryos maintained their discreteness , but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin . Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents . TAG , either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1 : 2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein , in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies ; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly . Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine , with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid , or oleosins , to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets . High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL ( or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine ) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies . These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties , and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies . Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1 : 2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein , dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine , and oleosins from rice ( Oryza sativa ) , wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) , rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) , soybean ( Glycine max ) , or jojoba ( Simmondsia chinensis ) . It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance . A structural model of an oil body is presented . The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid particles present in diverse organisms .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: Oil bodies isolated from mature maize ( Zea mays ) embryos maintained their discreteness , but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Protein oxidation in plant mitochondria detected as oxidized tryptophan .
Author: Mller IM Kristensen BK .
Journal: Free Radic . Biol . Med . Citation: V : 40 ( 3 ) P : 430-5 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16443157 Accession (PMID): 16443157
Abstract: The formation of N-formylkynurenine by dioxygenation of tryptophan was detected in peptides from rice leaf and potato tuber mitochondria . Proteins in matrix and membrane fractions were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified using a Q-TOF mass spectrometer . N-Formylkynurenine was detected in 29 peptides representing 17 different proteins . With one exception , the oxidation-sensitive aconitase , all of these proteins were either redox active themselves or subunits in redox-active enzyme complexes . The same site was modified in ( i ) several adjacent spots containing the P protein of the glycine decarboxylase complex , ( ii ) two different isoforms of the mitochondrial processing peptidase in complex III , and ( iii ) the same tryptophan residues in Mn-superoxide dismutase in both rice and potato mitochondria . This indicates that Trp oxidation is a selective process .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The formation of N-formylkynurenine by dioxygenation of tryptophan was detected in peptides from rice leaf and potato tuber mitochondria .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The same site was modified in ( i ) several adjacent spots containing the P protein of the glycine decarboxylase complex , ( ii ) two different isoforms of the mitochondrial processing peptidase in complex III , and ( iii ) the same tryptophan residues in Mn-superoxide dismutase in both rice and potato mitochondria .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of high-tryptophan rice expressing a mutant anthranilate synthase alpha subunit .
Author: Dubouzet JG Ishihara A Matsuda F Miyagawa H Iwata H Wakasa K
Journal: J Exp Bot Citation: V : 58 P : 3309-21 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17804429 Accession (PMID): 17804429
Abstract: Transgenic rice plants overexpressing a mutant rice gene for anthranilate synthase alpha subunit ( OASA1D ) accumulate large amounts of free tryptophan ( Trp ) with few adverse effects on the phenotype , except for poor germination and weak seedling growth . Metabolic profiling of 8-d-old seedlings of Nipponbare and two high-Trp lines , HW1 and HW5 , by high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array ( HPLC-PDA ) confirmed that , relative to Nipponbare , only the peak attributed to Trp was significantly changed in the profiles of the OASA1D lines . More detailed and targeted analysis using HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry revealed that the OASA1D lines had higher levels of anthranilate , tryptamine , and serotonin than Nipponbare , but these metabolites were at much lower levels than free Trp . The levels of phenylalanine ( Phe ) and tyrosine ( Tyr ) were not affected by the overproduction of Trp . Transcriptomic analysis by microarray validated by quantitative Real-Time PCR ( qRT-PCR ) revealed that at least 12 out of 21 500 genes showed significant differential expression among genotypes . Except for the OASA1D transgene and a putative IAA beta-glucosyltransferase , these were not related to Trp metabolism . Most importantly , the overexpression of the OASA1D and the consequent accumulation of Trp in these lines had little effect on the overall transcriptome , consistent with the minimal effects on growth and the metabolome . Integrated analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome of these OASA1D transgenic lines indicates that the over-accumulation of free Trp may be partly due to the low activity of Trp decarboxylase or other metabolic genes that directly utilize Trp as a substrate .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Transgenic rice plants overexpressing a mutant rice gene for anthranilate synthase alpha subunit ( OASA1D ) accumulate large amounts of free tryptophan ( Trp ) with few adverse effects on the phenotype , except for poor germination and weak seedling growth .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: More detailed and targeted analysis using HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry revealed that the OASA1D lines had higher levels of anthranilate , tryptamine , and serotonin than Nipponbare , but these metabolites were at much lower levels than free Trp .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Comparison of nutritional quality between Chinese indica rice with sck and cry1Ac genes and its nontransgenic counterpart .
Author: Li X Huang K He X Zhu B Liang Z Li H Luo Y
Journal: J Food Sci Citation: V : 72 P : S420-4 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17995700 Accession (PMID): 17995700
Abstract: Nutritional assessment of transgenic crops used for human food and animal feed is an important aspect of safety evaluations . An insect-resistant rice ( IRR ) was generated by the stable insertion of sck , a modified cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene , and cry1Ac , encoding a crystal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis into the genome of a common variety of Chinese indica rice . The composition of the brown and milled rice grain from the resulted IRR line designated Liangyou Kefeng No 6 was compared with that of the parental rice cultivar Liangyou 2186 . Nutrients , including the proximates , amino acids , fatty acids , minerals , and vitamins , were measured . The antinutritive components such as phytic acid , lectin , and trypsin inhibitors were also examined . The data demonstrated that the nutritional quality of both the brown and milled rice grains from the transgenic line was substantially equivalent to that of the nontransgenic counterpart , and measured amounts of nutritional components fell within the range of values reported for other commercial lines .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: An insect-resistant rice ( IRR ) was generated by the stable insertion of sck , a modified cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene , and cry1Ac , encoding a crystal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis into the genome of a common variety of Chinese indica rice .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The antinutritive components such as phytic acid , lectin , and trypsin inhibitors were also examined .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Analysis of the Oryza sativa plasma membrane proteome using combined protein and peptide fractionation approaches in conjunction with mass spectrometry .
Author: Natera SH Ford KL Cassin AM Patterson JH Newbigin EJ Bacic A
Journal: J Proteome Res Citation: V : 7 P : 1159-87 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18260611 Accession (PMID): 18260611
Abstract: To identify integral and peripheral plasma membrane ( PM ) proteins from Oryza sativa ( rice ) , highly enriched PM fractions from rice suspension cultured cells were analyzed using two complementary approaches . The PM was enriched using aqueous two-phase partitioning and high pH carbonate washing to remove soluble , contaminating proteins and characterized using enzymatic and immunological analyses . Proteins from the carbonate-washed PM ( WPM ) were analyzed by either one-dimensional gel electrophoresis ( 1D-SDS-PAGE ) followed by tryptic proteolysis or proteolysis followed by strong cation exchange liquid chromatography ( LC ) with subsequent analysis of the tryptic peptides by LC-MS/MS ( termed Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2D-LC-MS/MS , respectively ) . Combining the results of these two approaches , 438 proteins were identified on the basis of two or more matching peptides , and a further 367 proteins were identified on the basis of single peptide matches after data analysis with two independent search algorithms . Of these 805 proteins , 350 were predicted to be PM or PM-associated proteins . Four hundred and twenty-five proteins ( 53% ) were predicted to be integrally associated with a membrane , via either one or many ( up to 16 ) transmembrane domains , a GPI-anchor , or membrane-spanning beta-barrels . Approximately 80% of the 805 identified proteins were assigned a predicted function , based on similarity to proteins of known function or the presence of functional domains . Proteins involved in PM-related activities such as signaling ( 21% of the 805 proteins ) , transporters and ATPases ( 14% ) , and cellular trafficking ( 8% ) , such as via vesicles involved in endo and exocytosis , were identified . Proteins that are involved in cell wall biosynthesis were also identified ( 5% ) and included three cellulose synthase ( CESA ) proteins , a cellulose synthase-like D ( CSLD ) protein , cellulases , and several callose synthases . Approximately 20% of the proteins identified in this study remained functionally unclassified despite being predicted to be membrane proteins .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: Proteins from the carbonate-washed PM ( WPM ) were analyzed by either one-dimensional gel electrophoresis ( 1D-SDS-PAGE ) followed by tryptic proteolysis or proteolysis followed by strong cation exchange liquid chromatography ( LC ) with subsequent analysis of the tryptic peptides by LC-MS/MS ( termed Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2D-LC-MS/MS , respectively ) .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Inhibitory effect of commercial green tea and rosemary leaf powders on the growth of foodborne pathogens in laboratory media and oriental-style rice cakes .
Author: Lee SY Gwon SY Kim SJ Moon BK
Journal: J Food Prot Citation: V : 72 P : 1107-11 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19517743 Accession (PMID): 19517743
Abstract: The antimicrobial effects of green tea and rosemary added to foods as antagonists to foodborne pathogens were determined in laboratory media and oriental-style rice cakes . The growth of each pathogen ( Bacillus cereus , Salmonella Typhimurium , Enterobacter sakazakii , Escherichia coli O157 : H7 , Staphylococcus aureus , and Listeria monocytogenes ) in tryptic soy broth or rice cake with or without addition of green tea or rosemary leaf powders before autoclaving or cooking , respectively , was investigated after inoculation . The addition of 1% green tea or rosemary produced similar results for inhibiting the growth of pathogens in tryptic soy broth . However , green tea was more effective than rosemary for inhibiting the growth of L monocytogenes . Both botanicals had inhibitory effects against all pathogens tested in this study . Green tea was particularly effective against B cereus , S aureus , and L monocytogenes , and rosemary was strongly inhibitory against B cereus and S aureus . The addition of 1 or 3% green tea or rosemary to rice cakes did not significantly reduce total aerobic counts ; however , levels of B cereus and S aureus were significantly reduced in rice cakes stored for 3 days at room temperature ( 22 degrees C ) . The order of antimicrobial activities against B cereus in rice cake was 1% rosemary < 1% green tea < 3% rosemary = 3% green tea . These results indicate that the use of natural plant materials such as green tea and rosemary could improve the microbial quality of foods in addition to their functional properties .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The growth of each pathogen ( Bacillus cereus , Salmonella Typhimurium , Enterobacter sakazakii , Escherichia coli O157 : H7 , Staphylococcus aureus , and Listeria monocytogenes ) in tryptic soy broth or rice cake with or without addition of green tea or rosemary leaf powders before autoclaving or cooking , respectively , was investigated after inoculation .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The addition of 1% green tea or rosemary produced similar results for inhibiting the growth of pathogens in tryptic soy broth .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Silencing OsHI-LOX makes rice more susceptible to chewing herbivores , but enhances resistance to a phloem feeder .
Author: Zhou G Qi J Ren N Cheng J Erb M Mao B Lou Y
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 60 P : 638-48 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19656341 Accession (PMID): 19656341
Abstract: The jasmonic acid ( JA ) pathway plays a central role in plant defense responses against insects . Some phloem-feeding insects also induce the salicylic acid ( SA ) pathway , thereby suppressing the plants JA response . These phenomena have been well studied in dicotyledonous plants , but little is known about them in monocotyledons . We cloned a chloroplast-localized type 2 13-lipoxygenase gene of rice , OsHI-LOX , whose transcripts were up-regulated in response to feeding by the rice striped stem borer ( SSB ) Chilo suppressalis and the rice brown planthopper ( BPH ) Niaparvata lugens , as well as by mechanical wounding and treatment with JA . Antisense expression of OsHI-LOX ( as-lox ) reduced SSB or BPH-induced JA and trypsin protease inhibitor ( TrypPI ) levels , improved the larval performance of SBB as well as that of the rice leaf folder ( LF ) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis , and increased the damage caused by SSB and LF larvae . In contrast , BPH , a phloem-feeding herbivore , showed a preference for settling and ovipositing on WT plants , on which they consumed more and survived better than on as-lox plants . The enhanced resistance of as-lox plants to BPH infestation correlated with higher levels of BPH-induced H ( 2 ) O ( 2 ) and SA , as well as with increased hypersensitive response-like cell death . These results imply that OsHI-LOX is involved in herbivore-induced JA biosynthesis , and plays contrasting roles in controlling rice resistance to chewing and phloem-feeding herbivores . The observation that suppression of JA activity results in increased resistance to an insect indicates that revision of the generalized plant defense models in monocotyledons is required , and may help develop novel strategies to protect rice against insect pests .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: Antisense expression of OsHI-LOX ( as-lox ) reduced SSB or BPH-induced JA and trypsin protease inhibitor ( TrypPI ) levels , improved the larval performance of SBB as well as that of the rice leaf folder ( LF ) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis , and increased the damage caused by SSB and LF larvae .
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Score: 2.00
Title: A rice tryptophan deficient dwarf mutant , tdd1 , contains a reduced level of indole acetic acid and develops abnormal flowers and organless embryos .
Author: Sazuka T Kamiya N Nishimura T Ohmae K Sato Y Imamura K Nagato Y Koshiba T Nagamura Y Ashikari M Kitano H Matsuoka M
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 60 P : 227-41 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19682283 Accession (PMID): 19682283
Abstract: Indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) plays a critical role in many aspects of plant growth and development ; however , complete pathways of biosynthesis , localization and many aspects of functions of IAA in rice remain unclear . Here , we report the analysis of a rice tryptophan ( Trp- ) and IAA-deficient mutant , tryptophan deficient dwarf1 ( tdd1 ) , which is embryonic lethal because of a failure to develop most organs during embryogenesis . Regenerated tdd1 plants showed pleiotropic phenotypes : dwarfing , narrow leaves , short roots and abnormal flowers . TDD1 encodes a protein homologous to anthranilate synthase beta-subunit , which catalyses the first step of the Trp biosynthesis pathway and functions upstream of Trp-dependent IAA biosynthesis . TDD1-uidA and DR5-uidA expression overlapped at many sites in WT plants but was lacking in tdd1 , indicating that TDD1 is involved in auxin biosynthesis . Both Trp and IAA levels in flowers and embryos were much lower in tdd1 than in wild type ( WT ) . Trp feeding completely rescued the mutant phenotypes and moderate expression of OsYUCCA1 , which encodes a key enzyme in Trp-dependent IAA biosynthesis , also rescued plant height and root length , indicating that the abnormal phenotypes of tdd1 are caused predominantly by Trp and IAA deficiency . In tdd1 embryos , the expression patterns of OSH1 and OsSCR , which mark the presumptive apical region and the L2 layer , respectively , are identical to those in WT , suggesting a possibility either that different IAA levels are required for basic pattern formation than for organ formation or that an orthologous gene compensates for TDD1 deficiency during pattern formation .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: Here , we report the analysis of a rice tryptophan ( Trp- ) and IAA-deficient mutant , tryptophan deficient dwarf1 ( tdd1 ) , which is embryonic lethal because of a failure to develop most organs during embryogenesis .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Light-induced activation of class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases .
Author: Okafuji A Biskup T Hitomi K Getzoff ED Kaiser G Batschauer A Bacher A Hidema J Teranishi M Yamamoto K Schleicher E Weber S
Journal: DNA Repair ( Amst ) Citation: V : 9 P : 495-505 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20227927 Accession (PMID): 20227927
Abstract: Light-induced activation of class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer ( CPD ) photolyases of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa has been examined by UV/Vis and pulsed Davies-type electron-nuclear double resonance ( ENDOR ) spectroscopy , and the results compared with structure-known class I enzymes , CPD photolyase and ( 6-4 ) photolyase . By ENDOR spectroscopy , the local environment of the flavin adenine dinucleotide ( FAD ) cofactor is probed by virtue of proton hyperfine couplings that report on the electron-spin density at the positions of magnetic nuclei . Despite the amino-acid sequence dissimilarity as compared to class I enzymes , the results indicate similar binding motifs for FAD in the class II photolyases . Furthermore , the photoreduction kinetics starting from the FAD cofactor in the fully oxidized redox state , FAD ( ox ) , have been probed by UV/Vis spectroscopy . In Escherichia coli ( class I ) CPD photolyase , light-induced generation of FADH from FAD ( ox ) , and subsequently FADH ( - ) from FADH , proceeds in a step-wise fashion via a chain of tryptophan residues . These tryptophans are well conserved among the sequences and within all known structures of class I photolyases , but completely lacking from the equivalent positions of class II photolyase sequences . Nevertheless , class II photolyases show photoreduction kinetics similar to those of the class I enzymes . We propose that a different , but also effective , electron-transfer cascade is conserved among the class II photolyases . The existence of such electron transfer pathways is supported by the observation that the catalytically active fully reduced flavin state obtained by photoreduction is maintained even under oxidative conditions in all three classes of enzymes studied in this contribution .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: In Escherichia coli ( class I ) CPD photolyase , light-induced generation of FADH from FAD ( ox ) , and subsequently FADH ( - ) from FADH , proceeds in a step-wise fashion via a chain of tryptophan residues .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: These tryptophans are well conserved among the sequences and within all known structures of class I photolyases , but completely lacking from the equivalent positions of class II photolyase sequences .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Auxin biosynthesis inhibitors , identified by a genomics-based approach , provide insights into auxin biosynthesis .
Author: Soeno K Goda H Ishii T Ogura T Tachikawa T Sasaki E Yoshida S Fujioka S Asami T Shimada Y
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol Citation: V : 51 P : 524-36 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20234049 Accession (PMID): 20234049
Abstract: Despite its importance in plant growth and development , the auxin biosynthetic pathway has remained elusive . In this study , we analyzed hormone series transcriptome data from AtGenExpress in Arabidopsis and found that aminoethoxyvinylglycine ( AVG ) had the strongest anti-auxin activity . We also identified other effective compounds such as L-amino-oxyphenylpropionic acid ( AOPP ) through additional screening . These inhibitors shared characteristics in that they inhibited pyridoxal enzymes and/or aminotransferases . They reduced endogenous IAA levels in both monocots and dicots . L-AOPP inhibited root development of Arabidopsis in main root elongation , gravitropism , root skewing and root hair formation . This inhibition was generally recovered after exogenous IAA treatment , and the recovery was almost completely to the level of non-inhibited seedlings . The compounds inhibited conversion from tryptophan to indole-3-pyruvic acid in enzyme extracts from Arabidopsis and wheat . Our data collectively suggest that the inhibitors directly blocked auxin biosynthesis , and that the major target site was tryptophan aminotransferase . This enzyme probably makes up one of the major biosynthesis pathways conserved among higher plants . Each inhibitor , however , demonstrated a different action spectrum in shoot and root of rice and tomato , indicating diversity in biosynthesis pathways between organs and species . Our results provide novel insights into auxin biosynthesis and action , and uncover structural characteristics of auxin biosynthesis inhibitors .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The compounds inhibited conversion from tryptophan to indole-3-pyruvic acid in enzyme extracts from Arabidopsis and wheat .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Our data collectively suggest that the inhibitors directly blocked auxin biosynthesis , and that the major target site was tryptophan aminotransferase .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Screening and optimization of indole-3-acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization from rhizobacteria aimed at improving plant growth .
Author: Chaiharn M Lumyong S
Journal: Curr Microbiol Citation: V : 62 P : 173-81 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20552360 Accession (PMID): 20552360
Abstract: A total of 216 bacterial strains were isolated from rice rhizospheric soils in Northern Thailand . The bacterial strains were initially tested for solubilization of inorganic phosphate , indole acetic acid ( IAA ) production , selected strains were then tested for optimized conditions for IAA production and whether these caused stimulatory effects on bean and maize seedling growth . It was found that all strains had solubilized inorganic phosphate ( P ) , but only 18 . 05% produced IAA . The best IAA producer was identified by biochemical testing and 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Klebsiella SN 1 . 1 . In addition to being the best IAA producer , this strain was a high P-solubilizer and produced the highest amount of IAA ( 291 . 97 +/- 0 . 19 ppm ) in culture media supplemented with L-tryptophan . The maximum production of IAA was achieved after 9 days of incubation . The culture requirements were optimized for maximum IAA production . The tested of IAA production by selected isolates was studied in a medium with 0 , 0 . 1 , 0 . 2 , 0 . 5 , 0 . 7 , and 0 . 9% ( v/v ) L-tryptophan . Low levels ( 12 . 6 ppm ) of IAA production was recorded without tryptophan addition . Production of IAA in Klebsiella SN 1 . 1 increased with an increase to 0 . 2% ( v/v ) tryptophan concentration . The production of IAA was further confirmed by extraction of crude IAA from this isolate and subsequent Thin Layer Chromatography ( TLC ) analysis . A specific spot from the extracted IAA production was found to correspond with a standard spot of IAA with the same R ( f ) value . The Klebsiella strain SN 1 . 1 also demonstrated stimulatory effects on bean seedlings in vivo .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Low levels ( 12 . 6 ppm ) of IAA production was recorded without tryptophan addition .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Production of IAA in Klebsiella SN 1 . 1 increased with an increase to 0 . 2% ( v/v ) tryptophan concentration .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Genome-wide transcriptional changes and defence-related chemical profiling of rice in response to infestation by the rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis .
Author: Zhou G Wang X Yan F Wang X Li R Cheng J Lou Y
Journal: Physiol Plant Citation: V : 143 P : 21-40 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21534978 Accession (PMID): 21534978
Abstract: How rice defends itself against pathogen infection is well documented , but little is known about how it defends itself against herbivore attack . We measured changes in the transcriptome and chemical profile of rice when the plant is infested by the striped stem borer ( SSB ) Chilo suppressalis . Infestation by SSBs resulted in changes in the expression levels of 4545 rice genes ; this number accounts for about 8% of the genome and is made up of 18 functional groups with broad functions . The largest group comprised genes involved in metabolism , followed by cellular transport , transcription and cellular signaling . Infestation by SSBs modulated many genes responsible for the biosynthesis of plant hormones and plant signaling . Jasmonic acid ( JA ) , salicylic acid ( SA ) and ethylene were the major hormones that shaped the SSB-induced defence responses of rice . Many secondary signal transduction components , such as those involved in Ca ( 2 ) signaling and G-protein signaling , receptor and non-receptor protein kinases , and transcription factors were involved in the SSB-induced responses of rice . Photosynthesis and ATP synthesis from photophosphorylation were restricted by SSB feeding . In addition , SSB infestation induced the accumulation of defence compounds , including trypsin proteinase inhibitors ( TrypPIs ) and volatile organic compounds . These results demonstrate that SSB-induced defences required rice to reconfigure a wide variety of its metabolic , physiological and biochemical processes .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: In addition , SSB infestation induced the accumulation of defence compounds , including trypsin proteinase inhibitors ( TrypPIs ) and volatile organic compounds .
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Score: 2.00
Title: [ The morphological and karyological characteristics of MDCK and vero ( B ) cells cultures on plant hydrolyzate-based nutrient media ] .
Author: Mikhailova GR Mazurkova NA Podchernyaeva RY Ryabchikova EI Troshkova GP Shishkina LN
Journal: Vopr Virusol Citation: V : 56 P : 9-14 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21545033 Accession (PMID): 21545033
Abstract: MDCK and Vero ( B ) cell cultures were propagated during 10 passages in the experimental nutrient media containing the soybean powder hydrolyzate prepared using trypsin and bromelain enzymes and the rice powder hydrolysate prepared with trypsin and in the control DMEM and SFM4 MegaVir media . The karyological , morphological , and proliferative characteristics of continuous cultures were examined and compared . The experimental media supplied with 3% fetal bovine serum ( FBS ) ( Gibco , USA ) showed high growth-enhancing properties and failed to affect their morphology . After propagated during 10 passages in the experimental media preserved a stable karyotype . MDCK cell cultures in the nutrient media based on rice and soybean powder hydrolyzates low ( 2% ) in FBS caused no substantial changes in the proliferation indices and morphological and karyological characteristics of cell cultures .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: MDCK and Vero ( B ) cell cultures were propagated during 10 passages in the experimental nutrient media containing the soybean powder hydrolyzate prepared using trypsin and bromelain enzymes and the rice powder hydrolysate prepared with trypsin and in the control DMEM and SFM4 MegaVir media .
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Score: 2.00
Title: An EAR-motif-containing ERF transcription factor affects herbivore-induced signaling , defense and resistance in rice .
Author: Lu J Ju H Zhou G Zhu C Erb M Wang X Wang P Lou Y
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 68 P : 583-96 Year: 2011 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21831212 Accession (PMID): 21831212
Abstract: Ethylene responsive factors ( ERFs ) are a large family of plant-specific transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses . However , little to nothing is known about their role in herbivore-induced defense . We discovered a nucleus-localized ERF gene in rice ( Oryza sativa ) , OsERF3 , that was rapidly up-regulated in response to feeding by the rice striped stem borer ( SSB ) Chilo suppressalis . Antisense and over-expression of OsERF3 revealed that it positively affects transcript levels of two mitogen-activated protein kinases ( MAPKs ) and two WRKY genes as well as concentrations of jasmonate ( JA ) , salicylate ( SA ) and the activity of trypsin protease inhibitors ( TrypPIs ) . OsERF3 was also found to mediate the resistance of rice to SSB . On the other hand , OsERF3 was slightly suppressed by the rice brown planthopper ( BPH ) Nilaparvata lugens ( Stal ) and increased susceptibility to this piercing sucking insect , possibly by suppressing H ( 2 ) O ( 2 ) biosynthesis . We propose that OsERF3 affects early components of herbivore-induced defense responses by suppressing MAPK repressors and modulating JA , SA , ethylene and H ( 2 ) O ( 2 ) pathways as well as plant resistance . Our results also illustrate that OsERF3 acts as a central switch that gears the plants metabolism towards an appropriate response to chewing or piercing/sucking insects .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 2.00 ]: Antisense and over-expression of OsERF3 revealed that it positively affects transcript levels of two mitogen-activated protein kinases ( MAPKs ) and two WRKY genes as well as concentrations of jasmonate ( JA ) , salicylate ( SA ) and the activity of trypsin protease inhibitors ( TrypPIs ) .
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Score: 2.00
Title: The chloroplast-localized phospholipases D alpha4 and alpha5 regulate herbivore-induced direct and indirect defenses in rice .
Author: Qi J Zhou G Yang L Erb M Lu Y Sun X Cheng J Lou Y
Journal: Plant Physiol Citation: V : 157 P : 1987-99 Year: 2011 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21984727 Accession (PMID): 21984727
Abstract: The oxylipin pathway is of central importance for plant defensive responses . Yet , the first step of the pathway , the liberation of linolenic acid following induction , is poorly understood . Phospholipases D ( PLDs ) have been hypothesized to mediate this process , but data from Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) regarding the role of PLDs in plant resistance have remained controversial Here , we cloned two chloroplast-localized PLD genes from rice ( Oryza sativa ) , OsPLDalpha4 and OsPLDalpha5 , both of which were up-regulated in response to feeding by the rice striped stem borer ( SSB ) Chilo suppressalis , mechanical wounding , and treatment with jasmonic acid ( JA ) . Antisense expression of OsPLDalpha4 and -alpha5 ( as-pld ) , which resulted in a 50% reduction of the expression of the two genes , reduced elicited levels of linolenic acid , JA , green leaf volatiles , and ethylene and attenuated the SSB-induced expression of a mitogen-activated protein kinase ( OsMPK3 ) , a lipoxygenase ( OsHI-LOX ) , a hydroperoxide lyase ( OsHPL3 ) , as well as a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase ( OsACS2 ) . The impaired oxylipin and ethylene signaling in as-pld plants decreased the levels of herbivore-induced trypsin protease inhibitors and volatiles , improved the performance of SSB and the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens , and reduced the attractiveness of plants to a larval parasitoid of SSB , Apanteles chilonis . The production of trypsin protease inhibitors in as-pld plants could be partially restored by JA , while the resistance to rice brown planthopper and SSB was restored by green leaf volatile application . Our results show that phospholipases function as important components of herbivore-induced direct and indirect defenses in rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The impaired oxylipin and ethylene signaling in as-pld plants decreased the levels of herbivore-induced trypsin protease inhibitors and volatiles , improved the performance of SSB and the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens , and reduced the attractiveness of plants to a larval parasitoid of SSB , Apanteles chilonis .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The production of trypsin protease inhibitors in as-pld plants could be partially restored by JA , while the resistance to rice brown planthopper and SSB was restored by green leaf volatile application .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Identification and functional characterization of indole-3-acetamide-mediated IAA biosynthesis in plant-associated Fusarium species .
