Query
Condition Concatenation Type Data Entry Comparison Numerics Sentence Range Exact Match? Case Sensitive? Literatures Fields
0 && keyword SPRA > 0 sentence no no oryza body, title, abstract


417 matches found in 278 documents. Results sorted by score (hits) .
Score: 12.00
Author: Pornprom T Mahatamnuchoke P Usui K
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 62 ( 11 ) P : 1109-15 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16964592
Abstract: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
Score: 9.00
Author: van Sittert NJ Dumas EP .
Journal: Citation: V : 81 ( 6 ) P : 463-73 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2100760
Abstract: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
Score: 7.00
Author: Rowland M Mahmood P Iqbal J Carneiro I Chavasse D
Journal: Trop . Med . Int . Health Citation: V : 5 ( 7 ) P : 472-81 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10964269
Abstract: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
Score: 7.00
Author: Schoenly KG Cohen MB Barrion AT Zhang W Gaolach B Viajante VD .
Journal: Citation: V : 2 ( 3 ) P : 181-206 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15612416
Abstract: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
Score: 7.00
Author: Wang Z Tan G
Journal: Citation: V : 16 ( 8 ) P : 1493-6 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16262065
Abstract: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
Score: 7.00
Author: Petrella MJ Cogliano A Petrella RJ
Journal: Phys Sportsmed Citation: V : 37 P : 64-70 Year: 2009 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20048489
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid ( HA ) injections in acute lateral ankle sprain . A randomized , controlled , prospective trial in a primary sports medicine and emergency practice involved 158 competitive athletes who suffered an acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprain , and who were randomly assigned within 48 hours of injury . Patients were randomly assigned at baseline to periarticular injection with HA + standard of care ( rest , ice , elevation , and compression [ RICE ] ) or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and day 4 after injury . Follow-up was at 30 , 90 , and 712 days after treatment . Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , 90 , and 712 included visual analogue scale ( VAS ) ( 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( 5-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( 5-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , recurrent ankle sprain , total number of days missing from primary sport activity , and adverse events ( AEs ) . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours with no difference between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at all follow-up assessments for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 001 ) . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/- 8 ) versus 17 ( +/- 8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . At 24 months , in the PL versus HA group , there were 2 versus 0 lower limb fractures , 16 versus 7 second ankle sprains ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 3 versus 1 third ankle sprains , and a significantly greater number of days missing primary sport activity ( 41 vs 21 ; P < 0 . 002 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was also observed for HA versus PL at all follow-up assessments . No serious AEs were recorded throughout follow-up . Periarticular HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short and long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain , more rapid return to sport , fewer recurrent ankle sprains , fewer missed days from sport , and with few associated AEs to 24 months .
Score: 7.00
Author: Rzonca EC Lue BY .
Journal: Citation: V : 5 ( 3 ) P : 661-75 Year: 1988 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3293757
Abstract: As has been previously discussed , the incidence and resultant associated disabilities of ankle sprains have been well documented in the literature . The staggering statistics on long-term disability show that there is no such thing as a simple ankle sprain . The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided . It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program . One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment . One possible reason is the lack of agreement in diagnostic techniques as well as the end diagnosis of a particular grade of ankle sprain . If a sprain is managed correctly , resultant disability will be kept to a minimum . A proper rehabilitation program may be the most important factor in preventing chronic instability . The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management . RICE primarily addresses the ankle edema . Thus , the patients ankle is only partially rehabilitated . A rational approach to the management of ankle sprains is given . Upon reviewing a complete protocol for ankle sprain rehabilitation , the acronym TEMPER can be used judiciously to remember the key steps in the treatment plan . Through the use of this acronym , one can institute a complete rehabilitation program .
Score: 6.00
Author: Chauhan BS Abugho SB
Journal: ScientificWorldJournal Citation: V : 2012 P : 123071 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22619576
Abstract: The efficacy of bispyribac-sodium , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron , and penoxsulam + cyhalofop was evaluated against barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , junglerice , and southern crabgrass when applied at four- , six- , and eight-leaf stages . When applied at the four-leaf stage , bispyribac-sodium provided greater than 97% control of barnyardgrass , junglerice , and southern crabgrass ; however , it was slightly weak ( 74% control ) on Chinese sprangletop . Irrespective of the weed species , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron provided greater than 97% control when applied at the four-leaf stage . At the same leaf stage , penoxsulam + cyhalofop controlled 89 to 100% barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , and junglerice and only 54% of southern crabgrass . The efficacy of herbicides was reduced when applied at the eight-leaf stage of the weeds ; however , at this stage , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron was effective in controlling 99% of Chinese sprangletop . The results demonstrate the importance of early herbicide application in controlling the weeds . The study identified that at the six-leaf stage of the weeds , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron can effectively control Chinese sprangletop and southern crabgrass , penoxsulam + cyhalofop can effectively control Chinese sprangletop , and bispyribac-sodium can effectively control junglerice .
Score: 6.00
Author: Mouchet J Laventure S Blanchy S Fioramonti R Rakotonjanabelo A Rabarison P Sircoulon J Roux J
Journal: Citation: V : 90 ( 3 ) P : 162-8 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9410249
Abstract: A strong malaria epidemic with a high mortality rate occurred on the Madagascar Highlands in 1986-88 . Vector control and free access to antimalaria drugs controlled the disease . The authors have searched for the causes of the epidemic to propose a strategy avoiding such events . The Highlands on Madagascar were known as malaria free . In 1878 a very severe epidemic flooded all the country . Development of irrigated ricefields which house both An . arabiensis and An . funestus had created a new anthropic environment . Moreover manpower imported from malarious coastal areas for rice cultivation and also for building large temples , could have brought P falciparum . After several outbreaks the disease became endemic up to 1949 . In 1949 a malaria eradication programme based on DDT spraying and drug chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy was launched . By 1960 malaria was eliminated and DDT spraying cancelled . Only 3 foci were kept under surveillance with irregular spraying until 1975 . The prophylaxis and treatment centres ( "centres de nivaquinisation" ) were kept open up to 1979 . The catholic dispensary of Analaroa , 100 km NE of Tananarive , opened in 1971 and worked without interruption up to now . The malaria diagnosis has always been controlled by microscopy . Its registers are probably the more reliable source of information on malaria in the area . They show that malaria was already present on the Highlands in 1971 but at a low prevalence ; in 1980 when the "centres de nivaquinisation" were closed the number of cases increased by three times the progressive increase of the number of cases became exponential from 1986 to 1988 which was the peak of the epidemic ; malaria remained at a high level until the end of 1993 ; yearly DDT spraying since 1993 have decreased the number of malaria cases among the dispensary attendants by 90% . The epidemic peak of 1988 was well documented by the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar around Tananarive . Before the epidemic started it was observed a come back of An . funestus which had been previously eliminated of most of the villages by DDT spraying . More than an epidemic the malaria increase in 1988 was a reconquest by malaria of the land from which it had been eliminated in the years 1950 . This episode became dramatic because the lack of immunity of the population and the shortage of medicaments . The global warming which was advocated to explain the epidemic has no responsibility because the temperature on the Madagascar Highlands has not changed during the last 30 years . Also the cyclones do not seem to have played any role . It is very likely that the gradual decline of control measures , first DDT spraying , later drug distributions , had the main responsibility in the Highlands drama . Everywhere An . funestus reached a high level during the time where the parasite reservoir was rebuilding . They synergised each other . These findings should be taken in account in drawing the strategy planning for the next years .
Score: 5.00
Author: Chung MH Chen MK Pan SM .
Journal: Transgenic Res . Citation: V : 9 ( 6 ) P : 471-6 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11206976
Abstract: In this study , floral spray and floral dip were used to replace the vacuum step in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) gene into Arabidopsis . The transgene was constructed by using a CaMV 35S promoter to drive a rice cytosolic CuZnSOD coding sequence in Arabidopsis . The transgene construct was developed in binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium . When Arabidopsis plants started to initiate flower buds , the primary inflorescence shoots were removed and then transformed by floral spray or floral dip . More than 300 transgenic plants were generated to assess the feasibility of floral spray used in the in planta transformation . The result indicates that the floral spray method of Agrobacterium can achieve rates of in planta transformation comparable to the vacuum-infiltration and floral dip methods . The floral spray method opens up the possibility of in planta transformation of plant species which are too large for dipping or vacuum infiltration .
Score: 5.00
Author: Mochi DA Monteiro AC Simi LD Sampaio AA
Journal: Vet Parasitol Citation: V : 166 P : 136-43 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19713044
Abstract: The efficacy of M anisopliae strain E9 as a biological insecticide for the adult and larval stages of H irritans was assessed under field conditions . To assess larvicidal activity , nine heifers were randomly divided into three groups , which were maintained separated from each other . The first group ingested fungal spores encapsulated in alginate pellets . The second group ingested in natura spores that were grown on sterilized rice . In both groups , each animal received three meals a day , with each meal containing 2 x 10 ( 10 ) conidia . The third group received no treatment and was used as a control . Fecal samples from manure and whole dung pats were collected from each of the three separate pastures on the day that the animals were allocated and on days 1 , 3 , 6 , 9 and 12 afterwards . The fecal samples were tested for the presence of fungal colony forming units ( CFU ) , and the emergence of horn flies was observed in the dung pats . Significantly less ( P<0 . 01 ) adult horn flies were found in dung pats of the group treated with encapsulated fungi ( 11 . 7 ) than in those from the heifers treated with conidia in natura ( 27 . 9 ) or from the control group ( 29 . 5 ) . The fecal samples of the treated animals presented significantly higher numbers of M anisopliae CFUs then those from the untreated controls . We found that on day 9 fecal samples from animals given microencapsulated conidia had significantly higher CFUs than those from animals treated with conidia in natura . To assess adulticide activity , four heifers were sprayed with a suspension of 3 x 10 ( 10 ) conidial ( -1 ) of M anisopliae , and four control animals were sprayed with the same solution without conidial content . Four sprayings were done at five-day intervals , and all animals were photographed daily to observe the quantity of flies present . After the second spraying , we observed an average of 22 . 9 flies per animal ; untreated heifers had an average of 43 flies per animal ; thus , the treatment significantly ( P<0 . 05 ) decreases fly infestation . The results obtained from both tests show that M anisopliae strain E9 has a pathogenic effect on H irritans larvae in bovine manure when administered orally and on adult fly infestations when applied as a spray on the hosts .
Score: 4.00
Author: Wolfe MW Uhl TL Mattacola CG McCluskey LC .
Journal: Citation: V : 63 ( 1 ) P : 93-104 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11195774
Abstract: Without adequate care , acute ankle trauma can result in chronic joint instability . Use of a standardized protocol enhances the management of ankle sprains . In patients with grades I or II sprains , emphasis should be placed on accurate diagnosis , early use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression and elevation ) , maintenance of range of motion and use of an ankle support . Sprains with complete ligament [ corrected ] tears ( grade III ) may require surgical intervention . Although early motion and mobility are recommended , ligamentous strength does not return until months after an ankle sprain .
Score: 4.00
Author: He F Chen S Tang X Gan W Tao B Wen B
Journal: Toxicol . Lett . Citation: V : 134 ( 1-3 ) P : 119-24 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12191869
Abstract: A total of 132 farmers were selected from two areas ( J and S ) for this study . In area J , the subgroups Ja ( 40 subjects ) and Jb ( 36 subjects ) sprayed on rice crops either the organophosphate ( OP ) insecticide methamidophos or the mixture methamidophos-deltamethrin ( a pyrethroid , Pyr ) . In area S , the subgroups Sa ( 27 subjects ) and Sb ( 29 subjects ) sprayed on cottons either the OP methyl-parathion or the mixture methyl-parathion-deltamethrin . Groups Jc ( 22 subjects ) and Sc ( 20 subjects ) were non-exposed controls . Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) was measured by the Ellmans method before spraying , after 2-h exposure and 1 h later . Inhibition of AChE occurred after 2-h exposure to both single OP ( Ja and Sa ) and OP-containing mixtures ( Jb and Sb ) as compared with both pre-exposure and control values ( Jc and Sc ) . A similar recovery was found in subgroups Ja , Jb , Sa and Sb 1 h after spraying , but all remained lower than the pre-exposure level . There was no difference in AChE inhibition and recovery between the single OP subgroups and the OP mixture subgroups . The inhibitory effect on AChE shown in subjects with combined OP-Pyr exposure was induced by the OP component of the insecticide mixture and to a similar extent as that induced by the single OP formulations . In addition to the fact that the OP is more potent than Pyrs , the above results might explain why the clinical manifestations of OP mixture poisonings are similar to those of single OP poisoning .
Score: 4.00
Author: Satoh M Sakaguchi M Kobata M Sakaguchi Y Tanizawa H Miura Y Sasano R Nakanishi Y
Journal: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi Citation: V : 44 ( 1 ) P : 7-12 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12749190
Abstract: We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil , fenobucarb , silafluofen and buprofezin in rice . The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city , with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols : spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides , repeated spraying ( 3 times ) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides . The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process . Silafluofen , which has a higher log Pow value , remained in the hull of the rice . Fenobucarb , which has a lower log Pow value , penetrated inside the rice . The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking . During the cooking procedure , the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice .
Score: 4.00
Author: Li B Shi Q Fang J Pan X
Journal: Citation: V : 15 ( 1 ) P : 111-5 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15139200
Abstract: Studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus , and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75 . 16%-94 . 27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice , respectively , and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon . The efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50 . 54%-72 . 67% on rice leaf blast and 76 . 66%-87 . 42% on rice head blast , and equal to the chemical fungicide tricyclazole after sprayed once at the initial stage of rice leaf blast occurrence and the initial and end stages of earing , respectively . The efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis on Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was better than that of chemical insecticide bisultap , and the efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was equal to that of chemical insecticide bisultap when the three biorational insecticides were sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of pests . The efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was above 70% , and lower than that of chemical insecticide imidacloprid 3-30 d after sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of Nilaparvata lugens . The occurrence of weeds could be controlled , and the rice yield could be raised when the suitable non-thorough decomposed organism was applied or weeding was carried after the field had been ploughed twice before rice transplant . The rice yield could be raised by using biorational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice . The residue of pesticides in rice was lower in the bio-control area than in the chemical control area , according with the demands of health target of green food .
Score: 4.00
Author: Feng K Yu BY Wang XL Ge DM Wang XZ Wong MH Cao ZH .
Journal: Citation: V : 26 ( 2-3 ) P : 253-8 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15499781
Abstract: This paper reports a study of the distribution of organo-chlorine pesticides ( DDT and HCH ) between rice plants and the soil system by spraying before the heading stage at four different dosage levels--control , normal dosage ( 15 kg ha ( -1 ) of 6% HCH and 7 . 5 kg ha ( -1 ) of 25% DDT ) , double dosage and four times dosage . Soil and plant samples were taken respectively at the 1st h , 3rd , 10th , 20th , and 40th day after spraying and at the harvest time . The results indicate that less than 5% of HCH and 15% of DDT were absorbed by the surface of rice leaves for normal dosage . Most of both pesticides moved into the soil in solution after spraying . Compared with DDT , HCH was degraded and run off more easily . HCH residues in the surface soil layer ( 1-3 cm ) were already below 6 . 4 microg kg ( -1 ) at the mature stage , lower than Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Agricultural Soils : HCH < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . However DDT residues in the surface soil layer remained 172 microg kg ( -1 ) , higher than the national standard : DDT < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . According to the test f OCP residues in rice seeds , it can be concluded that the OCP sprayed onto the surface of rice leaves can move into rice plants and accumulate in the seeds at the mature stage . HCH residues in rice seeds of the double and four times dosage treatments , and DDT residues in all treatments , exceeded the Chinese National Food Standard ( HCH < 0 . 10 mg kg ( -1 ) , DDT < 0 . 20 mg kg ( -1 ) ) .
Score: 4.00
Author: Liu Z Ye G Hu C
Journal: Citation: V : 15 ( 12 ) P : 2309-14 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15825447
Abstract: This paper assessed the effects of cry1Abl/cry1Ac-carrying transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice ( Bt rice ) and chemical insecticides on the arthropod communities under paddy-field conditions in terms of arthropod guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution of each guild , individuals of each guild , some common indices of arthropod communities , and community dissimilarity . In most cases , no significant differences were found between the Bt and control rice plots without any chemical insecticide spray in such arthropod community specific parameters as guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution , temporal dynamics of the individuals of each guild or all arthropod , as well as some common community indices ( including species richness , Shannon-Wiener diversity index , evenness index and dominant index ) and their temporal dynamics . The similarity of arthropod community between the Bt and control rice plots were apparently higher . It was clear that Bt rice generally showed no marked negative effect on the arthropod community in paddy field . In contrast , some arthropod community specific parameters such as guild dominances in the control plot with chemical insecticide spray were in some cases markedly and even significantly different from those in the control plot without any chemical insecticide spray . The similarity of arthropod community between the control plots with and without chemical insecticide spray was relatively lower . It could be concluded that the effect of Bt rice on the arthropod community was apparently lower than that of chemical insecticides .
Score: 4.00
Author: Akogbeto MC Djouaka R Noukpo H
Journal: Citation: V : 98 ( 5 ) P : 400-5 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16425724
Abstract: The use of insecticides in households and in agriculture has been incriminated in the emergence of insecticide resistance in insect vectors . For farming staff , the emergence of vector resistance is due to indoors spray of insecticides using aerosols and other low quality products in rural and urban settings against mosquitoes . On the other hand , public health specialists believe that the phenomenon of resistance could be due to massive use of insecticides in agriculture for field pests control . In Turkey , the implication of agricultural use of pesticides in the selection of vector resistance is clearly established . This study was framed to identify potential practices favouring the emergence of insecticide resistance in the Republic of Benin . Interviews and focus group discussions were organized with cotton , rice and vegetables farmers . The final aim of these surveys was to point out practices likely to favour the emergence of resistance . The research is conducted in 3 cotton fields , 2 rice fields and 2 vegetable plantations . After filling and signing concerned forms , farmers are subjected to quantitative and qualitative questionnaires to generate data on : insecticides being used , the various doses applied for pests eradication , the frequency of treatments , the cost of treatments ( cost/hectare/year ) the origin of insecticides , the place of purchase , safety precautions and related health hazards . The results of this study have shown that the use of insecticides in agriculture is a clear fact . During treatments , insecticide residues get in contact with mosquito breeding sites where they diffuse into water and exercise a selection pressure on larvae . This partially explains the high levels of resistance recorded in with strains of Anopheles gambiae collected in agricultural settings under insecticides pressure . Pyrethroids and more specifically deltamethrin and cyfluthrin are the insecticides mainly used in studied localities . Bedrooms of farmers are used as storage place for half-used and un-used insecticides containers . For a proper management of insecticides , cotton and vegetable plantations farmers receive assistance from the ministry of rural development . Because of the importance of cotton production in the Republic of Benin , trainings on management of insecticides in agricultural settings are frequently organised by the ministry of rural development and are opened to farmers and their family members ( husbands , wives , children and relatives . . . ) . In the long run , the whole family learns and becomes very versant with the use of insecticides , spraying frequencies , spraying devices and spraying techniques .