Author: Tsavkelova E Oeser B Oren-Young L Israeli M Sasson Y Tudzynski B Sharon A
Journal: Fungal Genet Biol Citation: V : P : Year: 2011 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22079545 Accession (PMID): 22079545
Abstract: The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) can be synthesized from tryptophan via the intermediate indole-3-acetamide ( IAM ) . The two genes , IaaM ( encoding tryptophan monooxygenase ) and IaaH ( encoding indole-3-acetamide hydrolase ) that constitute the IAM pathway have been described in plant-associated bacteria . We have identified putative homologs of the bacterial IaaM and IaaH genes in four Fusarium species -Fusarium proliferatum , Fusarium verticillioides , Fusarium fujikuroi , and Fusarium oxysporum . In all four species the two genes are organized next to each other in a head to head orientation and are separated by a short non-coding region . However , the pathway is fully functional only in the orchid endophytic strain F proliferatum ET1 , which produces significant amounts of IAM and IAA . Minor amounts of IAM are produced by the corn pathogen F verticillioides strain 149 , while in the two other species , the rice pathogen F fujikuroi strain m567 and the tomato pathogen F oxysporum f . sp . lycopersici strain 42-87 the IAM pathway is inactive . Deletion of the entire gene locus in F proliferatum ET1 resulted in drastic reduction of IAA production . Conversely , transgenic strains of F fujikuroi over-expressing the F proliferatum IAM genes produced elevated levels of both IAM and IAA . Analysis of the intergenic promoter region in F proliferatum showed that transcriptional activation in direction of the IaaH gene is about 3-fold stronger than in direction of the IaaM gene . The regulation of the IAM genes and the limiting factors of IAA production via the IAM pathway are discussed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) can be synthesized from tryptophan via the intermediate indole-3-acetamide ( IAM ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The two genes , IaaM ( encoding tryptophan monooxygenase ) and IaaH ( encoding indole-3-acetamide hydrolase ) that constitute the IAM pathway have been described in plant-associated bacteria .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Light-regulated melatonin biosynthesis in rice during the senescence process in detached leaves .
Author: Byeon Y Park S Kim YS Park DH Lee S Back K
Journal: J Pineal Res Citation: V : 53 P : 107-11 Year: 2012 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22289080 Accession (PMID): 22289080
Abstract: The effect of light on melatonin biosynthesis was examined in detached rice ( Oryza sativa cv . Asahi ) leaves during the senescence process . The detached leaves were exposed to senescence treatment either in constant darkness or in constant light , and subjected to HPLC analysis for melatonin and its precursors . Higher melatonin levels were detected in rice leaves under constant light while very low levels were observed in constant darkness . Levels of the melatonin intermediates , tryptamine , serotonin , and N-acetylserotonin significantly decreased in the dark compared to those in the light . Furthermore , relative mRNA levels of melatonin biosynthetic genes and their corresponding proteins decreased accordingly in constant darkness . The most striking difference between constant light and dark was observed in levels of the protein tryptamine 5-hydroxylase . These results suggest that melatonin biosynthesis during senescence is dependent on light signals in rice leaves , contrary to the response found in animals .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Levels of the melatonin intermediates , tryptamine , serotonin , and N-acetylserotonin significantly decreased in the dark compared to those in the light .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The most striking difference between constant light and dark was observed in levels of the protein tryptamine 5-hydroxylase .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of microsomal fractions of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa subjected to high salinity .
Author: Chang IF Hsu JL Hsu PH Sheng WA Lai SJ Lee C Chen CW Hsu JC Wang SY Wang LY Chen CC
Journal: Plant Sci Citation: V : 185-186 P : 131-42 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22325874 Accession (PMID): 22325874
Abstract: Plants respond to salt stress by initiating phosphorylation cascades in their cells . Many key phosphorylation events take place at membranes . Microsomal fractions from 400 mM salt-treated Arabidopsis suspension plants were isolated , followed by trypsin shaving , enrichment using Zirconium ion-charged or TiO ( 2 ) magnetic beads , and tandem mass spectrometry analyses for site mapping . A total of 27 phosphorylation sites from 20 Arabidopsis proteins including photosystem II reaction center protein H PsbH were identified . In addition to Arabidopsis , microsomal fractions from shoots of 200 mM salt-treated rice was carried out , followed by trypsin digestion using shaving or tube-gel , and enrichment using Zirconium ion-charged or TiO ( 2 ) magnetic beads . This yielded identification of 13 phosphorylation sites from 8 proteins including photosystem II reaction center protein H PsbH . Label-free quantitative analysis suggests that the phosphorylation sites of PsbH were regulated by salt stress in Arabidopsis and rice . Sequence alignment of PsbH phosphorylation sites indicates that Thr-2 and Thr-4 are evolutionarily conserved in plants . Four conserved phosphorylation motifs were predicted , and these suggest that a specific unknown kinase or phosphatase is involved in high-salt stress responses in plants .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Microsomal fractions from 400 mM salt-treated Arabidopsis suspension plants were isolated , followed by trypsin shaving , enrichment using Zirconium ion-charged or TiO ( 2 ) magnetic beads , and tandem mass spectrometry analyses for site mapping .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: In addition to Arabidopsis , microsomal fractions from shoots of 200 mM salt-treated rice was carried out , followed by trypsin digestion using shaving or tube-gel , and enrichment using Zirconium ion-charged or TiO ( 2 ) magnetic beads .
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Score: 2.00
Title: OsNPR1 negatively regulates herbivore-induced JA and ethylene signaling and plant resistance to a chewing herbivore in rice .
Author: Li R Afsheen S Xin Z Han X Lou Y
Journal: Physiol Plant Citation: V : 9999 P : Year: 2012 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22694163 Accession (PMID): 22694163
Abstract: NPR1 ( a non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes1 ) has been reported to play an important role in plant defense by regulating signaling pathways . However , little to nothing is known about its function in herbivore-induced defense in monocot plants . Here , using suppressive substrate hybridization , we identified a NPR1 gene from rice , OsNPR1 , and found that its expression levels were upregulated in response to infestation by the rice striped stem borer ( SSB ) Chilo suppressalis and rice leaf folder ( LF ) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis , and to mechanical wounding and treatment with jasmonic acid ( JA ) and salicylic acid ( SA ) . Moreover , mechanical wounding induced the expression of OsNPR1 quickly , whereas herbivore infestation induced the gene more slowly . The antisense expression of OsNPR1 ( as-npr1 ) , which reduced the expression of the gene by 50% , increased elicited levels of JA and ethylene ( ET ) as well as of expression of a lipoxygenase gene OsHI-LOX and an ACC synthase gene OsACS2 . The enhanced JA and ET signaling in as-npr1 plants increased the levels of herbivore-induced trypsin proteinase inhibitors ( TrypPIs ) and volatiles , and reduced the performance of SSB . Our results suggest that OsNPR1 is an early responding gene in herbivore-induced defense and that plants can use it to activate a specific and appropriate defense response against invaders by modulating signaling pathways .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: The enhanced JA and ET signaling in as-npr1 plants increased the levels of herbivore-induced trypsin proteinase inhibitors ( TrypPIs ) and volatiles , and reduced the performance of SSB .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Kinetic and phylogenetic analysis of plant polyamine uptake transporters .
Author: Mulangi V Chibucos MC Phuntumart V Morris PF
Journal: Planta Citation: V : P : Year: 2012 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22711282 Accession (PMID): 22711282
Abstract: The rice gene POLYAMINE UPTAKE TRANSPORTER1 ( PUT1 ) was originally identified based on its homology to the polyamine uptake transporters LmPOT1 and TcPAT12 in Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi , respectively . Here we show that five additional transporters from rice and Arabidopsis that cluster in the same clade as PUT1 all function as high affinity spermidine uptake transporters . Yeast expression assays of these genes confirmed that uptake of spermidine was minimally affected by 166 fold or greater concentrations of amino acids . Characterized polyamine transporters from both Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa along with the two polyamine transporters from L major and T cruzi were aligned and used to generate a hidden Markov model . This model was used to identify significant matches to proteins in other angiosperms , bryophytes , chlorophyta , discicristates , excavates , stramenopiles and amoebozoa . No significant matches were identified in fungal or metazoan genomes . Phylogenic analysis showed that some sequences from the haptophyte , Emiliania huxleyi , as well as sequences from oomycetes and diatoms clustered closer to sequences from plant genomes than from a homologous sequence in the red algal genome Galdieria sulphuraria , consistent with the hypothesis that these polyamine transporters were acquired by horizontal transfer from green algae . Leishmania and Trypansosoma formed a separate cluster with genes from other Discicristates and two Entamoeba species . We surmise that the genes in Entamoeba species were acquired by phagotrophy of Discicristates . In summary , phylogenetic and functional analysis has identified two clades of genes that are predictive of polyamine transport activity .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice gene POLYAMINE UPTAKE TRANSPORTER1 ( PUT1 ) was originally identified based on its homology to the polyamine uptake transporters LmPOT1 and TcPAT12 in Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi , respectively .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Leishmania and Trypansosoma formed a separate cluster with genes from other Discicristates and two Entamoeba species .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Amino acid sequence of a probable amylase/protease inhibitor from rice seeds .
Author: Yu YG Chung CH Fowler A Suh SW .
Journal: Arch . Biochem . Biophys . Citation: V : 265 ( 2 ) P : 466-75 Year: 1988 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2458699 Accession (PMID): 2458699
Abstract: The primary structure of a 9-kDa basic protein from rice seeds was determined by gas-phase sequencing of the intact protein and peptides derived from it by digestion with trypsin , chymotrypsin , and endopeptidase Lys-K The protein consists of a single polypeptide chain of 91 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 8909 Da . It is rich in alanine , serine , glycine , and cysteine . The eight cysteines form four disulfide bonds . There is no methionine , histidine , phenylalanine , or tryptophan . The sequence is highly homologous with an alpha-amylase inhibitor , I-2 , from seeds of Indian finger millet [ F A P Campos and M Richardson ( 1984 ) FEBS Lett . 167 , 221-225 ] and a 10-kDa barley seed protein , also called a probable amylase/protease inhibitor [ B Svensson et al ( 1986 ) Carlsberg Res . Commun . 51 , 493-500 ; J Mundy and J C Rogers ( 1986 ) Planta 169 , 51-63 ] . In analogy with the barley protein , the purified protein is tentatively called a rice probable amylase/protease inhibitor ( PAPI ) . The rice PAPI does not show inhibitory activities against proteases and amylases tested . The amino acid sequence is as follows : Ile-Thr-Cys-Gly-Gln-Val-Asn-Ser-Ala-Val ( 10 ) -Gly-Pro-Cys-Leu-Thr-Tyr Ala-Arg-Gly-Gly ( 20 ) -Ala-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ala-Ala-Cys-Cys-Ser-Gly ( 30 ) -Val-Arg Ser-Leu-Lys-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ser-Thr ( 40 ) -Thr-Ala-Asp-Arg-Arg-Thr-Ala-Cys Asn-Cys ( 50 ) -Leu-Lys-Asn-Ala-Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-Lys-Gly ( 60 ) -Leu-Asn-Ala-Gly Asn-Ala-Ala-Ser-Ile-Pro ( 70 ) -Ser-Lys-Cys-Gly-Val-Ser-Val-Pro-Tyr-Thr ( 80 ) - Ile-Ser-Ala-Ser-Ile-Asp-Cys-Ser-Arg-Val-Ser ( 91 ) .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The primary structure of a 9-kDa basic protein from rice seeds was determined by gas-phase sequencing of the intact protein and peptides derived from it by digestion with trypsin , chymotrypsin , and endopeptidase Lys-K The protein consists of a single polypeptide chain of 91 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 8909 Da .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: There is no methionine , histidine , phenylalanine , or tryptophan .
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Score: 2.00
Title: A cDNA-based comparison of dehydration-induced proteins ( dehydrins ) in barley and corn .
Author: Close TJ Kortt AA Chandler PM .
Journal: Plant Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 13 ( 1 ) P : 95-108 Year: 1989 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2562763 Accession (PMID): 2562763
Abstract: Several cDNAs related to an ABA-induced cDNA from barley aleurone were isolated from barley and corn seedlings that were undergoing dehydration . Four different barley polypeptides with sizes of 22 . 6 , 16 . 2 , 14 . 4 and 14 . 2 kDa and a single corn polypeptide with a size of 17 . 0 kDa were predicted from the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs . These dehydration-induced proteins ( dehydrins ) are very similar to each other and to a previously identified rice protein induced by ABA and salt , and have at least some similarity to a previously identified cotton embryo protein . Each dehydrin is extremely hydrophilic , glycine-rich , cysteine and tryptophan-free and contains repeated units in a conserved linear order . A lysine-rich repeating unit occurs twice in each protein , once at the carboxy terminus and once partway through the polypeptide , adjacent to a succession of serines . This repeating unit and the adjacent flanking run of serines are conserved with minimal variation among all dehydrins . Another repeating unit is flanked by the two copies of the lysine-rich unit , and varies in number from one to five copies . This latter repeating unit is less conserved than the former , varying even within a singly dehydrin . The messenger RNAs corresponding to each cDNA are abundant in dehydrating , but not in well-watered seedlings . The amino acid sequence of tryptic peptides from purified dehydration-induced proteins of corn established that the corn cDNAs correspond to a protein that is produced in abundance during the response of corn seedlings to dehydration .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Each dehydrin is extremely hydrophilic , glycine-rich , cysteine and tryptophan-free and contains repeated units in a conserved linear order .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: The amino acid sequence of tryptic peptides from purified dehydration-induced proteins of corn established that the corn cDNAs correspond to a protein that is produced in abundance during the response of corn seedlings to dehydration .
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Score: 2.00
Title: The amino acid sequence of a cereal Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor from seeds of Jobs tears ( Coix lachryma-jobi L ) .
Author: Ary MB Shewry PR Richardson M
Journal: FEBS Lett . Citation: V : 229 ( 1 ) P : 111-8 Year: 1988 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3162215 Accession (PMID): 3162215
Abstract: The major trypsin inhibitor from seeds of Jobs tears ( Coix lachryma-jobi ) was purified by heat treatment , fractional precipitation with ( NH4 ) 2SO4 , ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose , gel-filtration on Sephadex G-75 and preparative reverse-phase HPLC . The complete amino acid sequence was determined by analysis of peptides derived from the reduced and S-carboxymethylated protein by digestion with trypsin , chymotrypsin and the S aureus V8 protease . The polypeptide contained 64 amino acids with a high content of cysteine . The sequence exhibited strong homology with a number of Bowman-Birk inhibitors from legume seeds and similar proteins recently isolated from wheat and rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The major trypsin inhibitor from seeds of Jobs tears ( Coix lachryma-jobi ) was purified by heat treatment , fractional precipitation with ( NH4 ) 2SO4 , ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose , gel-filtration on Sephadex G-75 and preparative reverse-phase HPLC .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The complete amino acid sequence was determined by analysis of peptides derived from the reduced and S-carboxymethylated protein by digestion with trypsin , chymotrypsin and the S aureus V8 protease .
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Score: 2.00
Title: The complete amino acid sequence of rice bran trypsin inhibitor .
Author: Tashiro M Hashino K Shiozaki M Ibuki F Maki Z
Journal: J Biochem . Citation: V : 102 ( 2 ) P : 297-306 Year: 1987 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3667571 Accession (PMID): 3667571
Abstract: The complete amino acid sequence of a double-headed trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) from rice bran was determined by a combination of limited proteolysis of the native inhibitor with Streptomyces griseus trypsin at pH 3 and conventional methods . RBTI consists of 133 amino acid residues including 18 half-cystine residues which are involved in 9 disulfide bridges in the molecule . The limited proteolysis at pH 3 produced a major split of Lys ( 83 ) -Met ( 84 ) and a minor split of Arg ( 107 ) -Val ( 108 ) together with a non-enzymatic hydrolysis of Asp ( 19 ) -Pro ( 20 ) in the molecule . The established sequence showed that RBTI is composed of 4 domains , domains I and III , and domains II and IV being homologous to the first and the second domains of soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor , respectively , indicating that RBTI has a duplicated structure of the Bowman-Birk type inhibitor .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: The complete amino acid sequence of a double-headed trypsin inhibitor ( RBTI ) from rice bran was determined by a combination of limited proteolysis of the native inhibitor with Streptomyces griseus trypsin at pH 3 and conventional methods .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Preserved exocrine function in patients with acute cholera and acute non-cholera diarrhoea .
Author: Molla A Gyr K Molla AM Bardhan P Patra FC .
Journal: Int . J Pancreatol . Citation: V : 1 ( 3-4 ) P : 259-64 Year: 1986 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3681027 Accession (PMID): 3681027
Abstract: Exocrine pancreatic function was assessed by means of the Lundh test in 14 patients with acute cholera and 18 patients with acute infectious non-cholera diarrhoea within the first 24 h of their admission . Mean tryptic activity amounted to 39 . 8 +/- 4 . 8 microEq/min/ml in the cholera group and to 64 . 4 +/- 11 . 0 microEq/min/ml in the non-cholera group . None of these patients shared a value below the lower limit of normal In fact , the mean tryptic activity per 2 h was significantly higher than that reported previously in a control group from the Bengal area . It is therefore concluded that the exocrine pancreatic function is preserved and responds to food stimulation in various types of acute infectious diarrhoea , including cholera . These findings provide the pathophysiological background for the recent observation that oral rehydration solutions containing high-molecular-weight nutrients such as rice powder are at least as efficient or even more potent than the WHO-recommended glucose-electrolyte formula in acute diarrhoea .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Mean tryptic activity amounted to 39 . 8 +/- 4 . 8 microEq/min/ml in the cholera group and to 64 . 4 +/- 11 . 0 microEq/min/ml in the non-cholera group .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: None of these patients shared a value below the lower limit of normal In fact , the mean tryptic activity per 2 h was significantly higher than that reported previously in a control group from the Bengal area .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Comparisons between true digestibility of total nitrogen and limiting amino acids in vegetable proteins fed to rats .
Author: Sarwar G Peace RW .
Journal: J Nutr . Citation: V : 116 ( 7 ) P : 1172-84 Year: 1986 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3746456 Accession (PMID): 3746456
Abstract: Values ( % ) for true digestibility ( TD ) of protein and individual amino acids in some vegetable proteins were determined by the rat balance ( fecal ) method . Diets containing 8% crude protein ( N X 6 . 25 ) from soaked and autoclaved samples of Trapper and Century field peas , lentil , pinto bean , seafarer bean , black bean or fababean and autoclaved samples of soybean , peanut , sunflower , rolled oat , rice + soybean and corn + pea were tested in two rat balance studies . In the case of blends , each protein source provided 50% of total protein . The beans , peas and lentil proteins were limiting in sulphur amino acids , tryptophan and threonine , whereas sunflower and rolled oat were most limiting in lysine . In beans , peas and lentil , the TD values of methionine ( 51-82 ) , cystine ( 46-85 ) , tryptophan ( 47-90 ) and threonine ( 62-84 ) were considerably lower than the TD values of total nitrogen ( 72-90 ) . Similarly , in sunflower and rolled oat , the TD values of lysine ( 81-83 ) were lower than the TD values of total nitrogen ( 90-91 ) . These data suggested that crude protein digestibility may not be a good predictor of bioavailability of limiting amino acids in vegetable proteins . Amino acid scores of the vegetable proteins were 62-96% . The corrections for true digestibility of protein and individual amino acids lowered the scores by 6-15 and 11-47 percentage units , respectively .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The beans , peas and lentil proteins were limiting in sulphur amino acids , tryptophan and threonine , whereas sunflower and rolled oat were most limiting in lysine .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: In beans , peas and lentil , the TD values of methionine ( 51-82 ) , cystine ( 46-85 ) , tryptophan ( 47-90 ) and threonine ( 62-84 ) were considerably lower than the TD values of total nitrogen ( 72-90 ) .
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Score: 2.00
Title: The relationship of pellagra to corn and the low availability of niacin in cereals .
Author: Carpenter KJ .
Journal: Experientia Suppl . Citation: V : 44 ( ) P : 197-222 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub6357846 Accession (PMID): 6357846
Abstract: The poorest inhabitants of an area generally eat the narrowest range of foods , and one staple ( which serves as a cheap source of calories ) dominates . In turn , the specific type of malnutrition seen in that area depends upon that predominant staple and how it is processed before consumption . Corn , used here in the sense of "Indian corn" or maize , was brought to Europe from America , and over the period 1750-1850 became the typical peasants staple in many of the areas bordering the Mediterranean . By the end of that period , it had also come to be recognized that pellagra had become a serious , chronic disease in these same countries , flaring up each spring amongst the poorest people living on diets containing much corn and very little animal food ( ie , meat , eggs or dairy products ) or wine and being generally in a state of wretchedness . Nothing of the sort was seen in areas where wheat and rice were the staple foods , even when they were highly milled . Most scientists agreed on this association with corn , though not on what was the true cause-and-effect relationship . Research in the present century has shown that pellagra is primarily due to a dietary deficiency of niacin . However , the niacin content of different foods did not tie in well with their pellagra-preventive value . But then it was discovered that a second nutrient , tryptophan , could act as precursor of the vitamin with approximately one sixtieth of the activity of the actual vitamin . The "niacin equivalent" values of foods ( calculated from their content of both nutrients ) show a much better correlation with their pellagra-preventive value . Thus , mature corn is lower in niacin content than are wheat and rice ; also the mixed proteins of corn are lower in their tryptophan content . What is not explained by the calculation of "niacin equivalent" is the general freedom from pellagra of the peasants in Mexico and Central America , where corn has been the staple for millenia and where poverty , the consequent lack of animal foods in the diet , and general misery , have been fully equal to the conditions in Europe . It has been known for 40 years that analytical values for the niacin content of foods depended greatly on the method of extraction used , with the highest values being obtained after treatment with alkali . We have confirmed with rat growth assays that the niacin in corn , wheat and rice is only about one-third available to this species , even after ordinary cooking at neutral pH . ( ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS )
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: But then it was discovered that a second nutrient , tryptophan , could act as precursor of the vitamin with approximately one sixtieth of the activity of the actual vitamin .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Thus , mature corn is lower in niacin content than are wheat and rice ; also the mixed proteins of corn are lower in their tryptophan content .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Inactivation of rice bran thiamine-binding protein by N , N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide .
Author: Nishimura H Sempuku K Nosaka K Iwashima A
Journal: J Biochem . Citation: V : 96 ( 4 ) P : 1289-95 Year: 1984 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub6520124 Accession (PMID): 6520124
Abstract: The addition of a carboxyl-modifying reagent N , N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide ( DCCD ) to thiamine-binding protein isolated from rice bran resulted in a remarkable loss of its binding activity with [ 14C ] thiamine . Thiamine and chloroethylthiamine substantially protected the protein against inactivation by DCCD , whereas thiamine phosphates did not . Another carboxyl reagent N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1 , 2-dihydroquinoline ( EEDQ ) also inactivated rice bran thiamine-binding protein . Inactivation of the thiamine-binding protein was accompanied by covalent binding of DCCD to the protein as shown by the use of [ 14C ] DCCD . The binding of [ 14C ] DCCD to the thiamine-binding protein was specific , and significantly inhibited by the addition of thiamine . The loss of thiamine-binding activity was proportional to the specific binding of [ 14C ] DCCD . For complete inactivation of the thiamine-binding activity , the binding of 2 . 46 mol of [ 14C ] DCCD per mol of thiamine-binding protein was required . Furthermore , limited proteolysis of the binding protein by trypsin yielded two polypeptides with molecular weights of 35 , 000 ( large polypeptide ) and 12 , 500 ( small polypeptide ) which were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis . The binding sites of [ 14C ] DCCD were found to be located on the large polypeptide . These results suggest that a specific carboxyl residue in the large polypeptide releasable from rice bran thiamine-binding protein by trypsin digestion when modified by DCCD is involved in the binding of thiamine .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Furthermore , limited proteolysis of the binding protein by trypsin yielded two polypeptides with molecular weights of 35 , 000 ( large polypeptide ) and 12 , 500 ( small polypeptide ) which were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: These results suggest that a specific carboxyl residue in the large polypeptide releasable from rice bran thiamine-binding protein by trypsin digestion when modified by DCCD is involved in the binding of thiamine .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Identification of sulphur-rich proteins which resist rumen degradation and are hydrolysed rapidly by intestinal proteases .
Author: Hancock KR Ealing PM White DW .
Journal: Br . J Nutr . Citation: V : 72 ( 6 ) P : 855-63 Year: 1994 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub7827006 Accession (PMID): 7827006
Abstract: Several proteins with high proportions of S-containing essential amino acids were incubated in sheep rumen fluid in vitro and their rate of digestion was examined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis . The S-rich proteins rice prolamin ( 10 kDa ) , maize zein ( 10 kDa ) and the 3 . 2 kDa pumpkin ( Cucurbita maxima L ) trypsin inhibitor-1 ( CMTI-1 ) were highly resistant to rumen fluid degradation , relative to control proteins of known degradation rate ( casein , bovine serum albumin ( BSA ) and pea ( Pisum sativum ) albumin-1 ( PA1 ) ) . Comparison of PA1 and a recombinant N-terminal epitope-tagged PA1 indicated that addition of the epitope caused a slight increase in resistance to rumen degradation . The proteins were also incubated with a mixture of trypsin ( EC 3 . 4 . 21 . 4 ) and chymotrypsin ( EC 3 . 4 . 21 . 1 ) . PA1 , BSA and casein were hydrolysed less rapidly than rice prolamin , maize zein and CMTI-1 . Digestion by these intestinal proteases appeared to be complete . Thus , the prolamin , zein and CMTI-1 proteins are suitable candidates for expression as foreign proteins in pasture plants to increase throughput and uptake of essential amino acids in sheep .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The S-rich proteins rice prolamin ( 10 kDa ) , maize zein ( 10 kDa ) and the 3 . 2 kDa pumpkin ( Cucurbita maxima L ) trypsin inhibitor-1 ( CMTI-1 ) were highly resistant to rumen fluid degradation , relative to control proteins of known degradation rate ( casein , bovine serum albumin ( BSA ) and pea ( Pisum sativum ) albumin-1 ( PA1 ) ) .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The proteins were also incubated with a mixture of trypsin ( EC 3 . 4 . 21 . 4 ) and chymotrypsin ( EC 3 . 4 . 21 . 1 ) .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Isolation of a cDNA for tryptophan synthase beta from rice and studies of its expression in a 5-methyltryptophan-resistant mutant of rice .
Author: Kisaka H Kisaka M Lee HY Kameya T
Journal: Plant Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 38 ( 5 ) P : 875-8 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9862503 Accession (PMID): 9862503
Abstract: A cDNA clone encoding rice tryptophan synthase beta ( TSB ) was isolated and its transcript level was examined in TR-No 73 , a derivative of a previously isolated rice mutant ( TR-1 ) that is resistant to 5-methyltryptophan . The cDNA sequence of the rice gene for TSB was very similar to that of genes for TSB from other plants . Northern blotting analysis revealed that the steady-state level of TSB mRNA in the 5MT-resistant mutant TR-No 73 was 1 . 3 times higher than the level of TSB mRNA in control rice plants under standard conditions . The level of TSB mRNA in control rice plants decreased after treatment of plants with 5MT . Similarly , the level of TSB mRNA in TR-No 73 initially decreased , although less so than in control rice . However , after 12 h of treatment with 5MT , the level of the transcript in TR-No 73 returned to the level under standard conditions . The activity of tryptophan synthase ( TS ) in seedlings of TR-No 73 was about 2 . 3 times higher than that in seedlings of control rice under standard conditions .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A cDNA clone encoding rice tryptophan synthase beta ( TSB ) was isolated and its transcript level was examined in TR-No 73 , a derivative of a previously isolated rice mutant ( TR-1 ) that is resistant to 5-methyltryptophan .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The activity of tryptophan synthase ( TS ) in seedlings of TR-No 73 was about 2 . 3 times higher than that in seedlings of control rice under standard conditions .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets . IV . Effects of addition of fish meal and a microbial phytase to duckling diets on bird performance and amino acid digestibility .
Author: Martin EA Nolan JV Nitsan Z Farrell DJ .
Journal: Br . Poult . Sci . Citation: V : 39 ( 5 ) P : 612-21 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9925313 Accession (PMID): 9925313
Abstract: 1 . Ducklings were given diets with vegetable protein ( VP ) and 0 or 600 g rice bran/kg ; fish meal ( 60 g/kg ) and a phytase ( + , - ) were added to the diets ( VP + AP ) . An additional 40 g soyabean meal/kg was added to the diet with rice bran ( VP ++ ) . Amino acid digestibility and mineral retention were measured in the lower ileum of ducklings killed at 23 d of age . Acid insoluble ash was used as an inert marker . Trypsin and amylase activities were also measured and weights of the pancreas and small intestine recorded at slaughter . 2 . Addition of soyabean meal ( VP ++ ) to the diet with rice bran improved growth rate and food intake compared to the diet without ( VP ) and gave the same food intake and growth rate as the comparable basal diet ( VP ) without rice bran . Fish meal improved growth rate on the diets without rice bran and improved food intake on this diet ( VP + AP ) . Rice bran depressed growth rate and food conversion ratio ( FCR ) ; protein source affected growth rate , food intake and FCR ; phytase increased food intake only . There were several interactions . 3 . Determined total amino acid composition of the diets appeared to meet the essential amino acid requirements of ducklings . Rice bran depressed the ileal digestibility of virtually all amino acids and phytase had no direct effect , although there were interactions . Fish meal addition to diets with rice bran improved the apparent digestibility of several essential amino acids as well as that of dry matter and crude protein . 4 . Ileal retention of some minerals and tibia ash content were reduced by rice bran . Fish meal and phytase inclusion increased P retention and ash in tibia . 5 . Higher intestinal trypsin activity and increased pancreas size were seen in ducklings on diets with rice bran compared to those without . Intestinal amylase activity was reduced in ducklings given rice bran , probably because of its low starch content . 6 . The stimulating effect of fish meal on duckling performance was probably caused in part by the improvement in the digestibility of some amino acids . The addition of small amounts of minerals in fish meal may have increased mineral retention . Phytase gave benefits anticipated from our previous work , but also improved lysine and threonine digestibility in diets containing vegetable protein only .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Trypsin and amylase activities were also measured and weights of the pancreas and small intestine recorded at slaughter .
[ Sen. 20, subscore: 1.00 ]: Higher intestinal trypsin activity and increased pancreas size were seen in ducklings on diets with rice bran compared to those without .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Probing the role of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolism in defense responses against Bipolaris oryzae infection in rice leaves by a suicide substrate of tryptophan decarboxylase .
Author: Ishihara A Nakao T Mashimo Y Murai M Ichimaru N Tanaka C Nakajima H Wakasa K Miyagawa H
Journal: Phytochemistry Citation: V : 72 P : 7-13 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub21112065 Accession (PMID): 21112065
Abstract: Tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites , including serotonin and its hydroxycinnamic acid amides , markedly accumulate in rice leaves in response to pathogen attack . These compounds have been implicated in the physical defense system against pathogen invasion by being deposited in cell walls . Serotonin is biosynthesized from tryptophan via tryptamine , and tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ) catalyzes the first committed reaction . In this study , ( S ) -alpha- ( fluoromethyl ) tryptophan ( S-alphaFMT ) was utilized to investigate the effects of the inhibition of TDC on the defense responses of rice leaves . S-alphaFMT , enantiospecifically synthesized from L-tryptophan , effectively inhibited TDC activity extracted from rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae . The inhibition rate increased dependently on the incubation time , indicating that S-alphaFMT served as a suicide substrate . Treatment of rice seedlings with S-alphaFMT suppressed accumulation of serotonin , tryptamine , and hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin in a dose-dependent manner in B oryzae-inoculated leaves . The lesions formed on seedlings treated with S-alphaFMT lacked deposition of brown materials , and those leaves were severely damaged in comparison with leaves without S-alphaFMT treatment . Administrating tryptamine to S-alphaFMT-treated leaves restored accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites as well as deposition of brown material In addition , tryptamine administration reduced damage caused by fungal infection . Accordingly , the accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites was suggested to be part of the effective defense mechanism of rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Probing the role of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolism in defense responses against Bipolaris oryzae infection in rice leaves by a suicide substrate of tryptophan decarboxylase .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Methanol is an endogenous elicitor molecule for the synthesis of tryptophan and tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites upon senescence of detached rice leaves .
Author: Kang K Park S Natsagdorj U Kim YS Back K
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 66 P : 247-57 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub21205035 Accession (PMID): 21205035
Abstract: During senescence of detached rice leaves , tryptophan ( Trp ) and Trp-derived secondary metabolites such as serotonin and 4-coumaroylserotonin accumulated in concert with methanol ( MeOH ) production . This senescence-induced MeOH induction was closely associated with levels of pectin methylesterase ( PME ) 1 mRNA and PME enzyme activity . Exogenous challenge of detached rice leaves with 1% MeOH accelerated Trp and serotonin biosynthesis with induction of the corresponding genes . No other solvents , including ethanol , resulted in a Trp-inducing effect . This MeOH-induced Trp synthesis was positively regulated by abscisic acid but negatively regulated by cytokinin , suggesting hormonal involvement in the action of MeOH . Endogenous overproduction or suppression of MeOH either by PME1 overexpression or RNA interference ( RNAi ) gene silencing revealed that PME1 overexpressing lines produced twofold higher Trp levels with elevated Trp biosynthetic gene expression , whereas RNAi lines showed twofold reduction in Trp level in healthy control rice leaves , suggesting that MeOH acts as an endogenous elicitor to enhance Trp biosynthesis . Among many transcription factors induced following MeOH treatment , the WRKY family showed significant induction patterns , of which WRKY14 appeared to play a key regulatory role in MeOH-induced Trp and Trp-derived secondary metabolite biosynthesis .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: Methanol is an endogenous elicitor molecule for the synthesis of tryptophan and tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites upon senescence of detached rice leaves .
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Score: 2.00
Title: The tryptophan content in protein of cereal grains and legume seeds as a function of nitrogen content . A reappraisal of tryptophan score .
Author: Delhaye S Landry J
Journal: Adv . Exp . Med . Biol . Citation: V : 398 ( ) P : 661-4 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub8906341 Accession (PMID): 8906341
Abstract: The tryptophan content ( [ Trp ] ) in the dry matter ( DM ) of wheat , maize , barley , sorghum , rice , pearl millet grains , pea and broad bean seeds is evaluated from samples , with various nitrogen contents ( [ N ] DM ) and genotypes , using a procedure that has been shown to be strictly quantitative . The determination of linear correlations between [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM , and between the tryptophan content in protein ( [ Trp ] N ) and [ N ] DM or 1/ [ N ] DM for every species leads to the following observations : ( 1 ) [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM are linearly related . The data show that previous reports of similar relationships underestimate tryptophan by 10 +/- 5% owing to tryptophan degradation during alkaline hydrolysis preparatory to analysis ; ( 2 ) the linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and 1/ [ N ] DM , resulting from linear relationships [ Trp ] DM and [ N ] DM display coefficients of determination ( r2 ) far lower than 1 and similar to those found for linear correlations between [ Trp ] N and [ N ] DM ; ( 3 ) [ Trp ] N increases with [ N ] DM increasing for rice and pearl millet while it decreases for all other species . In conclusion : ( 1 ) linear relationships between tryptophan and nitrogen have a low predictive value ; ( 2 ) the nutritional score of tryptophan of foods and feeds , as calculated from the determination of tryptophan using a procedure involving alkaline hydrolysis , is generally underestimated by 10% .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The tryptophan content in protein of cereal grains and legume seeds as a function of nitrogen content .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: A reappraisal of tryptophan score .
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Score: 2.00
Title: Inhibitors of pepsin , trypsin and chymotrypsin in seeds of plants consumed by humans and animals . I Evaluation of pepsin , trypsin , and chymotrypsin inhibitors activity in seeds of 26 plant species .
Author: BaEowska A Roszkowska-Jakimiec W Worowski K
Journal: Rocz . Akad . Med . Bialymst Citation: V : 43 ( ) P : 278-86 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub9972064 Accession (PMID): 9972064
Abstract: Antipepsin , antitrypsin and antichymotrypsin activity was determined in seed extracts of 26 plants consumed by humans and animals ( small bean , broad bean , pumpkin , kidney bean , charlock , pea , buckwheat , barley , maize , flax , lupine , poppy , almond , peanut , hazel , walnut , oat , millet , wheat , rice , rape , sunflower , lentils soya bean , vetch , rye ) . Antipepsin activity is found in the seeds of small bean , pumpkin , flax , peanut , walnut , oat , wheat , sunflower , lentils and soya bean . Antitrypsin and antichymotrypsin activities are of different intensity in seed extracts of all examined plants .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Inhibitors of pepsin , trypsin and chymotrypsin in seeds of plants consumed by humans and animals .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: I Evaluation of pepsin , trypsin , and chymotrypsin inhibitors activity in seeds of 26 plant species .
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Score: 1.00
Title: The refolding , purification , and activity analysis of a rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor expressed in Escherichia coli .
Author: Li N Qu LJ Liu Y Li Q Gu H Chen Z
Journal: Protein Expr . Purif . Citation: V : 15 ( 1 ) P : 99-104 Year: 1999 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10024476 Accession (PMID): 10024476
Abstract: A putative rice trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor of the Bowman-Birk family , RBBI-8 of about 20 kDa , was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein bearing an N-terminal ( His ) 6 purification tag . The expressed recombinant protein , rRBBI-8 , is insoluble and accumulates as inclusion bodies . The insoluble protein was solubilized in 8 M urea under reducing environment and then refolded into its active conformation under optimized redox conditions . Strategies used to optimize yield and efficiency include selecting the redox system , increasing protein concentration during refolding by adding the denatured protein in a stepwise way , utilizing additives to prevent aggregation , and selecting buffer-exchanging conditions . A Ni-chelate affinity column was then employed to purify the renatured protein . rRBBI-8 shows strong inhibitory activity against trypsin and it can slightly inhibit chymotrypsin . In this study , a refolding and purification system was set up for this cysteine-rich recombinant protein expressed in a prokaryotic system .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: A Ni-chelate affinity column was then employed to purify the renatured protein . rRBBI-8 shows strong inhibitory activity against trypsin and it can slightly inhibit chymotrypsin .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding the starch debranching enzyme limit dextrinase from germinating barley .
Author: Kristensen M Lok F Planchot V Svendsen I Leah R Svensson B
Journal: Biochim . Biophys . Acta Citation: V : 1431 ( 2 ) P : 538-46 Year: 1999 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10350630 Accession (PMID): 10350630
Abstract: The gene encoding the starch debranching enzyme limit dextrinase , LD , from barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) , was isolated from a genomic phage library using a barley cDNA clone as probe . The gene encodes a protein of 904 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 98 . 6 kDa . This is in agreement with a value of 105 kDa estimated by SDS-PAGE . The coding sequence is interrupted by 26 introns varying in length from 93 bp to 825 bp . The 27 exons vary in length from 53 bp to 197 bp . Southern blot analysis shows that the limit dextrinase gene is present as a single copy in the barley genome . Gene expression is high during germination and the steady state transcription level reaches a maximum at day 5 of germination . The deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to the protein sequence of limit dextrinase purified from germinating malt , as determined by automated N-terminal sequencing of tryptic fragments coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry . The sequenced peptide fragments cover 70% of the entire protein sequence , which shows 62% and 77% identity to that of starch debranching enzymes from spinach and rice and 37% identity to Klebsiella pullulanase . Sequence alignment supports the multidomain architecture and identifies both secondary structure elements of the catalytic ( beta/alpha ) 8-barrel substrate , catalytic residues , and specificity associated motifs characteristic of members of the glycoside hydrolase family 13 which cleave alpha-1 , 6-glucosidic bonds . A remarkable distribution of the secondary structure elements to individual exons is observed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to the protein sequence of limit dextrinase purified from germinating malt , as determined by automated N-terminal sequencing of tryptic fragments coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Localization of farnesyl diphosphate synthase in chloroplasts .
Author: Sanmiya K Ueno O Matsuoka M Yamamoto N
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol . Citation: V : 40 ( 3 ) P : 348-54 Year: 1999 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10353221 Accession (PMID): 10353221
Abstract: The subcellular localization of plant farnesyl diphosphate synthase ( FPPS ) was examined . Immunocytochemical staining using anti-FPPS1 antibody followed by electron microscopy showed that FPPS1 was localized to chloroplasts of rice mesophyll cells . Subcellular fractions from wheat leaves were examined by immunoblot analysis . FPPS was detected in the chloroplast fraction in wheat , and was protected from proteolysis following trypsin treatment of chloroplasts . FPPS was also detected in the chloroplast fraction of a dicot plant , tobacco
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: FPPS was detected in the chloroplast fraction in wheat , and was protected from proteolysis following trypsin treatment of chloroplasts .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Nitrogen retention and plasma amino acids of adults who consumed isonitrogenous diets containing rice and milk or wheat versus their constituent amino acids .
Author: Clark HE Moon W-H Bailey LB Panemangelore M
Journal: Am . J Clin . Nutr . Citation: V : 29 ( 12 ) P : 1343-52 Year: 1976 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1036663 Accession (PMID): 1036663
Abstract: Nitrogen retention and concentrations of plasma amino acids were compared when young adults consumed isonitrogenous diets containing proteins ( 3 . 0 g of N from rice plus 3 . 0 g of N from milk or 3 . 0 g of N from rice plus 3 . 0 g of N from wheat flour ) or mixtures of their constituent amino acids . Diets containing proteins induced greater nitrogen retention than did those containing corresponding amounts of amino acids in crystalline form , and the difference between the combinations of proteins was delineated more sharply . Concentrations of several amino acids were elevated by substituting crystalline amino acids for proteins , especially in postprandial plasma . Subjects responded differently to addition of the limiting amino acids , lysine and tryptophan , to the diets containing amino acids instead of rice plus wheat . Therefore , data obtained by means of combinations of cereals and by mixtures of their constituent amino acids can not always be used interchangeably .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Subjects responded differently to addition of the limiting amino acids , lysine and tryptophan , to the diets containing amino acids instead of rice plus wheat .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Molecular cloning and characterization of a cysteine-rich 16 . 6-kDa prolamin in rice seeds .
Author: Mitsukawa N Konishi R Uchiki M Masumura T Tanaka K
Journal: Biosci . Biotechnol . Biochem . Citation: V : 63 ( 11 ) P : 1851-8 Year: 1999 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10635550 Accession (PMID): 10635550
Abstract: An alcohol-soluble storage protein , a 16 . 6-kDa prolamin found in rice seeds , was purified from both the total protein body and purified type I protein body fractions . The partial amino acid sequences of three tryptic peptides generated from the purified polypeptide were analyzed . A part of the 16 . 6-kDa prolamin cDNA was amplified from developing seed mRNA by the reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction using an oligo ( dT ) primer and a primer which was synthesized based on the partial amino acid sequence . The amplified product was used to isolate the full-length cDNA clone ( lambda RP16 ) from a developing seed cDNA library . The cDNA has an open reading frame encoding a hydrophobic polypeptide of 149 amino acids . The polypeptide was rich in glutamine ( 20 . 0% ) , cysteine ( 10 . 0% ) , and methionine ( 6 . 9% ) . The cysteine content was higher than those of most other rice storage proteins . Messenger RNA of the 16 . 6-kDa prolamin was detected in seeds , but not in other aerial it issues .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The partial amino acid sequences of three tryptic peptides generated from the purified polypeptide were analyzed .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Characterizing rice lesion mimic mutants and identifying a mutant with broad-spectrum resistance to rice blast and bacterial blight .
Author: Yin Z Chen J Zeng L Goh M Leung H Khush GS Wang GL .
Journal: Mol . Plant Microbe Interact . Citation: V : 13 ( 8 ) P : 869-76 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10939258 Accession (PMID): 10939258
Abstract: Many plant mutants develop spontaneous lesions that resemble disease symptoms in the absence of pathogen attack . In several pathosystems , lesion mimic mutations have been shown to be involved in programmed cell death , which in some instances leads to enhanced disease resistance to multiple pathogens . We investigated the relationship between spontaneous cell death and disease resistance in rice with nine mutants with a range of lesion mimic phenotypes . All nine mutations are controlled by recessive genes and some of these mutants have stunted growth and other abnormal characteristics . The lesion mimics that appeared on the leaves of these mutants were caused by cell death as measured by trypan blue staining . Activation of six defense-related genes was observed in most of the mutants when the mimic lesions developed . Four mutants exhibited significant enhanced resistance to rice blast One of the mutants , spl11 , confers non-race-specific resistance not only to blast but also to bacterial blight . The level of resistance in the spl11 mutant to the two pathogens correlates with the defense-related gene expression and lesion development on the leaves . The results suggest that some lesion mimic mutations in rice may be involved in disease resistance , and cloning of these genes may provide a clue to developing broad-spectrum resistance to diverse pathogens .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The lesion mimics that appeared on the leaves of these mutants were caused by cell death as measured by trypan blue staining .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Identification and characterization of the major allergens of buckwheat .
Author: Park JW Kang DB Kim CW koh SH Yum HY Kim KE Hong CS Lee KY .
Journal: Allergy Citation: V : 55 ( 11 ) P : 1035-41 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11097313 Accession (PMID): 11097313
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Buckwheat ( BW ) has been recognized as a common food allergen in Korea , Japan , and other countries . Until now , serologic findings of BW food-allergic patients and its major allergenic components have not been clarified . In this study , we analyzed the serologic findings of BW food allergy and characterized its major allergenic components . METHODS : Nineteen BW-allergic subjects with symptoms after BW ingestion and 15 asymptomatic control subjects with positive skin prick test to BW were recruited . BW-specific IgE was measured with the Pharmacia CAP kit . Allergenic components of BW were analyzed by IgE immunoblotting , periodate oxidation , two-dimensonal PAGE , and sequencing of N-terminal amino acids . RESULTS : From the BW-allergic patients and asymptomatic controls , the sensitivity ( 100% ) , specificity ( 53% ) , and negative ( 100% ) and positive predictive values ( 73% ) of Pharmacia CAP specific IgE for diagnosis were estimated . The prevalence of IgE binding to 24-kDa ( pI 8 . 3 ) , 16-kDa ( pI 5 . 6 ) , and 9-kDa ( pI 5 . 0/ 6 . 0 ) allergens was higher than 50% in BW-allergic and asymptomatic subjects . However , the specific IgE to split 19-kDa ( pI 6 . 5/7 . 0 ) allergens were more specifically found in BW-allergic patients than in asymptomatic subjects ( 78% vs 7% ) . N-terminal amino-acid sequences of 19-kDa and 16-kDa allergens showed moderate and weak homology to the 19-kDa globulin protein of rice and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor of millet , respectively . The N-terminus of the 9-kDa isoallergens were not different from each other and were identified as the reported trypsin inhibitors of BW . Attenuation of the IgE binding to the 9-kDa allergen was found with periodate oxidation . CONCLUSIONS : The allergens of 24 , 19 , 16 , and 9 kDa are strong candidates to be major allergens , and the 19-kDa allergen was relatively specific for BW-allergic patients . Moreover , measurement of BW-specific IgE and the features of immunoblotting should be very useful tools in the diagnosis of BW allergy .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: The N-terminus of the 9-kDa isoallergens were not different from each other and were identified as the reported trypsin inhibitors of BW .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Characterization of rice anthranilate synthase alpha-subunit genes OASA1 and OASA2 . Tryptophan accumulation in transgenic rice expressing a feedback-insensitive mutant of OASA1 .
Author: Tozawa Y Hasegawa H Terakawa T Wakasa K
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 126 ( 4 ) P : 1493-506 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11500548 Accession (PMID): 11500548
Abstract: Anthranilate synthase ( AS ) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of tryptophan ( Trp ) , indole-3-acetic acid , and indole alkaloids . Two genes , OASA1 and OASA2 , encoding AS alpha-subunits were isolated from a monocotyledonous plant , rice ( Oryza sativa cv Nipponbare ) , and were characterized . A phylogenetic tree of AS alpha-subunits from various species revealed a close evolutionary relationship among OASA1 and Arabidopsis ASA2 , Ruta graveolens AS alpha 2 , and tobacco ASA2 , whereas OASA2 , Arabidopsis ASA1 , and R graveolens AS alpha 1 were more distantly related . OASA1 is expressed in all it issues tested , but the amount of its mRNA was greater in panicles than in leaves and roots . The abundance of OASA2 transcripts is similar among it issues and greater than that of OASA1 transcripts ; furthermore , OASA2 expression was induced by a chitin heptamer , a potent elicitor , suggesting that OASA2 participates in secondary metabolism . Expression of wild-type OASA1 or OASA2 transgenes did not affect the Trp content of rice calli or plants . However , transformed calli and plants expressing a mutated OASA1 gene , OASA1 ( D323N ) , that encodes a protein in which aspartate-323 is replaced with asparagine manifested up to 180 and 35-fold increases , respectively , in Trp accumulation . These transgenic calli and plants were resistant to 300 microM 5-methyl-Trp , and AS activity of the calli showed a markedly reduced sensitivity to Trp . These results show that OASA1 is important in the regulation of free Trp concentration , and that mutation of OASA1 to render the encoded protein insensitive to feedback inhibition results in accumulation of Trp at high levels . The OASA1 ( D323N ) transgene may prove useful for the generation of crops with an increased Trp content .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Anthranilate synthase ( AS ) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of tryptophan ( Trp ) , indole-3-acetic acid , and indole alkaloids .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Expression of beta-expansins is correlated with internodal elongation in deepwater rice .
Author: Lee Y Kende H
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 127 ( 2 ) P : 645-54 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11598238 Accession (PMID): 11598238
Abstract: Fourteen putative rice ( Oryza sativa ) beta-expansin genes , Os-EXPB1 through Os-EXPB14 , were identified in the expressed sequence tag and genomic databases . The DNA and deduced amino acid sequences are highly conserved in all 14 beta-expansins . They have a series of conserved C ( cysteine ) residues in the N-terminal half of the protein , an HFD ( histidine-phenylalanine-aspartate ) motif in the central region , and a series of W ( tryptophan ) residues near the carboxyl terminus . Five beta-expansin genes are expressed in deepwater rice internodes , with especially high transcript levels in the growing region . Expression of four beta-expansin genes in the internode was induced by treatment with gibberellin and by wounding . The wound response resulted from excising stem sections or from piercing pinholes into the stem of intact plants . The level of wound-induced beta-expansin transcripts declined rapidly 5 h after cutting of stem sections . We conclude that the expression of beta-expansin genes is correlated with rapid elongation of deepwater rice internodes , it is induced by gibberellin and wounding , and wound-induced beta-expansin mRNA appears to turn over rapidly .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: They have a series of conserved C ( cysteine ) residues in the N-terminal half of the protein , an HFD ( histidine-phenylalanine-aspartate ) motif in the central region , and a series of W ( tryptophan ) residues near the carboxyl terminus .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Biochemical characterization of the kinase domain of the rice disease resistance receptor-like kinase XA21 .
Author: Liu GZ Pi LY Walker JC Ronald PC Song WY .
Journal: J Biol . Chem . Citation: V : 277 ( 23 ) P : 20264-9 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11927577 Accession (PMID): 11927577
Abstract: The rice disease resistance gene , Xa21 , encodes a receptor kinase-like protein consisting of leucine-rich repeats in the putative extracellular domain and a serine/threonine kinase in the putative intracellular domain . The putative XA21 kinase domain was expressed as maltose-binding and glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins in Escherichia coli . The fusion proteins are capable of autophosphorylation . Phosphoamino acid analysis of the glutathione S-transferase fusion protein indicates that only serine and threonine residues are phosphorylated . The relative phosphorylation rate of the XA21 kinase against increasing enzyme concentrations follows a first-order rather than second-order kinetics , indicating an intramolecular phosphorylation mechanism . Moreover , the active XA21 kinase can not phosphorylate a kinase-deficient mutant of XA21 kinase . The enzymatic activity of the XA21 kinase in a buffer containing Mn ( 2+ ) is at least 15 times higher than that with Mg ( 2+ ) . The K ( m ) and V ( max ) of XA21 kinase for ATP are 0 . 3 microm and 8 . 4 nmol/mg/min , respectively . Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping reveals that multiple sites on the XA21 kinase are phosphorylated . Finally , our data suggest that the region of XA21 kinase corresponding to the RD kinase activation domain is not phosphorylated , revealing a distinct mode of action compared with the tomato Pto serine/threonine kinase conferring disease resistance .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping reveals that multiple sites on the XA21 kinase are phosphorylated .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Nutrient and sensory qualities of kunun zaki from different saccharification agents .