Score: 4.00
Author: Gottlob RO DeRouchey JM Tokach MD Goodband RD Dritz SS Nelssen JL Hastad CW Knabe DA .
Journal: J Anim . Sci . Citation: V : 84 ( 6 ) P : 1396-402 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16699096
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility ( AID ) and standardized ileal digestibility ( SID ) of AA and DE , and to estimate ME and NE of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , and spray-dried plasma protein . In Exp . 1 , 6 barrows ( initially 29 . 5 +/- 2 . 5 kg of BW ) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and fed each of 5 cornstarch-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d . During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 test diets ( fed from d 0 to 28 ) were formulated to contain 12 . 5% CP by using analyzed nutrient compositions of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , or spray-dried plasma protein . The fifth ( N-free ) diet was fed from d 28 to 35 to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA , which were used to calculate SID . Ileal digesta were collected and analyzed , and AID and SID values were calculated . Apparent ileal digestible Lys , Met , and Thr values were 80 . 0 +/- 3 . 3 , 65 . 6 +/- 3 . 1 , and 68 . 4 +/- 4 . 5% for rice protein concentrate ; 85 . 6 +/- 4 . 8 , 85 . 5 +/- 4 . 3 , and 69 . 8 +/- 8 . 5% for salmon protein hydrolysate ; 93 . 3 +/- 1 . 4 , 89 . 9 +/- 5 . 8 , and 83 . 6 +/- 5 . 3% for whey protein concentrate ; and 92 . 8 +/- 0 . 9 , 85 . 7 +/- 2 . 1 , 86 . 5 +/- 2 . 3% for spray-dried plasma protein , respectively . In Exp . 2 , 6 barrows ( initially 37 . 6 +/- 1 . 7 kg of BW ) were fed each of 5 corn-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d . During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 diets containing the test ingredients were formulated to contain approximately 20% CP by using their analyzed nutrient compositions . The fifth ( corn control ) diet containing 8 . 2% CP was also used to calculate energy values by difference . Feces were collected to determine DE . The ME and NE contents were estimated using published regression equations . The DE , ME , and NE ( as-fed ) values were 4 , 724 +/- 461 , 4 , 226 +/- 437 , and 3 , 235 +/- 380 kcal/kg for rice protein concentrate ; 4 , 173 +/- 1 , 052 , 3 , 523 +/- 1 , 002 , and 2 , 623 +/- 872 kcal/kg for salmon protein hydrolysate ; 4 , 949 +/- 1 , 002 , 4 , 352 +/- 955 , and 3 , 344 +/- 831 kcal/kg for whey protein concentrate ; and 4 , 546 +/- 673 , 3 , 979 +/- 652 , and 3 , 020 +/- 567 kcal/kg for spray-dried plasma protein , respectively . The excellent AA digestibility and relatively high DE , ME , and NE values indicate that these protein sources warrant further investigation as ingredients for growing pig diets .
Score: 4.00
Author: Wiwattanapatapee R Chumthong A Pengnoo A Kanjanamaneesathian M
Journal: Citation: V : ( ) P : Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17428569
Abstract: A lack of effective , easily applied and stable formulation has been a major obstacle to widespread use of biocontrol agents for control of rice sheath blight . In this study , effervescent fast-disintegrating granules containing endospores of Bacillus megaterium were developed for use either by broadcast or spray application . The formulation composed of lactose , polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 ( PVP , K-30 ) and effervescent base ( citric acid , tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate ) . The number of living bacteria in effervescent granules that performed mycelial growth inhibition was in the range of 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g after 12 months storage at room temperature . The number of viable bacteria after applying into the water and spraying on the rice seedling for 7 days in the greenhouse tests were also satisfactory high ( 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g of granules and 10 ( 6 ) CFU/g of plant , respectively ) . The scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) was used to observe bacterial antagonist on the surface of leaf sheath and leaf blade after spraying with formulation . Effervescent formulation applied either broadcasting or spraying reduced incidence of sheath blight disease in the greenhouse experiments .
Score: 4.00
Author: Petrella RJ Petrella MJ Cogliano A
Journal: Clin J Sport Med Citation: V : 17 P : 251-7 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17620777
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : To determine the efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid injections in acute lateral ankle sprain during 9 months at a sports injuries center . DESIGN : Randomized controlled prospective trial SETTING : Primary sport medicine and emergency practice . PATIENTS : One hundred fifty-eight consecutive competitive athletes who suffered acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprains were randomized within 48 hours of injury . INTERVENTIONS : Patients were randomized at baseline to periarticular injection with hyaluronic acid ( HA ) + standard of care [ rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) ] or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and on day 4 after injury . OUTCOMES MEASURES : Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , and 90 included Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ; 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( five-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( five-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , and adverse events . Differences between groups were determined using an intent-to-treat analysis of variance . RESULTS : About 30% of the ankle sprains were "first" events , and no differences in clinical assessments with those presenting but not volunteering for the study ( n = 341 ) were observed . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours , with no difference between groups . No serious adverse events were recorded during the 8-day treatment period . No difference in concomitant treatment or physical therapy was observed between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at day 8 for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was observed for HA versus PL at days 4 ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 8 ( P < 0 . 001 ) , 30 ( P < 0 . 001 ) , and 90 ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Patient global assessment of ankle injury was significantly better compared with baseline in the HA group at day 8 , but this was not different between groups . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/-8 ) versus 17 ( +/-8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . CONCLUSION : HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short term and the long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain and more rapid return to sport , with few associated adverse events .
Score: 4.00
Author: Yu YS Xue S Wu JC Wang F Yang GQ
Journal: J Econ Entomol Citation: V : 100 P : 1188-93 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17849869
Abstract: Insect hormones regulate growth and development and fecundity of insects . The current study investigated changes in juvenile hormone ( JH ) and molting hormone ( MH ) levels in fourth instars and adult females of Chilo suppressalis ( Walker ) ( Lepidoptera : Pyralidae ) after imidacloprid application to rice , Oryza sativa L The results showed that JH level in fourth instars that developed feeding on Fengyouxiangzhan rice plants sprayed with 15 , 30 , and 60 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than that of larvae that developed on control plants , increasing by 5 . 04 , 6 . 39 , and 4 . 89 times , respectively . The relationships between JH level and imidacloprid concentrations showed a significant negative correlation . In contrast , molting hormone ( MH ) level in larvae fed on control plants was significantly higher than that on treated plants . JH : MH values in fourth instars developed from larvae feeding on rice plants treated with 15 , 30 , 60 , 80 , and 100 ppm imidacloprid increased by 49 . 17 , 39 . 43 , 13 . 48 , 15 . 80 , and 0 . 2 times , respectively , compared with control . JH and JH : MH ratio in larvae fed on Wujing 15 plants treated with imidacloprid were significantly lower than those fed on Fengyouxiangzhan under the same treatments . JH level in adult females that developed from larvae feeding on rice plants sprayed with imidacloprid significantly decreased with increase in imidacloprid concentration , but it increased compared with control . JH level in adult females was associated with times of imidacloprid application . JH level in adult females developed from larvae feeding on rice plants after double spray with 30 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than control , increasing by 61 . 6 and 116 . 5% , respectively , compared with a single spray and the control . Moreover , hormone levels in the larvae were related to the application method of imidacloprid . JH level in fourth instars after root application and topical application of imidacloprid was significantly lower than in control . Thus , the dynamics of JH and MH in insects after insecticide applications are an extremely interesting problem , because hormones are related to insect growth and development .
Score: 4.00
Author: McNaughton J Roberts M Smith B Rice D Hinds M Rood T Layton R Lamb I Delaney B
Journal: Poult Sci Citation: V : 87 P : 2562-72 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19038812
Abstract: A genetically modified maize ( Zea mays L ) line that contains the Optimum GAT trait ( event DP-O9814O-6 ; 98140 ) was produced by integration of the gat4621 and zm-hra genes . The expressed GAT4621 and ZM-HRA proteins confer tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides , respectively . The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of 98140 maize grain to nontransgenic maize grain in a 42-d feeding trial in broiler chickens . Diets were prepared using grain from untreated 98140 plants and from plants treated with an in-field application of herbicides ( 98140 + Spray ) . For comparison , additional diets were produced with maize grain obtained from the nontransgenic near-isogenic control ( control ) and nontransgenic commercial reference Pioneer brand hybrids 33J56 , 33P66 , and 33R77 . Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers ( n = 120/group , 50% male and 50% female ) in 3 phases : starter , grower , and finisher containing 58 . 5 , 64 , and 71 . 5% maize grain , respectively . No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality , growth performance variables , or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with maize grains from unsprayed or sprayed 98140 and those consuming diets produced with near-isogenic control maize grain . Additionally , all performance and carcass variables from control , 98140 , and 98140 + Spray test maize treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from reference maize groups . Based on these results , it was concluded that 98140 maize grain ( unsprayed or sprayed with a herbicide mixture ) was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic control maize with comparable genetic background .
Score: 4.00
Author: Lyrtzis C Natsis K Papadopoulos C Noussios G Papathanasiou E
Journal: Foot Ankle Int Citation: V : 32 P : 571-5 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21733417
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Ankle sprains are usually treated with the RICE protocol often with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAID ) for pain reduction . We evaluated the effect of diclofenac , an NSAID , versus paracematol in the reduction of pain and acute edema of severe ankle sprains . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Ninety patients , 18 to 60 years old , with Grade II acute ankle sprains were randomized into two groups . Group A ( 45 patients ) received for the first 10 days diclofenac 75 mg orally twice per day . Group B ( 45 patients ) received paracetamol 500 mg orally three times per day for the same period . We evaluated ankle joint edema with the Figure-of-Eight method and with the volumetric method , as well as pain with the Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ) in both groups . RESULTS : The patients had no significant differences concerning their baseline values ( p > 0 . 05 ) . The ankle joint edema was decreased in both groups ( p < 0 . 001 ) but there was more edema in group A than in group B at the third post-traumatic day with both measurement methods ( p = 0 . 028/0 . 025 ) . By the tenth post-traumatic day no difference was found . Pain decreased in both groups at the third day and at the tenth day ( p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSION : According to these results , diclofenac and paracetamol had the same effect on pain reduction of ankle sprains but more acute ankle edema was present in patients who were treated with diclofenac than in patients who were treated with paracetamol .
Score: 3.00
Author: Lynch SA Renstrm PA .
Journal: Citation: V : 27 ( 1 ) P : 61-71 Year: 1999 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10028133
Abstract: Acute lateral ankle ligament sprains are common in young athletes ( 15 to 35 years of age ) . Diagnostic and treatment protocols vary . Therapies range from cast immobilisation or acute surgical repair to functional rehabilitation . The lateral ligament complex includes 3 capsular ligaments : the anterior tibiofibular ( ATFL ) , calcaneofibular ( CFL ) and posterior talofibular ( PTFL ) ligaments . Injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion ; the ATFL is most commonly torn . The CFL and the PTFL can also be injured and , after severe inversion , subtalar joint ligaments are also affected . Commonly , an athlete with a lateral ankle ligament sprain reports having rolled over the outside of their ankle . The entire ankle and foot must be examined to ensure there are no other injuries . Clinical stability tests for ligamentous disruption include the anterior drawer test of ATFL function and inversion tilt test of both ATFL and CFL function . Radiographs may rule out treatable fractures in severe injuries or when pain or tenderness are not associated with lateral ligaments . Stress radiographs do not affect treatment . Ankle sprains are classified from grades I to III ( mild , moderate or severe ) . Grade I and II injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management . A non-operative functional treatment programme includes immediate use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression , elevation ) , a short period of immobilisation and protection with a tape or bandage , and early range of motion , weight-bearing and neuromuscular training exercises . Proprioceptive training on a tilt board after 3 to 4 weeks helps improve balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle . Treatment for grade III injuries is more controversial A comprehensive literature evaluation and meta-analysis showed that early functional treatment provided the fastest recovery of ankle mobility and earliest return to work and physical activity without affecting late mechanical stability . Functional treatment was complication-free , whereas surgery had serious , though infrequent , complications . Functional treatment produced no more sequelae than casting with or without surgical repair . Secondary surgical repair , even years after an injury , has results comparable to those of primary repair , so even competitive athletes can receive initial conservative treatment . Sequelae of lateral ligament injuries are common . After conservative or surgical treatment , 10 to 30% of patients have chronic symptoms , including persistent synovitis or tendinitis , ankle stiffness , swelling , pain , muscle weakness and giving-way . Well-designed physical therapy programmes usually reduce instability . For individuals with chronic instability refractory to conservative measures , surgery may be needed . Subtalar instability should be carefully evaluated when considering surgery .
Score: 3.00
Author: Richards SM McClure GY Lavy TL Mattice JD Keller RJ Gandy J
Journal: Arch . Environ . Contam . Toxicol . Citation: V : 41 ( 1 ) P : 112-6 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11385597
Abstract: Propanil is widely used as a postemergence herbicide in rice . Because it is typically applied aerially , there is a potential for propanil to drift into and around homes of those living adjacent to rice fields . Propanil has been shown to be immunotoxic in rodent models . The objective of this study was to measure the levels of propanil to which families living adjacent to aerially sprayed rice fields may be exposed . Air levels were sampled by actively and passively collecting propanil in and around the homes of volunteer families living in close proximity to rice fields sprayed with propanil . Homes ranged from 73 m to 113 m from treated rice fields . Sampling was conducted in the home , adjacent to the home ( within 5 m of the home ) , 30 m from the home , and at the edge of the rice field . Concentrations were determined via gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy . Propanil levels adjacent to the homes ranged from nondetectable to 1 , 106 . 4 microg per 400 cm2 collection surface ( 2 . 0 microg detection limit ) . Wind direction and wind velocity were the primary determinants of propanil drift . At sites where the prevailing wind was blowing away from the home , no propanil was detected except at the edge of the field . Distance from the edge of the rice field also influenced the amount of drift with higher levels measured at 30 m from the house than adjacent to the house . No propanil vapor was detected on absorbent media sampled in and around the homes . The results indicate that individuals living adjacent to rice fields aerially sprayed with propanil are potentially exposed to variable amounts of propanil , and wind speed and direction are the most important factors that influence the concentration of aerially applied pesticide .
Score: 3.00
Author: Lawler SP Dritz DA Godfrey LD .
Journal: J Am . Mosq . Control Assoc . Citation: V : 19 ( 4 ) P : 430-2 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14710748
Abstract: Because agricultural insecticides have potential to disrupt biological control of mosquitoes , we quantified whether an insecticide used in rice fields causes mortality of mosquitofish . Laboratory studies have shown that lambda-cyhalothrin ( Warrior ) is toxic to fish ; however , some studies report low field toxicities of pyrethroids to fish because they degrade rapidly and adsorb to soil . We tested whether Warrior kills mosquitofish under field conditions . Replicated enclosures in a rice field were either sprayed with Warrior at 5 . 8 g active ingredient/ha or were untreated . Mosquitofish were either added before the spray , or 7 days later . Of those added before the spray , none survived . Most fish added 7 days later survived .
Score: 3.00
Author: Stergioulas A
Journal: Citation: V : 22 ( 2 ) P : 125-8 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15165387
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : Low-level laser therapy ( LLLT ) has been used for the last few years to treat sports injuries . The purpose of this study was to compare three therapeutic protocols in treating edema in second degree ankle sprains that did not require immobilization with a splint , under placebo-controlled conditions . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Forty-seven soccer players with second degree ankle sprains , selected at random , were divided into the following groups : The first group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the conventional initial treatment ( RICE , rest , ice , compression , elevation ) , the second group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the RICE method plus placebo laser , and the third group ( n = 15 ) was treated with the RICE method plus an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser with a radiant power output of 40 mW at 16 Hz . Before the treatment , and 24 , 48 , and 72 h later , the volume of the edema was measured . RESULTS : A three by three repeated measures ANOVA with a follow up post hoc test revealed that the group treated with the RICE and an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser presented a statistically significant reduction in the volume of the edema after 24 h ( 40 . 3 +/- 2 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 01 ) , 48 h ( 56 . 4 +/- 3 . 1 mL , p < 0 . 002 ) , and 72 h ( 65 . 1 +/- 4 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSIONS : LLLT combined with RICE can reduce edema in second-degree ankle sprains .
Score: 3.00
Author: Hubbard TJ Denegar CR .