Author: Terna G Jideani IA Nkama I
Journal: Citation: V : 53 ( 2 ) P : 109-15 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11939105 Accession (PMID): 11939105
Abstract: Kunun zaki--a cereal-based non-alcoholic , non-carbonated beverage--was studied . The ratio of blends of major ingredients , nutrient , amino acid content and sensory qualities of kunun zaki generated with different saccharifying agents were investigated . The main ingredients of the formulations were malted rice , sweet potato , soybeans and Cadaba farinosa ( Dangarafa or Legel in Hausa ) , each used separately with sorghum to produce a kunun zaki type . The weight ratios of the major ingredients were 8 : 91 for malted rice-sorghum , 7 : 92 for sweet potato-sorghum , 9 : 90 for soybean-sorghum and 4 : 95 for Cadaba farinosa-sorghum blends with ginger contributing 1% in each case as a spice . The nutrient composition of kunun zaki samples from different saccharifying agents ranged from 87 to 91% for moisture , 3 . 19 to 7 . 86% for crude protein , 0 . 37 to 0 . 75% for fat , 0 . 93 to 1 . 20% for ash and 2 . 69 to 5 . 84% for carbohydrate . Glutamic acid ( 4 . 49-11 . 66 g ) was the most abundant amino acid in the samples while cysteine was the least abundant ( 0 . 34-1 . 45 g ) in all the samples . The lowest concentration of all the essential amino acids except for tryptophan occurred when malted rice was used ( 0 . 44-1 . 40 g ) . Among the essential amino acids , cysteine , valine , isoleucine and methionine occurred in extremely low quantities compared with FAO/WHO reference protein values . The dual role ( saccharification and enrichment ) of soybean in kunun zaki processing is a desirable attribute and offers an advantage over the other agents . The different saccharifying agents had no significant effect ( P > 0 . 05 ) on colour and flavour of kunun zaki but did influence sweetness , mouthfeel and overall acceptability . The beverage made with malted rice was most liked overall .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The lowest concentration of all the essential amino acids except for tryptophan occurred when malted rice was used ( 0 . 44-1 . 40 g ) .
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Score: 1.00
Title: A rice spotted leaf gene , Spl7 , encodes a heat stress transcription factor protein .
Author: Yamanouchi U Yano M Lin H Ashikari M Yamada K
Journal: Proc . Natl . Acad . Sci . USA Citation: V : 99 ( 11 ) P : 7530-5 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12032317 Accession (PMID): 12032317
Abstract: A rice spotted leaf ( lesion-mimic ) gene , Spl7 , was identified by map-based cloning . High-resolution mapping with cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers enabled us to define a genomic region of 3 kb as a candidate for Spl7 . We found one ORF that showed high similarity to a heat stress transcription factor ( HSF ) . Transgenic analysis verified the function of the candidate gene for Spl7 : leaf spot development was suppressed in spl7 mutants with a wild-type Spl7 transgene . Thus , we conclude that Spl7 encodes the HSF protein . The transcript of spl7 was observed in mutant plants . The levels of mRNAs ( Spl7 in wild type and spl7 in mutant ) increased under heat stress . Sequence analysis revealed only one base substitution in the HSF DNA-binding domain of the mutant allele , causing a change from tryptophan to cysteine .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sequence analysis revealed only one base substitution in the HSF DNA-binding domain of the mutant allele , causing a change from tryptophan to cysteine .
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Score: 1.00
Title: The patterns of Cd-binding proteins in rice and wheat seed and their stability .
Author: He MC Wong JW Yan JR .
Journal: Citation: V : 37 ( 4 ) P : 541-51 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12046654 Accession (PMID): 12046654
Abstract: The protein-binding forms of cadmium in polluted rice and wheat seeds and their stability were investigated using the methods of Sephadex chromatography . Three absorption peaks ( F-I , F-II and F-III ) were identified in Tris-HCl extraction of rice and wheat on Sephadex G 75 . The Cd in the protein extracts from rice and wheat seeds was distributed mainly in the fractions of F-I and F-III . The apparent molecular weights of Cd-binding proteins for F-I and F-III were 54 . 5 and 5 . 5 KD , respectively . The components of amino acid for the protein bound with heavy metals were different . There were high contents of glutamic acid , cysteine , valine , isoleucine , leucine and tyrosine in the protein extracts of rice and wheat . After cooking , the Cd-binding proteins were destroyed . High molecular weight protein-binding form ( 54 . 5 KD ) was broken into low molecular weight complex ( 5 . 5 KD ) or tiny peptide chain . Simultaneously , Cd bound with protein was released , or mainly bound with protein of smaller molecular size . Enzyme treatment ( pepsin and trypsin ) also caused a destruction of Cd binding protein and a change in the distribution of Cd in the eluent . The concentrations of Cd in the elution of first and third peak decreased markedly , and the Cd distribution was observed in the elution after third peak ( F-III ) .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Enzyme treatment ( pepsin and trypsin ) also caused a destruction of Cd binding protein and a change in the distribution of Cd in the eluent .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Purification and characterization of a novel 7-kDa non-specific lipid transfer protein-2 from rice ( Oryza sativa ) .
Author: Liu YJ Samuel D Lin CH Lyu PC .
Journal: Biochem . Biophys . Res . Commun . Citation: V : 294 ( 3 ) P : 535-40 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12056799 Accession (PMID): 12056799
Abstract: A novel 7-kDa non-specific lipid transfer protein-2 ( nsLTP2 ) has been isolated from rice ( Oryza sativa ) seeds . In contrast to nsLTP1s , few nsLTP2s have been purified and characterized . Complete amino acid sequence of rice nsLTP2 was determined by N-terminal Edman degradation of the intact protein as well as the peptide fragments resulted from trypsin digestions . Rice nsLTP2 consists of 69 amino acid residues with eight conserved cysteines forming four disulfide bonds . The secondary structure of rice nsLTP2 is predominantly alpha-helical as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy . Cysteine pairings of nsLTP2 have one miss match at Cys ( 35 ) -X-Cys ( 37 ) motif compared to nsLTP1 . Primary structure analysis of various plant nsLTP2s revealed an interesting conservation of sequence features among nsLTP2 family .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Complete amino acid sequence of rice nsLTP2 was determined by N-terminal Edman degradation of the intact protein as well as the peptide fragments resulted from trypsin digestions .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy ( NIRS ) enables the fast and accurate prediction of essential amino acid contents . 2 . Results for wheat , barley , corn , triticale , wheat bran/middlings , rice bran , and sorghum .
Author: Fontaine J Schirmer B Hrr J
Journal: J Agric . Food Chem . Citation: V : 50 ( 14 ) P : 3902-11 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12083857 Accession (PMID): 12083857
Abstract: Further NIRS calibrations were developed for the accurate and fast prediction of the total contents of methionine , cystine , lysine , threonine , tryptophan , and other essential amino acids , protein , and moisture in the most important cereals and brans or middlings for animal feed production . More than 1100 samples of global origin collected over five years were analyzed for amino acids following the Official Methods of the United States and European Union . Detailed data and graphics are given to characterize the obtained calibration equations . NIRS was validated with 98 independent samples for wheat and 78 samples for corn and compared to amino acid predictions using linear crude protein regression equations . With a few exceptions , validation showed that 70-98% of the amino acid variance in the samples could be explained using NIRS . Especially for lysine and methionine , the most limiting amino acids for farm animals , NIRS can predict contents in cereals much better than crude protein regressions . Through low cost and high speed of analysis NIRS enables the amino acid analysis of many samples in order to improve the accuracy of feed formulation and obtain better quality and lower production costs .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Further NIRS calibrations were developed for the accurate and fast prediction of the total contents of methionine , cystine , lysine , threonine , tryptophan , and other essential amino acids , protein , and moisture in the most important cereals and brans or middlings for animal feed production .
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Score: 1.00
Title: [ Obtaining stem borer-resistant homozygous transgenic lines of Minghui 81 harboring novel cry1Ac gene via particle bombardment ]
Author: Zeng QC Wu Q Zhou KD Feng DJ Wang F Su J Altosaar I Zhu Z
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 29 ( 6 ) P : 519-24 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12096630 Accession (PMID): 12096630
Abstract: A modified cry1Ac gene was generated by fusing with Lys-Asp-Glu-Lue ( KDEL ) , an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal at the 3-ends , with signal peptide coding sequence of Soybean kunitz trypsin inhibitor ( SKTI ) at the 5-ends . Vector containing the modified cry1Ac gene coding region flanked by the corn ubiquitin 1 promoter and the nopaline synthase gene ( nos ) terminator with Hygromycin Phosphotransferase ( hpt ) gene as a plant selection marker was constructed . The modified cry1Ac gene in which toxic protein targeted to endoplasmic retention was successfully transferred into Minghui 81 ( Oryza sativa L subsp . indica ) , an elite restoring line of commercial CMS indica hybrid rice , through particle bombardment and obtained fertile transformants . Homozygous transgenic rice lines were obtained in the third generation exploiting self-seed set reproduction and HygromycinB selection . These transgenic lines were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) amplification , Southern blotting and ELISA detection . Pest insect-resistant bioassay indicated that some of the homozygous cry1Ac-transgenic rice plants of T2 progeny showed high-level resistance against striped stem borer ( Chilo suppressalis ) at field trials .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A modified cry1Ac gene was generated by fusing with Lys-Asp-Glu-Lue ( KDEL ) , an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal at the 3-ends , with signal peptide coding sequence of Soybean kunitz trypsin inhibitor ( SKTI ) at the 5-ends .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources for phytase production by Mitsuokella jalaludinii , a new rumen bacterial species .
Author: Lan GQ Abdullah N Jalaludin S Ho YW .
Journal: Lett . Appl . Microbiol . Citation: V : 35 ( 2 ) P : 157-61 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12100593 Accession (PMID): 12100593
Abstract: AIMS : The effects of different carbon and nitrogen sources on phytase production by Mitsuokella jalaludinii were evaluated and the optimization of rice bran ( RB ) and soybean milk ( SM ) concentrations in the medium for phytase production was also determined . METHODS AND RESULTS : Replacement of glucose , cellobiose and starch in MF1 medium by RB or palm kernel cake and replacement of trypticase peptone and yeast extract in the medium by SM or enzymatic digested soybean milk significantly increased the phytase production by M jalaludinii . The optimal concentrations of RB and SM in the medium for phytase production were 15% RB and 20% SM or 20% RB and 10% SM or 20% RB and 20% SM and the phytase activities in the media were 12 . 53 , 12 . 93 and 12 . 75 U g-1 culture broth , respectively . CONCLUSIONS , SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY : The high production of phytase by M jalaludinii warrants further research to increase its yield by genetic manipulation for commercial application .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: METHODS AND RESULTS : Replacement of glucose , cellobiose and starch in MF1 medium by RB or palm kernel cake and replacement of trypticase peptone and yeast extract in the medium by SM or enzymatic digested soybean milk significantly increased the phytase production by M jalaludinii .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Salt-tolerant ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of the marine angiosperm Zostera marina L
Author: Muramatsu Y Harada A Ohwaki Y Kasahara Y Takagi S Fukuhara T
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol . Citation: V : 43 ( 10 ) P : 1137-45 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12407193 Accession (PMID): 12407193
Abstract: Plasma membrane ( PM ) H ( + ) -ATPase and H ( + ) transport activity were detected in PM fractions prepared from Zostera marina ( a seagrass ) , Vallisneria gigantea ( a freshwater grass ) and Oryza sativa ( rice , a terrestrial plant ) . The properties of Z marina PM H ( + ) -ATPase , specifically , the optimal pH for ATPase activity and the result of trypsin treatment , were similar to those of authentic PM H ( + ) -ATPases in higher plants . In V gigantea and O sativa PM fractions , vanadate-sensitive ( P-type ) ATPase activities were inhibited by the addition of NaCl . In contrast , activity in the Z marina PM fraction was not inhibited . The nitrate-sensitive ( V-type ) and azide-sensitive ( F-type ) ATPase activities in the Z marina crude microsomal fraction and the cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity , however , were inhibited by NaCl , indicating that not all enzyme activities in Z marina are insensitive to salt . Although the ratio of Na ( + ) to K ( + ) ( Na ( + ) /K ( + ) ) in seawater is about 30 , Na ( + ) /K ( + ) in the Z marina cells was about 1 . 0 . The salt-tolerant ATPase activity in the plasma membrane must play an important role in maintaining a low Na ( + ) concentration in the seagrass cells .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The properties of Z marina PM H ( + ) -ATPase , specifically , the optimal pH for ATPase activity and the result of trypsin treatment , were similar to those of authentic PM H ( + ) -ATPases in higher plants .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Effect of probiotic fermentation on antinutrients and in vitro protein and starch digestibilities of indigenously developed RWGT food mixture .
Author: Sindhu SC Khetarpaul N
Journal: Citation: V : 16 ( 3 ) P : 173-81 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12418801 Accession (PMID): 12418801
Abstract: Indigenously developed RWGT food mixture which contained rice flour , whey , sprouted green gram paste and tomato pulp ( 2 : 1 : 1 : 1 w/w ) was autoclaved 1 . 5 kg/cm2 , 15 min , 121 degrees C ) , cooled and fermented with 2% liquid culture ( containing 10 ( 6 ) cells/ml broth ) . Two types of fermentations were carried out ie single culture fermentation [ L casei , L plantarum ( 37 degrees C , 24 hr . ) ] and sequential culture fermentation [ S boulardii ( 25 degrees C , 24 hr . ) + L casei ( 37 degrees C , 24 hr . ) ] ; S boulardii [ ( 25 degrees C , 24 hr . ) + L plantarum ( 37 degrees C , 24 hr . ) ] . All the fermentations drastically reduced the contents of phytic acid , polyphenols and trypsin inhibitor activity while significantly improving the in vitro digestibilities of starch and protein . Sequential culture fermentations brought about higher changes as compared to single culture fermentations .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: All the fermentations drastically reduced the contents of phytic acid , polyphenols and trypsin inhibitor activity while significantly improving the in vitro digestibilities of starch and protein .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Melatonin : a hormone , a it issue factor , an autocoid , a paracoid , and an antioxidant vitamin .
Author: Tan DX Manchester LC Hardeland R Lopez-Burillo S Mayo JC Sainz RM Reiter RJ .
Journal: J Pineal Res . Citation: V : 34 ( 1 ) P : 75-8 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12485375 Accession (PMID): 12485375
Abstract: Melatonin , a derivative of an essential amino acid , tryptophan , was first identified in bovine pineal it issue and subsequently it has been portrayed exclusively as a hormone . Recently accumulated evidence has challenged this concept . Melatonin is present in the earliest life forms and is found in all organisms including bacteria , algae , fungi , plants , insects , and vertebrates including humans . Several characteristics of melatonin distinguish it from a classic hormone such as its direct , non-receptor-mediated free radical scavenging activity . As melatonin is also ingested in foodstuffs such as vegetables , fruits , rice , wheat and herbal medicines , from the nutritional point of view , melatonin can also be classified as a vitamin . It seems likely that melatonin initially evolved as an antioxidant , becoming a vitamin in the food chain , and in multicellular organisms , where it is produced , it has acquired autocoid , paracoid and hormonal properties .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Melatonin , a derivative of an essential amino acid , tryptophan , was first identified in bovine pineal it issue and subsequently it has been portrayed exclusively as a hormone .
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Score: 1.00
Title: A novel plant protein undergoing light-induced phosphorylation and release from the photosynthetic thylakoid membranes .
Author: Carlberg I Hansson M Kieselbach T Schrder WP Andersson B Vener AV .
Journal: Proc . Natl . Acad . Sci . USA Citation: V : 100 ( 2 ) P : 757-62 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12524456 Accession (PMID): 12524456
Abstract: The characteristics of a phosphoprotein with a relative electrophoretic mobility of 12 kDa have been unknown during two decades of studies on redox-dependent protein phosphorylation in plant photosynthetic membranes . Digestion of this protein from spinach thylakoid membranes with trypsin and subsequent tandem nanospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the peptides revealed a protein sequence that did not correspond to any previously known protein . Sequencing of the corresponding cDNA uncovered a gene for a precursor protein with a transit peptide followed by a strongly basic mature protein with a molecular mass of 8 , 640 Da . Genes encoding homologous proteins were found on chromosome 3 of Arabidopsis and rice as well as in ESTs from 20 different plant species , but not from any other organisms . The protein can be released from the membrane with high salt and is also partially released in response to light-induced phosphorylation of thylakoids , in contrast to all other known thylakoid phosphoproteins , which are integral to the membrane . On the basis of its properties , this plant-specific protein is named thylakoid soluble phosphoprotein of 9 kDa ( TSP9 ) . Mass spectrometric analyses revealed the existence of non- , mono- , di- , and triphosphorylated forms of TSP9 and phosphorylation of three distinct threonine residues in the central part of the protein . The phosphorylation and release of TSP9 from the photosynthetic membrane on illumination favor participation of this basic protein in cell signaling and regulation of plant gene expression in response to changing light conditions .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Digestion of this protein from spinach thylakoid membranes with trypsin and subsequent tandem nanospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the peptides revealed a protein sequence that did not correspond to any previously known protein .
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Score: 1.00
Title: [ Purification and partial characterization of antagonistic proteins from Bacillus subtilis B034 ]
Author: Tong Y Ma Z Chen W Li D
Journal: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao Citation: V : 39 ( 4 ) P : 339-43 Year: 1999 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12555573 Accession (PMID): 12555573
Abstract: Bacillus subtilis B034 , an antagonistic bacteria isolated from the phyllosphere of rice , strongly inhibits the growth of Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae which causes the rice bacterial blight . Crude extract was obtained by precipitation of the cell-free culture of B034 with 70% saturated ( NH4 ) 2SO4 . The suspension of the precipitate strongly inhibits Xanthomonas oryzae pv . o-ryzae , and it is thermostable , resistant to trypsin , partial sensitive to proteinase K , pronase E and chloroform . Its active pH range is wide , from 4 . 0 to more than 12 . 0 , relative more stable in high pH . Two antagonistic peaks were obtained from the crude extract of B034 after Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B , DEAE-Sephacel and FPLC Superdex 75 HR 10/30 column chromatography . One of these two peaks , named P2 , was showed only single band with 50 . 3 kD and pI6 . 25 in SDS-PAGE and PAGE-IEF , respectively . The N-terminal partial sequence of protein P2 was analyzed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The suspension of the precipitate strongly inhibits Xanthomonas oryzae pv . o-ryzae , and it is thermostable , resistant to trypsin , partial sensitive to proteinase K , pronase E and chloroform .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Proteomics approach to identify wound-response related proteins from rice leaf sheath .
Author: Shen S Jing Y Kuang T
Journal: Proteomics Citation: V : 3 ( 4 ) P : 527-35 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12687619 Accession (PMID): 12687619
Abstract: In order to avoid the complex conditions of the intact plant for simple analysis of proteins in wound-response stress , we used the detached rice leaf sheath which is a very active part of the rice seedling . Proteins were extracted from rice leaf sheath at 0 , 12 , 24 , 48 h after cutting and separated by two-dimensional ( 2-D ) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis . Changes in differentially displayed proteins were found in leaf sheaths after cutting in the 0-48 h time course . Ten proteins were up-regulated , while 19 proteins were down-regulated compared with those on the four 2-D gels . Among them , 14 proteins were analyzed by N-terminal , or internal amino acid sequence . The clear functions of nine proteins could be identified . Six proteins did not yield amino acid sequence information due to their blocked N-termini . Furthermore , 11 proteins were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry , and identified protein database matching . It was shown that the down-regulated proteins were calreticulin ( nos . 5 , 6 ) , histone H1 ( no 15 ) and hemoglobin ( no 17 ) , putative peroxidase ( no 19 ) ; the up-regulated proteins were Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor ( no 23 ) , putative receptor-like protein kinase ( nos . 24 , 25 ) , calmodulin-related protein ( no 26 ) , small subunit of ribulose-1 , 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( no 27 ) , mannose-binding rice lectin ( nos . 28 , 29 ) . Among all the above proteins , four ( nos . 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ) have been confirmed to be wound-response proteins . The others can not be excluded as also being related to wound-responses , such as the signal transduction-related proteins ( nos . 5 , 6 ) , photosynthesis-related protein ( no 27 ) , and stress-response proteins ( nos . 19 , 28 , 29 ) . This is the first time protein changes in response to wounding in rice leaf sheath have been shown .
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[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: 5 , 6 ) , histone H1 ( no 15 ) and hemoglobin ( no 17 ) , putative peroxidase ( no 19 ) ; the up-regulated proteins were Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor ( no 23 ) , putative receptor-like protein kinase ( nos .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Assessing matrix assisted laser desorption/ ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry as a means of rapid embryo protein identification in rice .
Author: Fukuda M Islam N Woo SH Yamagishi A Takaoka M Hirano H
Journal: Electrophoresis Citation: V : 24 ( 7-8 ) P : 1319-29 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12707926 Accession (PMID): 12707926
Abstract: Rice embryo proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis ( 2-DE ) . A total of 105 spots were digested with trypsin and the resultant peptides were analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF-MS ) . Raw mass spectra were fully-automatically processed and searched with selected monoisotopic masses against SWISS-PROT/TrEMBL and NCBInr databases . High quality mass spectra were obtained from 53 spots , of which 36 spots were identified including 29 not registered in databases . Fifty percent of the rice embryo proteins resolved in 2-DE could not be identified , indicating more efficient sample preparation techniques need to be developed in the future . At least four to five matching peptides were found to be essential for unambiguous identification of rice embryo proteins ; peptide matching of less than four lead to ambiguous results . The suitability of peptide mass fingerprinting method as a means of rapid embryo protein identification in rice was discussed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: A total of 105 spots were digested with trypsin and the resultant peptides were analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF-MS ) .
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Score: 1.00
Title: The major peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in thylakoid lumen of plant chloroplasts belongs to a novel cyclophilin TLP20 .
Author: Edvardsson A Eshaghi S Vener AV Andersson B
Journal: FEBS Lett . Citation: V : 542 ( 1-3 ) P : 137-41 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12729913 Accession (PMID): 12729913
Abstract: Fractionation of proteins from the thylakoid lumen of spinach chloroplasts combined with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase ( PPIase ) measurements revealed a major isomerase activity that was ascribed to a novel enzyme TLP20 ( thylakoid lumen PPIase of 20 kDa ) . TLP20 was inhibited by cyclosporin A and mass spectrometric sequencing of tryptic peptides confirmed its classification as a cyclophilin . Genes encoding similar putative thylakoid cyclophilins with a unique insert of three amino acids NPV in their N-termini were found in chromosome 5 of both Arabidopsis and rice . TLP20 is suggested to be the major PPIase and protein folding catalyst in the thylakoid lumen of plant chloroplasts .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: TLP20 was inhibited by cyclosporin A and mass spectrometric sequencing of tryptic peptides confirmed its classification as a cyclophilin .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Fate of selenate metabolized by Enterobacter taylorae isolated from rice straw .
Author: Zahir ZA Zhang Y Frankenberger WT .
Journal: J Agric . Food Chem . Citation: V : 51 ( 12 ) P : 3609-13 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12769533 Accession (PMID): 12769533
Abstract: Rice straw has been successfully tested as an effective organic source and a carrier of selenate [ Se ( VI ) ] -reducing bacteria to remove Se ( VI ) from agricultural drainage water . In this study , an Se ( VI ) -reducing bacterium identified as Enterobacter taylorae was isolated from rice straw and used to remove Se ( VI ) from a 0 . 5% tryptic soy broth ( TSB ) and high-salt ( 15 . 5 dS m ( - ) ( 1 ) ) synthetic agricultural drainage water containing Se ( VI ) in a range of 500-5000 microg/L Results showed that E taylorae reduced 81-94% of the added Se ( VI ) to elemental Se [ Se ( 0 ) ] in the 0 . 5% TSB solution during a 5-day experiment . In the high-salt drainage water , Se ( VI ) reduction was rapid during a 9-day experiment . On the final day of the experiment , Se ( 0 ) [ 75% ] and Se ( -II ) [ 19% ] were the major forms of Se in the drainage water with small amounts of Se ( VI ) , Se ( IV ) , and volatile Se released . The pathway of Se ( VI ) reduction in the drainage water followed the order Se ( VI ) --> selenite [ Se ( IV ) ] --> Se ( 0 ) --> selenide [ Se ( -II ) ] . This study suggests that E taylorae may be used to remediate high-salt Se ( VI ) -contaminated agricultural drainage water .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , an Se ( VI ) -reducing bacterium identified as Enterobacter taylorae was isolated from rice straw and used to remove Se ( VI ) from a 0 . 5% tryptic soy broth ( TSB ) and high-salt ( 15 . 5 dS m ( - ) ( 1 ) ) synthetic agricultural drainage water containing Se ( VI ) in a range of 500-5000 microg/L Results showed that E taylorae reduced 81-94% of the added Se ( VI ) to elemental Se [ Se ( 0 ) ] in the 0 . 5% TSB solution during a 5-day experiment .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Stability of recombinant human alpha-1-antitrypsin produced in rice in infant formula .
Author: Chowanadisai W Huang J Huang N Lnnerdal B
Journal: J Nutr . Biochem . Citation: V : 14 ( 7 ) P : 386-93 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12915219 Accession (PMID): 12915219
Abstract: Human milk contains several biologically active proteins that benefit the breast-fed infant . In order to survive in the gastrointestinal tract , these proteins need to be protected against proteolysis . Since human milk contains relatively high concentrations of alpha-1-antitrypsin ( AAT ) , we have expressed recombinant AAT in rice to explore the possibility of supplementing infant formula with this protein . The stability of recombinant AAT was examined by biochemical and functional assays , such as SDS-PAGE , Western blotting , ELISA , elastase and trypsin inhibition , following exposure to heat , low pH , and in vitro digestion , conducted in both phosphate buffered saline and infant formula . Native AAT is resistant to acidic environments down to pH 2 for 1 h and can withstand in vitro digestion modeled after conditions in the infant gut . Recombinant AAT is nearly as resistant as the native form in buffer , and is equally resilient in formula . Heat treatments ( 60 degrees C for 15 min , 72 degrees C for 20 sec , 85 degrees C for 3 min , and 137 degrees C for 20 sec ) revealed that recombinant AAT is not as stable as native AAT in buffer , particularly at higher temperatures . While significantly less recombinant AAT is detected by ELISA after heating in formula , addition of bile extract can restore epitopes resulting in higher concentrations , suggesting protein aggregation that may not affect AAT activity . This study shows that recombinant AAT may survive the conditions of the infant stomach and duodenum and affect protein digestion in the infant small intestine .
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[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The stability of recombinant AAT was examined by biochemical and functional assays , such as SDS-PAGE , Western blotting , ELISA , elastase and trypsin inhibition , following exposure to heat , low pH , and in vitro digestion , conducted in both phosphate buffered saline and infant formula .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding a major allergenic protein in rice seeds . Homology of the deduced amino acid sequence with members of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family .
Author: Izumi H Adachi T Fujii N Matsuda T Nakamura R Tanaka K Urisu A Kurosawa Y
Journal: FEBS Lett . Citation: V : 302 ( 3 ) P : 213-6 Year: 1992 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1376283 Accession (PMID): 1376283
Abstract: A cDNA clone of rice major allergenic protein ( RAP ) was isolated from a cDNA library of maturing rice seeds . The cDNA had an open reading frame ( 486 nucleotides ) which coded a 162 amino acid residue polypeptide comprising a 27-residue signal peptide and a 135-residue mature protein of M ( r ) 14 , 764 . The deduced amino acid sequence of RAP showed a considerable similarity to barley trypsin inhibitor [ 1983 , J Biol . Chem . 258 , 7998-8003 ] and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor [ 1981 , Phytochemistry 20 , 1781-1784 ] .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The deduced amino acid sequence of RAP showed a considerable similarity to barley trypsin inhibitor [ 1983 , J Biol . Chem . 258 , 7998-8003 ] and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor [ 1981 , Phytochemistry 20 , 1781-1784 ] .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Beauvericin cytotoxicity to the invertebrate cell line SF-9 .