Journal: Citation: V : 39 ( 3 ) P : 278-279 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15496998
Abstract: REFERENCE : Bleakley C , McDonough S , MacAuley D The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injury : a systematic review of randomized controlled trials . Am J Sport Med . 2004 ; 32 : 251-261 . CLINICAL QUESTION : What is the clinical evidence base for cryotherapy use? DATA SOURCES : Studies were identified by using a computer-based literature search on a total of 8 databases : MEDLINE , Proquest , ISI Web of Science , Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health ( CINAHL ) on Ovid , Allied and Complementary Medicine Database ( AMED ) on Ovid , Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness , and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register ( Central ) . This was supplemented with citation tracking of relevant primary and review articles . Search terms included surgery , orthopaedics , sports injury , soft it issue injury , sprains and strains , contusions , athletic injury , acute , compression , cryotherapy , ice , RICE , andcold . STUDY SELECTION : To be included in the review , each study had to fulfill the following conditions : be a randomized , controlled trial of human subjects ; be published in English as a full paper ; include patients recovering from acute soft it issue or orthopaedic surgical interventions who received cryotherapy in inpatient , outpatient , or home-based treatment , in isolation or in combination with placebo or other therapies ; provide comparisons with no treatment , placebo , a different mode or protocol of cryotherapy , or other physiotherapeutic interventions ; and have outcome measures that included function ( subjective or objective ) , pain , swelling , or range of motion . DATA EXTRACTION : The study population , interventions , outcomes , follow-up , and reported results of the assessed trials were extracted and tabulated . The primary outcome measures were pain , swelling , and range of motion . Only 2 groups reported adequate data for return to normal function . All eligible articles were rated for methodologic quality using the PEDro scale . The PEDro scale is a checklist that examines the believability ( internal validity ) and the interpretability of trial quality . The 11-item checklist yields a maximum score of 10 if all criteria are satisfied . The intraclass correlation coefficient and kappa values are similar to those reported for 3 other frequently used quality scales ( Chalmers Scale , Jadad Scale , and Maastricht List ) . Two reviewers graded the articles , a method that has been reported to be more reliable than one evaluator . MAIN RESULTS : Specific search criteria identified 55 articles for review , of which 22 were eligible randomized , controlled clinical trials . The articles scores on the PEDro scale were low , ranging from 1 to 5 , with an average score of 3 . 4 . Five studies provided adequate information on the subjects baseline data , and only 3 studies concealed allocation during subject recruitment . No studies blinded their therapists administration of therapy , and just 1 study blinded subjects . Only 1 study included an intention-to-treat analysis . The average number of subjects in the studies was 66 . 7 ; however , only 1 group undertook a power analysis . The types of injuries varied widely ( eg , acute or surgical ) . No authors investigated subjects with muscle contusions or strains , and only 5 groups studied subjects with acute ligament sprains . The remaining 17 groups examined patients recovering from operative procedures ( anterior cruciate ligament repair , knee arthroscopy , lateral retinacular release , total knee and hip arthroplasties , and carpal tunnel release ) . Additionally , the mode of cryotherapy varied widely , as did the duration and frequency of cryotherapy application . The time period when cryotherapy was applied after injury ranged from immediately after injury to 1 to 3 days postinjury . Adequate information on the actual surface temperature of the cooling device was not provided in the selected studies . Most authors recorded outcome variables over short periods ( 1 week ) , with the longest reporting follow-ups of pain , swelling , and range of motion recorded at 4 weeks postinjury . Data in that study were insufficient to calculate effect size . Nine studies did not provide data of the key outcome measures , so individual study effect estimates could not be calculated . A total of 12 treatment comparisons were made . Ice submersion with simultaneous exercises was significantly more effective than heat and contrast therapy plus simultaneous exercises at reducing swelling . Ice was reported to be no different from ice and low-frequency or high-frequency electric stimulation in effect on swelling , pain , and range of motion . Ice alone seemed to be more effective than applying no form of cryotherapy after minor knee surgery in terms of pain , but no differences were reported for range of motion and girth . Continuous cryotherapy was associated with a significantly greater decrease in pain and wrist circumference after surgery than intermittent cryotherapy . Evidence was marginal that a single simultaneous treatment with ice and compression is no more effective than no cryotherapy after an ankle sprain . The authors reported ice to be no more effective than rehabilitation only with regard to pain , swelling , and range of motion . Ice and compression seemed to be significantly more effective than ice alone in terms of decreasing pain . Additionally , ice , compression , and a placebo injection reduced pain more than a placebo injection alone . Lastly , in 8 studies , there seemed to be little difference in the effectiveness of ice and compression compared with compression alone . Only 2 of the 8 groups reported significant differences in favor of ice and compression . CONCLUSIONS : Based on the available evidence , cryotherapy seems to be effective in decreasing pain . In comparison with other rehabilitation techniques , the efficacy of cryotherapy has been questioned . The exact effect of cryotherapy on more frequently treated acute injuries ( eg , muscle strains and contusions ) has not been fully elucidated . Additionally , the low methodologic quality of the available evidence is of concern . Many more high-quality studies are required to create evidence-based guidelines on the use of cryotherapy . These must focus on developing modes , durations , and frequencies of ice application that will optimize outcomes after injury .
Score: 3.00
Author: Takeuchi H Watanabe T
Journal: J Econ . Entomol . Citation: V : 99 ( 2 ) P : 366-72 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16686134
Abstract: To clarify factors causing mortality of Leptocorisa chinensis Dallas ( Hemiptera : Alydidae ) eggs in rice fields , sentinel egg masses were exposed for seven days in two rice , Oryza sativa L ( Poaceae ) , fields . An insecticide was sprayed to remove natural enemies in one-half of each field before exposing egg masses to predation . An egg mass containing 14 eggs was glued to a plastic label , and 21 egg masses each were placed in the sprayed and unsprayed control plots . During exposure , the number of hatched and missing eggs was observed daily . Egg predators were sampled in the fields before and after insecticide application . After the egg masses were retrieved from the fields , mortality factors of the unhatched eggs were assessed in the laboratory . The mean number of hatched and missing eggs was not significantly different between the sprayed and control plots in field A In field B , however , the numbers were significantly different . The percentage of missing eggs in damaged egg masses ranged from 80 to 100% . In the laboratory , we observed that feeding marks caused by the grasshopper Conocephalus chinensis ( Redtenbacher ) were similar to those on the eggs exposed in the rice fields . The density of C chinensis was low in control plots of field A In contrast , the density was high in those of field B These observations suggest that the density of egg predators , eg , C chinensis , is a mortality factor of L chinensis eggs in rice fields .
Score: 3.00
Author: Rakotomanana F Randremanana RV Rabarijaona LP Duchemin JB Ratovonjato J Ariey F Rudant JP Jeanne I
Journal: Citation: V : 6 ( ) P : 2 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17261177
Abstract: BACKGROUND : The highlands of Madagascar present an unstable transmission pattern of malaria . The population has no immunity , and the central highlands have been the sites of epidemics with particularly high fatality . The most recent epidemic occurred in the 1980s , and caused about 30 , 000 deaths . The fight against malaria epidemics in the highlands has been based on indoor insecticide spraying to control malaria vectors . Any preventive programme involving generalised cover in the highlands will require very substantial logistical support . We used multicriteria evaluation , by the method of weighted linear combination , as basis for improved targeting of actions by determining priority zones for intervention . RESULTS : Image analysis and field validation showed the accuracy of mapping rice fields to be between 82 . 3% and 100% , and the Kappa coefficient was 0 . 86 to 0 . 99 . A significant positive correlation was observed between the abundance of the vector Anopheles funestus and temperature ; the correlation coefficient was 0 . 599 ( p < 0 . 001 ) . A significant negative correlation was observed between vector abundance and human population density : the correlation coefficient was -0 . 551 ( p < 0 . 003 ) . Factor weights were determined by pair-wise comparison and the consistency ratio was 0 . 04 . Risk maps of the six study zones were obtained according to a gradient of risk . Nine of thirteen results of alert confirmed by the Epidemiological Surveillance Post were in concordance with the risk map . CONCLUSION : This study is particularly valuable for the management of vector control programmes , and particularly the reduction of the vector population with a view to preventing disease . The risk map obtained can be used to identify priority zones for the management of resources , and also help avoid systematic and generalised spraying throughout the highlands : such spraying is particularly difficult and expensive . The accuracy of the mapping , both as concerns time and space , is dependent on the availability of data . Continuous monitoring of malaria transmission factors must be undertaken to detect any changes . A regular case notification allows risk map to be verified . These actions should therefore be implemented so that risk maps can be satisfactorily assessed .
Score: 3.00
Author: Roohinejad S Omidizadeh A Mirhosseini H Saari N Mustafa S Yusof RM Hussin AS Hamid A Abd Manap MY
Journal: J Sci Food Agric Citation: V : 90 P : 245-51 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20355038
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Brown rice is unpolished rice with immeasurable benefits for human health . Brown rice ( BR ) and pre-germinated brown rice ( PGBR ) are known to contain various functional compounds such as gamma-oryzanol , dietary fibre and gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA ) . In the present study , the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 , 48 h pre-germination ) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats . RESULTS : Hypercholesterolaemia and elevation of LDL-cholesterol were successfully ameliorated by the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 and 48 h pre-germination ) . As compared to the control sample , the pre-germination time had a significant ( P < 0 . 05 ) effect on blood cholesterol of Sprague-Dawley male rats . It was also found that the significantly ( P < 0 . 05 ) better effect on lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats was observed by prolonging the pre-germination time . As compared to non-germinated brown rice , the germinated brown rice showed the higher cardio-protective effect on hypercholesterolaemic Sprague-Dawley male rats . CONCLUSION : The present study suggests that the changes of blood cholesterol can be mainly modulated by using the PGBR rather than BR . The prolonging of pre-germination time led to an increase in the bioactive components , thereby providing a more efficient functional diet affecting the high blood cholesterol . This study suggests that PGBR can be used instead of BR and polished rice in the human diet .
Score: 3.00
Author: Jin SF Feng MG Ying SH Mu WJ Chen JQ
Journal: Pest Manag Sci Citation: V : 67 P : 36-43 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20949549
Abstract: BACKGROUND : High resistance of brown planthopper ( BPH ) Nilaparvata lugens Stal to common insecticides is a challenge for control of the pest An alternative control strategy based on the combined application of fungal and chemical agents has been evaluated . RESULTS : Three gradient spore concentrations of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae ( Metschnikoff ) Sorokin ( Ma456 ) were sprayed onto third-instar nymphs in five bioassays comprising the low buprofezin rates of 0 , 10 , 20 , 30 and 40 microg mL ( -1 ) respectively . Fungal LC ( 50 ) after 1 week at 25 degrees C and 14 : 10 h light : dark photoperiod decreased from 386 conidia mm ( -2 ) in the buprofezin-free bioassay to 40 at the highest chemical rate . Buprofezin ( LC ( 50 ) : 1647 , 486 and 233 microg mL ( -1 ) on days 2 to 4 ) had no significant effect on the fungal outgrowths of mycosis-killed cadavers at the low application rates . The fungal infection was found to cause 81% reduction in reproductive potential of BPH adults . In two 40 day field trials , significant planthopper ( mainly BPH ) control ( 54-60% ) was achieved by biweekly sprays of two fungal candidates ( Ma456 and Ma576 ) at 1 . 5 x 10 ( 13 ) conidia ha ( -1 ) and elevated to 80-83% by incorporating 30 . 8 g buprofezin ha ( -1 ) into the fungal sprays . CONCLUSION : The combined application of the fungal and chemical agents is a promising alternative strategy for BPH control .
Score: 3.00
Author: Sharma VP Mehrotra KN .
Journal: Citation: V : 22 ( 8 ) P : 835-45 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3749959
Abstract: In 1953 , the Indian National Malaria Control Programme ( NMCP ) was started . Encouraged by the results , and the fact that insecticide resistance in vector species may evolve and become an obstacle , in 1958 a control programme was converted to the National Malaria Eradication Programme ( NMEP ) . By 1964 , malaria was eradicated from 88% of the area and it was in the advanced stage of spraying in the remaining parts . At that time , focal outbreaks that occurred in 1965 and increased in later years , could not be contained due to the shortages of DDT . As a result , large areas in consolidation and maintenance phases were reverted to the attack phase . Besides , the infrastructure in general health services was not adequate and mature enough to take up surveillance and vigilance . This produced a large number of secondary cases due to the re-introduction and relapse of malaria . Added to this was the problem of urban malaria , the control of which was the responsibility of local bodies . Malaria cases increased in towns , and started diffusing to the rural areas , due to inadequate staff and the shortages of malarial larvicidal oil ( MLO ) . Later , it turned out , that while it was technically feasible to eradicate malaria from 91% of the population , the strategy of indoor spraying of DDT to interrupt transmission did not succeed in 9 . 0% of the population , despite more than 12-14 years of regular spraying . During the years of resurgence , there was no research support to the programme , so that technical problems were not properly appreciated , understood and tackled . The reservoir of parasites that were present throughout the country started multiplying and spreading to newer areas due to the presence of vectors in high densities . Thus malaria resurged and re-established itself even in areas that were at one time freed from the disease . The analysis of the pattern of malaria resurgence revealed that malaria outbreaks preceded the true problem of insecticide resistance . It is noteworthy to mention that malaria resurgence occurred in towns where the control measures were non-insecticidal and in regions which were not under the influence of insecticide-resistant vectors . The study also revealed that resurgence occurred before the introduction of high-yielding varieties programme in the country , and had no relationship to either the cotton or rice growing or intensive agriculture .
Score: 3.00
Author: Reisen WK Pradhan SP Shrestha JP Shrestha SL Vaidya RG Shrestha JD .
Journal: J Med . Entomol . Citation: V : 30 ( 4 ) P : 664-82 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8360891
Abstract: The ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to malaria transmission was studied at sprayed and unsprayed villages and two unsprayed cattle sheds in the inner terai of Sindhuli District , Central Region , and at two unsprayed villages and one cattle shed in Kanchanpur , Far Western Region of Nepal , from August 1987 to August 1989 . Anopheles maculatus was the most abundant of 26 anopheline species collected in Sindhuli District ; however , An . fluviatilis was collected most frequently at human bait and was infected most frequently with malaria sporozoites . Residual house spray controlled the indoor resting abundance of the endophilic resting species and protected the population from malaria during midsummer , but had less effect on exophilic resting species and those abundant after and before spray application during the fall and spring , respectively . Malaria at the unsprayed village was detected predominantly in adults of both sexes , perhaps because young children retired early and frequently slept indoors under bed nets during the early evening period of elevated anopheline host-seeking activity . Malaria transmission was verified by the collection of sporozoite infected An . fluviatilis and An . maculatus during spring at cattle sheds in the forested Churia Hills and during the summer monsoon season within the unsprayed village . An . culicifacies was the most abundant of 12 anopheline species collected in Kanchanpur District . Few females of all species were collected at human bait positioned in or out of houses or had human positive blood meals ; none were infected with sporozoites . Malaria incidence was higher in the study village positioned along the forest-rice field ecotone than in the cleared rice growing area .
Score: 3.00
Author: Johannsen F Langberg H
Journal: Citation: V : 7 ( 3 ) P : 178-81 Year: 1997 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9200323
Abstract: Rest , ice , compression , elevation ( RICE ) is the most recommended treatment for acute traumatic soft it issue injuries . A questionnaire was given to all Danish emergency rooms ( n = 5 ) regarding their routines for acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions . Complete answers were received from 37 emergency rooms ( 73% ) , covering the treatment of 111 ankle sprains and 101 muscle contusions . Treatment with RICE was given in a minority of injuries , ice ( 21% ) , compression ( 32% ) and elevation ( 58% ) similarly between injury types . A complete RICE treatment was rarely applied ( 3% ) . Verbal information on RICE and rehabilitation was given in less than half of the cases . We conclude that the acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions in the Danish emergency rooms is not applied in accordance with consensus from international literature , and that the instruction in rehabilitation should be improved .
Score: 2.00
Author: Trindade MA Grosso CR .
Journal: Citation: V : 17 ( 2 ) P : 169-76 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10738692
Abstract: Ascorbic acid ( AA ) was microencapsulated by spray drying , using gum arabic and rice starch as covering materials . The AA was dissolved in solutions of the wall material prior to processing . For the rice starch , gelatin was used as a binding agent and recovery was effected with calcium pectate . The morphology of the materials was analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy , it thus being possible to verify the formation and evaluate the structural characteristics of the microcapsules . The capsules produced with gum arabic were smaller ( d50% = 8 . 0 microns ) and with a multimode particle size distribution , whilst uncovered starch capsules containing 1-2% gelatin presented a distribution mainly in the range of 5-40 microns . The capsules recovered with calcium pectate had average diameters 10-15 times greater than those obtained only by spray drying . The stability of the encapsulated materials was studied at room temperature ( RH 60-65% ) and at 45 degrees C ( RH 60-65% and 90 . 7% ) . AA microencapsulated in gum arabic was shown to be as stable as free crystalline AA under environmental conditions , whereas that encapsulated in rice starch was less stable . Increasing the amount of the binding agent gelatin increased the stability of the uncovered starch encapsulated AA . Recovery with calcium pectate notably increased the stability of the starch encapsulated AA , as compared to the uncovered samples .
Score: 2.00
Author: Dal Bello G Padin S Lpez Lastra C Fabrizio M
Journal: Citation: V : 37 ( 1 ) P : 77-84 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11124371
Abstract: The virulence of ten different fungal isolates of : Beauveria bassiana , Metarhizium anisopliae , Verticillium lecanii and Paecilomyces farinosus to the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae was tested . A fungal mix of the most efficient isolates , B bassiana ARSEF 5500+M anisopliae ARSEF 2974 , which caused the highest mortality , was assayed in combination with fenitrothion at a concentration lower ( 3 ppm ) than the normal 6 ppm . Fungal inoculation of insects was done by spraying conidial suspensions of each fungus on wheat . Insecticide formulations were added by spraying wheat . Treated and untreated insects were incubated on durum wheat . Insects were kept in a climatized chamber for 30 days . Observations were performed at 7 , 14 and 30 days to record insect mortality . Highly significant differences were demonstrated for B bassiana 5500 and 5501 and for M anisopliae 2974 . The level of mortality produced by treatments was : 6 ppm insecticide=97 . 50% , B bassiana ARSEF 5500+M anisopliae ARSEF 2974+3 ppm insecticide=74 . 17% , B bassiana ARSEF 5500+Manisopliae ARSEF 2974=50% and 3 ppm insecticide=37 . 50% . There was a statistically significant difference ( p<0 . 05 ) among treatments .
Score: 2.00
Author: Green T Refshauge K Crosbie J Adams R
Journal: Citation: V : 81 ( 4 ) P : 984-94 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11276181
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : Passive joint mobilization is commonly used by physical therapists as an intervention for acute ankle inversion sprains . A randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors was conducted to investigate the effect of a specific joint mobilization , the anteroposterior glide on the talus , on increasing pain-free dorsiflexion and 3 gait variables : stride speed ( gait speed ) , step length , and single support time . SUBJECTS : Forty-one subjects with acute ankle inversion sprains ( <72 hours ) and no other injury to the lower limb entered the trial METHODS : Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups . The control group received a protocol of rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) . The experimental group received the anteroposterior mobilization , using a force that avoided incurring any increase in pain , in addition to the RICE protocol . Subjects in both groups were treated every second day for a maximum of 2 weeks or until the discharge criteria were met , and all subjects were given a home program of continued RICE application . Outcomes were measured before and after each treatment . RESULTS : The results showed that the experimental group required fewer treatment sessions than the control group to achieve full pain-free dorsiflexion . The experimental group had greater improvement in range of movement before and after each of the first 3 treatment sessions . The experimental group also had greater increases in stride speed during the first and third treatment sessions . DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Addition of a talocrural mobilization to the RICE protocol in the management of ankle inversion injuries necessitated fewer treatments to achieve pain-free dorsiflexion and to improve stride speed more than RICE alone . Improvement in step length symmetry and single support time was similar in both groups .
Score: 2.00
Author: McClure GY Helm RM Stine K Burks AW Jones SM Gandy J
Journal: Arch . Environ . Contam . Toxicol . Citation: V : 41 ( 1 ) P : 104-11 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11385596
Abstract: The rice herbicide propanil induces alterations in the mouse immune system , causing significant decreases in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses . This postemergent herbicide is used extensively in rice production in the Mississippi River delta region of the southern United States . The aerial application and airborne drift of propanil may pose health concerns to exposed farm families living adjacent to sprayed rice fields . To determine if aerial spraying of propanil increases risks of altered immune responses in families bordering rice fields , immune parameters were assessed during a 2-year study . Families living within 100 yards of rice fields were compared in a case control study to farm families whose homes exceeded 1 mile from any rice field . Blood was analyzed in adults ( n = 56 ) and children ( n = 52 ) at three time intervals : ( 1 ) preseason , prior to propanil application ; ( 2 ) 5-7 days after aerial application of propanil to rice fields ; and ( 3 ) postseason , following harvest Exposed adults and children were compared with controls for a number of immune parameters . Total cell count and the percentage of various lymphocytes ( T cells , B cells , CD4+ helper cells , and CD8+ suppressor cells ) and natural killer ( NK ) cells , mitogen-induced cell proliferation , cytokine ( IL-2+ ) production , and NK cell function were assessed . A comparison of immune function between exposed and nonexposed farm families showed no significant differences , possibly related to propanil exposure . However , some immune test parameters changed as a function of season rather than propanil exposure . The data indicate that individuals living next to rice fields are not at increased risk of altered immune function due to propanil exposure .
Score: 2.00
Author: Tsumura Y Ishimitsu S Kaihara A Yoshii K Nakamura Y Tonogai Y
Journal: Citation: V : 18 ( 6 ) P : 569-79 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11407756
Abstract: Plasticizer contamination of foods sold in retail packed lunches and set lunches in restaurants was determined by GC/MS . The phthalate esters were as follows : diethyl , dipropyl , dibutyl , dipentyl , dihexyl , butylbenzyl , dicyclohexyl , di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) , dioctyl , diisooctyl ( mixture of isomers ) and diisononyl ( mixture ) . Di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) adipate was also determined . Sixteen packed lunches and ten set lunches were analysed , and in all samples the concentration of di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) phthalate ( DEHP ) was the highest , at 0 . 80-11 . 8 mg/kg in packed lunches and 0 . 012-0 . 30 mg/kg in set lunches . The DEHP content of five packed lunches exceeded 1 . 85 mg , which is the EU tolerable daily intake ( TDI ) for a person of 50 kg body weight . Foodstuffs that were components of the packed lunches were taken from the factory at each step of preparation and phthalates were determined . For example , chicken contained 0 . 08 mg/kg DEHP when uncooked , 13 . 1 mg/kg after frying and 16 . 9 mg/kg after packing . Disposable PVC gloves used in the preparation of foods were apparently the source of high DEHP concentrations . The gloves used during cooking or packaging were sprayed with 68% ( w/w ) ethanol to sterilize them . PVC gloves from the factory contained 22 or 41% by weight of DEHP . To confirm the link with the contamination problem , samples of boiled rice , croquette and boiled dry radish were handled in the laboratory with PVC gloves containing 30% ( w/w ) DEHP . DEHP migration levels of 0 . 05 mg/kg in rice or 0 . 33 mg/kg in croquette , and 11 . 1 mg/kg in radish were found . The alcohol sprayed onto the gloves increased the migration of DEHP to 2 . 03 mg/kg in rice , 2 . 45 mg , kg in croquette , and 18 . 4 mg/kg in radish .
Score: 2.00
Author: Gilbert J Abramson D McCallum B Clear R
Journal: Mycopathologia Citation: V : 153 ( 4 ) P : 209-15 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12014482
Abstract: Fusarium graminearum is the predominant pathogen causing fusarium head blight of cereals in North America . Fifteen Canadian isolates of Fusarium graminearum were highly diverse in terms of vegetative compatibility grouping ( VCG ) and varied for production of ergosterol and mycotoxin production in rice culture . Aggressiveness was assessed by scoring the disease severity incited in wheat spikes by each isolate . Two inoculation methods , single-floret injection and spray of entire spikes , were used to screen 4 wheat varieties for reaction to the F graminearum isolates . All isolates were of broadly similar aggressiveness , with disease severity ranging from 17 . 2 to 39 . 1 for single floret injection , and 39 . 1 to 69 . 0 for spray inoculation . Disease severity , ergosterol production , and mycotoxin development were not correlated . Using nitrate non-utilizing mutants the 15 isolates were grouped into 14 VCGs . Deoxynivalenol ( DON ) was produced by all isolates in rice culture , at levels between 0 . 2 and 249 ppm . 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol was produced by 14 of the 15 isolates at levels between 0 . 4 and 44 . 6 ppm . These results reveal a high level of diversity for several characteristics among F graminearum isolates from Canada .
Score: 2.00
Author: Zhu D Yin J Bao Z Cai L
Journal: Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi Citation: V : 16 ( 1 ) P : 53-7 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12078209
Abstract: AIM : To provide scientific basis for the popularization and application of molluscide bromoacetamide . METHODS : Large scale application of bromoacetamide in twenty eight counties of four provinces was investigated and its molluscicidal effect in marshland and influence on marshland grass ( Cyperus ) and fishes were observed . RESULTS : High molluscicidal effect of bromoacetamide was found against both snails and snail eggs in various environments . According to the results observed in different fields , the applicable dosage of bromoacetamide is 1 . 5-2 g/m2 for spraying method , 1 . 5-2 g/m3 for immersing method and 1 . 5-2 g/m for immersing in combination with shovelling the turf along the bank . When it was applied in fish-raising ponds or rivers at an applicable dosage , no toxic effect on fishes was found . The spraying dosage of bromoacetamide did not affect the rice seedling but it did some damage to the leaf-tips of marshland grass , however , the grass did turn green and grow . CONCLUSION : Bromoacetamide has proved to be a safe and effective mulluscicde against Oncomelania under various field conditions .
Score: 2.00
Author: Yang J Zhang J Wang Z Zhu Q Liu L
Journal: Planta Citation: V : 215 ( 4 ) P : 645-52 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12172848
Abstract: The possible regulation of senescence-initiated remobilization of carbon reserves in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) by abscisic acid ( ABA ) and cytokinins was studied using two rice cultivars with high lodging resistance and slow remobilization . The plants were grown in pots and either well-watered ( WW , soil water potential = 0 MPa ) or water-stressed ( WS , soil water potential = -0 . 05 MPa ) from 9 days after anthesis until they reached maturity . Leaf water potentials of both cultivars markedly decreased at midday as a result of water stress but completely recovered by early morning . Chlorophyll ( Chl ) and photosynthetic rate ( Pr ) of the flag leaves declined faster in WS plants than in WW plants , indicating that the water deficit enhanced senescence . Water stress accelerated starch remobilization in the stems , promoted the re-allocation of pre-fixed ( 14 ) C from the stems to grains , shortened the grain-filling period and increased the grain-filling rate . Sucrose phosphate synthase ( SPS , EC 2 . 4 . 1 . 14 ) activity was enhanced by water stress and positively correlated with sucrose accumulation in both the stem and leaves . Water stress substantially increased ABA but reduced zeatin ( Z ) + zeatin riboside ( ZR ) concentrations in the root exudates and leaves . ABA significantly and negatively , while Z+ZR positively , correlated with Pr and Chl of the flag leaves . ABA , not Z+ZR , was positively and significantly correlated with SPS activity and remobilization of pre-stored carbon . Spraying ABA reduced Chl in the flag leaves , and enhanced SPS activity and remobilization of carbon reserves . Spraying kinetin had the opposite effect . The results suggest that both ABA and cytokinins are involved in controlling plant senescence , and an enhanced carbon remobilization is attributed to an elevated ABA level in rice plants subjected to water stress .
Score: 2.00
Author: Shiga H Yoshii H Taguchi R Nishiyama T Furuta T Linko P
Journal: Biosci . Biotechnol . Biochem . Citation: V : 67 ( 2 ) P : 426-8 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12729014
Abstract: The release characteristics of flavor in boiling water and the flavor retention in the rice after cooking were investigated by using spray dried powder in encapsulated in or emulsified with d-limonene or ethyl n-hexanoate in cyclodextrin and maltodextrin , or in gum arabic and maltodextrin . The behavior of flavor release into the boiling water was well simulated by Avramis equation . The retention of d-limonene and ethyl n-hexanoate in cooked rice was correlated in each case with the flavor amount of spray-dried powder added .
Score: 2.00
Author: Teera-Arunsiri A Suphantharika M Ketunuti U
Journal: J Econ . Entomol . Citation: V : 96 ( 2 ) P : 292-9 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14994793
Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used biopesticide among many methods available to control insects . To make a saleable product , B thuringiensis must be substantially concentrated by removal of water and formulated to improve longevity , efficacy , and ease of transport of the product . B thuringiensis subsp . aizawai culture broth as an active ingredient was mixed with various adjuvants and then spray dried . The optimum conditions for spray drying were found to be an outlet temperature of 60-85 degrees C and an inlet temperature of 120-180 degrees C Various adjuvants had different effects on physical and biological properties of the dried product . Gelatinized tapioca starch and milk powder improved suspensibility but adversely affected wettability of the dried formulated product . Vegetable oil and Tween 20 enhanced wettability but resulted in poor suspensibility . Silica fume was used to enhance flowability because it reduced clumping and caking of the powder resulting from the addition of vegetable oil . Formulation containing 10% wt : wt B thuringiensis , 10% wt : wt gelatinized tapioca starch , 10% wt : wt sucrose , 38% wt : wt tapioca starch , 20% wt : wt milk powder , 10% wt : wt silica fume , 2% wt : wt polyvinyl alcohol , 5% vol : vol Tween 20 , 1% vol : vol refined rice bran oil , and 1% vol : vol antifoam solution was found to be optimum in terms of the physical and biological properties of the dried product . This formulation had 55% suspensibility , 24 s for wetting time , and 5 . 69 x 10 ( 4 ) CFU/ml of LC50 value against Spodoptera exigua larvae .
Score: 2.00
Author: Rajaonarivelo V Le Goff G Cot M Brutus L
Journal: Parasite Citation: V : 11 ( 1 ) P : 75-82 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15071831
Abstract: The anopheline vectors and malaria transmission were investigated in the Middle West of Madagascar , in the village of Ambohimena ( at the altitude of 940 meters ) during two years ( August 1996 to July 1998 ) . This village is located outside the vector control area , where yearly DDT house spraying campaigns have been conducted between 1993 and 1998 . Collection of mosquitoes was mainly based on all night man billing collections ( 650 man-nights ) , pyrethrum spray catches ( 224 bedrooms ) and direct collections in outdoor resting places ( 140 toilets , 61 pigsties , 33 holes , 19 sheds , 79 sisal hedges , 70 cart shelters ) . Blood fed anophelines allowed analysis of the origin of blood with an ELISA method . Presence of circum-sporozoite protein was assessed with another ELISA method . The total number of collected anophelines was 14 , 280 . Two malaria vectors were identified : Anopheles funestus Giles , 1900 and An . arabiensis Patton , 1902 . An . funestus was the most abundant mosquito , especially during the hot rainy season . Two peaks of abundance were observed ( in December and April ) . Endophagic rate ( for mosquitoes aggressive for man ) of 35 . 3% , an endophilic rate ( for resting mosquitoes ) of 78 . 0% and an anthropophilic rate ( for indoor resting mosquitoes ) of 64 . 0% were calculated . The average parity rate was relatively low ( 61 . 2% ) . The Plasmodium falciparum immunological sporozoite rate was 0 . 20% . An . funestus presented a higher vectorial capacity during the first round of rice cultivation ( January ) than during the second round ( April-May ) . An . arabiensis was mostly abundant in December and January at the beginning of the rainy season . This species was exophagic ( endophagic rate = 27 . 5% ) and zoophilic ( anthropophilic rate = 7 . 8% ) . The sporozoitic index was determined as zero ( number of examined mosquitoes = 871 ) . In this village , An . arabiensis presented only marginal importance for malaria transmission . Malaria transmission occurred from December to April . Annual entomological inoculation rate , only due to An . funestus , was 8 . 96 during the first year , and 3 . 17 during the second year . In this area where transmission is moderately stable , we suggest an extension of vector imagocidal control activities up to the western fringes of the Highlands .
Score: 2.00
Author: Jebakumar SR Kannan N Subramanian BR Jayaraman J
Journal: Environ . Pollut . Citation: V : 61 ( 3 ) P : 227-34 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15092362
Abstract: Thirty-day-old seedlings of rice plants ( IR-20 variety ) from the nursery were transplanted into experimental plots and after 52 days were sprayed with phosphamidon ( Dimecron 85% EC ) at two dose-rates ( 0 . 38 kg a . i . ha ( -1 ) and 0 . 76 kg a . i . ha ( -1 ) ) . Residues of phosphamidon in the plant , soil and water were analysed by GLC , at various time intervals , and were found to decrease steadily up to 15 days . A second application of the pesticide was made on day 113 and grains harvested on day 138 . The residue level in the plants was 0 . 12 microg g ( -1 ) and in the grains 0 . 04 microg g ( -1 ) with the high dose . This is slightly below the EPA prescribed tolerance level of 0 . 05 microg g ( -1 ) . The residues in both soil and water were very low , 24 h after spraying .
Score: 2.00
Author: Limwong V Sutanthavibul N Kulvanich P
Journal: Citation: V : 5 ( 2 ) P : e30 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15760088
Abstract: Composite particles of rice starch ( RS ) and microcrystalline cellulose were fabricated by spray-drying technique to be used as a directly compressible excipient . Two size fractions of microcrystalline cellulose , sieved ( MCS ) and jet milled ( MCJ ) , having volumetric mean diameter ( D50 ) of 13 . 61 and 40 . 51 microm , respectively , were used to form composite particles with RS in various mixing ratios . The composite particles produced were evaluated for their powder and compression properties . Although an increase in the microcrystalline cellulose proportion imparted greater compressibility of the composite particles , the shape of the particles was typically less spherical with rougher surface resulting in a decrease in the degree of flowability . Compressibility of composite particles made from different size fractions of microcrystalline cellulose was not different ; however , using MCJ , which had a particle size range close to the size of RS ( D50 = 13 . 57 microm ) , provided more spherical particles than using MCS . Spherical composite particles between RS and MCJ in the ratio of 7 : 3 ( RS-MCJ-73 ) were then evaluated for powder properties and compressibility in comparison with some marketed directly compressible diluents . Compressibility of RS-MCJ-73 was greater than commercial spray-dried RS ( Eratab ) , coprocessed lactose and microcrystalline cellulose ( Cellactose ) , and agglomerated lactose ( Tablettose ) , but , as expected , lower than microcrystalline cellulose ( Vivapur 101 ) . Flowability index of RS-MCJ-73 appeared to be slightly lower than Eratab but higher than Vivapur 101 , Cellactose , and Tablettose . Tablets of RS-MCJ-73 exhibited low friability and good self-disintegrating property . It was concluded that these developed composite particles could be introduced as a new coprocessed direct compression excipient .
Score: 2.00
Author: Chorley JN .
Journal: Citation: V : 21 ( 8 ) P : 498-501 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16096593
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : ( 1 ) To describe the incidence of inclusion of early mobilization components in emergency department ( ED ) discharge instructions ; ( 2 ) to describe the prescribed follow-up appointments ; and ( 3 ) to analyze the differences between the treatment of pediatric and adult patients . METHODS : A 1-year retrospective chart review of ED records of a large urban hospital was performed . Medical records of 374 ( 95% ) of the 397 adult and pediatric patients with ICD-9 code for ankle sprains were reviewed ( 213 males and 171 females , mean age 28 . 4 +/- 14 . 5 ; 291 adults , 93 pediatric ) . RESULTS : Sixteen percent of records contained discharge instructions that included rest , ice , compression , elevation , and medications ( RICEM ) . Twenty percent included RICE . Pediatricians ( 33 . 7% ) were more likely than adult physicians ( 10 . 3% ) to have given RICEM ( P < 0 . 0001 ) and RICE ( P = 0 . 05 , pedi = 45 . 8% , adult = 13 . 1% ) . Follow-up referrals were recommended as needed 50% of the time . Follow-up referrals were made to community clinics ( 59% ) , orthopedic clinic ( 23% ) , the ED ( 14% ) , and others ( 4% ) . Pediatricians were more likely to recommend routine scheduled follow up ( pedi = 62% , adult = 47% , P = 0 . 018 ) , suggest follow-up in a community clinic or doctors office ( pedi = 68 . 6% , adult = 51 . 2% , P < 0 . 0001 ) , and to recommend earlier follow up ( pedi = 1 . 6 weeks +/- 1 . 1 , adult = 2 . 0 weeks +/- 1 . 1 , P = 0 . 002 ) than adult physicians . CONCLUSIONS : Programs that train physicians who work in the ED need to include education on the proper treatment , rehabilitation , and follow up of patients with acute ankle sprains . Providing easy-to-complete discharge instruction templates can help providers give patients discharge instructions that may help patients minimize the risk of long-term sequelae .
Score: 2.00
Author: Feng Y Shen D Song W
Journal: J Appl . Microbiol . Citation: V : 100 ( 5 ) P : 938-45 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16629994
Abstract: AIMS : The aims of the study were to identify the effects of rice endophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19 on host plant growth and allocations of photosynthates . METHODS AND RESULTS : Endophytic diazotrophic YS19 showed nitrogen-fixing activity in N-free medium , and produced four categories of phytohormones which were indole-3-acetic acid , abscisic acid , gibberellic acid and cytokinin in Luria-Bertani medium . Inoculation of YS19 improved the biomass of the 12-day-cultivated host rice seedlings by 63 . 4% on N-free medium or by 18 . 7% on N-supplemented medium . Spraying of YS19 cell culture onto the rice plants at the premilk stage enhanced the transportation of the photosynthetic assimilation product from the source ( flag leaves ) to the sink ( stachys ) significantly . The formation of the plant sink was obviously inhibited when YS19 cell culture was applied at the late milk stage . CONCLUSIONS : This research suggests that endophyte YS19 promotes host rice plant growth and affects allocations of host photosynthates . SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY : These findings suggested that YS19 possesses the potential for increasing rice production in field application . Meanwhile , a suitable plant growth stage must be selected for the foliar spraying of YS19 cell culture .