Author: Calo L Fornelli F Nenna S Tursi A Caiaffa MF Macchia L
Journal: J Appl . Genet . Citation: V : 44 ( 4 ) P : 515-20 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14617831 Accession (PMID): 14617831
Abstract: The cyclic hexadepsipeptide beauvericin , initially known as a secondary metabolite produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and toxic to Artemia salina larvae , has been more recently recognized as an important mycotoxin synthesized by a number of Fusarium strains , which parasite maize , wheat and rice . Therefore , this mycotoxin may enter the food chain , causing yet unknown effects to the health of both domestic animals and humans . The cytotoxic effects of beauvericin on mammalian cells have been studied . We investigated the cytotoxicity of this compound in an in vitro invertebrate model , viz . the insect cell line SF-9 ( immortalized pupal ovarian cells of the lepidopter Spodoptera frugiperda ) . Cultures of SF-9 cells in the stationary phase were exposed to beauvericin at concentrations ranging from 100 nM to 300 microM , for different periods of time ( from 30 to 120 h ) . The effects on cell viability were assessed by the trypan blue exclusion method . After 4 h of incubation no significant decrease in cell viability was recorded in SF-9 cell cultures exposed to low concentrations of beauvericin , ie 100 nM and 300 nM . However , a slight decrease in viability ( 3 . 9% ) was seen already in cells exposed to the mycotoxin at the 1 microM concentration . This effect became gradually more evident at higher concentrations ( approximately equal to 28% at 30 microM , approximately equal to 50% at 100 microM , approximately equal to 68% at 300 microM ) . An even more pronounced reduction in cell viability was observed after a 24 h exposure . Under these conditions , 1 microM beauvericin caused an approx . 10% decrease in the number of viable cells , which became more significant at higher concentrations approximately equal to 23% at 3 microM , approximately equal to 47% at 10 microM , approximately equal to 65% at 30 microM , approximately equal to 90% at 100 microM , approximately equal to 99% at 300 microM ) . Therefore , the 50% cytotoxic concentrations ( CC50 ) at 4 h and 24 h could be estimated as 85 microM and 10 microM , respectively . In time-course experiments , no effect of beauvericin ( 30 microM ) on cell viability could be seen after exposure for periods of time as long as 30 , 1 h and 2 h , respectively . In contrast , when SF-9 cells were exposed to the mycotoxin for longer periods of time , from 8 h to 120 h , we recorded a strong cytotoxic effect already in the low micromolar concentration range . Thus , the CC50 after both 72 h and 120 h exposure times was assessed as 2 . 5 microM . Higher concentrations caused a virtually 100% cell death . The data collected suggest that beauvericin exerts a substantial dose and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on invertebrate cells , comparable to the effects described in mammalian cells .
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[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effects on cell viability were assessed by the trypan blue exclusion method .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Retrospective study of preventive effect of maize on mortality from Parkinsons disease in Japan .
Author: Fukushima T Tanaka K Ushijima K Moriyama M
Journal: Citation: V : 12 ( 4 ) P : 447-50 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14672869 Accession (PMID): 14672869
Abstract: The findings of a negative association between past maize ( Zea mays ) production and current Parkinsons disease mortality by each prefecture in Japan tends to support the hypothesis that the nutritional condition that causes niacin deficiency might protect people from Parkinsons disease . Specifically , the negative association between both the area planted for dried corn in 1960 , 1970 or 1977 and the area planted for sweet corn in 1960 and age-adjusted death rates for Parkinsons disease is ecological evidence supporting the hypothesis . Extending the analysis to other cultivated crops , even stronger negative associations of age-adjusted death rates for Parkinsons disease and cultivation of rice and soybeans were found , but associations were not significant for a large variety of vegetables . The findings for soybean and rice are attributed to the correspondence ( co-linearity ) of cultivation of these other two seed-crops with maize . Hence , further testing of the theory of niacin deprivation and prevention of Parkinsons disease finds some circumstantial support in the cultivation patterns of a grain of poor niacin and tryptophan availability .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Hence , further testing of the theory of niacin deprivation and prevention of Parkinsons disease finds some circumstantial support in the cultivation patterns of a grain of poor niacin and tryptophan availability .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Molecular and biochemical analyses of OsRab7 , a rice Rab7 homolog .
Author: Nahm MY Kim SW Yun D Lee SY Cho MJ Bahk JD .
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol . Citation: V : 44 ( 12 ) P : 1341-9 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14701929 Accession (PMID): 14701929
Abstract: Rab7 is a small GTP-binding protein important in early to late endosome/lysosome vesicular transport in mammalian cells . We have isolated a Rab7 cDNA clone , OsRab7 , from a cold-treated rice cDNA library by the subtraction screening method . The cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 206 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of about 23 kDa . Its predicted amino acid sequence shows significantly high identity with the sequences of other Rab7 proteins . His-tagged OsRab7 bound to radiolabeled GTPgammaS in a specific and stoichiometric manner . Biochemical and structural properties of the Rab7 wild type ( WT ) protein were compared to those of Q67L and T22N mutants . The detergent 3- ( [ 3-cholamidopropyl ] dimethylammonio ) -1-propane sulfonate ( CHAPS ) increased the guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis activities of Rab7WT . The OsRab7Q67L mutant showed much lower GTPase activity compared to the WT protein untreated with CHAPS , and the T22N mutant showed no GTP binding activity at all . The OsRab7Q67L mutant was constitutively active for guanine nucleotide binding while the T22N mutant ( dominant negative ) showed no guanine nucleotide binding activity . When bound to GTP , the Rab7WT and the Q67L mutants were protected from tryptic proteolysis . The cleavage pattern of the Rab7T22N mutant , however , was not affected by GTP addition . Northern and Western blot analyses suggested that OsRab7 is distributed in various it issues of rice . Furthermore , expression of a rice Rab7 gene was differentially regulated by various environmental stimuli such as cold , NaCl , dehydration , and ABA . In addition , subcellular localization of OsRab7 was investigated in the Arabidopsis protoplasts by a double-labeling experiment using GFP-fused OsRab7 and FM4-64 . GFP-OsRab7 is localized to the vacuolar membrane , suggesting that OsRab7 is implicated in a vesicular transport to the vacuole in plant cells .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: When bound to GTP , the Rab7WT and the Q67L mutants were protected from tryptic proteolysis .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Lipoic acid-dependent oxidative catabolism of alpha-keto acids in mitochondria provides evidence for branched-chain amino acid catabolism in Arabidopsis .
Author: Taylor NL Heazlewood JL Day DA Millar AH .
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 134 ( 2 ) P : 838-48 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14764908 Accession (PMID): 14764908
Abstract: Lipoic acid-dependent pathways of alpha-keto acid oxidation by mitochondria were investigated in pea ( Pisum sativum ) , rice ( Oryza sativa ) , and Arabidopsis . Proteins containing covalently bound lipoic acid were identified on isoelectric focusing/sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separations of mitochondrial proteins by the use of antibodies raised to this cofactor . All these proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry . Lipoic acid-containing acyltransferases from pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex were identified from all three species . In addition , acyltransferases from the branched-chain dehydrogenase complex were identified in both Arabidopsis and rice mitochondria . The substrate-dependent reduction of NAD ( + ) was analyzed by spectrophotometry using specific alpha-keto acids . Pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent reactions were measured in all three species . Activity of the branched-chain dehydrogenase complex was only measurable in Arabidopsis mitochondria using substrates that represented the alpha-keto acids derived by deamination of branched-chain amino acids ( Val [ valine ] , leucine , and isoleucine ) . The rate of branched-chain amino acid and alpha-keto acid-dependent oxygen consumption by intact Arabidopsis mitochondria was highest with Val and the Val-derived alpha-keto acid , alpha-ketoisovaleric acid . Sequencing of peptides derived from trypsination of Arabidopsis mitochondrial proteins revealed the presence of many of the enzymes required for the oxidation of all three branched-chain amino acids . The potential role of branched-chain amino acid catabolism as an oxidative phosphorylation energy source or as a detoxification pathway during plant stress is discussed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sequencing of peptides derived from trypsination of Arabidopsis mitochondrial proteins revealed the presence of many of the enzymes required for the oxidation of all three branched-chain amino acids .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Nutrient uptake of rice roots in response to infestation of Nilaparvata lugens ( Stl ) ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) .
Author: Wu JC Qiu HM Yang GQ Dong B Gu H
Journal: J Econ . Entomol . Citation: V : 96 ( 6 ) P : 1798-804 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14977118 Accession (PMID): 14977118
Abstract: This study investigated the uptake of three macronutrients , including nitrogen ( N ) , phosphorus ( P ) , and potassium ( K ) , by rice roots in response to different infestation levels of Nilaparvata lugens ( Stl ) ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) . Hydroponics experiments were conducted on the rice variety Zhendao 2 ( moderately resistant to Tryporyza incertulas , Lepidoptera : Pyralidae ) and the variety Xiushui 63 ( susceptible to N lugens ) . In Zhendao 2 , N lugens infestation significantly influenced the uptake of P and K but not N , with P and K uptake decreasing as the duration of N lugens infestation increased . In Xiushui 63 , N lugens infestation influenced N , P , and K uptake to a different degree , depending on the infestation level , in which infestation for 2 , 4 , 6 , and 8 d at a density of 60 nymphs did not affect N uptake , but such infestation levels significantly influenced the uptake of P and K After the removal of N lugens from rice plants , the N uptake recovered from infestation faster than that for P and K in the variety Zhendao 2 , whereas the recovery rate of K uptake was faster than that for N and P in the variety Xiushui 63 . The recovery rate of the nutrient uptake was negatively correlated to the density and duration of infestation . The experimental results demonstrated that N , P , and K uptake of rice roots were largely not influenced by N lugens infestation when the pest density was controlled below 15 nymphs per hill . This infestation level was in agreement with the proposed economic thresholds for control measures against the N lugens infestation on rice plants .
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[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Hydroponics experiments were conducted on the rice variety Zhendao 2 ( moderately resistant to Tryporyza incertulas , Lepidoptera : Pyralidae ) and the variety Xiushui 63 ( susceptible to N lugens ) .
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Score: 1.00
Title: A novel salt-tolerant L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase from Porteresia coarctata ( Roxb . ) Tateoka , a halophytic wild rice : molecular cloning , bacterial overexpression , characterization , and functional introgression into tobacco-conferring salt tolerance phenotype .
Author: Majee M Maitra S Dastidar KG Pattnaik S Chatterjee A Hait NC Das KP Majumder AL .
Journal: J Biol . Chem . Citation: V : 279 ( 27 ) P : 28539-52 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15016817 Accession (PMID): 15016817
Abstract: l-myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase ( EC 5 . 5 . 1 . 4 , MIPS ) , an evolutionarily conserved enzyme protein , catalyzes the synthesis of inositol , which is implicated in a number of metabolic reactions in the biological kingdom . Here we report on the isolation of the gene ( PINO1 ) for a novel salt-tolerant MIPS from the wild halophytic rice , Porteresia coarctata ( Roxb . ) Tateoka . Identity of the PINO1 gene was confirmed by functional complementation in a yeast inositol auxotrophic strain . Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of PINO1 with that of the homologous gene from Oryza sativa L ( RINO1 ) revealed distinct differences in a stretch of 37 amino acids , between amino acids 174 and 210 . Purified bacterially expressed PINO1 protein demonstrated a salt-tolerant character in vitro compared with the salt-sensitive RINO1 protein as with those purified from the native source or an expressed salt-sensitive mutant PINO1 protein wherein amino acids 174-210 have been deleted . Analysis of the salt effect on oligomerization and tryptophan fluorescence of the RINO1 and PINO1 proteins revealed that the structure of PINO1 protein is stable toward salt environment . Furthermore , introgression of PINO1 rendered transgenic tobacco plants capable of growth in 200-300 mm NaCl with retention of approximately 40-80% of the photosynthetic competence with concomitant increased inositol production compared with unstressed control . MIPS protein isolated from PINO1 transgenics showed salt-tolerant property in vitro confirming functional expression in planta of the PINO1 gene . To our knowledge , this is the first report of a salt-tolerant MIPS from any source .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Analysis of the salt effect on oligomerization and tryptophan fluorescence of the RINO1 and PINO1 proteins revealed that the structure of PINO1 protein is stable toward salt environment .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Alpha-picolinic acid , a fungal toxin and mammal apoptosis-inducing agent , elicits hypersensitive-like response and enhances disease resistance in rice .
Author: Zhang HK Zhang X Mao BZ Li Q He ZH .
Journal: Cell Res . Citation: V : 14 ( 1 ) P : 27-33 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15040887 Accession (PMID): 15040887
Abstract: Alpha-picolinic acid ( PA ) , a metabolite of tryptophan and an inducer of apoptosis in the animal cell , has been reported to be a toxin produced by some of plant fungal pathogens and used in screening for disease resistant mutants . Here , we report that PA is an efficient apoptosis agent triggering cell death of hypersensitive-like response in planta . Confirmed by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter ( FACS ) , rice suspension cells and leaves exhibited programmed cell death induced by PA . The PA-induced cell death was associated with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species that could be blocked by diphenylene iodonium chloride , indicating that the generation of reactive oxygen species was NADPH-oxidase dependent . We also demonstrated the induction of rice defense-related genes and subsequent resistant enhancement by PA against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea . Hence , it was concluded that the PA-stimulated defense response likely involves the onset of the hypersensitive response in rice , which also provides a simple eliciting tool for studying apoptosis in the plant cell .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Alpha-picolinic acid ( PA ) , a metabolite of tryptophan and an inducer of apoptosis in the animal cell , has been reported to be a toxin produced by some of plant fungal pathogens and used in screening for disease resistant mutants .
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Score: 1.00
Title: [ Study on the teratogenicity effects of genetically modified rich which expressed cowpea trypsin inhibitor on rats ]
Author: Zhuo Q Chen X Piao J Han C
Journal: Citation: V : 33 ( 1 ) P : 74-7 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15098484 Accession (PMID): 15098484
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : Rats were fed by transgenic rice which expressed insecticidal protein CpTI ( cowpea trypsin inhibitor ) to study if the transgenic rice possessed potential teratogenicity effects . METHODS : Weanling Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups : transgenic rice group , non transgenic rice group , negative control group and positive control group . The diet of transgenic rice group contained 78 . 3% transgenic rice . The diet of non transgenic rice group contained 74 . 7% non transgenic rice which was the parent line of the transgenic one . The diet formula of the two control groups was AIN93G . The marco and micronutrient content were equal in three diets . When the sexual maturation period of rats arrived , conventional teratogenicity test was performed . RESULTS : The body weight gain of pregnant rats and body weight , body length and tail length of fetal rats in transgenic rice group were significant higher than those in positive control group ( P < 0 . 01 ) . The malformation rate of fetus in transgenic rice group was significant lower than that in positive control group ( P < 0 . 01 ) . CONCLUSION : There were no significant differences of all indexes among transgenic rice group , non transgenic rice group and negative control group ( P > 0 . 05 ) . Judging from these results , the transgenic rice modified with CpTI was considered to have no maternal toxicity , embryotoxicity and teratogenicity effects .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVE : Rats were fed by transgenic rice which expressed insecticidal protein CpTI ( cowpea trypsin inhibitor ) to study if the transgenic rice possessed potential teratogenicity effects .
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Score: 1.00
Title: The amino acid sequence of a 20 kDa bifunctional subtilisin/alpha-amylase inhibitor from bran [ correction of brain ] of rice ( Oryza sativa L ) seeds .
Author: Ohtsubo K Richardson M
Journal: FEBS Lett . Citation: V : 309 ( 1 ) P : 68-72 Year: 1992 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1511747 Accession (PMID): 1511747
Abstract: A 20 kDa bifunctional inhibitor of the microbial proteinase , subtilisin , and the alpha-amylase from the larvae of the red flour beetle ( Tribolium castaneum ) was purified from bran of rice seeds by saline extraction , precipitation with ammonium sulphate , ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose and Toyopearl CM-650 , and preparative HPLC on Vydac C18 . The complete primary structure was determined by automatic degradation of the intact , reduced and S-alkylated protein , and by manual DABITC/PITC micro-sequencing of peptides obtained from the protein following separate enzymic digestions with trypsin , pepsin , chymotrypsin , elastase and the protease from S aureus V8 . The protein sequence , which contained 176 residues , showed strong homology with similar bifunctional inhibitors previously isolated from wheat and barley which are related to the Kunitz family of proteinase inhibitors from legume seeds .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The complete primary structure was determined by automatic degradation of the intact , reduced and S-alkylated protein , and by manual DABITC/PITC micro-sequencing of peptides obtained from the protein following separate enzymic digestions with trypsin , pepsin , chymotrypsin , elastase and the protease from S aureus V8 .
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Score: 1.00
Title: [ Study on food safety of genetically modified rice which expressed cowpea trypsin inhibitor by 90 day feeding test on rats ]
Author: Zhuo Q Chen X Piao J Gu L
Journal: Citation: V : 33 ( 2 ) P : 176-9 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15208998 Accession (PMID): 15208998
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : Rats were fed by transgenic rice which expressed insecticidal protein CPTI ( cowpea trypsin inhibitor ) to study if the transgenic rice possessed potential toxic or adverse effects . METHODS : Weanling Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups : T , N and C group . The diet of T group contained 78 . 3% transgenic rice . The diet of N group contained 74 . 7% non transgenic rice which was the parent line of the transgenic one . The diet formula of C group was AIN93G . The macro and micronutrient content were equal in three diets . The rats were fed for 90 days . Food intakes were weight every day , body-weight were weight and body-length were measured every week . In the middle and at the end of feeding period , haematological value and clinical chemistry parameters were measured , at the end of the 90th day , post-mortem organ coefficient were measured , organ it issues analysis was performed and bone density was measured . RESULTS : In most situation , there were no significant differences among the three groups ( P > 0 . 05 ) and no histopathological damage were detected . At the end of the 1st month , the male rats body length of the T group was longer than the other two groups and at the end of the test period , the male rats blood glucose and ALT were lower than the other two groups . In the middle of the test period , the female rats red blood cell number and hemoglobin were higher than the other two groups and at the end of the test period , the female rats monocyte number was higher than the other two groups ( P < 0 . 05 ) . But all of the results were in the normal range which had been reported before . CONCLUSION : From the results of the 90 days feeding test of transgenic rice on rats there did not reveal any signs of toxic and adverse effects .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVE : Rats were fed by transgenic rice which expressed insecticidal protein CPTI ( cowpea trypsin inhibitor ) to study if the transgenic rice possessed potential toxic or adverse effects .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Identification of conserved gene structures and carboxy-terminal motifs in the Myb gene family of Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa L ssp . indica .
Author: Jiang C Gu X Peterson T
Journal: Genome Biol . Citation: V : 5 ( 7 ) P : R46 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15239831 Accession (PMID): 15239831
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Myb proteins contain a conserved DNA-binding domain composed of one to four repeat motifs ( referred to as R0R1R2R3 ) ; each repeat is approximately 50 amino acids in length , with regularly spaced tryptophan residues . Although the Myb proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants , little is known about the functions of most Myb genes . Here we use computational techniques to classify Myb genes on the basis of sequence similarity and gene structure , and to identify possible functional relationships among subgroups of Myb genes from Arabidopsis and rice ( Oryza sativa L ssp . indica ) . RESULTS : This study analyzed 130 Myb genes from Arabidopsis and 85 from rice . The collected Myb proteins were clustered into subgroups based on sequence similarity and phylogeny . Interestingly , the exon-intron structure differed between subgroups , but was conserved in the same subgroup . Moreover , the Myb domains contained a significant excess of phase 1 and 2 introns , as well as an excess of nonsymmetric exons . Conserved motifs were detected in carboxy-terminal coding regions of Myb genes within subgroups . In contrast , no common regulatory motifs were identified in the noncoding regions . Additionally , some Myb genes with similar functions were clustered in the same subgroups . CONCLUSIONS : The distribution of introns in the phylogenetic tree suggests that Myb domains originally were compact in size ; introns were inserted and the splicing sites conserved during evolution . Conserved motifs identified in the carboxy-terminal regions are specific for Myb genes , and the identified Myb gene subgroups may reflect functional conservation .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Myb proteins contain a conserved DNA-binding domain composed of one to four repeat motifs ( referred to as R0R1R2R3 ) ; each repeat is approximately 50 amino acids in length , with regularly spaced tryptophan residues .
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Title: Identification of oxidised proteins in the matrix of rice leaf mitochondria by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry .
Author: Kristensen BK Askerlund P Bykova NV Egsgaard H Mller IM .
Journal: Phytochemistry Citation: V : 65 ( 12 ) P : 1839-51 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15276442 Accession (PMID): 15276442
Abstract: Highly purified mitochondria were isolated from green 7-day-old rice leaves . The mitochondria were sonicated and the matrix fraction isolated as the 100 , 000g supernatant . Part of the matrix fraction was left untreated while the other part was subjected to a mild oxidative treatment ( 0 . 5 mM H2O2+0 . 2 mM CuSO4 for 10 min at room temperature ) . The oxidised proteins in both samples were tagged with dinitrophenylhydrazine ( DNP ) , which forms a covalent bond with carbonyl groups . The DNP-tagged proteins were immunoprecipitated using anti-DNP antibodies and digested with trypsin . The mixture of peptides was analysed by nano-HPLC coupled online to an ESI-Quad-TOF mass spectrometer . The peptides were separated by stepwise ion exchange chromatography followed by reverse phase chromatography ( 2D-LC ) , and analysed by MS/MS . Proteins were identified by un-interpreted fragment ion database searches . Using this approach we identified 20 oxidised proteins in the control sample and a further 32 in the oxidised sample . Western blots of 2D-gels of the same samples prior to immunoprecipitation verified that the oxidation treatment increases protein oxidation also for specific proteins . Likewise Western blots showed that neither the isolation of mitochondria nor their subfractionation introduced carbonyl groups . We therefore conclude that a number of proteins are oxidised in the matrix of rice leaf mitochondria in vivo and further identify a group of proteins that are particularly susceptible to mild oxidation in vitro .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The DNP-tagged proteins were immunoprecipitated using anti-DNP antibodies and digested with trypsin .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Nutritional evaluation and shelf life studies of papads prepared from wheat-legume composite flours .
Author: Garg R Dahiya S
Journal: Citation: V : 58 ( 4 ) P : 299-307 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15354789 Accession (PMID): 15354789
Abstract: The present study was carried out to develop papads from wheat and legume blends and to analyze them for organoleptic acceptability , nutritional quality , and keeping quality . Papad is a dehydrated product prepared from dhals or rice . A firm but pliable dough is made from the flours of dhals or rice with addition of suitable seasoning . It is shaped into balls , rolled out thin , dried and toasted over open fire so as to give a light , crisp product . Mung flour papads were kept as control and wheat flour , chickpea flour , and pea flour were used to supplement mung flour papads . Three different proportions ( 10 , 20 , 30% ) of each flour were used to supplement Mung flour . Papads with wheat flour ( 10% ) , chickpea flour ( 20% ) , and pea flour ( 10% ) level of supplementation were found to be most acceptable and these papads were subjected to nutritional evaluation . Protein content significantly increased on supplementation with legume flours at all levels . Fat content was significantly higher in chickpea flour supplemented papads . Ash content varied significantly from 10 . 17 to 10 . 78% in papads . Total carbohydrates decreased significantly on supplementation with chickpea flour . Copper content increased significantly on supplementation . A significant decrease in phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor of supplemented papads was found . In vitro protein digestibility significantly increased on supplementation but a significant decrease in in vitro starch digestibility was found in supplemented papads . Storage studies showed that chickpea flour and pea flour supplemented papads can be stored safely for 60 days and wheat flour supplemented papads for 30 days both at room and refrigeration temperatures .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: A significant decrease in phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor of supplemented papads was found .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Atmospheric oxygen and other conditions affecting the production of cereulide by Bacillus cereus in food .
Author: Jskelinen EL Hggblom MM Andersson MA Salkinoja-Salonen MS .
Journal: Int . J Food Microbiol . Citation: V : 96 ( 1 ) P : 75-83 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15358508 Accession (PMID): 15358508
Abstract: Factors influencing the production of cereulide , the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus in food and laboratory media were investigated , using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and sperm motility inhibition bioassay for detection and quantitation . Oxygen was essential for production of the emetic toxin by B cereus . When beans , rice or tryptic soy broth were inoculated with cereulide producing strains B203 , B116 ( recent food isolates ) or the strain F-4810/72 , high amounts ( 2 to 7 microg ml ( -1 ) or g ( -1 ) wet wt ) of cereulide accumulated during 4-day storage at room temperature . In parallel cultures and foods , stored under nitrogen atmosphere ( > 99 . 5% N2 ) , less than 0 . 05 microg of cereulide ml ( -1 ) or g ( -1 ) wet wt accumulated . The outcome of the bioassay matched that of the chemical assay , with no indication of interference by substances in the rice or beans . Boiling for 20 to 30 min did not inactivate cereulide or cereulide producing strains in rice or the beans . Adding l-leucine and l-valine ( 0 . 3 g l ( -1 ) ) stimulated cereulide production 10 to 20-fold in R2A and in rice water agar . When the B cereus strains were grown on agar media under permissive conditions ( air , room temperature ) , cereulide was produced overnight with little or no increase when the incubation was extended to 4 days . In broth culture , the production of cereulide started later than 16-24 h . Anoxic storage prevented cereulide production also when the amino acids had been supplied . Packaging with modified atmosphere low in oxygen may thus be used to reduce the risk of cereulide formation during storage of food .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: When beans , rice or tryptic soy broth were inoculated with cereulide producing strains B203 , B116 ( recent food isolates ) or the strain F-4810/72 , high amounts ( 2 to 7 microg ml ( -1 ) or g ( -1 ) wet wt ) of cereulide accumulated during 4-day storage at room temperature .
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Score: 1.00
Title: [ Preparation and application of monoclonal antibodies against cowpea trypsin inhibitor ]
Author: Chen X Yang L Yang X Piao J
Journal: Citation: V : 33 ( 4 ) P : 437-9 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15461269 Accession (PMID): 15461269
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To detect cowpea trypsin inhibitor ( CpTI ) in transgenic rice leaves and build a possible method to assay transgenic plant with CpTI . METHODS : Nowadays gene assay is the most useful method to detect transgenic plants . But false positive may be got in gene assay and effective protein may not be produced . So assay of foreign protein is the most direct and conformable method . Monoclonal antibodies were got through traditional method of preparation . RESULTS : Three monoclonal antibodies were got . Detection of CpTI in transgenic rice leaves with these three antibodies mixes through Western blotting was conducted and the result was satisfying . CONCLUSION : The method of using the mixes of three antibodies to detect the CpTI in plants through Western blotting was satisfying .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVE : To detect cowpea trypsin inhibitor ( CpTI ) in transgenic rice leaves and build a possible method to assay transgenic plant with CpTI .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Insect resistance to Nilaparvata lugens and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in transgenic indica rice and the inheritance of gna+sbti transgenes .