Score: 2.00
Author: Liu G Sogawa K Chen S Pu Z Shen J Shi D Qiao Q Liu X
Journal: Citation: V : 17 ( 10 ) P : 1941-7 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17209398
Abstract: With rice varieties Jiahua 1 ( resistant to the white backed plant hopper Sogatella furcifera ) and Shanyou 63 ( susceptible ) as test materials , this paper studied the effects of different insecticide treatments on the pest population and quality and yield of rice grain , and evaluated their actual economic benefits ( AEB ) . The results indicated that in the control plot , the peak density of S furcifera on Jiahua 1 was only 1/10 of that on Shanyou 63 . Throughout the whole rice growth period , the S furcifera population on Jiahua 1 kept below economic injury level , while Shanyou 63 suffered heavy infestation by S furcifera . The spider density in the control plot was 3 -7 times higher than that in the plots treated with insecticide following farmers practice . No application of insecticide decreased the grain yield of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 by 11 . 8% and 43 . 4% , respectively . Compared with the control , spraying with insecticide one time decreased the AEB of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 by 0 . 9% - 2 . 6% and 2 . 6% - 4 . 7% , respectively . Without insecticide application , the AEB of Shanyou 63 decreased by 32 . 9% - 36 . 1% , while that of Jiahua 1 increased by 2 . 2% - 4 . 8% . The income of planting Jiahua 1 without insecticide application was 9403 yuan x hm ( -2 ) , which was remarkably higher than that ( 8632 yuan hm ( -2 ) ) of Shanyou 63 protected by spraying insecticide 3 times . It was worthwhile to point out that insecticide treatment did not affect the processing of rice grain and its commercial and edible quality , but decreased its protein content of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 .
Score: 2.00
Author: Abdel-Fattah GM Shabana YM Ismail AE Rashad YM
Journal: Mycopathologia Citation: V : 164 P : Sep-81 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17592758
Abstract: Rice brown spot , caused by Bipolaris oryzae , can be a serious disease causing a considerable yield loss . Trichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent for a number of plant fungal diseases . Thus , this research was carried out to investigate the mechanisms of action by which T harzianum antagonizes Bipolaris oryzae in vitro , and the efficacy of spray application of a spore suspension of T harzianum for control of rice brown spot disease under field conditions . In vitro , the antagonistic behavior of T harzianum resulted in the overgrowth of B oryzae by T harzianum , while the antifungal metabolites of T harzianum completely prevented the linear growth of B oryzae . Light and scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) observations showed no evidence that mycoparasitism contributed to the aggressive nature of the tested isolate of T harzianum against B oryzae . Under field conditions , spraying of a spore suspension of T harzianum at 10 ( 8 ) spore ml ( -1 ) significantly reduced the disease severity ( DS ) and disease incidence ( DI ) on the plant leaves , and also significantly increased the grain yield , total grain carbohydrate , and protein , and led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments ( chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids ) in rice leaves .
Score: 2.00
Author: Preuss HG Echard B Bagchi D Stohs S
Journal: Int J Med Sci Citation: V : 4 P : 209-15 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17713601
Abstract: Acute oral consumption of various natural inhibitors of amylase ( bean and hibiscus extracts ) and sucrase ( L-arabinose ) reduce absorption of starch and sucrose respectively in rats and pigs measured by lessened appearance of circulating glucose levels . The present subchronic study was designed to determine whether these selected inhibitors of gastrointestinal starch and sucrose absorption ( so-called "carb blockers" ) remain effective with continued use and to assess their metabolic influences after prolonged intake . Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged twice daily over nine weeks with either water or an equal volume of water containing a formula that included bean and hibiscus extracts and L-arabinose . To estimate CHO absorption , control and treated Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with either water alone or an equal volume of water containing glucose , rice starch , sucrose , or combined rice starch and sucrose . Circulating glucose was measured at timed intervals over four hours . The ability to decrease starch and sucrose absorption use . No toxic effects ( hepatic , renal , hematologic ) were evident . Blood chemistries revealed significantly lower circulating glucose levels and a trend toward decreased HbA1C in the nondiabetic rats receiving the natural formulation compared to control . Subchronic administration of enzyme inhibitors was also associated with many metabolic changes including lowered systolic blood pressure and altered fluid-electrolyte balance . We postulate that proper intake of natural amylase and sucrase inhibitors may be useful in the prevention and treatment of many chronic disorders associated with perturbations in glucose-insulin homeostasis secondary to the rapid absorption of refined CHO .
Score: 2.00
Author: Robert V Carnevale P
Journal: Bull . World Health Organ . Citation: V : 69 ( 6 ) P : 735-40 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1786622
Abstract: A 3-year entomological study was carried out on the transmission of malaria in a village of 900 inhabitants in a rice-growing area of Burkina Faso . In the study area inhabitants use bed nets to protect themselves from mosquito bites . In the first year of the study , baseline data were collected ; in the second year , the village was divided in two parts and all the bed nets in the southern part were sprayed with deltamethrin ( 25 mg/m2 ) ; and in the third year , all the bed nets in both parts of the village were sprayed . The inoculation rate was estimated by hand collection of mosquitos on human volunteers who were not protected by bed nets . The overall inoculation rate in the first year was 55 infected bites per person and was higher in the southern than in the northern part of the village . During the second year the rate increased to 70 bites per person on average ( but was slightly lower than this in the southern part of the village ) . During the third year , the inoculation rate fell to three infected bites per year , ie , a reduction of 94% compared with the first year . This reduction arose primarily because of a marked decrease in the sporozoitic index and a lower density of vectors . Thus , use of pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets by all members of the community appears to be a major tool in preventing transmission of malaria .
Score: 2.00
Author: Barutwanayo M Coosemans M Delacollette C Bisore S Mpitabakana P Seruzingo D
Journal: Citation: V : 71 Suppl 1 ( ) P : 113-25 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1793263
Abstract: In the context of a large project for the socio-economic improvement of the Imbo area , measures were taken for the integration at all levels of malaria control : health centres for improvement of curative care ; hygiene and sanitation centres , communes and agricultural projects for vector control ; craftsmen , cooperatives and social centres for the manufacture and selling of impregnated bed-nets . The adopted strategy for malaria control results from preliminary epidemiological studies . The recommended measures are the improvement of medical care and vector control . The latter is based on indoor spraying of malathion , once a year . Malathion is only active during the period ( 2 months ) of highest transmission , which occurs at the end of the rainy season . Occasionally other insecticides are used . Impregnated bed-nets with deltamethrin and village draining are complementary methods . In villages of the rice-growing area with good participation of the community , vector control activities have a considerable impact on malaria prevalence . About 70% before the intervention , the prevalence does not exceed 10% in 1990 . High parasitaemia ( greater than 2000 troph . /microliters ) , and hence morbidity , decreased considerably ( 35% in 1983 to less than 5% in 1990 ) . In villages with poor community participation , the decrease of prevalence is less spectacular ( from 70% to 25% ) . Drains are not kept in repair and constitute new breeding places of vectors in the populated areas . The use of mosquito bed-nets is not common , a better information campaign should overcome this unpopularity . In peri-urban villages , inhabitants are complaining about indoor spraying , but the results are satisfactory . This programme demonstrates that reducing malaria prevalence and morbidity with conventional measures is feasible in particular biotopes . Health education activities in the Imbo Centre must be pursued and adapted according to the professional activities of the community .
Score: 2.00
Author: Phong TK Nhung DT Yamazaki K Takagi K Watanabe H
Journal: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol Citation: V : 80 P : 438-42 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18488130
Abstract: Two rainfall simulations of 30 mm h ( -1 ) , with 48-h interval between two simulations , were performed on rice lysimeters at 24 , 48 , and 72 h after being sprayed with tricyclazole . In the first simulated rainfall , wash-off concentration of tricyclazole was significant irrespective of the interval between the spray time and the rainfall simulation . And from 20 . 5% to 24 . 2% of tricyclazole deposited on leaves was removed from the rice foliage . In the second simulated rainfall , concentration of tricyclazole in wash-off water was significantly lower and less than 3 . 6% of the deposited tricyclazole was lost
Score: 2.00
Author: Phong TK Nhung DT Yamazaki K Takagi K Watanabe H
Journal: Chemosphere Citation: V : 74 P : 1085-9 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19062069
Abstract: The behavior of sprayed tricyclazole in rice paddy lysimeters was studied . Tricyclazole residues were measured from rice leaves and paddy water after tricyclazole spraying in paddy lysimeters . The rate of photolysis and hydrolysis of tricyclazole on the surface of rice leaves was also determined in a laboratory experiment . Tricyclazole was extracted from leaf and water samples and determined by liquid chromatography with UV or mass spectrometry . The hydrolysis half-lives of tricyclazole on rice leaves were 11 . 9 and 5 . 1 d for the formulated product and standard , respectively . The photolysis half-lives were longer , 16 . 4d for the formulated product and 20 . 9 d for the standard . In the paddy lysimeter , tricyclazole dissipation on leaves involved either biphasic first-order kinetics or single-phase first-order kinetics , depending on the rainfall pattern . Half-lives of tricyclazole on lysimeter rice leaves were from 3 . 0 to 5 . 7 d . The dissipation of tricyclazole in paddy water followed single-phase first-order kinetics with half-lives ranging from 2 . 1 to 5 . 0 d .
Score: 2.00
Author: Kishida M Imamura K Takenaka N Maeda Y Viet PH Kondo A Bandow H
Journal: Chemosphere Citation: V : 78 P : 127-33 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19892385
Abstract: The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran ( PCDD/PCDFs ) , and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls ( DL-PCBs ) were determined in sediment samples from Can Gio , South Vietnam , and Osaka , Japan . Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War , whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator . For comparison , we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi , Vietnam . The toxic equivalent quantity ( TEQ ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue , Hanoi , and suburban areas of Osaka , but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka . The proportion of the World Health Organization ( WHO ) -TEQ value contributed by 2 , 3 , 7 , 8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin ( TCDD ) in Can Gio was approximately 30% , higher than the values in the other sample areas . These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio . The main contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Can Gio are natural sources , as in Hue . In contrast , commercial PCBs are the dominant contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Hanoi . In Osaka , agrochemicals used in rice cultivation , the incineration of solid waste , and commercial PCBs equally contributed to WHO-TEQ values at suburban locations . The dumping of incinerator-related materials and/or the inadequate management of commercial PCBs have resulted in significantly elevated WHO-TEQ values of 240-370 ng kg ( -1 ) dw at urban locations in Osaka .
Score: 2.00
Author: Djozan D Ebrahimi B Mahkam M Farajzadeh MA
Journal: Anal Chim Acta Citation: V : 674 P : 40-8 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20638497
Abstract: A new solid-phase microextraction ( SPME ) fiber is fabricated through ultra violet irradiation polymerization of ametryn-molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of anodized-silylated aluminum wire . The prepared fiber is durable with very good chemical and thermal stability which can be coupled to GC and GC/MS . The effective parameters on the fabrication and application procedures such as spraying mode , ultra violet irradiation ( polymerization ) time , number of sprayings and polymerizations , pH and ionic strength of sample and extraction time were optimized . This fiber shows high selectivity with great extraction capacity toward triazines . SPME and GC analysis of ametryn , prometryn , terbutryn , atrazine , simazine , propazine and cyanazine using the fabricated fiber result in the detection limits of 9 , 32 , 27 , 43 , 51 , 74 and 85 ng mL ( -1 ) , respectively . The reliability of the prepared fiber in real samples has been investigated and proved by using spiked tap water , rice , maize and onion samples .
Score: 2.00
Author: Jamil M Charnikhova T Verstappen F Bouwmeester H
Journal: Arch Biochem Biophys Citation: V : 504 P : 123-31 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20732294
Abstract: The strigolactones are internal and rhizosphere signalling molecules in plants that are biosynthesised through carotenoid cleavage . They are secreted by host roots into the rhizosphere where they signal host-presence to the symbiotic arbuscular mycrorrhizal ( AM ) fungi and the parasitic plants of the Orobanche , Phelipanche and Striga genera . The seeds of these parasitic plants germinate after perceiving these signalling molecules . After attachment to the host root , the parasite negatively affects the host plant by withdrawing water , nutrients and assimilates through a direct connection with the host xylem . In many areas of the world these parasites are a threat to agriculture but so far very limited success has been achieved to minimize losses due to these parasitic weeds . Considering the carotenoid origin of the strigolactones , in the present study we investigated the possibilities to reduce strigolactone production in the roots of plants by blocking carotenoid biosynthesis using carotenoid inhibitors . Hereto the carotenoid inhibitors fluridone , norflurazon , clomazone and amitrole were applied to rice either through irrigation or through foliar spray . Irrigation application of all carotenoid inhibitors and spray application of amitrole significantly decreased strigolactone production , Striga hermonthica germination and Striga infection , also in concentrations too low to affect growth and development of the host plant . Hence , we demonstrate that the application of carotenoid inhibitors to plants can affect S hermonthica germination and attachment indirectly by reducing the strigolactone concentration in the rhizosphere . This finding is useful for further studies on the relevance of the strigolactones in rhizosphere signalling . Since these inhibitors are available and accessible , they may represent an efficient technology for farmers , including poor subsistence farmers in the African continent , to control these harmful parasitic weeds .
Score: 2.00
Author: Khoa ND Thuy PT Thuy TT Collinge DB Jorgensen HJ
Journal: Phytopathology Citation: V : 101 P : 231-40 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20839964
Abstract: Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani ( teleomorph : Thanatephorus cucumeris ) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems . No economically viable control methods have been developed . We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions . The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C odorata and rice cultivar . The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity . Under semi-field conditions , extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases , ie , blast ( Pyricularia oryzae ) using foliar spray ( up to 45% ) , brown spot ( Bipolaris oryzae ) using seed treatment ( up to 57% ) , and bacterial blight ( Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ) using both application methods ( up to 50% ) .
Score: 2.00
Author: Ambridge EM Haines IH Lambert MR .
Journal: Citation: V : 81 ( 6 ) P : 457-62 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2100759
Abstract: Investigations to determine dermal contamination of rural farmers during pesticide application to tropical crops are described . Contamination patterns and levels vary according to crop type and height , and application method . Non-toxic model pesticides and tracer dyes were applied to rice , vegetable , mango , cotton and coffee crops in the Philippines , Thailand , Tanzania and Malawi , using knapsack and ULV spinning disc sprayers . Tracer dye falling on the operator during application was measured for each type of crop sprayed . Mean gross dermal deposits of dye were : rice 97 mg/hr ; mango 257 mg/hr ; vegetables 103 mg/hr ; cotton 220 mg/hr ; coffee 95 mg/hr . The implications of these gross dermal deposit figures in relation to pesticide contamination and hazard are discussed .
Score: 2.00
Author: Xiong J Zhang L Fu G Yang Y Zhu C Tao L
Journal: J Plant Res Citation: V : 125 P : 155-64 Year: 2012 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21400017
Abstract: Accumulation of proline is trusted to be an adaptive response of plants against drought stress , and exogenous application of nitric oxide ( NO ) enhances proline accumulation in Cu-treated algae . In order to investigate whether NO works as a necessary signaling molecule in drought-induced proline accumulation in rice leaves , effects of drought stress on endogenous NO content and proline accumulation were studied in rice leaves , using sodium nitroprusside ( SNP , a NO donor ) and 2- ( 4-carboxyphenyl ) -4 , 4 , 5 , 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide ( cPTIO , a NO scavenger ) . The results showed that drought treatment increased both endogenous NO and proline contents in rice leaves , while foliar spray of various concentrations of SNP failed to induce proline accumulation in the leaves of well-watered rice and foliar spray of cPTIO failed to inhibit proline accumulation in the leaves of drought-stressed rice . These results indicate that increase of endogenous NO is dispensable for proline accumulation in the leaves of rice under drought stress . Further studies indicate that exogenous application of NO alleviates drought-induced water loss and ion leakage by decreasing transpiration rate of rice leaves .
Score: 2.00
Author: Tan WM Hou N Pang S Zhu XF Li ZH Wen LX Duan LS
Journal: Pest Manag Sci Citation: V : 68 P : 437-43 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21997963
Abstract: BACKGROUND : The aim of this work is to prepare a controlled-release formulation of uniconazole using porous hollow silica nanoparticles ( PHSNs ) as carrier , and to investigate the biological effects on rice growth . RESULTS : PHSNs with a shell thickness of 15 nm and a particle size of 80-100 nm were synthesised through a sol-gel route using nanosized calcium carbonate particles as templates . Simple immersing ( SI ) and supercritical fluid drug loading ( SFDL ) technologies were employed to load uniconazole into PHSNs with loading efficiencies of 22 and 26% respectively . The prepared uniconazole-loaded PHSNs ( UCZ-PHSNs ) by SI and SFDL both demonstrated sustained release properties , and the latter showed better controlled release ability with a slower release rate . Compared with free uniconazole , UCZ-PHSNs exhibited a weaker growth retardation effect in the early stage but more significant retardation ability in later stages for agar-cultured rice seedlings . For the rice that grew in clay , UCZ-PHSNs demonstrated a weaker plant height retardation effect than free uniconazole at the early jointing stage by foliar spraying , but exhibited a stronger retardation capacity than free uniconazole by being applied into soil before seedling transplantation . CONCLUSION : The results indicated that the prepared UCZ-PHSNs possessed good controlled-release properties and had improved retardation effects on rice growth . It is recommended that UCZ-PHSNs be applied into soil before seedling transplantation rather than administered by foliar spraying at the early jointing stage .
Score: 2.00
Author: Narotsky MG Pressman JG Miltner RJ Speth TF Teuschler LK Rice GE Richardson SD Best DS McDonald A Hunter ES 3rd Simmons JE
Journal: Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol Citation: V : 95 P : 202-12 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22495758
Abstract: A developmental toxicity bioassay was used in three experiments to evaluate water concentrates for suitability in multigenerational studies . First , chlorinated water was concentrated 135-fold by reverse osmosis ; select lost disinfection by-products were spiked back . Concentrate was provided as drinking water to Sprague-Dawley and F344 rats from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 6 . Maternal serum levels of luteinizing hormone on gestation day 10 were unaffected by treatment for both strains . Treated dams had increased water consumption , and increased incidences of polyuria , diarrhea , and ( in Sprague-Dawley rats ) red perinasal staining . Pup weights were reduced . An increased incidence of eye defects was seen in F344 litters . Chemical analysis of the concentrate revealed high sodium ( 6 . 6 g/l ) and sulfate ( 10 . 4 g/l ) levels . To confirm that these chemicals caused polyuria and osmotic diarrhea , respectively , Na ( 2 ) SO ( 4 ) ( 5-20 g/l ) or NaCl ( 16 . 5 g/l ) was provided to rats in drinking water . Water consumption was increased at 5 and 10-g Na ( 2 ) SO ( 4 ) /l and with NaCl . Pup weights were reduced at 20-g Na ( 2 ) SO ( 4 ) /l . Dose-related incidences and severity of polyuria and diarrhea occurred in Na ( 2 ) SO ( 4 ) -treated rats ; perinasal staining was seen at 20 g/l . NaCl caused polyuria and perinasal staining , but not diarrhea . Subsequently , water was concentrated approximately 120-fold and sulfate levels were reduced by barium hydroxide before chlorination , yielding lower sodium (
Score: 2.00
Author: McDowell LD Seymour SF .