Author: Li G Xu X Xing H Zhu H Fan Q
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 61 ( 4 ) P : 390-6 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15593292 Accession (PMID): 15593292
Abstract: Molecular genetic analysis and insect bioassay of transgenic indica rice Zhuxian B plants carrying snowdrop lectin gene ( gna ) and soybean trypsin inhibitor gene ( sbti ) were investigated in detail . PCR , dot blot and PCR-Southern blot analysis showed that both transgenes had been incorporated into the rice genome and transmitted up to R3 progeny in most lines tested . Some transgenic lines exhibited Mendelian segregation , but the other showed either 1 : 1 ( positive : negative for the transgenes ) or other aberrant segregation patterns . The segregation patterns of gna gene crossed between R2 and R3 progeny . In half of transgenic R3 lines , gna and sbti transgenes co-segregated . Two independent homozygous lines expressing double transgenes were identified in R3 progeny . Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the copy numbers of integrated gna and sbti transgenes varied from one to ten in different lines . Insect bioassay data showed that most transgenic plants had better resistance to both Nilaparvata lugens ( Stahl ) and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis ( Guenee ) than wild-type plants . The insect resistance of transgenic lines increased with the increase in transgene positive ratio in most of the transgenic lines . In all , we obtained nine lines of R3 transgenic plants , including one pure line , which had better resistance to both N lugens and C medinalis than wild-type plants .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Molecular genetic analysis and insect bioassay of transgenic indica rice Zhuxian B plants carrying snowdrop lectin gene ( gna ) and soybean trypsin inhibitor gene ( sbti ) were investigated in detail .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Nucleotide sequence of capsid protein gene of rice tungro bacilliform virus .
Author: Kano H Koizumi M Noda H Hibino H Ishikawa K Omura T Cabauatan PQ Koganezawa H
Journal: Arch . Virol . Citation: V : 124 ( 1-2 ) P : 157-63 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1571015 Accession (PMID): 1571015
Abstract: The sequence of 5 , 028 nucleotides , including one open reading frame ( ORF ) , of rice tungro bacilliform virus ( RTBV ) dsDNA was determined . The predicted translational product comprises 1 , 675 amino acids and has Mr of 194 , 134 ( p194 ) . The amino acid sequences of three tryptic fragments from the 32 k capsid protein of RTBV ( p32 ) were found in the predicted translational product indicating that the ORF codes for the RTBV capsid protein .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The amino acid sequences of three tryptic fragments from the 32 k capsid protein of RTBV ( p32 ) were found in the predicted translational product indicating that the ORF codes for the RTBV capsid protein .
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Title: Phenotypic characterization of Rice Cluster III archaea without prior isolation by applying quantitative polymerase chain reaction to an enrichment culture .
Author: Kemnitz D Kolb S Conrad R
Journal: Environ . Microbiol . Citation: V : 7 ( 4 ) P : 553-65 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15816932 Accession (PMID): 15816932
Abstract: A so far uncultured member of the Euryarchaeota was enriched from an anoxic riparian soil and phenotypically characterized using quantitative polymerase chain reaction ( qPCR ; "real-time PCR" ) . The microorganism is related to the Thermoplasmatales and belongs to Rice Cluster III ( RC-III ) . Enrichment cultures utilized yeast extract ( YE ) by transiently accumulating acetate as major fermentation product , which was subsequently converted to methane . The abundance of RC-III archaea within the enrichment cultures was quantified by analysis of the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism ( T-RFLP ) and by qPCR . We developed qPCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA genes ( 16S rDNA ) specific for RC-III as well as for the Archaea in general The enrichment cultures consisted of a mixed methanogenic community of Bacteria and Archaea , the latter consisting of up to 60% of members of RC-III . The other archaea belonged to Methanosarcinaceae , Methanomicrobiaceae and Methanobacteriaceae . The enriched RC-III archaea were represented by two sequences ( LL25A , LL37A ) that were highly similar to each other and to those detected in the soil inoculum ( >98% similarity ) . However , the 16S rDNA copy numbers of RC-III archaea were about 1000-fold lower than those of Bacteria . Nevertheless , we were able to estimate growth parameters and physiological properties of one of the enriched RC-III archaea ( LL25A ) by measuring the increase of 16S rDNA copy numbers specific for this group under different growth conditions . The enriched RC-III archaeon grew optimally at temperatures between 20 and 30 degrees C and neutral pH using YE , meat extract , peptone or tryptone under anoxic conditions . Doubling time was approximately 3 days . No proliferation was detected on carbohydrates , amino acids , fatty acids , glycerol , alcohols , aromatic compounds , purine and pyrimidine bases or pyruvate . Various exogenous electron acceptors ( eg ferric iron , S ( 0 ) ) did not support growth on YE . Proliferation of the enriched RC-III archaeon was hardly affected by the antibiotics ampicillin , kanamycin and streptomycin . These findings suggest that the enriched archaeon is a mesophilic anaerobe , which can grow heterotrophically on peptides . Further enrichment on peptone and kanamycin eventually allowed the microscopic detection of coccoid cells stained by fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ) .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: The enriched RC-III archaeon grew optimally at temperatures between 20 and 30 degrees C and neutral pH using YE , meat extract , peptone or tryptone under anoxic conditions .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Isolation and characterization of diazotrophic growth promoting bacteria from rhizosphere of agricultural crops of Korea .
Author: Park M Kim C Yang J Lee H Shin W Kim S Sa T
Journal: Microbiol . Res . Citation: V : 160 ( 2 ) P : 127-33 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15881829 Accession (PMID): 15881829
Abstract: Free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of seven different plant namely sesame , maize , wheat , soybean , lettuce , pepper and rice grown in Chungbuk Province , Korea . Five isolates with nitrogenase activity above 150nmol ( -1 ) mg ( -1 ) protein were identified based on , phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequences analysis . The strains were identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ( PM-1 , PM-26 ) , Bacillus fusiformis ( PM-5 , PM-24 ) and Pseudomonas fluorescens ( PM-13 ) , respectively . All the isolates produced indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) , in the presence of tryptophan , ranging from 100 . 4 microg ml ( -1 ) ( PM-13 ) to 255 microg ml ( -1 ) ( PM-24 ) . The isolate PM-24 ( Bacillus fusiformis ) exhibiting highest nitrogenase activity ( 3677 . 81 nmol h ( -1 ) mg ( -1 ) protein ) and IAA production ( 255microg ml ( -1 ) ) has a promising potential for developing as a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: All the isolates produced indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) , in the presence of tryptophan , ranging from 100 . 4 microg ml ( -1 ) ( PM-13 ) to 255 microg ml ( -1 ) ( PM-24 ) .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Molecular dynamics of detoxification and toxin-tolerance genes in brown planthopper ( Nilaparvata lugens Stl . , Homoptera : Delphacidae ) feeding on resistant rice plants .
Author: Yang Z Zhang F He Q He G
Journal: Arch . Insect Biochem . Physiol . Citation: V : 59 ( 2 ) P : 59-66 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15898115 Accession (PMID): 15898115
Abstract: To investigate the molecular response of brown planthopper , Nilaparvata lugens ( BPH ) to BPH-resistant rice plants , we isolated cDNA fragments of the genes encoding for carboxylesterase ( CAR ) , trypsin ( TRY ) , cytochrome P450 monooxygenase ( P450 ) , NADH-quinone oxidoreductase ( NQO ) , acetylcholinesterase ( ACE ) , and Glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) . Expression profiles of the genes were monitored on fourth instar nymphs feeding on rice varieties with different resistance levels . Northern blot hybridization showed that , compared with BPH reared on susceptible rice TN1 , expression of the genes for P450 and CAR was apparently up-regulated and TRY mRNA decreased in BPH feeding on a highly resistant rice line B5 and a moderately resistant rice variety MH63 , respectively . Two transcripts of GST increased in BPH feeding on B5 ; but in BPH feeding on MH63 , this gene was inducible and its expression reached a maximum level at 24 h , and then decreased slightly . The expression of NQO gene was enhanced in BPH on B5 plants but showed a constant expression in BPH on MH63 plants . No difference in ACE gene expression among BPH on different rice plants was detected by the RT-PCR method . The results suggest these genes may play important roles in the defense response of BPH to resistant rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: To investigate the molecular response of brown planthopper , Nilaparvata lugens ( BPH ) to BPH-resistant rice plants , we isolated cDNA fragments of the genes encoding for carboxylesterase ( CAR ) , trypsin ( TRY ) , cytochrome P450 monooxygenase ( P450 ) , NADH-quinone oxidoreductase ( NQO ) , acetylcholinesterase ( ACE ) , and Glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Optimization of angiotensin I-converting enzyme ( ACE ) inhibition by rice dregs hydrolysates using response surface methodology .
Author: He GQ Xuan GD Ruan H Chen QH Xu Y
Journal: Citation: V : 6 ( 6 ) P : 508-13 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15909335 Accession (PMID): 15909335
Abstract: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme ( ACE ) inhibitory peptides have been shown to have antihypertensive effects and have been utilized for physiologically functional foods and pharmaceuticals . The ACE inhibitory ability of a hydrolysate is determined by its peptide composition . However , the peptide composition of a hydrolysate depends on proteolytic enzyme and the hydrolysis conditions . In this study , the effect of process conditions on the ACE inhibitory activity of rice dregs hydrolyzed with a trypsin was investigated systematically using response surface methodology . It was shown that the ACE inhibitory activity of rice dregs hydrolysates could be controlled by regulation of five process conditions . Hydrolysis conditions for optimal ACE inhibition were defined using the response surface model of fractional factorial design ( FFD ) , steepest ascent design , and central composite design ( CCD ) .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , the effect of process conditions on the ACE inhibitory activity of rice dregs hydrolyzed with a trypsin was investigated systematically using response surface methodology .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Characterization of tryptophan-overproducing potato transgenic for a mutant rice anthranilate synthase alpha-subunit gene ( OASA1D ) .
Author: Matsuda F Yamada T Miyazawa H Miyagawa H Wakasa K
Journal: Planta Citation: V : 222 ( 3 ) P : 535-45 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15912354 Accession (PMID): 15912354
Abstract: Potato plants ( Solanum tuberosum cv . May Queen ) transgenic for OASA1D , which encodes a point mutant of an alpha-subunit of rice ( Oryza sativa ) anthranilate synthase ( AS , EC 4 . 1 . 3 . 27 ) , were generated in order to determine the effects of the mutant gene on levels of free tryptophan ( Trp ) and AS activity in this important crop . Expression of OASA1D in potato induced a 2 to 20-fold increase in the amount of free Trp . This increase was likely due to a reduction in the sensitivity of AS containing the mutant alpha-subunit to feedback inhibition by Trp . Nontargeted metabolite profiling by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet photodiode array detection as well as targeted profiling by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed no marked changes in the levels of other metabolites , with the exception of indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) , in the transgenic plants . The level of IAA in the upper part of the shoot was increased by a factor of 8 . 3-39 , depending on the transgenic lines , with no detectable effect on plant growth or development . The effects of transformation thus appeared limited to the biosynthesis of Trp and IAA , with the overall metabolic network in potato being virtually unaffected . These results suggest that transformation with OASA1D may prove effective for the breeding of crops with an increased level of free Trp .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: May Queen ) transgenic for OASA1D , which encodes a point mutant of an alpha-subunit of rice ( Oryza sativa ) anthranilate synthase ( AS , EC 4 . 1 . 3 . 27 ) , were generated in order to determine the effects of the mutant gene on levels of free tryptophan ( Trp ) and AS activity in this important crop .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Nutrient composition and biological evaluation of an unconventional legume , Canavalia cathartica of mangroves .
Author: Seena S Sridhar KR .
Journal: Citation: V : 55 ( 8 ) P : 615-25 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16019306 Accession (PMID): 16019306
Abstract: Seeds of an unconventional legume , Canavalia cathartica from the mangroves of the southwest coast of India , were screened for proximate composition , minerals , protein fractions , amino acid profiles , fatty acids and some anti-nutritional factors . The seeds consisted of 31 . 2% , 1 . 86% , 61 . 4% and 1580 kJ crude proteins , crude lipid , crude carbohydrates and calories , respectively . The crude protein content of seeds was higher than common cereals , whole-wheat flour ( 8 . 55% ) , parboiled rice ( 7 . 7% ) and egg ( 12 . 6% ) . Essential amino acids , threonine , cysteine + methionine , isoleucine , tyrosine + phenylalanine and lysine were higher than Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations/World Health Organization patterns . On comparing the amino acid profile of mangrove and sand dune C cathartica seeds , the latter were found to be superior ( total amino acid content , 123 . 5% versus 60 . 8% ) , while the result was vice versa with respect to the polyunsaturated/saturated ratio ( 105 . 9 versus 2 . 52 ) . The seeds possessed 1420 mg/100 g total phenolics and strong hemagglutination activity , while tannins and trypsin inhibition activity were absent . Physical , nutritional and anti-nutritional features of seeds of C cathartica of the mangrove have been compared with those of C cathartica of the sand dunes of the southwest coast of India . A significant difference ( P < 0 . 05 ) was observed between the physical , proximal and mineral composition except for ash , magnesium and copper . The protein efficiency ratio , food efficiency ratio , net protein retention , protein retention efficiency , biological value , net protein utilization and true digestibility of C cathartica seeds were significantly different ( P < 0 . 05 ) from casein . In spite of the high protein content , animal-feeding trials indicated low nutritional quality . Nutritional , anti-nutritional factors and protein qualities of seeds C cathartica have been discussed in comparison with other species of Canavalia .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The seeds possessed 1420 mg/100 g total phenolics and strong hemagglutination activity , while tannins and trypsin inhibition activity were absent .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Protein synthesis by rice coleoptiles during prolonged anoxia : implications for glycolysis , growth and energy utilization .
Author: Huang S Greenway H Colmer TD Millar AH .
Journal: Ann . Bot . Citation: V : 96 ( 4 ) P : 703-15 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16027131 Accession (PMID): 16027131
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS : Anoxia-tolerant plant it issues synthesize a number of proteins during anoxia , in addition to the classical anaerobic proteins involved in glycolysis and fermentation . The present study used a model system of rice coleoptile tips to elucidate patterns of protein synthesis in this anoxia-tolerant plant it issue . METHODS : Coleoptile tips 7-11 mm long were excised from intact seedlings exposed to anoxia , or excised from hypoxically pre-treated seedlings and then exposed to anoxia for 72 h . Total proteins or 35S-labelled proteins were extracted , separated using two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analysed using mass spectrometry . KEY RESULTS : The coleoptile tips excised after intact seedlings had been exposed to anoxia for 72 h had a similar proteome to tips that were first excised and then exposed to anoxia . After 72 h anoxia , Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitors and a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein decreased in abundance , whereas a nucleoside diphosphate kinase and several proteins with unknown functions were strongly enhanced . Using [ 35S ] methionine as label , proteins synthesized at high levels in anoxia , and also in aeration , included a nucleoside diphosphate kinase , a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein , a putative elicitor-inducible protein and a putative actin-depolymerizing factor . Proteins synthesized predominately in anoxia included a pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase ( PPDK ) , alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and 2 , fructose 1 , 6-bisphosphate aldolase and a protein of unknown function . CONCLUSION : The induction of PPDK in anoxic rice coleoptiles might , in combination with pyruvate kinase ( PK ) , enable operation of a substrate cycle producing PPi from ATP . Production of PPi would ( a ) direct energy to crucial transport processes across the tonoplast ( ie the H+-PPiase ) ; ( b ) be required for sucrose hydrolysis via sucrose synthase ; and ( c ) enable acceleration of glycolysis , via pyrophosphate : fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase ( PFP ) acting in parallel with phosphofructokinase ( PFK ) , thus enhancing ATP production in anoxic rice coleoptiles ; ATP production would need to be increased if there was a substantial requirement for PPi .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: After 72 h anoxia , Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitors and a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein decreased in abundance , whereas a nucleoside diphosphate kinase and several proteins with unknown functions were strongly enhanced .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Selective insecticide-induced stimulation on fecundity and biochemical changes in Tryporyza incertulas ( Lepidoptera : Pyralidae ) .
Author: Wang AH Wu JC Yu YS Liu JL Yue JF Wang MY .
Journal: J Econ . Entomol . Citation: V : 98 ( 4 ) P : 1144-9 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16156564 Accession (PMID): 16156564
Abstract: The use of selective insecticides in rice , Oryza sativa L , fields often causes resurgence of nontarget pest insects . This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two selective insecticides , buprofezin and imidacloprid , on Tryporyza incertulas ( Walker ) , a nontarget pest After larval feeding on rice plants treated with each insecticide , fecundity , ovary protein content , and titer of juvenile hormone III ( JHIII ) in the resulting female moths were determined with Xiushui 63 rice susceptible to T incertulas and Zhendao 2 moderately resistant to T incertulas . The fecundity of females developed from larvae that fed on the insecticide-treated Xiushui 63 plants was stimulated compared with that of moths from larvae that fed on rice plants that were not treated with either insecticide . There was no stimulating effect in females from larvae that fed on insecticide-treated Zhendao 2 plants . The weight of fourth instars ( final instars ) that fed on the insecticide-treated Xiushui 63 rice plants was significantly greater than that of control , increasing by 50 . 3 and 46 . 7% for 60 and 112 . 5 g ( AI ) ha ( -1 ) buprofezin , and by 23 . 7 and 19 . 5% for 15 and 37 . 5 g ( AI ) ha ( -1 ) imidacloprid treatments , respectively . Ovary protein content in adult females developed from larvae that fed on the rice treated with the high dose of buprofezin was significantly higher than that in control . For the high and low doses of imidacloprid during the second instar , and the low dose of imidacloprid during the fourth instar , JHIII titers in female adults were also significantly higher than that in control , increasing by 152 . 81 , 90 . 52 , and 114 . 19% , respectively .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two selective insecticides , buprofezin and imidacloprid , on Tryporyza incertulas ( Walker ) , a nontarget pest After larval feeding on rice plants treated with each insecticide , fecundity , ovary protein content , and titer of juvenile hormone III ( JHIII ) in the resulting female moths were determined with Xiushui 63 rice susceptible to T incertulas and Zhendao 2 moderately resistant to T incertulas .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Cloning and characterization of a rice cDNA encoding glutamate decarboxylase .
Author: Oh SH Choi WG Lee IT Yun SJ .
Journal: J Biochem . Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 38 ( 5 ) P : 595-601 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16202241 Accession (PMID): 16202241
Abstract: In this study , we have isolated a rice ( Oryza sativa L ) glutamate decarboxylase ( RicGAD ) clone from a root cDNA library , using a partial Arabidopsis thaliana GAD gene as a probe . The rice root cDNA library was constructed with mRNA , which had been derived from the roots of rice seedlings subjected to phosphorus deprivation . Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that the RicGAD clone was 1 , 712 bp long , and harbors a complete open reading frame of 505 amino acids . The 505 amino acid sequence deduced from this RicGAD clone exhibited 67 . 7 % and 61 . 9 % identity with OsGAD1 ( AB056060 ) and OsGAD2 ( AB056061 ) in the database , respectively . The 505 amino acid sequence also exhibited 62 . 9 , 64 . 1 , and 64 . 2 % identity to Arabidopsis GAD ( U9937 ) , Nicotiana tabacum GAD ( AF020425 ) , and Petunia hybrida GAD ( L16797 ) , respectively . The RicGAD was found to possess a highly conserved tryptophan residue , but lacks the lysine cluster at the C-proximal position , as well as other stretches of positively charged residues . The GAD sequence was expressed heterologously using the high copy number plasmid , pVUCH . Our activation analysis revealed that the maximal activation of the RicGAD occurred in the presence of both Ca ( 2+ ) and calmodulin . The GAD-encoded 56 approximately 58 kDa protein was identified via Western blot analysis , using an anti-GAD monoclonal antibody . The results of our RT-PCR analyses revealed that RicGAD is expressed predominantly in rice roots obtained from rice seedlings grown under phosphorus deprivation conditions , and in non-germinated brown rice , which is known to have a limited phosphorus bioavailability . These results indicate that RicGAD is a Ca ( 2+ ) / calmodulin-dependent enzyme , and that RicGAD is expressed primarily under phosphate deprivation conditions .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The RicGAD was found to possess a highly conserved tryptophan residue , but lacks the lysine cluster at the C-proximal position , as well as other stretches of positively charged residues .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Characterization of bacteriocin N15 produced by Enterococcus faecium N15 and cloning of the related genes .
Author: Losteinkit C Uchiyama K Ochi S Takaoka T Nagahisa K Shioya S
Journal: J Biosci . Bioeng . Citation: V : 91 ( 4 ) P : 390-5 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16233010 Accession (PMID): 16233010
Abstract: Enterococcus faecium N15 was isolated from nuka ( Japanese rice-bran paste ) , which is utilized as starter in the fermenting of vegetables , and was found to produce a bacteriocin that exhibited a broad spectrum of activity , including activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus circulans JCM2504 . The bacteriocin was sensitive to proteases ( alpha-chymotrypsin , proteinase K , trypsin , and pepsin ) and alpha-amylase , but it was resistant to lipase . The bacteriocin was resistant to heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 2 h , but its activity was completely lost after autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 15 min . It was active over a wide pH range from 2 . 0 to 10 . 0 . The bacteriocin showed bactericidal activity against Lactobacillus sake JCM1157 at a concentration of 40 AU/ml . Its molecular weight was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be about 3-5 kDa . PCR primers were designed based on the conserved amino acid sequences of class IIa bacteriocins . A 3-kb DNA fragment was amplified and three open reading frames ( ORFs ) were found . The first encodes a probable immunity protein of 103 amino acid residues and shows complete homology with the putative immunity protein of E faecium DPC1146 . The second and third ORFs respectively encode a probable transposase gene and an inducing factor . The upstream region of the immunity gene , in which the bacteriocin structural gene is located , was amplified . A homology search revealed that the bacteriocin produced by E faecium N15 exhibits complete identity to enterocin A , a bacteriocin produced by E faecium DPC1146 . PCR using the primers designed in this study is a rapid and sufficient method of screening for bacteriocin-producing strains .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The bacteriocin was sensitive to proteases ( alpha-chymotrypsin , proteinase K , trypsin , and pepsin ) and alpha-amylase , but it was resistant to lipase .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Characterization and transcriptional expression of the alpha-expansin gene family in rice .
Author: Shin JH Jeong DH Park MC An G
Journal: Mol . Cells Citation: V : 20 ( 2 ) P : 210-8 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16267395 Accession (PMID): 16267395
Abstract: The rice genome contains at least 28 EXPA ( alpha-expansin ) genes . We have obtained near full-length cDNAs from the previously uncharacterized genes . Analysis of these newly identified clones together with the 12 identified earlier showed that the EXPA genes contain up to two introns and encode proteins of 240 to 291 amino acid residues . The EXPA proteins contain three conserved motifs : eight cysteine residues at the N-terminus , four tryptophan residues at the C-terminus , and a histidine-phenylalanine-aspartate motif in the central region . EXPA proteins could be divided into six groups based on their sequence similarity . Most were strongly induced in two-day-old seedlings and in the roots of one-week-old plants . However , only 14 genes were expressed in the aboveground organs , and their patterns were quite diverse . Transcript levels of EXPA7 , 14 , 15 , 18 , 21 , and 29 were greater in stems , while EXPA2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , and 16 were highly expressed in both stem and sheath but not in leaf blade . EXPA1 is leaf blade-preferential , and EXP9 is leaf sheath-preferential Most of the root-expressed genes were more strongly expressed in the dividing zone . However , the Group 2 EXPA genes were also strongly expressed in both mature and dividing zones , while EXPA9 was preferentially expressed in the elongation zone . Fourteen EXPA genes were expressed in developing panicles , with some being expressed during most developmental stages , others only as the panicles matured . These diverse expression patterns of EXPA genes suggest that in general they have distinct roles in plant growth and development .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The EXPA proteins contain three conserved motifs : eight cysteine residues at the N-terminus , four tryptophan residues at the C-terminus , and a histidine-phenylalanine-aspartate motif in the central region .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Population of Aerobic Heterotrophic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Associated with Wetland and Dryland Rice .
Author: Barraquio WL de Guzman MR Barrion M Watanabe I
Journal: Citation: V : 43 ( 1 ) P : 124-128 Year: 1982 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16345914 Accession (PMID): 16345914
Abstract: Nitrogen-fixing activity and populations of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with two varieties of rice grown in dryland and wetland conditions were measured at various growth stages during the dry season . Acetylene reduction activities were measured both in the field and for the hydroponically grown rice , which was transferred from the field to water culture 1 day before assay . The activities measured by both methods were higher in wetland than in dryland rice . The population of nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria associated with rhizosphere soil , root , and basal shoots was determined by the most probable number method with semisolid glucose-yeast extract and semisolid malate-yeast extract media . The number of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was higher in wetland conditions than in dryland conditions . The difference between two conditions was most pronounced in the population associated with the basal shoot . The glucose medium gave higher counts than did the malate medium . Colonies were picked from tryptic soy agar plates , and their nitrogen-fixing activity was tested on a semisolid glucose-yeast extract medium . The incidence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria among aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in association with rhizosphere soil , root , and basal shoots was much lower in dryland rice than in wetland rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Colonies were picked from tryptic soy agar plates , and their nitrogen-fixing activity was tested on a semisolid glucose-yeast extract medium .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Production and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like pepitdes by Bacillus licheniformis ZJU12 .
Author: He L Chen W Liu Y
Journal: Microbiol . Res . Citation: V : 161 ( 4 ) P : 321-6 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16427261 Accession (PMID): 16427261
Abstract: Bacillus licheniformis ZJU12 , which was isolated from soil , could produce bacteriocin-like peptides that exhibited a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against various species of Gram-positive bacteria and fungal pathogens , but not against Gram-negative bacteria tested except Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae , a rice pathogen . The bacteriocin-like peptides were sensitive to proteinase K and trypsin . The activity was stable during temperature exposure up to 100 degrees C for 30 min , but lost completely at 121 degrees C for 15 min . The cell-free supernatant of B licheniformis ZJU12 was shown to retain the activity within the pH range of 2-9 , and the optimum pH for the activity was about 6 . 5 . No adverse effect of the antagonistic compound to mice was observed in acute toxicity tests with the dose of 0 . 8 mg/20 g .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The bacteriocin-like peptides were sensitive to proteinase K and trypsin .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Production of the vacuolation factor of Bacillus cereus isolated from vomiting-type food poisoning .
Author: Shinagawa K Otake S Matsusaka N Sugii S
Journal: J Vet . Med . Sci . Citation: V : 54 ( 3 ) P : 443-6 Year: 1992 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1643168 Accession (PMID): 1643168
Abstract: Vacuole response in HEp-2 cells was induced with culture supernatants of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from outbreaks of vomiting and diarrheal-type food poisoning grown in rice flour and laboratory media . High vacuole response was obtained with culture supernatants of B cereus strains isolated from vomiting-type food poisoning grown in cooked rice suspension or on a cooked rice plate , whereas no response was obtained with those of the same strains grown in brain heart infusion and trypto-soya broth media . The vacuole activity appeared only after spore formation of B cereus . The activity was stable to proteolytic enzymes , heating , and exposing to pH 2 . 0 and 11 . 0 . Of 124 strains isolated from B cereus food poisoning that were tested , the vacuole activity was observed by 68 of 110 ( 61 . 8% ) of the strains isolated from the vomiting-type food poisoning but not by all strains ( 14 strains ) from diarrheal-type ones . Moreover , the vacuole response in the HEp-2 cells was found to be induced by 56 of 76 ( 73 . 7% ) of the serotype H-1 strains isolated from vomiting-type food poisoning .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: High vacuole response was obtained with culture supernatants of B cereus strains isolated from vomiting-type food poisoning grown in cooked rice suspension or on a cooked rice plate , whereas no response was obtained with those of the same strains grown in brain heart infusion and trypto-soya broth media .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Adult variant of self-healing papular mucinosis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis : predominant proliferation of dermal dendritic cells expressing CD34 or factor XIIIa in association with dermal deposition of mucin .
Author: Yokoyama E Muto M
Journal: J Dermatol . Citation: V : 33 ( 1 ) P : 30-5 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16469081 Accession (PMID): 16469081
Abstract: According to a recent classification , self-healing papular mucinosis ( SHPM ) is a subtype of papular mucinosis ( also known as lichen myxedematosus ) , which is in turn a type of idiopathic localized cutaneous mucinosis . SHPM tends to occur in children , but there have been a few reports of an adult type . We report a 70-year-old Japanese woman who presented with reddish , rice-kernel-sized papules of a few days duration on her right arm . She had a 25-year history of rheumatoid arthritis , which had been well treated with a low dose of corticosteroid as well as some other medications . No paraproteinemia or thyroid dysfunction were observed . The eruptions spontaneously resolved within 2 . 5 months of onset . Histological findings showed a well-circumscribed mucinous stroma surrounded by dermal mesenchymal cells , such as fibroblast-like cells in the middle of the dermis . Immunohistochemically , these cells were positive only for vimentin on the mucinous lesion . On the circumference of the mucinous lesion , these cells expressed either CD34 or factor XIIIa ( FXIIIa ) . Because vimentin was common to dermal mesenchymal cells , we defined the cells expressing CD34 or FXIIIa , except for vimentin+ cells lacking CD34 or FXIIIa , as dermal dendritic cells ( DDC ) . The findings of the present case suggest that CD34+ or FXIIIa+ DDC and tryptase-positive mast cells on the perilesional area in combination with vimentin+ cells on the mucinous lesion might have given rise to the dermal deposition of mucin in our case . These cells , which are possibly activated in an autoimmune manner associated with rheumatoid arthritis , might play important roles in the development of dermal deposition of mucin in SHPM .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: The findings of the present case suggest that CD34+ or FXIIIa+ DDC and tryptase-positive mast cells on the perilesional area in combination with vimentin+ cells on the mucinous lesion might have given rise to the dermal deposition of mucin in our case .
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Score: 1.00
Title: D-Ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase : functional and structural relationships to members of the ribulose-phosphate binding ( beta/alpha ) 8-barrel superfamily .
Author: Akana J Fedorov AA Fedorov E Novak WR Babbitt PC Almo SC Gerlt JA .
Journal: Biochemistry Citation: V : 45 ( 8 ) P : 2493-503 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16489742 Accession (PMID): 16489742
Abstract: The "ribulose phosphate binding" superfamily defined by the Structural Classification of Proteins ( SCOP ) database is considered the result of divergent evolution from a common ( beta/alpha ) ( 8 ) -barrel ancestor . The superfamily includes d-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase ( RPE ) , orotidine 5-monophosphate decarboxylase ( OMPDC ) , and 3-keto-l-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase ( KGPDC ) , members of the OMPDC suprafamily , as well as enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis that utilize phosphorylated metabolites as substrates . We now report studies of the functional and structural relationships of RPE to the members of the superfamily . As suggested by the results of crystallographic studies of the RPEs from rice [ Jelakovic , S , Kopriva , S , Suss , K H , and Schulz , G E ( 2003 ) J Mol . Biol . 326 , 127-35 ] and Plasmodium falciparum [ Caruthers , J , Bosch , J , Bucker , F , Van Voorhis , W , Myler , P , Worthey , E , Mehlin , C , Boni , E , De Titta , G , Luft , J , Kalyuzhniy , O , Anderson , L , Zucker , F , Soltis , M , and Hol , W G J ( 2006 ) Proteins 62 , 338-42 ] , the RPE from Streptococcus pyogenes is activated by Zn ( 2+ ) which binds with a stoichiometry of one ion per polypeptide . Although wild type RPE has a high affinity for Zn ( 2+ ) and inactive apoenzyme can not be prepared , the affinity for Zn ( 2+ ) is decreased by alanine substitutions for the two histidine residues that coordinate the Zn ( 2+ ) ion ( H34A and H67A ) ; these mutant proteins can be prepared in an inactive , metal-free form and activated by exogenous Zn ( 2+ ) . The crystal structure of the RPE was solved at 1 . 8 A resolution in the presence of d-xylitol 5-phosphate , an inert analogue of the d-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate . This structure suggests that the 2 , 3-enediolate intermediate in the 1 , 1-proton transfer reaction is stabilized by bidentate coordination to the Zn ( 2+ ) that also is liganded to His 34 , Asp 36 , His 67 , and Asp 176 ; the carboxylate groups of the Asp residues are positioned also to function as the acid/base catalysts . Although the conformation of the bound analogue resembles those of ligands bound in the active sites of OMPDC and KGPDC , the identities of the active site residues that coordinate the essential Zn ( 2+ ) and participate as acid/base catalysts are not conserved . We conclude that only the phosphate binding motif located at the ends of the seventh and eighth beta-strands of the ( beta/alpha ) ( 8 ) -barrel is functionally conserved among RPE , OMPDC , and KGPDC , consistent with the hypothesis that the members of the "ribulose phosphate binding" ( beta/alpha ) ( 8 ) -barrel "superfamily" as defined by SCOP have not evolved by evolutionary processes involving the intact ( beta/alpha ) ( 8 ) -barrel . Instead , this "superfamily" may result from assembly from smaller modules , including the conserved phosphate binding motif associated with the C-terminal ( beta/alpha ) ( 2 ) -quarter barrel .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The superfamily includes d-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase ( RPE ) , orotidine 5-monophosphate decarboxylase ( OMPDC ) , and 3-keto-l-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase ( KGPDC ) , members of the OMPDC suprafamily , as well as enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis that utilize phosphorylated metabolites as substrates .
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Score: 1.00
Title: A chromogenic plating medium for the isolation and identification of Enterobacter sakazakii from foods , food ingredients , and environmental sources .
Author: Restaino L Frampton EW Lionberg WC Becker RJ .
Journal: J Food Prot . Citation: V : 69 ( 2 ) P : 315-22 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16496571 Accession (PMID): 16496571
Abstract: A chromogenic agar , R&F Enterobacter sakazakii chromogenic plating medium ( ESPM ) , was developed for isolating presumptive colonies of E sakazakii from foods and environmental sources . ESPM contains two chromogenic substrates ( 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-beta-D-cellobioside ) , three sugars ( sorbitol , D-arabitol , and adonitol ) , a pH indicator , and inhibitors ( bile salts , vancomycin , and cefsulodin ) , which all contribute to its selectivity and differential properties . On ESPM , 79 pure culture strains of E sakazakii ( 10 clinical isolates and others from food and environmental sources ) yielded blue-black ( three strains were blue-gray ) raised colonies , 1 to 2 mm in diameter with and without halos after 24 h at 35 degrees C Other enteric organisms plus Pseudomonas aeruginosa yielded white , yellow , green , or clear colonies with and without clear halos . Of these genera , only Shigella sonnei and one Pantoea strain produced blue-black to blue-gray colonies . ESPM was used to isolate E sakazakii from a variety of foods : corn , wheat , and rice flours ; powdered infant formula ; dairy products ( dried milk , whey , and caseinates ) ; cereals ; and environmental sources . Most false-positive results on ESPM were eliminated by observing acid production on either sucrose or melibiose after 6 h at 35 degrees C on a R&F E sakazakii screening medium ( ESSM ) biplate . In an analysis of 240 samples , the number of samples positive for E sakazakii by the ESPM-ESSM method and the US Food and Drug Administration protocols ( violet red bile glucose agar and tryptic soy agar ) were 27 and 16 , respectively , with sensitivity and specificity values of 100 . 0 and 96 . 9% versus 59 . 3 and 43 . 7% , respectively . These data support the fact that E sakazakii confirmation should be based on more than one confirmation system . Both the API 20E and Biolog Microlog3 4 . 20 systems should be used for confirmation of E sakazakii isolates .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: In an analysis of 240 samples , the number of samples positive for E sakazakii by the ESPM-ESSM method and the US Food and Drug Administration protocols ( violet red bile glucose agar and tryptic soy agar ) were 27 and 16 , respectively , with sensitivity and specificity values of 100 . 0 and 96 . 9% versus 59 . 3 and 43 . 7% , respectively .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Cytotoxic and antimitotic effects of N-containing Monascus metabolites studied using immortalized human kidney epithelial cells .
Author: Knecht A Humpf HU .
Journal: Citation: V : 50 ( 4-5 ) P : 406-12 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16598808 Accession (PMID): 16598808
Abstract: Recently the first Monascus metabolites with a pyridine ring were detected , the monascopyridines A and B They are formally dehydrogenated derivatives of the red rice pigments rubropunctamine and monascorubramine . Because of their structural similarity , the toxicological effects of these secondary metabolites were studied using immortalized human kidney epithelial cells . The cytotoxicity was determined with the following different endpoint detection methods : metabolic activity , trypan blue exclusion , and electronic cell counting . The compounds led to EC ( 50 ) values between 11 and 31 micromol/L but the pigments caused a stronger reduction of the cell viability . Also , the apoptotic potential was examined by measuring caspase 3 activity and detecting apoptotic bodies , but none of the tested compounds induced apoptosis . All four substances caused a rise of the mitotic index to about 9% ( 100 micromol/L monascopyridine A and B ) and 20% ( 25 micromol/L rubropunctamine and monascorubramine ) . The significant decrease of the ratio of cells in the ana and telophase to cells in the prometa and metaphase proved a stop of the mitosis at the meta to anaphase control point . The compounds caused mitotic arrest and the formation of structural damages like c-mitosis through interaction with the mitotic spindle . These effects point to an aneuploidy inducing potential , which is linked to cancer formation .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The cytotoxicity was determined with the following different endpoint detection methods : metabolic activity , trypan blue exclusion , and electronic cell counting .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Biochemical characterization of the major sorghum grain peroxidase .
Author: Dicko MH Gruppen H Hilhorst R Voragen AG van Berkel WJ .
Journal: FEBS J Citation: V : 273 ( 10 ) P : 2293-307 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16650004 Accession (PMID): 16650004
Abstract: The major cationic peroxidase in sorghum grain ( SPC4 ) , which is ubiquitously present in all sorghum varieties was purified to apparent homogeneity , and found to be a highly basic protein ( pI approximately 11 ) . MS analysis showed that SPC4 consists of two glycoforms with molecular masses of 34 , 227 and 35 , 629 Da and it contains a type-b heme . Chemical deglycosylation allowed to estimate sugar contents of 3 . 0% and 6 . 7% ( w/w ) in glycoform I and II , respectively , and a mass of the apoprotein of 33 , 246 Da . High performance anion exchange chromatography allowed to determine the carbohydrate constituents of the polysaccharide chains . The N-terminal sequence of SPC4 is not blocked by pyroglutamate . MS analysis showed that six peptides , including the N-terminal sequence of SPC4 matched with the predicted tryptic peptides of gene indice TC102191 of sorghum chromosome 1 , indicating that TC102191 codes for the N-terminal part of the sequence of SPC4 , including a signal peptide of 31 amino acids . The N-terminal fragment of SPC4 ( 213 amino acids ) has a high sequence identity with barley BP1 ( 85% ) , rice Prx23 ( 90% ) , wheat WSP1 ( 82% ) and maize peroxidase ( 58% ) , indicative for a common ancestor . SPC4 is activated by calcium ions . Ca2+ binding increased the protein conformational stability by raising the melting temperature ( Tm ) from 67 to 82 degrees C SPC4 catalyzed the oxidation of a wide range of aromatic substrates , being catalytically more efficient with hydroxycinnamates than with tyrosine derivatives . In spite of the conserved active sites , SPC4 differs from BP1 in being active with aromatic compounds above pH 5 .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: MS analysis showed that six peptides , including the N-terminal sequence of SPC4 matched with the predicted tryptic peptides of gene indice TC102191 of sorghum chromosome 1 , indicating that TC102191 codes for the N-terminal part of the sequence of SPC4 , including a signal peptide of 31 amino acids .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Cloning , Characterization , and Expression of a cDNA Encoding a 50-Kilodalton Protein Specifically Induced by Cold Acclimation in Wheat .
Author: Houde M Danyluk J LalibertEJF Rassart E Dhindsa RS Sarhan F
Journal: Citation: V : 99 ( 4 ) P : 1381-1387 Year: 1992 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16669048 Accession (PMID): 16669048
Abstract: We have isolated , sequenced , and expressed a cold-specific cDNA clone , Wcs120 , that specifically hybridizes to a major mRNA species of approximately 1650 nucleotides from cold-acclimated wheat ( Triticum aestivum L ) . The accumulation of this mRNA was induced in less than 24 hours of cold treatment , and remained at a high steady-state level during the entire period of cold acclimation in the two freezing-tolerant genotypes of wheat tested . The expression of Wcs120 was transient in a less-tolerant genotype even though the genomic organization of the Wcs120 and the relative copy number were the same in the three genotypes . The mRNA level decreased rapidly during deacclimation and was not induced by heat shock , drought , or abscisic acid . The Wcs120 cDNA contains a long open reading frame encoding a protein of 390 amino acids . The encoded protein is boiling stable , highly hydrophilic , and has a compositional bias for glycine ( 26 . 7% ) , threonine ( 16 . 7% ) , and histidine ( 10 . 8% ) , although cysteine , phenylalanine , and tryptophan were absent . The WCS120 protein contains two repeated domains . Domain A has the consensus amino acid sequence GEKKGVMENIKEKLPGGHGDHQQ , which is repeated 6 times , whereas domain B has the sequence TGGTYGQQGHTGTT , which is repeated 11 times . The two domains were also found in barley dehydrins and rice abscisic acid-induced protein families . The expression of this cDNA in Escherichia coli , using the T ( 7 ) RNA polymerase promoter , produced a protein of 50 kilodaltons with an isoelectric point of 7 . 3 , and this product comigrated with a major protein synthesized in vivo and in vitro during cold acclimation .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The encoded protein is boiling stable , highly hydrophilic , and has a compositional bias for glycine ( 26 . 7% ) , threonine ( 16 . 7% ) , and histidine ( 10 . 8% ) , although cysteine , phenylalanine , and tryptophan were absent .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Upregulation of jasmonate-inducible defense proteins and differential colonization of roots of Oryza sativa cultivars with the endophyte Azoarcus sp .
Author: Mich L Battistoni F Gemmer S Belghazi M Reinhold-Hurek B
Journal: Mol . Plant Microbe Interact . Citation: V : 19 ( 5 ) P : 502-11 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16673937 Accession (PMID): 16673937
Abstract: The endophyte Azoarcus sp . strain BH72 expresses nitrogenase ( nif ) genes inside rice roots . We applied a proteomic approach to dissect responses of rice roots toward bacterial colonization and jasmonic acid ( JA ) treatment . Two sister lineages of Oryza sativa were analyzed with cv . IR42 showing a less compatible interaction with the Azoarcus sp . resulting in slight root browning whereas cv . IR36 was successfully colonized as determined by nifHi : : gusA activity . External addition of JA inhibited colonization of roots and caused browning in contrast to the addition of ethylene , applied as ethephon ( up to 5 mM ) . Only two of the proteins induced in cv . IR36 by JA were also induced by the endophyte ( SalT , two isoforms ) . In contrast , seven JA-induced proteins were also induced by bacteria in cv . IR42 , indicating that IR42 showed a stronger defense response . Mass spectrometry analysis identified these proteins as pathogenesis-related ( PR ) proteins ( Prb1 , RSOsPR10 ) or proteins sharing domains with receptorlike kinases induced by pathogens . Proteins strongly induced in roots in both varieties by JA were identified as Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibittors , germinlike protein , putative endo-1 , 3-beta-D-glucosidase , glutathion-S-transferase , and 1-propane-1-carboxylate oxidase synthase , peroxidase precursor , PR10-a , and a RAN protein previously not found to be JA-induced . Data suggest that plant defense responses involving JA may contribute to restricting endophytic colonization in grasses . Remarkably , in a compatible interaction with endophytes , JA-inducible stress or defense responses are apparently not important .
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[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: Proteins strongly induced in roots in both varieties by JA were identified as Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibittors , germinlike protein , putative endo-1 , 3-beta-D-glucosidase , glutathion-S-transferase , and 1-propane-1-carboxylate oxidase synthase , peroxidase precursor , PR10-a , and a RAN protein previously not found to be JA-induced .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in rice germ using protease .
Author: Zhang H Yao HY Chen F
Journal: Biosci . Biotechnol . Biochem . Citation: V : 70 ( 5 ) P : 1160-5 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16717417 Accession (PMID): 16717417
Abstract: The accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA ) in the rice germ by using protease was investigated . After the proteolytic hydrolysis of germ protein by trypsin , the amount of GABA reached about 2 . 26 g per 100 g of germ . This demonstrates that the GABA yield could be significantly increased by protease . Our method is efficient and safe for manufacturing health food enriched with GABA .
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[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: After the proteolytic hydrolysis of germ protein by trypsin , the amount of GABA reached about 2 . 26 g per 100 g of germ .
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Title: Proteomic analysis of rice leaf , stem and root it issues during growth course .
Author: Nozu Y Tsugita A Kamijo K
Journal: Proteomics Citation: V : 6 ( 12 ) P : 3665-70 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16758443 Accession (PMID): 16758443
Abstract: Rice proteins were isolated from leaf , stem and root it issues , harvesting at 1 , 2 , 4 , 8 and 10 weeks after budding . Each it issue of each age was separately pulverized in liquid nitrogen , and the resulted it issue powders were suspended in 10% TCA-acetone and followed by acetone suspension to precipitate at low temperature , which resulted in the it issue-specific and age-specific protein mixture . The protein mixtures were separated by 2-DE using polyacrylamide gels ( 26 x 20 cm ) . The protein spots were identified by N-terminal sequence analysis and by MALDI and LC-MS/MS analyses after in-gel tryptic digestion . From a total of 4532 spots , 676 unique proteins were identified , of which 80 proteins ( 12% ) were observed in all three it issues : leaf , stem and root . In addition , 45 ( 7% ) were common in leaf and stem , 57 ( 8% ) in stem and root , and 10 ( 2% ) proteins in root and leaf . Also 141 unique proteins ( 21% ) were observed only for leaf , 96 ( 14% ) for stem , and 247 ( 36% ) for root it issue . Proteins playing a role for photosynthesis and energy production were most abundant in leaf and stem , and those for cell defense were rich in roots .
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[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The protein spots were identified by N-terminal sequence analysis and by MALDI and LC-MS/MS analyses after in-gel tryptic digestion .
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Title: High-level tryptophan accumulation in seeds of transgenic rice and its limited effects on agronomic traits and seed metabolite profile .
Author: Wakasa K Hasegawa H Nemoto H Matsuda F Miyazawa H Tozawa Y Morino K Komatsu A Yamada T Terakawa T Miyagawa H
Journal: J Exp . Bot . Citation: V : 57 ( 12 ) P : 3069-78 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16908506 Accession (PMID): 16908506
Abstract: Metabolic manipulation of plants to improve their nutritional quality is an important goal of plant biotechnology . Expression in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) of a transgene ( OASA1D ) encoding a feedback-insensitive alpha subunit of rice anthranilate synthase results in the accumulation of tryptophan ( Trp ) in calli and leaves . It is shown here that the amount of free Trp in the seeds of such plants is increased by about two orders of magnitude compared with that in the seeds of wild-type plants . The total Trp content in the seeds of the transgenic plants was also increased . Two homozygous lines , HW1 and HW5 , of OASA1D transgenic rice were generated for characterization of agronomic traits and aromatic metabolite profiling of seeds . The marked overproduction of Trp was stable in these lines under field conditions , although spikelet fertility and yield , as well as seed germination ability , were reduced compared with the wild type . These differences in agronomic traits were small , however , in HW5 . In spite of the high Trp content in the seeds of the HW lines , metabolic profiling revealed no substantial changes in the amounts of other phenolic compounds . The amount of indole acetic acid was increased about 2-fold in the seeds of the transgenic lines . The establishment and characterization of these OASA1D transgenic lines have thus demonstrated the feasibility of increasing the Trp content in the seeds of rice ( or of other crops ) as a means of improving its nutritional value for human consumption or animal feed .
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[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Expression in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) of a transgene ( OASA1D ) encoding a feedback-insensitive alpha subunit of rice anthranilate synthase results in the accumulation of tryptophan ( Trp ) in calli and leaves .
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Title: Auxin biosynthesis by the YUCCA genes in rice .
Author: Yamamoto Y Kamiya N Morinaka Y Matsuoka M Sazuka T
Journal: Plant Physiol . Citation: V : 143 ( 3 ) P : 1362-71 Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17220367 Accession (PMID): 17220367
Abstract: Although indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) , the predominant auxin in plants , plays a critical role in various plant growth and developmental processes , its biosynthesis and regulation have not been clearly elucidated . To investigate the molecular mechanisms of IAA synthesis in rice ( Oryza sativa ) , we identified seven YUCCA-like genes ( named OsYUCCA1-7 ) in the rice genome . Plants overexpressing OsYUCCA1 exhibited increased IAA levels and characteristic auxin overproduction phenotypes , whereas plants expressing antisense OsYUCCA1 cDNA displayed defects that are similar to those of rice auxin-insensitive mutants . OsYUCCA1 was expressed in almost all of the organs tested , but its expression was restricted to discrete areas , including the tips of leaves , roots , and vascular it issues , where it overlapped with expression of a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene controlled by the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter . These observations are consistent with an important role for the rice enzyme OsYUCCA1 in IAA biosynthesis via the tryptophan-dependent pathway .
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[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: These observations are consistent with an important role for the rice enzyme OsYUCCA1 in IAA biosynthesis via the tryptophan-dependent pathway .
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Title: High-glycemic-index carbohydrate meals shorten sleep onset .
Author: Afaghi A OConnor H Chow CM .
Journal: Am . J Clin . Nutr . Citation: V : 85 ( 2 ) P : 426-30 Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17284739 Accession (PMID): 17284739
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Dietary carbohydrate intake has been shown to increase the plasma concentration of tryptophan , a precursor of serotonin and sleep-inducing agent . OBJECTIVE : To investigate the role of carbohydrate in sleep induction , we explored the effect of glycemic index ( GI ) and meal time on sleep in healthy volunteers . DESIGN : We compared the effect of high and low-GI carbohydrate-based meals ingested 4 h before bedtime on sleep quality . We also evaluated the effect of the timing of high-GI meals ( 4 h compared with 1 h ) on sleep quality . Twelve healthy men ( aged 18-35 y ) were administered standard , isocaloric ( 3212 kJ ; 8% of energy as protein , 1 . 6% of energy as fat , and 90 . 4% of energy as carbohydrate ) meals of either Mahatma ( low GI = 50 ) or Jasmine ( high GI = 109 ) rice 4 h before their usual bedtime . On another occasion , the high-GI meal was given 1 h before bedtime . The participants underwent a familiarization night followed by 3 test nights in random order 1 wk apart . RESULTS : A significant ( P = 0 . 009 ) reduction in the mean ( +/-SD ) sleep onset latency ( SOL ) was observed with a high-GI ( 9 . 0 +/- 6 . 2 min ) compared with a low-GI ( 17 . 5 +/- 6 . 2 min ) meal consumed 4 h before bedtime . The high-GI meal given 4 h before bedtime showed a significantly shortened SOL compared with the same meal given 1 h before bedtime ( 9 . 0 +/- 6 . 2 min compared with 14 . 6 +/- 9 . 9 min ; P = 0 . 01 ) . No effects on other sleep variables were observed . CONCLUSIONS : We showed that a carbohydrate-based high-GI meal resulted in a significant shortening of SOL in healthy sleepers compared with a low-GI meal and was most effective when consumed 4 h before bedtime . The relevance of these findings to persons with sleep disturbance should be determined in future trials .
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[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Dietary carbohydrate intake has been shown to increase the plasma concentration of tryptophan , a precursor of serotonin and sleep-inducing agent .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Rice albumin N-terminal ( Asp-His-His-Gln ) prevents against copper ion-catalyzed oxidations .
Author: Wei C Nguyen SD Kim MR Sok DE .
Journal: J Agric . Food Chem . Citation: V : 55 ( 6 ) P : 2149-54 Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17305353 Accession (PMID): 17305353
Abstract: Chromatographic separation of soluble proteins from rice ( Oryza sativa L ) yielded a major albumin protein ( 16 kDa ) , with the DHHQVYSPGEQ sequence in the N terminus , showing antioxidant action . The rice albumin was more potent than other rice proteins in preventing Cu2+-induced low-density lipoprotein ( LDL ) oxidation . Additionally , it also exhibited a remarkable suppression of HOCl oxidation . In a further study , albumin inhibited Cu2+-induced oxidation of LDL in a stoichiometric manner with an EC50 value of 4 . 3 microM , close to that of serum albumins . Moreover , after digestion with trypsin or chymotrypsin , it maintained its antioxidant action . In an experiment to see the involvement of the N terminus in antioxidant action , a synthetic tetrapeptide , equivalent to the N terminus DHHQ , was found to inhibit Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation or degradation of apolipoprotein B , similar to that of rice albumin . In mechanistic analyses , the action of rice albumin or tetrapeptide is primarily due to the removal of Cu2+ , as suggested from its inhibitory effect on Cu2+/diphenylcarbohydrazide ( DPCH ) complex formation . However , despite its similar inhibitory effect on Cu2+-induced oxidation of LDL , rice albumin was less effective than serum albumin in inhibiting Cu2+/DPCH complex formation , suggesting that the number of Cu2+-binding sites in rice albumin may be less than that in serum albumins . Taken together , rice albumin exerts a potent preventive action against Cu2+-induced oxidations , which is due to the Cu2+ binding by DHHQ in the N-terminal sequence . Such a role as a Cu2+ chelator would add up to the application of rice albumin protein .
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[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Moreover , after digestion with trypsin or chymotrypsin , it maintained its antioxidant action .
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Title: Reduced protease activity in transformed rice cell suspension cultures expressing a proteinase inhibitor .
Author: Kim TG Kim HM Lee HJ Shin YJ Kwon TH Lee NJ Jang YS Yang MS .
Journal: Protein Expr . Purif . Citation: V : 53 ( 2 ) P : 270-4 Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17314052 Accession (PMID): 17314052
Abstract: In this study , we synthesized a synthetic serine proteinase inhibitor II gene ( sPI-II ) that harbored the chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitor domains of the PI-II gene from Nicotiana alata . In an effort to reduce protease activity in a rice cell suspension culture , we first synthesized sPI-II using overlap PCR and then introduced the gene into a rice calli ( Oryza sativa L cv . Dongin ) by particle bombardment-mediated transformation . The sPI-II gene was under the control of a rice alpha-amylase 3D promoter induced by sugar starvation . To verify the integration and expression of the sPI-II gene in the transformed rice cells , we employed genomic DNA PCR amplification and Northern blot analysis , respectively . The relative protease activity of the transformed cell suspension culture was reduced to approximately 23% when compared to the non-transformed culture . This indicates that a transformed suspension culture system expressing a proteinase inhibitor , may be a useful tool to protect against recombinant protein losses resulting from extracellular proteases .