Journal: Citation: V : 19 ( 3 ) P : 36-9 , 43 Year: 1994 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8008261
Abstract: Clinicians in ambulatory and primary care are almost guaranteed , at some point in their practice , to encounter a patient who has suffered an ankle injury . They must be prepared to diagnose , treat , and refer appropriately . By understanding the anatomy of the ankle , the health care provider will understand the mechanisms and common types of injury . By using techniques of inspection , palpation , and performing the anterior drawer and talar tilt tests , the clinician can grade a sprain accordingly , and refer for x-rays or orthopedic consultation appropriately . The principles of RICE ( rest , ice , compression , elevation ) are explained and different treatment methodologies for grades I to III of sprain are discussed .
Score: 2.00
Author: Karanja DM Githeko AK Vulule JM .
Journal: Acta Trop . Citation: V : 56 ( 4 ) P : 365-9 Year: 1994 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8023759
Abstract: A field trial was conducted to test the insecticidal action of the monolayer surface film Arosurf MSF applied by knapsack sprayers , against larvae and pupae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton in a rice irrigation scheme in Western Kenya . Larval and pupal densities and the number of emerging adults were determined by dipping and emergence cages respectively . Application of the monolayer by knapsack sprayers provided good coverage . There were high daily mortalities of the fourth instar larvae , with no adult emergence from Arosurf MSF treated plots compared to lower fourth instar mortalities and continuous adult emergence from untreated control plots , indicating the potential of the monolayer for control of An . arabiensis mosquitoes in rice fields .
Score: 2.00
Author: Becker D Brettschneider R Lrz H
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 5 ( 2 ) P : 299-307 Year: 1994 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8148881
Abstract: A reproducible transformation system for hexaploid wheat was developed based on particle bombardment of scutellar it issue of immature embryos . Particle bombardment was carried out using a PDS 1000/He gun . Plant material was bombarded with the plasmid pDB1 containing the beta-glucuronidase gene ( uidA ) under the control of the actin-1 promoter of rice , and the selectable marker gene bar ( phosphinothricin acetyltransferase ) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter . Selection was carried out using the herbicide Basta ( Glufosinate-ammonium ) . From a total number of 1050 bombarded immature embryos , in seven independent transformation experiments , 59 plants could be regenerated . Putative transformants were screened for enzyme activity by the histochemical GUS assay using cut leaf material and by spraying the whole plants with an aqueous solution of the herbicide Basta . Twelve regenerants survived Basta spraying and showed GUS-activity . Southern-blot analysis indicated the presence of introduced foreign genes in the genomic DNA of the transformants and both marker genes were present in all plants analysed . To date , four plants have been grown to maturity and set seed . Histochemically stained pollen grains showed a 1 : 1 segregation of the uidA gene in all plants tested . A 3 : 1 segregation of the introduced genes was demonstrated by enzyme activity tests and Southern blot analysis of R1 plants .
Score: 2.00
Author: Githeko AK Service MW Mbogo CM Atieli FK Juma FO .
Journal: Ann . Trop . Med . Parasitol . Citation: V : 87 ( 4 ) P : 379-91 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8250629
Abstract: Anopheles arabiensis and An . funestus were collected by pyrethrum spray sheet collections in houses and by human-bait catches at a village in western Kenya adjacent to the Ahero rice irrigation scheme ; and using the same methods , An . gambiae s . l . and An . funestus were collected at Miwani , a village in the sugar-cane belt . Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates were determined by ELISA . At Ahero the mean sporozoite rates were 1 . 1% and 4 . 3% in An . arabiensis and An . funestus , respectively , while at Miwani the rates were 6 . 0% in An . gambiae s . l . and 4 . 3% in An . funestus . Entomolgoical inoculation rates ( EIR ) were derived from both human-bait collections ( IR-HBC ) and by the proportion of human blood-fed females caught resting indoors ( IR-HBF ) . The IR-HBF appeared to be a more realistic index of EIR . At Ahero and Miwani people were exposed to an average of 416 and 91 infective bites/person/year , respectively . The main vectors were An . funestus at Ahero and An . gambiae s . l . at Miwani . In view of the intense and perennial malaria transmission at Ahero , vector control by insecticides should be considered , while at Miwani , where transmission is seasonal , permethrin-impregnated bed nets could be an alternative to indoor spraying . These measures must be augmented with availability of effective antimalarials .
Score: 2.00
Author: Laventure S Mouchet J Blanchy S Marrama L Rabarison P Andrianaivolambo L Rajaonarivelo E Rakotoarivony I Roux J
Journal: Citation: V : 6 ( 2 ) P : 79-86 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8705134
Abstract: Since the 17th century , Europeans travelling in Madagascar described the contrast between the fever-free Plateau and the fever-ridden coasts . The former were inhabited by people of Asiatic origins and the latter by African migrants . At the end of the 18th century , "Merina" kings developed land irrigation and rice cultivation , using manpower from the coasts . Since then , rice has become a monoculture covering most of the arable lands of the Highlands . The first malaria epidemic occurred in the Tananarive area in 1878 , and rapidly spread throughout the Plateau . The mortality rate was high . A second epidemic in 1895 may have been a resurgence of the previous one . Subsequently , malaria became meso-epidemic despite control measures , mainly consisting of larvivorous fishes , quinine treatment and prophylaxis . In 1949 , an eradication program was launched based on DDT house-spraying and chloroquine prophylaxis in children . It was very successful on the Highlands where malaria disappeared , in 1962 . Spraying was cancelled and only three small foci remained under surveillance . In 1987 and 1988 , a malaria outbreak devastated the plateau . Subsequently , intensive spraying operations brought the situation under control by 1993 . The main malaria vector on the Madagascar Highlands is An . funestus . More than 95% of its breeding sites are in the rice fields just before the harvest and afterwards in the fallow lands . The vector peak and the corresponding peak of malaria cases occur between February and May , depending on the farming calender . The second but less important vector , An . arabiensis , breeds in the rice fields just after seeding when the surface water is sunlit . Although rice fields remain the main source of this vector , it also breeds in rainwater pods and borow-pits . Malaria vectors on the plateau are products of human activities of rice cultivation , which is the basis of the economy . The epidemiological importance of rice fields varies greatly from one country to another . In Southeast Asia , the rice fields harbor several anopheline species most of which are only vectors of P vivax . In West Africa where malaria is holoendemic , they produce large populations of An . gambiae ; however , the malaria pattern is unaltered and remains at peak levels . In the dry areas of southern Madagascar , the vector An . funestus and meso-hyperendemic malaria are restricted to areas of cultivated rice . In West and Central Africa , An . funestus is never found in rice fields even though it is common in marshes . In Madagascar , this vector breeds in irrigated rice fields . Because it is practically impossible to control anophelines in rice fields by chemical , biological and ecological methods on the Highlands of Madagascar , house-spraying remains the best method for mass malaria control . Bed-nets impregnated with pesticides may offer an alternative , but their use is resisted by the local population .
Score: 2.00
Author: Lembcke JL Peerson JM Brown KH .
Journal: J Pediatr . Gastroenterol . Nutr . Citation: V : 25 ( 4 ) P : 381-4 Year: 1997 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9327366
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Specially collected , spray-dried bovine and porcine blood plasma have been incorporated previously in feeds of weanling farm animals , resulting in increased dietary intakes and greater rates of weight gain than observed in control animals . Before conducting similar trials in human populations , preliminary studies have been completed to assess the acceptability , safety , and digestibility of processed animal plasma in young children . METHODS : Masked study diets were provided sequentially to each of ten young , Peruvian children recovering from severe protein-energy malnutrition during three randomly ordered 7-day dietary periods . The control diet was prepared from rice , milk , vegetable oil , and sugar ; the two study diets included spray-dried , bovine serum concentrate to replace either 25% or 50% of the milk protein of the control diet . Urine and feces were collected quantitatively during the last four days of each diet period to assess stool weight , apparent absorption of macronutrients , and retention of nitrogen . RESULTS : All children consumed the entire amounts offered of each of the diets . The mean number of daily bowel movements and mean apparent absorption and retention of nitrogen and mean apparent absorption of carbohydrate were similar for each diet . Fractional absorption of dietary lipid and of total energy increased significantly in relation to the amount of bovine serum concentrate in the diet , although this might be explained by the simultaneous replacement of milk fat with additional vegetable oil . CONCLUSIONS : Each of the diets was well accepted by the study children , and there was no evidence of any adverse effects of bovine serum concentrate .
Score: 1.00
Author: Juhler RK Larsen SB Meyer O Jensen ND SpanEM Giwercman A Bonde JP .
Journal: Arch . Environ . Contam . Toxicol . Citation: V : 37 ( 3 ) P : 415-23 Year: 1999 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10473800
Abstract: The objective of the study was to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that farmers having a high intake of organic grown commodities have a high semen quality due to their expected lower level of dietary pesticides intake . Food frequency data and semen were collected from 256 farmers ( 171 traditional farmers and 85 organic farmers , overall participation rate : 32% ) who were selected from central registers . Each farmer delivered one semen sample before the spraying season started . The farmers were divided into three groups where the commodities from organic production contributed no ( N , 0% ) , medium ( M , 1-49% ) , or a high ( H , 50-100% ) proportion of the fruit and vegetables consumed . Farmers having a high relative intake of organically grown fruit and vegetables also had a high relative consumption of organically produced meat , milk , and bread , and differences were observed comparing the actual mean intake of single commodities , such as rice , potato , and pork meat . The current individual dietary intake of 40 pesticides was estimated using food frequencies and generalized serving size data in combination with data on pesticide concentrations in food commodities as obtained from the National Danish Food Monitoring Program . The estimated pesticide intake was significantly lower among farmers of group H , but for all three groups of farmers the average dietary intake of 40 pesticides was at or below 1% of the acceptable daily intake ( ADI ) except for the dithiocarbamates ( max = 0 . 21 microg/kg day = 2 . 2% ADI ) , methidathion , ( max = 0 . 01 microg/kg day = 1 . 4% ADI ) , and 2-phenylphenol ( max = 0 . 21 microg/kg day = 1 . 1% ADI ) . The median sperm concentration for the three groups of farmers was not significantly different ( p = 0 . 40 , median sperm concentration was N = 62 , M = 44 , and H = 75 million/ml ) . The group of men without organic food intake had a significant lower proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa , but in relation to 14 other semen parameters no significant differences were found between the groups . Intake of 40 individual pesticides was correlated with four semen parameters ( concentration , percentage dead spermatozoa , percentage normal sperm heads , and motility [ VCL ] ) . Five significant correlations ( p value 0 . 01 ) were found among the 160 comparisons in relation to percentage dead spermatozoa : azinphos-methyl , carbaryl , chlorfenson , fenitrothion , and tetradifon . For all of them a lower percentage of dead spermatozoa were found in the groups with a high dietary intake of the specific pesticide . In contrast , for all pesticides evaluated only minor differences were found between the groups when considering spermatozoa concentration , morphology , and motility . In conclusion , the estimated dietary intake of 40 pesticides did not entail a risk of impaired semen quality , but precautions should be taken when generalizing this negative result to populations with a higher dietary exposure level or an intake of other groups of pesticides .
Score: 1.00
Author: Watanabe T
Journal: Chemosphere Citation: V : 40 ( 1 ) P : 79-90 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10665448
Abstract: The foundational model to predict concentration of pesticides in the atmosphere outside of the sprayed area was developed using the results of measured concentration in the atmosphere , in reference to the atmospheric diffusion model utilized for the air pollution prediction model . The atmospheric diffusion model assumes that the applied area was a topographically flat farmland , that wind direction and wind speeds were constant , and the pesticide was constantly discharged from the emission line sources . Therefore the linear source plume model ( LSPLM ) was developed . The concentration in the atmosphere was predicted by assigning the property of the pesticides and various conditions of measurements of the model , and compared with the measured them , then the adaptability of the model was examined . As a result , the correlation between the measured value and the predicted value in paddy and forested areas was significant ( P < 0 . 01 ) although deviations in the order of tens were observed , the measured value and the predicted value were generally in agreement .
Score: 1.00
Author: Zeng X Zhou X Zhang W Murofushi N Kitahara T Kamuro Y
Journal: Citation: V : 18 ( 4 ) P : 153-158 Year: 1999 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10688703
Abstract: Effects of methyl jasmonate ( MeJA ) on rice floret opening were investigated in seven cultivars or hybrid combinations covering various variety types . Intact or excised panicles , judged to have florets just before anthesis , were soaked in 4 x 10 ( -5 ) - 4 x 10 ( -3 ) M MeJA solutions for 2 min at different temperatures . The results indicated that MeJA significantly induced opening of rice florets within about 30 min , with the most rapid induction occurring just 6 min after treatment . Numbers of induced opening florets are correlated with MeJA concentrations . Higher concentrations of MeJA induced more florets . pH values had no influence on MeJA effect , but MeJA required less time and induced more florets at 34 degrees C than at 25 degrees C As far as we know , this is the first evidence that floret opening is induced by plant hormones . CO ( 2 ) evolution from panicles was also increased by MeJA treatment . Field experiments revealed that perfect flowering synchrony between the cytoplasmic male sterile ( CMS ) and restorer lines in hybrid seed production could be obtained by spraying MeJA solution on CMS line plants at the rate of 25 mg/m ( 2 ) . As a result , many more hybrid seeds were harvested .
Score: 1.00
Author: Koba K Liu JW Bobik E Sugano M Huang YS .
Journal: J Nutr . Sci . Vitaminol . Citation: V : 46 ( 2 ) P : 58-64 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10885791
Abstract: Rice bran oil ( RBO ) , when blended with safflower oil ( SFO ) at the ratio of 7 to 3 , has been shown to lower serum cholesterol in humans consuming cholesterol . The mechanism as to how this oil blend exerts its effect is not yet clear . This study examined the effect of cholesterol supplementation on the cholesterol-lowering ability of different RBO/SFO blends . Male Sprague Dawley rats ( 4 wk old ) were fed purified diets containing 10% fat with or without the addition of 0 . 5% cholesterol for 3 wk . The fat was either SFO or RBO alone , or the mixture of these two oils at the ratio of 7 : 3 ( 7S/3R ) , 5 : 5 ( 5S/5R ) , or 3 : 7 ( 3S/7R ) . Without cholesterol supplementation , there were no significant differences in the serum and liver total cholesterol levels among different dietary fats . However , the HDL cholesterol level of rats fed the RBO-containing diets ( especially in rats fed the 3S/7R diet ) was higher than that of rats fed the diet containing SFO alone . This resulted in an increase in the ratio of HDL/total cholesterol-a desirable outcome . Supplementation of the diets with 0 . 5% cholesterol significantly increased the cholesterol level in both the serum and the liver . Increasing the proportion of RBO in the diet further raised the total cholesterol level in the serum whereas it reduced liver cholesterol . Then , the specific effect of the 3S/7R mixture on the ratio of HDL/total cholesterol disappeared . These findings suggest that cholesterol supplemented at the level of 0 . 5% in this study masked the cholesterol-lowering effect of RBO . Smaller percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acid ( ie , 18 : 2n-6 ) in the RBO-containing diets than in the SFO diet might have reduced their ability to dispose the circulating serum cholesterol into the liver .
Score: 1.00
Author: Wang JL Lei CL Jiang WR Ling ZZ .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 27 ( 3 ) P : 235-9 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10887695
Abstract: One indica variety , Zhefu 802 , was studied for its inheritance of blast resistance by inoculation of two strains Ken54-04 and 95-t2 . The B1F1 and F2 populations from cross of Zhefu 802 ( R ) x Lijiangxintuanheigu ( S ) and related parents were inoculated by spray inoculation method with the two above mentioned strains to determine R : S ratio of segregating populations of this cross . The results indicated that Zhefu 802 has two dominant resistance genes to strain Ken 54-04 . One of the two genes showed resistant reaction and the other is susceptible to strain 95-t2 . The allelism test indicated that one gene in Zhefu 802 , which showed resistant reaction to strain 95-t2 , is allelic to Pi-i gene locus and non-allelic to loci of Pi-a , Pi-sh , Pi-k , Pi-z , Pi-ta , Pi-b , Pi-t . The other gene in this variety was also estimated to be different from all of the known genes . So it may be an unknown gene . But this point needs to be confirmed further .
Score: 1.00
Author: Umemura K Ogawa N Yamauchi T Iwata M Shimura M Koga J
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol . Citation: V : 41 ( 6 ) P : 676-83 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10945336
Abstract: Cerebrosides A and C , compounds categorized as glycosphingolipids , were isolated in our previous study from the rice blast fungus ( Magnaporthe grisea ) as novel elicitors which induce the synthesis of rice phytoalexins . In this paper , these cerebroside elicitors showed phytoalexin-inducing activity when applied to plants by spray treatment and also induced the expression of pathogenesis-related ( PR ) proteins in rice leaves . This elicitor activity of the cerebrosides showed the structural specificity as that for the induction of phytoalexins . Ceramides prepared from the cerebrosides by removal of glucose also showed the elicitor activity even in lower level compared to the cerebrosides . In field experiments , the cerebroside elicitors effectively protected rice plants against the rice blast fungus , an economically devastating agent of disease of rice in Japan . The cerebrosides elicitors protected rice plants from other disease as well and were found to occur in a wide range of different phytopathogens , indicating that cerebrosides function as general elicitors in a wide variety of rice-pathogen interactions .
Score: 1.00
Author: Zhu Y Chen H Fan J Wang Y Li Y Chen J Fan J Yang S Hu L Leung H Mew TW Teng PS Wang Z Mundt CC .
Journal: Nature Citation: V : 406 ( 6797 ) P : 718-22 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10963595
Abstract: Crop heterogeneity is a possible solution to the vulnerability of monocultured crops to disease . Both theory and observation indicate that genetic heterogeneity provides greater disease suppression when used over large areas , though experimental data are lacking . Here we report a unique cooperation among farmers , researchers and extension personnel in Yunnan Province , China--genetically diversified rice crops were planted in all the rice fields in five townships in 1998 and ten townships in 1999 . Control plots of monocultured crops allowed us to calculate the effect of diversity on the severity of rice blast , the major disease of rice . Disease-susceptible rice varieties planted in mixtures with resistant varieties had 89% greater yield and blast was 94% less severe than when they were grown in monoculture . The experiment was so successful that fungicidal sprays were no longer applied by the end of the two-year programme . Our results support the view that intraspecific crop diversification provides an ecological approach to disease control that can be highly effective over a large area and contribute to the sustainability of crop production .