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[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , we synthesized a synthetic serine proteinase inhibitor II gene ( sPI-II ) that harbored the chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitor domains of the PI-II gene from Nicotiana alata .
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Title: Identification of an essential tyrosine residue in the catalytic site of a chitinase isolated from Zea mays that is selectively modified during inactivation with 1-ethyl-3- ( 3-dimethylaminopropyl ) -carbodiimide .
Author: Verburg JG Smith CE Lisek CA Huynh QK .
Journal: J Biol . Chem . Citation: V : 267 ( 6 ) P : 3886-93 Year: 1992 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1740436 Accession (PMID): 1740436
Abstract: Chitinase isolated from Zea mays seeds is inactivated by 1-ethyl-3- ( 3-dimethylaminopropyl ) carbodiimide ( EDC ) in the absence of exogenous nucleophiles . Oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine , N , N , N" , N"-tetra-N-acetylchitotetraose ( GlcNAc4 ) , and to a lesser extent , N , N , N"-tri-N-acetylchitotriose ( GlcNAc3 ) and N , N-di-N-acetylchitobiose ( GlcNAc2 ) provide partial protection against inactivation by the reagent . An examination of the concentration dependence of the protection afforded by GlcNAc4 revealed direct competition between the substrate analog and the reagent for the same binding sites on the enzyme . Isolation and Edman degradation of a "new" tryptic fragment , observed after inactivation of chitinase with EDC , revealed the sequence G-P-L-Q-I-S-W-N-*-N-Y-G-P-A-G-R , where the asterisk represents a cycle in which no amino acid was detected , presumably as a consequence of derivatization with EDC . In basic chitinases from dicotyledonous plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana , Phaseolis vulgaris ( bean ) , Nicotiana tabacum ( tobacco ) , and Solanum tuberosum ( potato ) , as well as in the chitinase isolated from the monocotyledonous plant Hordeum vulgare ( barley ) , this position is invariably occupied by a tyrosine . However , in the Oryza sativa ( rice ) basic chitinase , this position is occupied by a phenylalanine . The following additional evidence supports identification of this residue as tyrosine in Z mays chitinase . ( a ) Inactivation of chitinase with EDC is reversible by treatment with hydroxylamine . ( b ) Liquid secondary ion mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated derivatized peptide revealed the presence of a molecular ion with a mass to charge ratio consistent with the peptide containing a derivatized tyrosine residue . These results provide evidence for an essential tyrosine residue at or near the catalytic site of chitinase that is selectively modified during inactivation with EDC .
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[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Isolation and Edman degradation of a "new" tryptic fragment , observed after inactivation of chitinase with EDC , revealed the sequence G-P-L-Q-I-S-W-N-*-N-Y-G-P-A-G-R , where the asterisk represents a cycle in which no amino acid was detected , presumably as a consequence of derivatization with EDC .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Stable oil bodies sheltered by a unique oleosin in lily pollen .
Author: Jiang PL Wang CS Hsu CM Jauh GY Tzen JT
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol Citation: V : 48 P : 812-21 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17468126 Accession (PMID): 17468126
Abstract: Stable oil bodies were purified from mature lily ( Lilium longiflorum Thunb . ) pollen . The integrity of pollen oil bodies was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins . Immunodetection revealed that a major protein of 18 kDa was exclusively present in pollen oil bodies and massively accumulated in late stages of pollen maturation . According to mass spectrometric analyses , this oil body protein possessed a tryptic fragment of 13 residues matching that of a theoretical rice oleosin . A complete cDNA fragment encoding this putative oleosin was obtained by PCR cloning with primers derived from its known 13-residue sequence . Sequence analysis as well as immunological non-cross-reactivity suggests that this pollen oleosin represents a distinct class in comparison with oleosins found in seed oil bodies and tapetum . In pollen cells observed by electron microscopy , oil bodies were presumably surrounded by tubular membrane structures , and encapsulated in the vacuoles after germination . It seems that pollen oil bodies are mobilized via a different route from that of glyoxysomal mobilization of seed oil bodies after germination .
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[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: According to mass spectrometric analyses , this oil body protein possessed a tryptic fragment of 13 residues matching that of a theoretical rice oleosin .
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Title: Chitinases in Oryza sativa ssp . japonica and Arabidopsis thaliana .
Author: Xu F Fan C He Y
Journal: J Genet Genomics Citation: V : 34 P : 138-50 Year: 2007 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17469786 Accession (PMID): 17469786
Abstract: Chitinases ( EC3 . 2 . 1 . 14 ) , found in a wide range of organisms , catalyze the hydrolysis of chitin and play a major role in defense mechanisms against fungal pathogens . The alignment and typical domains were analyzed using basic local alignment search tool ( BLAST ) and simple modular architecture research tool ( SMART ) , respectively . On the basis of the annotations of rice ( Oryza sativa L ) and Arabidopsis genomic sequences and using the bio-software SignalP3 . 0 , TMHMM2 . 0 , TargetP1 . 1 , and big-Pi Predictor , 25 out of 37 and 16 out of 24 open reading frames ( ORFs ) with chitinase activity from rice and Arabidopsis , respectively , were predicted to have signal peptides ( SPs ) , which have an average of 24 . 8 amino acids at the N-terminal region . Some of the chitinases were secreted extracellularly , whereas some were located in the vacuole . The phylogenic relationship was analyzed with 61 ORFs and 25 known chitinases and they were classified into 6 clusters using Clustal X and MEGA3 . 1 . This classification is not completely consistent when compared with the traditional system that classifies the chitinases into 7 classes . The frequency of distribution of amino acid residues was distinct in different clusters . The contents of alanine , glycine , serine , and leucine were very high in each cluster , whereas the contents of methionine , histidine , tryptophan , and cysteine were lower than 20% . Each cluster had distinct amino acid characteristics . Alanine , valine , leucine , cysteine , serine , and lysine were rich in Clusters I to VI , respectively .
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[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The contents of alanine , glycine , serine , and leucine were very high in each cluster , whereas the contents of methionine , histidine , tryptophan , and cysteine were lower than 20% .
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Title: Metabolic flux analysis in plants using dynamic labeling technique : application to tryptophan biosynthesis in cultured rice cells .
Author: Matsuda F Wakasa K Miyagawa H
Journal: Phytochemistry Citation: V : 68 P : 2290-301 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17512026 Accession (PMID): 17512026
Abstract: The concept and methodology of using dynamic labeling for the MFA of plant metabolic pathways are described , based on a case study to develop a method for the MFA of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway in cultured rice cells . Dynamic labeling traces the change in the labeling level of a metabolite in a metabolic pathway after the application of a stable isotope-labeled compound . In this study , [ 1- ( 13 ) C ] l-serine was fed as a labeling precursor and the labeling level of Trp was determined by using the LC-MS/MS . The value of metabolic flux is determined by fitting a model describing the labeling dynamics of the pathway to the observed labeling data . The biosynthetic flux of Trp in rice suspension cultured cell was determined to be 6 . 0+/-1 . 1 nmol ( gFWh ) ( -1 ) . It is also demonstrated that an approximately sixfold increase in the biosynthetic flux of Trp in transgenic rice cells expressing the feedback-insensitive version of anthranilate synthase alpha-subunit gene ( OASA1D ) resulted in a 45-fold increase in the level of Trp . In this article , the basic workflow for the experiment is introduced and the details of the actual experimental procedures are explained . Future perspectives are also discussed by referring recent advances in the dynamic labeling approach .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The concept and methodology of using dynamic labeling for the MFA of plant metabolic pathways are described , based on a case study to develop a method for the MFA of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway in cultured rice cells .
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Title: [ Cloning , sequencing and fuctional study of gacA gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzicola ]
Author: Yang WF Chen L Liu HX Hu BS Liu FQ
Journal: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao Citation: V : 47 P : 208-12 Year: 2007 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17552221 Accession (PMID): 17552221
Abstract: A gacA homologue , designated gacA ( Xooc ) , was cloned from Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzicola ( Xooc ) , a bacterium that causes leaf streak of rice , with degenerated primers by polymerase amplification reaction ( PCR ) . NCBI blast search indicated that GacA ( Xooc ) had a similar structure to that of other GacA proteins , and had a CheB ( Chemotaxis response regulator containing a CheY-like receiver domain ) domain . Sequence comparison showed that the gacA ( Xooc ) was conserved in the Xanthomonas genus . Homology search revealed that the gacA ( Xooc ) was 99 . 7% similarities to gacA ( AY870457 , this lab ) of Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ( Xoo ) . A gacA ( Xooc ) , disruption mutant was successfully generated by a single cross-over event , and confirmed by PCR and Southern blot . But the mutant still had strong pathogenicity , and its virulence was not obviously different from that of wild type strain . The gacA did not globally regulate metabolism in Xooc , which was different from DC3000 of P syringae pv . tomato , CHAO of P fluorescens and IC1270 of Serratia plymuthica . Chemotaxis to 0 . 1% tryptone of the mutants was reduced compared to wild type strain . The results suggest that gacA ( X00c ) is involved chemotaxis of Xooc . Nevertheless , how gacA to regulate chemotaxis of Xooc , transcription and expression of genes involved in regulation still need to be further studied .
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[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Chemotaxis to 0 . 1% tryptone of the mutants was reduced compared to wild type strain .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Constitutively wilted 1 , a member of the rice YUCCA gene family , is required for maintaining water homeostasis and an appropriate root to shoot ratio .
Author: Woo YM Park HJ Suudi M Yang JI Park JJ Back K Park YM An G
Journal: Plant Mol Biol Citation: V : 65 P : 125-36 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17619151 Accession (PMID): 17619151
Abstract: Increasing its root to shoot ratio is a plant strategy for restoring water homeostasis in response to the long-term imposition of mild water stress . In addition to its important role in diverse fundamental processes , indole-3-acetic acid ( IAA ) is involved in root growth and development . Recent extensive characterizations of the YUCCA gene family in Arabidopsis and rice have elucidated that members function in a tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthetic pathway . Through forward and reverse-genetics screening , we have isolated Tos17 and T-DNA insertional rice mutants in a CONSTITUTIVELY WILTED1 ( COW1 ) gene , which encodes a new member of the YUCCA protein family . Homozygous plants with either a Tos17 or T-DNA-inserted allele of OsCOW1 exhibit phenotypes of rolled leaves , reduced leaf widths , and lower root to shoot ratios . These phenotypes are evident in seedlings as early as 7-10 d after germination , and remain until maturity . When oscow1 seedlings are grown under low-intensity light and high relative humidity , the rolled-leaf phenotype is greatly alleviated . For comparison , in such conditions , the transpiration rate for WT leaves decreases approx . 5 to 10-fold , implying that this mutant trait results from wilting rather than being a morphogenic defect . Furthermore , a lower turgor potential and transpiration rate in their mature leaves indicates that oscow1 plants are water-deficient , due to insufficient water uptake that possibly stems from that diminished root to shoot ratio . Thus , our observations suggest that OsCOW1-mediated IAA biosynthesis plays an important role in maintaining root to shoot ratios and , in turn , affects water homeostasis in rice .
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[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Recent extensive characterizations of the YUCCA gene family in Arabidopsis and rice have elucidated that members function in a tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthetic pathway .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Degradation of free tryptophan in a cookie model system and its application in commercial samples .
Author: Morales FJ Acar OC Serpen A Arribas-Lorenzo G Gokmen V
Journal: J Agric Food Chem Citation: V : 55 P : Jul-93 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17630767 Accession (PMID): 17630767
Abstract: The stability of free tryptophan ( Trp ) was examined in five cookie-resembling models at varying baking temperatures and durations . Trp was measured by HPLC coupled with a fluorescent detector . Trp degradation was significantly greater in cookies formulated with glucose compared with sucrose , regardless of the temperatures and durations of baking . A lag period was clearly observed in cookies formulated with sucrose . The type of sugar used in the dough formulation affected not only the thermal destruction kinetics but also the degree of degradation of free Trp . However , the type of leavening agent ( ammonium bicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate ) did not affect the rate of Trp destruction as happens in Maillard-driven reactions . In addition , the free Trp content was analyzed in nine different flours and sixty-two commercial cookies , and it was found that free Trp varied from 0 . 4 to 1287 . 9 mg/kg for rice and wheat bran , respectively . It was found that free Trp was significantly higher in dietetic commercial samples formulated with wheat bran compared with other flours .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The stability of free tryptophan ( Trp ) was examined in five cookie-resembling models at varying baking temperatures and durations .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Use of specific peptide biomarkers for quantitative confirmation of hidden allergenic peanut proteins Ara h 2 and Ara h 3/4 for food control by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry .
Author: Careri M Costa A Elviri L Lagos JB Mangia A Terenghi M Cereti A Garoffo LP
Journal: Anal Bioanal Chem Citation: V : 389 P : Jul-01 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17899033 Accession (PMID): 17899033
Abstract: A liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-ESI-MS-MS ) method based on the detection of biomarker peptides from allergenic proteins was devised for confirming and quantifying peanut allergens in foods . Peptides obtained from tryptic digestion of Ara h 2 and Ara h 3/4 proteins were identified and characterized by LC-MS and LC-MS-MS with a quadrupole-time of flight mass analyzer . Four peptides were chosen and investigated as biomarkers taking into account their selectivity , the absence of missed cleavages , the uniform distribution in the Ara h 2 and Ara h 3/4 protein isoforms together with their spectral features under ESI-MS-MS conditions , and good repeatability of LC retention time . Because of the different expression levels , the selection of two different allergenic proteins was proved to be useful in the identification and univocal confirmation of the presence of peanuts in foodstuffs . Using rice crisp and chocolate-based snacks as model food matrix , an LC-MS-MS method with triple quadrupole mass analyzer allowed good detection limits to be obtained for Ara h 2 ( 5 microg protein g ( -1 ) matrix ) and Ara h 3/4 ( 1 microg protein g ( -1 ) matrix ) . Linearity of the method was established in the 10-200 microg g ( -1 ) range of peanut proteins in the food matrix investigated . Method selectivity was demonstrated by analyzing tree nuts ( almonds , pecan nuts , hazelnuts , walnuts ) and food ingredients such as milk , soy beans , chocolate , cornflakes , and rice crisp .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Peptides obtained from tryptic digestion of Ara h 2 and Ara h 3/4 proteins were identified and characterized by LC-MS and LC-MS-MS with a quadrupole-time of flight mass analyzer .
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Title: Hallucinogen-like effects of N , N-dipropyltryptamine ( DPT ) : possible mediation by serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in rodents .
Author: Fantegrossi WE Reissig CJ Katz EB Yarosh HL Rice KC Winter JC
Journal: Pharmacol Biochem Behav Citation: V : 88 P : 358-65 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17905422 Accession (PMID): 17905422
Abstract: N , N-dipropyltryptamine ( DPT ) is a synthetic tryptamine hallucinogen which has been used psychotherapeutically in humans , but has been studied preclinically only rarely . In the present studies , DPT was tested in a drug-elicited head-twitch assay in mice , and in rats trained to discriminate lysergic acid diethylamide ( LSD ) , N , N-dimethyl-4-phosphoryloxytryptamine ( psilocybin ) , or 3 , 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA ) . A separate group of rats was also trained to recognize DPT itself as a discriminative stimulus , and in all cases , the behavioral effects of DPT were challenged with the selective serotonin ( 5-HT ) 2A antagonist M100907 , the 5-HT1A selective antagonist WAY-100635 , or their combination . In the head-twitch assay , DPT elicited dose-dependent effects , producing a biphasic dose-effect curve . WAY-100635 produced a parallel rightward shift in the dose-effect curve for head twitches , indicative of surmountable antagonism , but the antagonist effects of M100907 were functionally insurmountable . DPT produced partial to full substitution when tested in rats trained to discriminate LSD , psilocybin or MDMA , and served as a discriminative stimulus . In all cases , the antagonist effects of M100907 were more profound than were those of WAY-100635 . DPT is thus active in two rodent models relevant to 5-HT2 agonist activity . The effectiveness with which M100907 antagonizes the behavioral actions of this compound strongly suggest that the 5-HT2A receptor is an important site of action for DPT , but the modulatory actions of WAY-100635 also imply a 5-HT1A-mediated component to the actions of this compound .
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[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: N , N-dipropyltryptamine ( DPT ) is a synthetic tryptamine hallucinogen which has been used psychotherapeutically in humans , but has been studied preclinically only rarely .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Mechanism of inhibition of rice bran lipase by polyphenols : a case study with chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid .
Author: Raghavendra MP Kumar PR Prakash V
Journal: J Food Sci Citation: V : 72 P : E412-9 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17995599 Accession (PMID): 17995599
Abstract: Rice bran is a byproduct obtained from the rice milling industry , and to arrest lipolysis caused by lipolytic enzyme , rice bran lipase ( RBL ) was inactivated by inhibitors such as polyphenols . This study describes the inhibition and interaction of enzyme with chlorogenic acid ( CGA ) and caffeic acid ( CA ) . The inhibition of the enzyme was competitive in nature in both CGA and CA . The inhibition constant K ( i ) of the reaction was found to be 1 . 8 and 1 . 5 muM for CGA and CA , respectively . Fluorescence emission measurements indicated a decrease in the fluorescence emission intensity and a red shift in the emission maximum as these ligands concentrations are increased , indicating the minor changes in the tryptophan environment and the effect of binding that is stronger in the case of CA compared to CGA with RBL . Far UV-circular dichroic data suggest that there are no significant changes in the conformation of the enzyme as a result of binding of CGA or CA . The instability of the enzyme in the presence of these polyphenols has been indicated by decrease in apparent thermal transition temperatures of the enzyme from a control value of 60 degrees C as revealed by thermal denaturation measurements . These results demonstrate that both CGA and CA are inhibitors of RBL and bind to the enzyme through both hydrogen and hydrophobic interaction in bringing about inhibition with minor structural alterations . These inactivation phenomena of polyphenols that act as inhibitors on RBL can be utilized to prevent oxidation of the rice bran oil .
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[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Fluorescence emission measurements indicated a decrease in the fluorescence emission intensity and a red shift in the emission maximum as these ligands concentrations are increased , indicating the minor changes in the tryptophan environment and the effect of binding that is stronger in the case of CA compared to CGA with RBL .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Theme and variations in the evolutionary pathways to virulence of an RNA plant virus species .
Author: Pinel-Galzi A Rakotomalala M Sangu E Sorho F Kanyeka Z Traore O Sereme D Poulicard N Rabenantoandro Y Sere Y Konate G Ghesquiere A Hebrard E Fargette D
Journal: PLoS Pathog Citation: V : 3 P : e180 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18039030 Accession (PMID): 18039030
Abstract: The diversity of a highly variable RNA plant virus was considered to determine the range of virulence substitutions , the evolutionary pathways to virulence , and whether intraspecific diversity modulates virulence pathways and propensity . In all , 114 isolates representative of the genetic and geographic diversity of Rice yellow mottle virus ( RYMV ) in Africa were inoculated to several cultivars with eIF ( iso ) 4G-mediated Rymv1-2 resistance . Altogether , 41 virulent variants generated from ten wild isolates were analyzed . Nonconservative amino acid replacements at five positions located within a stretch of 15 codons in the central region of the 79-aa-long protein VPg were associated with virulence . Virulence substitutions were fixed predominantly at codon 48 in most strains , whatever the host genetic background or the experimental conditions . There were one major and two isolate-specific mutational pathways conferring virulence at codon 48 . In the prevalent mutational pathway I , arginine ( AGA ) was successively displaced by glycine ( GGA ) and glutamic acid ( GAA ) . Substitutions in the other virulence codons were displaced when E48 was fixed . In the isolate-specific mutational pathway II , isoleucine ( ATA ) emerged and often later coexisted with valine ( GTA ) . In mutational pathway III , arginine , with the specific S2/S3 strain codon usage AGG , was displaced by tryptophane ( TGG ) . Mutational pathway I never arose in the widely spread West African S2/S3 strain because G48 was not infectious in the S2/S3 genetic context . Strain S2/S3 least frequently overcame resistance , whereas two geographically localized variants of the strain S4 had a high propensity to virulence . Codons 49 and 26 of the VPg , under diversifying selection , are candidate positions in modulating the genetic barriers to virulence . The theme and variations in the evolutionary pathways to virulence of RYMV illustrates the extent of parallel evolution within a highly variable RNA plant virus species .
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[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: In mutational pathway III , arginine , with the specific S2/S3 strain codon usage AGG , was displaced by tryptophane ( TGG ) .
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Title: Isolation , characterization and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts from sour Mifen , a traditional fermented rice noodle from China .
Author: Lu ZH Peng HH Cao W Tatsumi E Li LT
Journal: J Appl Microbiol Citation: V : P : Year: 2008 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18399975 Accession (PMID): 18399975
Abstract: Aims : Considering the effect of natural fermentation on the textural improvement of fermented rice noodles in China and South Asia , and given the lack of reports concerning microbial populations and structure in the fermentation process , this study aims to determine the number of viable micro-organisms and identify the species isolated from the local factories , and to assess their potential use as a starter culture from their enzymatic profiles . Methods and Results : Fourteen samples from three local factories were analysed for the presence of micro-organisms . A total of 170 lactic acid bacteria ( LAB ) and 96 yeasts were isolated from the factories . The isolates were phenotypically characterized by using API 50 CHL kits , API 20 Strep kits , API ID 32 C kits and by performing additional biochemical tests . The enzymatic profiles of isolates were assessed by using API ZYM kits . Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified as predominant species in the fermented supernatants . A majority of the isolates of LAB and yeasts displayed activities of alpha-glucosidase , beta-glucosidase , lipase and trypsin . Conclusions : The microbial composition and strain characteristics present in the fermentation supernatant demonstrate that a majority of micro-organisms have the ability to digest starch , sugar , protein or lipid . It supports our previous work in which the rice starch was modified and purified by fermentation and thus improves the texture of rice noodles . Significance and Impact of the Study : The dominant strains would be important in developing a starter culture . The results can form the basis for the improvement of product quality and consistency .
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[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: A majority of the isolates of LAB and yeasts displayed activities of alpha-glucosidase , beta-glucosidase , lipase and trypsin .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Determination of biotin ( vitamin H ) by the high-performance affinity chromatography with a trypsin-treated avidin-bound column .
Author: Hayakawa K Katsumata N Hirano M Yoshikawa K Ogata T Tanaka T Nagamine T
Journal: J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci Citation: V : 869 P : 93-100 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18514598 Accession (PMID): 18514598
Abstract: A method for measuring biotin by affinity-chromatography was developed using a trypsin-treated avidin silica gel column . Elution was by a linear gradient of propan-2-ol in an acidic phosphate buffer system containing 0 . 7 M NaCl ( pH 2 . 4 ) . Biotin was derivatized with 9-anthryldiazomethane ( ADAM ) to the fluorescent biotin-ADAM ester and a linear calibration line was obtained from 0 to 1 . 39 pmol with a detection limit of 69 . 5 fmol . Biotin was measured after hydrolysis in 2 . 25 M sulphuric acid for 1h at 120 degrees C and the recovery for biocytin was 65 . 7+/-2 . 53% , and hence a correction factor of 1 . 52 was used for the total biotin analysis . The recovery of added biotin from the serum was more than 98% using this correction factor of 1 . 52 . Biotin was also measured in nutritional supplemental foods and foodstuffs , and we found that chicken egg yolk , "natto" , rice bran , royal jelly , and dried yeast contained highest levels of biotin . Biotin was also found in ferments by Bacillus natto , yeast , and some acetic acid bacterium . Storage foods such as beans , nuts and eggs also contained abundant biotin . Biotin was also determined and replacement monitored in the serum of suspected biotinidase deficiency patients . This affinity-chromatographic method for biotin determination was shown to be a robust and reliable and is well suited for biochemical and nutritional research .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A method for measuring biotin by affinity-chromatography was developed using a trypsin-treated avidin silica gel column .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Aromatic amino acids providing characteristic motifs in the Raman and SERS spectroscopy of peptides .
Author: Wei F Zhang D Halas NJ Hartgerink JD
Journal: J Phys Chem B Citation: V : 112 P : 9158-64 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18610961 Accession (PMID): 18610961
Abstract: Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies ( SERS ) are potentially important tools in the characterization of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA . In this work , SERS spectra of three cysteine-containing aromatic peptides : tryptophan-cysteine , tyrosine-cysteine , and phenylalanine-cysteine , bound to Au nanoshell substrates , were obtained , and compared to their respective normal Raman spectra . While the linewidths of the SERS peaks are significantly broadened ( up to 70% ) , no significant spectral shifts ( <6 cm ( -1 ) ) of the major Stokes modes were observed between the two modalities . We show that the Raman and SERS spectra of penetratin , a cell-penetrating peptide oligomer , can be comprised quite reliably from the spectra of its constituent aromatic amino acids except in the backbone regions where the spectral intensities are critically dependent on the length and conformations of the probed molecules . From this study we conclude that , together with protein backbone groups , aromatic amino acid residues provide the overwhelmingly dominant features in the Raman and SERS spectra of peptides and proteins when present . It follows that the Raman modes of these three small constructed peptides may likely apply to the assignment of Raman and SERS features in the spectra of other peptides and proteins .
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[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this work , SERS spectra of three cysteine-containing aromatic peptides : tryptophan-cysteine , tyrosine-cysteine , and phenylalanine-cysteine , bound to Au nanoshell substrates , were obtained , and compared to their respective normal Raman spectra .
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Score: 1.00
Title: Co-expression of proteinase inhibitor enhances recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor production in transgenic rice cell suspension culture .
Author: Kim TG Lee HJ Jang YS Shin YJ Kwon TH Yang MS
Journal: Protein Expr Purif Citation: V : P : Year: 2008 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18634882 Accession (PMID): 18634882
Abstract: The synthetic gene ( sPI-II ) harboring the chymotrypsin ( C1 ) and trypsin ( T1 ) inhibitor domains of the Nicotiana alata serine proteinase inhibitor II gene has been previously expressed , and extracellular protease activity was shown to be reduced in the suspension culture medium . In this study , the sPI-II gene was introduced into transgenic rice cells expressing rhGM-CSF ( recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ) , in an effort to reduce protease activity and increase rhGM-CSF accumulation in the suspension culture medium . The integration and expression of the introduced sPI-II gene in the transgenic rice cells were verified via genomic DNA PCR amplification and Northern blot analysis , respectively . Relative protease activity was found to have been reduced and rhGM-CSF production was increased 2-fold in the co-transformed cell suspension culture with rhGM-CSF and the sPI-II gene , as compared with that observed in the transformed cell suspension culture expressing rhGM-CSF only . These results indicate that a transformed plant cell suspension culture system expressing the proteinase inhibitor can be a useful tool for increasing recombinant protein production .
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[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The synthetic gene ( sPI-II ) harboring the chymotrypsin ( C1 ) and trypsin ( T1 ) inhibitor domains of the Nicotiana alata serine proteinase inhibitor II