Score: 1.00
Author: Abbas HK Cartwright RD Xie W Mirocha CJ Richard JL Dvorak TJ Sciumbato GL Shier WT .
Journal: Mycopathologia Citation: V : 147 ( 2 ) P : 97-104 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10967968
Abstract: Twenty samples of unpolished ( rough ) rice collected in Arkansas and Texas during the 1995 harvesting season from fields exhibiting Fusarium sheath rot disease or panicle blight were previously shown to include 8 samples positive for fumonisin B1 ( FB1 ) in the range 2 . 2-5 . 2 ppm , and moniliformin ( MON ) , but no beauvericin ( BEA ) , deoxynivalenol , its derivatives or zearalenone were detected . Fifteen cultures of F proliferatum were established from the 20 rough rice samples . Single spore isolates of each culture were grown on rice and tested for the production of fumonisins ( FB1 , FB2 , FB3 , etc ) , MON and BEA . All 15 isolates produced FB1 , FB2 , MON and BEA in culture on rice . No deoxynivalenol , its derivatives or zearalenone were detected . Seven cultures produced FB1 at > 50 ppm ( range 80-230 ppm ) , with the rest producing FB1 in the range 14-43 ppm . FB2 was produced in the range 5-47 ppm , and those cultures which produced the most FB1 also produced the most FB2 . Of the 15 cultures producing MON , 11 produced it at > 100 ppm in the range 188-6018 ppm , with the rest producing in the range 7-64 ppm . BEA was produced in the range 109-1350 ppm . Other derivatives of fumonisins , including FA1 , FA2 and partially hydrolyzed FB1 , as well as several unknown metabolites including a compound with MW 414 , were identified in culture extracts by continuous flow fast atom bombardment with ion spray mass spectrometry ( CF/FAB/MS ) . Further study is needed to identify the factors that control production of FB1 , MON and BEA by F proliferatum in culture and in field samples .
Score: 1.00
Author: Shibutani M Mitsumori K Niho N Satoh S Hiratsuka H Satoh M Sumiyoshi M Nishijima M Katsuki Y Suzuki J Nakagawa J Ando M
Journal: Arch . Toxicol . Citation: V : 74 ( 10 ) P : 571-7 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11201662
Abstract: To determine whether low-dose oral administration of cadmium ( Cd ) induces renal toxicity , six groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing low amounts of CdCl2 or Cd-polluted rice at concentrations up to 40 ppm , and were killed after 12 , 18 , and 22 months ( experiment 1 ) . In addition to the determination of cortical Cd levels and histopathological assessment of kidneys , labeling indices ( LIs ) for proliferating cell nuclear antigen ( PCNA ) in the renal cortical tubular epithelium of Cd-treated rats were determined as a measure of regenerative activity . For comparison , the kidneys of rats given diets containing small to large amounts of CdCl2 up to 600 ppm for 4 months were similarly examined ( experiment 2 ) . Animals in experiment 1 demonstrated spontaneous chronic nephropathy and fluctuation in the tubular PCNA LI , but these findings were not correlated with renal Cd levels at 22 months . PCNA LI on the other hand , appeared to be linked to the severity of chronic nephropathy . In experiment 2 , levels of CdCl2 of 200 ppm or more clearly induced degeneration and apoptosis of proximal tubules with high correlations between renal Cd levels , PCNA LI , and the severity of tubular degeneration . The results demonstrated that , in contrast to high-dose Cd administration , treatment with 40 ppm or less for 22 months did not influence tubular regeneration as a component of nonspecific chronic nephropathy , suggesting that long-term oral administration of low levels of Cd does not injure renal tubules in female rats .
Score: 1.00
Author: Fujikawa H Ibe A Wauke T Morozumi S Mori H
Journal: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi Citation: V : 42 ( 1 ) P : 7-12 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11383159
Abstract: Natural flavor was accidentally produced from rice cake products in Japan . A non-stick oil had been sprayed on the products during the production process . It was found that a Penicillium corylophilum strain , a contaminant of the oil , produced the flavor from the oil . The ingredients of the flavor were four volatile substances , 2-heptanone , 2-nonanone , 2-heptanol , and 2-nonanol . Challenge tests with the mould strain in a rice cake system were performed under various conditions . The volatile substances were produced in the largest amounts at 25 degrees C , followed by 20 or 30 degrees C then 10 degrees C 2-Heptanone was produced most remarkably at 25 degrees C , followed by 2-nonanone , 2-heptanol , and 2-nonanol . The growth patterns of the mould were similar between 20-30 degrees C , and the growth at 10 degrees C was delayed . The non-stick oil itself had neither flavor nor volatile substance . The flavor was also produced from coconut oil , which was one of the materials of the non-stick oil . No bacteria or yeasts tested produced any flavor from the non-stick oil , whereas most of the moulds tested produced flavor components .
Score: 1.00
Author: Cao ZH Wang XC Yao DH Zhang XL Wong MH .
Journal: Citation: V : 26 ( 5-6 ) P : 335-9 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11392748
Abstract: Selenium ( Se ) content both in total and bioavailable forms were very low ( 25-35 and 9 . 5 micrograms/kg , respectively ) in waterlogged paddy soils in the central Yangtze River Delta . This was due to changes in geochemistry and the inherent properties of the parent materials of these lowland paddy soils . The very low Se content ( 23 micrograms/kg ) in the parent material resulted in low total Se content in the soil . The main chemical changes under long-term waterlogged conditions are depletion of molecular oxygen , decrease of redox potential , and reduction of Fe ( III ) to Fe ( II ) and SeO3 ( 2- ) to Se0 . This led to low availability of Se in soils , and subsequently low Se content ( 29 micrograms/kg ) in brown rice grain produced in this region . It has been suspected that low Se content in staple food might be one of the major reasons for a high infection rate of the intestine and stomach cancers and the higher death rate caused by these diseases in the region . Foliage spray of Na2SeO3 at early heading stage of rice plant growth improved the Se content of brown rice grain , hull , and straw , and would improve human and animal health .
Score: 1.00
Author: Yu JH Lim HK Choi GJ Cho KY Kim JH .
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 57 ( 6 ) P : 564-9 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11407035
Abstract: In order to develop a new method for measuring foliar uptake of fungicides , Congo Red was selected as a tracer , and optimum procedures were established for washing , extracting and analyzing it and fungicides from leaf surfaces . Congo Red , a water-soluble dye , was not absorbed into cucumber or rice leaf , even in the presence of various surfactants , and was completely washable from leaf surfaces by aqueous acetonitrile solutions . Congo Red and fungicides in washings were quantified to calculate the amount of foliar uptake of the latter , by comparing the ratio to Congo Red . The optimum concentration of Congo Red in a formulation should be established in order to minimize its influence on fungicide uptake . Although Congo Red has proved to be useful with a conventional droplet application method , it will give more realistic and practical results with the spraying method used in the present study .
Score: 1.00
Author: Schuler TH Denholm I Jouanin L Clark SJ Clark AJ Poppy GM .
Journal: Mol . Ecol . Citation: V : 10 ( 7 ) P : 1845-53 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11472551
Abstract: Studies of the effects of insect-resistant transgenic plants on beneficial insects have , to date , concentrated mainly on either small-scale "worst case scenario" laboratory experiments or on field trials . We present a laboratory method using large population cages that represent an intermediate experimental scale , allowing the study of ecological and behavioural interactions between transgenic plants , pests and their natural enemies under more controlled conditions than is possible in the field . Previous studies have also concentrated on natural enemies of lepidopteran and coleopteran target pests . However , natural enemies of other pests , which are not controlled by the transgenic plants , are also potentially exposed to the transgene product when feeding on hosts . The reduction in the use of insecticides on transgenic crops could lead to increasing problems with such nontarget pests , normally controlled by sprays , especially if there are any negative effects of the transgenic plant on their natural enemies . This study tested two lines of insect-resistant transgenic oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ) for side-effects on the hymenopteran parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and its aphid host , Myzus persicae . One transgenic line expressed the delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) and a second expressed the proteinase inhibitor oryzacystatin I ( OC-I ) from rice . These transgenic plant lines were developed to provide resistance to lepidopteran and coleopteran pests , respectively . No detrimental effects of the transgenic oilseed rape lines on the ability of the parasitoid to control aphid populations were observed . Adult parasitoid emergence and sex ratio were also not consistently altered on the transgenic oilseed rape lines compared with the wild-type lines .
Score: 1.00
Author: Abdikarimov ST .
Journal: Citation: V : -1 P : 33-4 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11548310
Abstract: Kyzgyzstan is situated in an area which is potentially at risk for malaria . In 1995-1999 , 58 cases of malaria were recorded , six of them were local cases . The factors that promote the spread of malaria in Kyrgyzstan are the widespread and constant migration of people from Tajikistan and close economic ties between Kyrgyzstan and a number of Asian countries with widespread malaria epidemics . Most cases of malaria in Kyrgyzstan were imported from Tajikistan ( 39 cases or 75% of all imported cases ) . Plasmodium vivax , P falciparum and P malariae were identified in 95 . 9 , 1 . 7 , and 2 . 1% , respectively . There is a widespread irrigation network in the country , along with a large number of reservoirs , ponds , lakes , springs , streams , gullies , and marshy floodplains . As of 1 January 2000 , there are 2833 water areas that can support Anopheles mosquitoes , with a total area of 5008 . 5 ha . The total length of the sewerage and drainage system is 5 , 440 km . There is a great potential for the spread of malaria in the south of the republic , ie the Osh and Zhalalabad Regions , especially due to a large number of state rice ( paddy ) fields covering an area of over 3 , 500 ha . Small rice-growing plots close to private dwellings , which are cultivated without any mosquito control measures , currently provide further breeding grounds for mosquitoes . Almost 80% of the population of these areas is at risk for malaria . Almost all species of malaria mosquitoes have been identified in Kyrgyzstan . An . _claviger and An . messeae have too , two other species have also spread through the country , these are An . martinius and An . superpictus which became the main vectors of malaria epidemics in the south in the 1930s-1950s . Large-scale development of the pre-imago stages of the mosquito ( a larval , water-based stage ) takes place 5-7 months within which 4-6 mosquito generations develop . At present , there is a shortage of staff in Kyrgyzstan , especially at a local level , who has thorough knowledge of malaria and experience with its control and who can define the highest priorities and the most appropriate and effective within the Global Malaria Control Strategy at the current stage . Laboratory services are in need of considerable support : stocks of essential supplies for laboratory tests are almost exhausted , there is a shortage of essential equipment , the staff is not well enough trained . There is an acute shortage of insecticides and larvicides for mosquito control . Entomologists have no sufficient insect control equipment to treat water areas ( eg sprayers ) , there is no equipment for monitoring water areas or introducing larvicidal fishlaria ( Gambusiae ) either , and local monitoring is hampered by shortages of vehicles , fuel , and lubricants . Since malaria control is an urgent problem , Kyrgyzstan has developed a comprehensive and integrated malaria programme for 2000-2004 and a plan of actions to study malaria vector resistance to insecticides in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan in 2000 .
Score: 1.00
Author: Liu KH Moon JK Sung HJ Kang SH Koo SJ Lee HS Kim JH .
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 57 ( 12 ) P : 1155-60 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11802604
Abstract: Pyribenzoxim , benzophenone O- [ 2 , 6-bis ( 4 , 6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy ) benzoyl ] oxime , is a new post-emergence herbicide providing broad-spectrum weed control in rice fields . [ 14C ] Pyribenzoxim was used to study the pharmacokinetics of the compound after oral administration of a dose of 1000 mg kg-1 to male Sprague-Dawley rats . The material balance ranged from 97 . 3 to 99 . 7% of the administered dose and urinary and fecal recovery accounted for 97 . 1% , with the majority of radioactivity recovered in feces ( 88 . 6% ) by 168 h after treatment . Elimination as volatile products or as carbon dioxide was negligible . The following values were obtained for the compound in the blood : AUC0-168 h , 28 , 400 micrograms equiv hg-1 ; Tmax , 12 h ; Cmax , 372 micrograms equiv g-1 ; half-life , 53 h . Radioactivity in it issue decreased from 96 . 1% of applied radiocarbon at 6 h to 0 . 4% at 168 h and the highest concentration of radioactivity among the it issues was observed in liver while the lowest residues were found in brain . The elimination half-lives of radioactivity from it issues was in the range of 7 to 77 h and Tmax values of 12 , 24 and 12 h were observed for blood , liver and kidney , respectively . Except for that in the digestive tract , the it issue-to-blood ratio ( TBR ) was highest in the liver .
Score: 1.00
Author: Rohilla R Singh US Singh RL .
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 58 ( 1 ) P : 63-9 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11838287
Abstract: The mode of action of acibenzolar-S-methyl ( BTH ) was investigated against sheath blight of rice and its pathogen , Rhizoctonia solani . BTH exhibited limited fungitoxicity against R solani , in the form of reduced mycelial growth , hyphal browning and sclerotia formation . Parasite fitness of mycelia and sclerotia formed on BTH-amended media was also reduced . When applied as soil drench or foliar spray , BTH inhibited both disease development on inoculated sheaths and its spread to the younger sheaths . The degree of protection against sheath blight increased with increase in duration between BTH application and inoculation . The curative effect of BTH was poor . When applied through roots a protective effect of BTH was visible even with only a 1-h interval between application and inoculation . However , in the case of foliar application , protective effect was recorded only when the gap between application and inoculation was 24 h . BTH reduced the frequency of penetration by R solani , colonization of host it issue and spread of the hyphae from primary lesions to form secondary lesions . BTH induced swelling of hyphal tips on the sheath surface , formation of papillae , browning of penetrated epidermal cells and degeneration of intra-cellular hyphae colonizing epidermal and mesophyll cells . Therefore , the protective effect of BTH against sheath blight was due to combination of its host defence-inducing activity and its adverse effect on growth and vigor ( parasite fitness ) of the pathogen .
Score: 1.00
Author: Shibutani M Mitsumori K Satoh S Hiratsuka H Satoh M Sumiyoshi M Nishijima M Katsuki Y Suzuki J Nakagawa J Akagi T Imazawa T Ando M
Journal: Citation: V : 26 ( 5 ) P : 337-58 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11871130
Abstract: To clarify toxic effects of long-term oral administration of low dose cadmium ( Cd ) on the liver and kidney , six groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing Cd-polluted rice or CdCl2 at concentrations up to 40 ppm , and killed after 12 , 18 , and 22 months . With toxicological parameters , including histopathology , there was no evidence of Cd-related hepato-renal toxicity , despite a slight decrease of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin of red blood cells with 40 ppm CdCl2 . Dose-dependent accumulation of Cd was observed in the liver and kidneys with peak levels of 130 +/- 42 micrograms/g and 120 +/- 20 micrograms/g , respectively , at 18 months in animals treated with 40 ppm CdCl2 . A dose-dependent increase in urinary Cd levels became evident with time . Induction of metallothionein ( MT ) was also observed in the liver and kidney with a high correlation to the corresponding Cd levels . In the proximal renal tubular epithelia of 40 ppm CdCl2-treated rats at 22 months , prominent accumulation of Cd was observed in secondary lysosomes associated with MT deposits in their exocytotic residual bodies . The results demonstrated that , in contrast to the case with high-dose Cd-administration , renal toxicity is not induced by long-term oral administration of low amounts of Cd , although it issue accumulation does occur . Possible protective mechanisms may be operating .
Score: 1.00
Author: Barcus MJ Laihad F Sururi M Sismadi P Marwoto H Bangs MJ Baird JK .
Journal: Am . J Trop . Med . Hyg . Citation: V : 66 ( 3 ) P : 287-92 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12139222
Abstract: After more than 50 years of effective management , resurgent malaria threatens residents in the Menoreh Hills and the foothills of the Dieng Plateau of Central Java , Indonesia . The Dieng Plateau dominates the highland center of Central Java . The steep Menoreh Hills , surrounded by rice paddy habitats , cover approximately 500 km2 with no peaks greater than 1 , 000 m . We studied epidemic malaria in Purworejo district , one of the three districts containing the Menoreh Hills . Between 1986 and 1995 , the annual parasite incidence ( API ) in Purworejo ranged from 2 to 11 cases per 1 , 000 residents per year and was typically approximately 5 per 1 , 000 . In 2000 the API was 44 . 5 . This sharp increase was confined to subdistricts in and around the Menoreh Hills and Dieng Plateau foothills . The primary vectors of malaria , those favoring steep , forested hillsides on Java , were Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles balabacensis . Deterioration of vector control activity , followed by a severe economic downturn in 1997 , may explain the epidemic . Malaria in the Menoreh Hills and lower Dieng Plateau threatens surrounding areas of rice paddy inhabited by Anopheles aconitus as well as a nearby coastal habitat where the even more efficient vector Anopheles sundaicus occurs in abundance . Most of the 130 million people living on Java never experienced the hyper and holoendemic malaria that occurred throughout most of the island before the effective DDT spraying and chloroquine treatment campaigns of the 1950s . Reintroduced endemic malaria threatens the island of Java .
Score: 1.00
Author: Yang J Zhang J Huang Z Wang Z Zhu Q Liu L
Journal: Ann . Bot . Citation: V : 90 ( 3 ) P : 369-77 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12234149
Abstract: Cell number and cell division activity in rice ( Oryza sativa ) endosperms are possibly regulated by cytokinin levels in the endosperm and its source in the roots . This study tried to find the possible correlations among them . Six rice genotypes were grown in nutrient solution . Two patterns of endosperm cell division , synchronous and asynchronous , were observed among the genotypes based on the cell division rate of superior and inferior spikelets . Contents of zeatin ( Z ) + zeatin riboside ( ZR ) were much higher than those of N6-isopentenyladenine ( iP ) and N6-isopentenyladenosine ( iPR ) in both endosperms and roots . Changes in Z + ZR levels in endosperms were significantly correlated with those in roots , and both were very significantly correlated with the cell division rate . Changes in iP + iPR contents in the roots were not significantly correlated with those in the endosperms and the cell division rate . When roots were treated with kinetin , endosperm cell number and grain weight were increased . Such enhancement was more significantly achieved by the root kinetin treatment than by spraying kinetin on leaves and panicles . The results suggest that the cell number and cell division activity in rice endosperms are regulated by cytokinin levels in the endosperm and that root-derived Z + ZR play a pivotal role .
Score: 1.00
Author: Wang JF He XJ Zhang HS Chen ZY .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 29 ( 9 ) P : 803-7 Year: 2002 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12561228
Abstract: Japonica rice landrace Heikezijing ( HKZJ ) from Taihu region is highly resistant to several Chinese and Japanese differential strains of Magnaporthe grisea . The F1 , F2 and RIL populations from the cross between the resistant variety Heikezijing and the susceptible variety Lijiangxintuanheigu ( LJXTHG ) were inoculated by spray with two strains of Ken 54-04 and Hoku 1 in seedling stages . Based on the R : S ratios of segregation in F1 , F2 and RIL populations it was showed that there were two independent dominant genes in Heikezijing in responsible for resistance to strain Ken 54-04 and one dominant R gene to strain Hoku 1 which is the same to one of the two genes resistant to Ken 54-04 . The allelic test indicated that the gene with resistance to both Hoku 1 and Ken 54-04 is non-allelic to loci of Pi-k , Pi-z , Pi-ta , Pi-b and Pi-t , also neither Pi-i nor Pi-a gene . It is necessary to confirm whether it is an unknown gene .
Score: 1.00
Author: Yu PH Zhang HX Zhang SQ Xu BZ .
Journal: Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi Citation: V : 18 ( 3 ) P : 149-51 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12567689
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To determine the susceptibility of Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis to deltamethrin and DDT in an area where different counter-measures had been adopted . METHODS : The mortality of the vectors was examined by using the standardised WHO test RESULTS : The mortality for tentative diagnostic dose in An . anthropophagus to deltamethrin were 83 . 8% , 83 . 7% and 84 . 7% , respectively in the areas where impregnated net had been used for 1 year or 3 years and DDT residual spraying had been carried out for 3 years , suggesting that An . anthropophagus was an initially resistant group . The LT50 were 8 . 69 , 7 . 48 and 9 . 87 min , respectively . The mortality for tentative diagnostic dose in An . sinensis to deltamethrin and DDT were 76 . 5% , 57 . 0% and 79 . 0% , respectively in three survey areas , suggesting that An . sinensis was a resistant group . The LT50 were 12 . 0 , 15 . 4 and 11 . 2 min , respectively . The mortality for tentative diagnostic dose in An . sinensis to DDT was 95 . 8% in impregnated net area , suggesting that An . anthropophagus was an initially resistant group . The LC50 was 0 . 73% . The mortality for tentative diagnostic dose in An . sinensis to DDT was 44% , suggesting that An . sinensis was a highly resistant group . The LC50 was more than 4% . CONCLUSION : A substantial use of insecticides in the rice paddy field has resulted in resistance of An . sinensis , whereas no apparent resistance of An . anthropophgus has been found .
Score: 1.00
Author: Sparacino AC Tano F Ferro R Ditto D Riva N Braggio R
Journal: Citation: V : 67 ( 3 ) P : 441-9 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12696411
Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Zeme ( Pavia , Italy ) to determine the effects of water managements and herbicide treatments on red rice control . In the first experiment , all plots were flooded 10-13 cm deep from April 1 to May 17 in 1999 and from April 3 to May 6 in 2000 . At the same time , in the second experiment , the plots were alternately drained-flooded . At the end of water management , all plots of both experiments were drained and sprayed with herbicides to control the emerged red rice plants . In both years were applied : Propaquizafop 78 g a . i . ha-1 , Cycloxydim at 300 and 400 g a . i . ha-1 ; Dalapon at 15 . 300 Kg a . i . ha-1 ; Quizalofop-ethyl at 100 g a . i . ha-1 . Six days after the chemical treatments , all field plots were flooded 10 cm deep and three days later , an early variety of rice ( Loto ) was sown at 150 Kg ha-1 . Seedling emergence was reduced by lack of oxygen ( especially from seeds covered with soil in flooded condition ) . In alternately drained-flooded soil , the red rice emerged and developed from seeds located in the top 4-5 cm . In flooded condition , no red rice plants emerged from seeds at more than 1 cm depth . In both experiments , the density of red rice plants increased during the season in the untreated check and in the plots where treatments were ineffective or performed poorly . The best red rice control , both in submerged and in alternately drained-flooded soil , was obtained with Quizalofop-ethyl ( 100 g a . i . /ha ) , Cycloxydim ( 300 and 400 g a . i . ha-1 ) and Propaquizafop ( 78 g a . i . ha-1 ) . These herbicides controlled 90-99% of red rice . Partial control of red rice resulted with the other chemical treatments . The shattered grains of red rice were reduced in both experiments by the herbicide treatments . Grain yield reflected the level of red rice control . In fact , the highest commercial grain yields were obtained with Quizalofop-ethyl , Propaquizafop , and Cycloxydim ( 400 g a . i . ha-1 ) , in both years and experiments . The red rice percentages of the total yields resulted about 3 . 6-5 . 7% with all chemical treatments except Dalapon , which was not much effective .
Score: 1.00
Author: Kim WK Chung MK Kang NE Kim MH Park OJ .
Journal: J Nutr . Biochem . Citation: V : 14 ( 3 ) P : 166-72 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12742545
Abstract: To examine the effect of two types of resistant starch on blood glucose and insulin levels , colonic events , hypolipidemic actions and humoral immune responses , Sprague-Dawley streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fed diet containing resistant starch from corn or rice . The marked body weight loss by inducing diabetes was not recovered by feeding resistant starch , even though there are no differences in food intakes compared to the non-diabetic control rats . No significant effect of resistant starch feeding on blood glucose and insulin was found . Even though the length of small intestines , and cecum , colon and rectum together with the it issue weight of cecum were not affected by feeding resistant starch , the intestinal transit time was markedly shortened by both types of resistant starch and resistant starch from corn had a more pronounced effect . The short chain fatty acids in the intestinal contents did not appear to be different among the groups . Nonetheless , both of resistant starch from corn and rice significantly lowered plasma total lipid and cholesterol concentrations compared to the diabetic control . The total liver cholesterol lowering effect was observed with resistant starch from rice . Neither immunoglobulin G nor C ( 3 ) were influenced by resistant starch .
Score: 1.00
Author: Itoh Y Takahashi K Takizawa H Nikaidou N Tanaka H Nishihashi H Watanabe T Nishizawa Y
Journal: Biosci . Biotechnol . Biochem . Citation: V : 67 ( 4 ) P : 847-55 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12784627
Abstract: Chitinase C ( ChiC ) is the first bacterial family 19 chitinase discovered in Streptomyces griseus HUT6037 . In vitro , ChiC clearly inhibited hyphal extension of Trichoderma reesei but a rice family 19 chitinase did not . In order to investigate the effects of ChiC as an increaser of plant resistance to fungal diseases , the chiC gene was introduced into rice plants under the control of the increased CaMV 35S promoter and a signal sequence from the rice chitinase gene . Transgenic plants were morphologically normal Resistance to leaf blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea was evaluated in R1 and R2 generations using a spray method . Ninety percent of transgenic rice plants expressing ChiC had higher resistance than non-transgenic plants . Disease resistance of sibling plants within the same line was correlated with the ChiC expression levels . ChiC produced in rice plants accumulated intercellularly and had the hydrolyzing activity against glycol chitin .
Score: 1.00
Author: Dennett JA Bernhardt JL Meisch MV .
Journal: J Am . Mosq . Control Assoc . Citation: V : 19 ( 2 ) P : 172-4 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12825673
Abstract: The effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin , applied at rates labeled for control of the rice water weevil , Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus , on 3 nontarget indigenous insect species in Arkansas rice are described . Three replicates of untreated control checks and fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated plots containing 3 sentinel cages each were performed . Ten 4th-stage larvae of Anopheles quadrimaculatus , 10 adult Tropisternus lateralis , or 10 adult Notonecta indica were placed within individual cages in small rice plots treated with ICON 6 . 2 FS ( fipronil ) at 0 . 025 lb active ingredient ( AI ) /acre ( 0 . 028 kg/ha ) or KARATEZ 2 . 08 CS ( lambda-cyhalothrin ) at 0 . 03 lb AI/acre ( 0 . 033 kg/ha ) applied over vegetation and water with a single-boom sprayer . At 24 h after treatment in fipronil plots , significantly higher control of An . quadrimaculatus and T lateralis ( 69 and 48% control , respectively ) was achieved , compared to N indica ( 18% ) . In lambda-cyhalothrin plots 24 h after treatment , 100% reductions of both T lateralis and N indica were highly significant ( P < 0 . 05 ) from the lower level of control in An . quadrimaculatus ( 10% ) . At 48 h after treatment , no significant , differences existed between all species within fipronil plots , with An . quadrimaculatus , T lateralis , and N indica obtaining 41 , 10 , and 7% control , respectively . Significantly higher ( P < 0 . 05 ) control was obtained in lambda-cyhalothrin plots 48 h after treatment , with 93 and 53% control of T lateralis and N indica , respectively , compared to 7% control of An . quadrimaculatus . A marked difference in susceptibility was found between selected nontarget organisms used in this study . When using lambda-cyhalothrin to control adult L oryzophilus , populations of nontarget beneficial insects , such as T lateralis and N indica , could be adversely affected , whereas nontarget pestilent species , such as An . quadrimaculatus , could proliferate . Fipronil achieved higher percentages of control against An . quadrimaculatus , compared to lambda-cyhalothrin , and was less harmful to both nontarget predators .
Score: 1.00
Author: Lee KW Gupta RK Wildie JA .
Journal: Citation: V : 22 ( 1 ) P : 102-108 Year: 1984 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12891039
Abstract: This paper is the result of adult female mosquito and larval collection in US Army Installations in Korea from 1979 to 1983 . New Jersey light traps ere operated for ault collection from May to October . The primary concern of this surveillance is to determine when to recommend insecticide spraying for mosquito control in the Army areas . The 5th Preventive Medicine Unit have developed an "index" level of female mosquitoes in a light trap similar to other USArmy Agencies in other parts of the world . When 10 female mosquitoes are reached on two consecutive trap-night , or 5 known vector females are collected , fogging is recommended in the trap areas . Mosquito collections were conducted in 12 US Army areas by operating 39 New Jersey light traps . Mosquitoes collected from the areas were identified to be 17 species comprising 3 genera . Anopheles sinensis ( 40% ) . Culex tritaeniorhyncus ( 31% ) , Aedes vexans nipponii ( 19% ) , and Culex pipiens pallens ( 10% ) appeared to be the most common species in the area . The species , population density and monthly appearance of adult mosquitoes were found to be almost the same in the all provinces involved . And Japanese encephalitis vector mosquitoes , Culex tritaeniorhyncus , showed their seasonal fluctuation from July to September with a peak in August each year . 3 . Larval habitats confirmed in the Army areas were categorized into 16 types as shown in Table The mosquito larvae collected in those habitats were identified to be 15 species representign 4 genera . Most breeding sites in the Army areas were those which are activated during the wet season . More mosquitoes were collected from the Kyungki province than from the other provinces . The reason for more collection of mosquitoes from military installations in the Kyungki provinces appears to be the geographic characteritics surrounded by rice fields , marshes and other stagnant water areas .
Score: 1.00
Author: Liu LX Yang YJ Jia YJ .
Journal: Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao Citation: V : 28 ( 2 ) P : 133-6 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12934357
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To duplicate a model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) in the neonatal rat to create unilateral cerebral damage . METHODS : Healthy 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley ( SD ) rats were used as research subjects and randomly divided into 3 groups : the control group ( n = 18 ) , the sham operated group ( n = 8 ) , and the HIBD group ( n = 19 ) . The HIBD model was produced according to the traditional Rice model and the brains were collected when the rats were 14 days old . The weight , left/right brain weight ratio , behavioral ability , and neuropathologic changes were studied in each group . RESULTS : 1 . The weight in the HIBD group increased obviously slowly and was lower than that in the control group and sham operated group ( P < 0 . 01 ) . 2 . The abnormity of behavioral ability was found in the HIBD group , including turnover unability ( 63 . 16% ) , spontaneously turn left round ( 89 . 47% ) , convulsion ( 47 . 37% ) , and so on . 3 . The left/right brain weight ratio was significantly lower in the HIBD group than in the other two groups ( P < 0 . 01 ) . 4 . The pathologic features in the HIBD group were as follows : atrophy of left brain ( 84 . 21% ) , softening of left brain ( 31 . 58% ) , liquefaction of left brain ( 52 . 63% ) , and cavum brain ( 15 . 79% ) . HE staining showed the neuron damage and the proliferation of neuroglial cells in the HIBD group . There was no obvious abnormity found in the control group and the sham operated group . CONCLUSION : The model of HIBD is successful and worthy of spreading , with its cheap price , easy duplication , and higher successful rate . The reasonable ambient temperature should be kept in 36-37 degrees C
Score: 1.00
Author: Itoh H Yoneda R Tobitsuka J Ohta H Takahi Y Tsuda M Takeshiba H
Journal: Chem . Pharm . Bull . Citation: V : 51 ( 9 ) P : 1113-6 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12951461
Abstract: A new series of azole derivatives of 1-triazolyl-4-trimethylsilyl-2-butanol and 1-triazolyl-5-trimethylsilyl-2-pentanol were synthesized and evaluated for fungicidal activities against rice blast , sheath blight , and powdery mildew on barley . The derivatives of 2 , 4-difluorobenzene exhibited high antifungal activities when applied by spray , but exhibited no fungicidal activity by submerged application .
Score: 1.00
Author: Igarashi A
Journal: Citation: V : 45 ( 2-3 ) P : 299-305 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1334301
Abstract: Japanese encephalitis ( JE ) remains endemo-epidemic in several countries in East , South-East and South Asia . The disease has been under control in Japan since the 1970s owing to mass immunization using mouse-brain-derived inactivated vaccine and to reduced vector mosquito populations . The vector density which was once reduced by wide spraying of insecticides in rice fields showed an increasing trend after the 1980s as a result of mosquito resistance . In the Republic of Korea , the number of JE cases showed a significant decrease after 1983 also because of mass immunization using mouse-brain-derived vaccine . On the other hand , large outbreaks of JE continued to occur in China , Viet Nam , Thailand , India , Nepal and Sri Lanka . In China , a hamster-kidney cell-derived vaccine was developed and used for human immunization . Besides human JE , the fatal outcome of equine JE is an economic problem in China . Current JE vaccine derived from mouse brain is highly purified and its safety and efficacy have been proved by field-tests as well as laboratory experiments . In spite of slight antigenic differences among JE virus isolates , JE vaccine produced by a classical Nakayama strain was effective in preventing overt JE in a field study in Thailand . The technology of mouse-brain-derived inactivated JE vaccine production was transferred from Japan to India , Thailand and Viet Nam . The production of JE vaccine in these countries is still on a pilot scale and insufficient for mass-immunization of susceptible target populations . ( ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS )
Score: 1.00
Author: Trifiletti RR .
Journal: Eur . J Pharmacol . Citation: V : 218 ( 1 ) P : 197-8 Year: 1992 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1397032
Abstract: Recent evidence in primary neuronal cell culture implicates nitric oxide ( NO ) as a mediator of glutamatergic neurotoxicity acting via N-methyl-D-aspartate ( NMDA ) receptors . We find that administration of the potent nitric oxide synthetase ( NOS ) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine ( NO-Arg ) at 50 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg i . p . to 6-day old Sprague-Dawley rat pups results in prompt and long-lasting in vivo inhibition of NOS . Fifteen hours after administration , NO-Arg produces essentially complete neuroprotection against hypoxic-ischemic in a standard ( Rice-Vanucci ) model . These results support the hypothesis that NO may play a key mediatory role in brain damage attending focal ischemic stroke .
Score: 1.00
Author: Ravoahangimalala RO Rakotoarivony HL Le Goff G Fontenille D
Journal: Citation: V : 96 ( 4 ) P : 323-8 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14717053
Abstract: To evaluate the determining factors of the malaria transmission in the northwest region of Madagascar , transversal studies were carried out through one year , from March 1997 to April 1998 , in two villages located near Mandritsara , at less than 300 meters above sea level . The rice-growing region forms an intermediate zone between the central highlands with epidemic and instable malaria and the coastal zone with endemic and stable malaria . Mosquitoes were collected when landing on humans during the night and by pyrethrum spray catches as regards endophilic mosquitoes . Three vectors were identified : Anopheles arabiensis , An . gambiae and An . funestus . An . arabiensis and An . gambiae were exophagic and zoophilic . An . funestus was endo-exophagic and anthropophilic but this species shows also a zoophilic trophic deviation . In both villages , An . funestus is the main vector of human malaria . Malaria transmission was estimated to be around 50 and 70 infective bites/person/year in each village .
Score: 1.00
Author: Dolo G Brit OJ Dao A Traor SF Bouar M Sogoba N Niar O Bagayogo M Sangar D Teuscher T Tour YT .
Journal: Acta Trop . Citation: V : 89 ( 2 ) P : 147-59 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14732237
Abstract: Seven cross-sectional entomological surveys were carried out from September 1995 to February 1998 in three irrigated rice growing villages and three villages without irrigated agriculture in the area surrounding Niono , located 350km north-east of Bamako , Mali . The transmission pattern differed markedly between the two zones . In the irrigated zone , the transmission of malaria was fairly constant over the seasons at a low level . In the non-irrigated zone , transmission was mostly below detection level during the dry season , whereas it was high toward the end of the rainy season . In the irrigated zone , high densities of mosquitoes were correlated with low anthropophily , low sporozoite indices and probably low survival rates . In the non-irrigated zone , mosquito densities were lower and these relationships were less pronounced . Differential use of mosquito nets in the two zones may have been an important factor in the observed differences in transmission . The presence of cattle may also have played an important role . Two mosquito-catching methods ( human landing catch and spray catch ) were compared .
Score: 1.00
Author: Marrama L Jambou R Rakotoarivony I Leong Pock Tsi JM Duchemin JB Laventure S Mouchet J Roux J
Journal: Acta Trop . Citation: V : 89 ( 2 ) P : 193-203 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14732241
Abstract: A 4-year entomological study was carried out in Southern Madagascar to identify malaria vectors , evaluate the transmission and compare the influence of irrigation in the sub-arid and adjacent humid regions . Three villages were involved in this entomological survey : Androvasoa ( located in the natural sub-arid ecosystem ) , Ppinire ( sited at the centre of an irrigated rice scheme in the sub-arid region ) and Esana ( bordered with rice fields in the humid region ) . Mosquitoes were collected inside and outside dwellings when landing on human beings , with light traps and with knockdown indoor sprays . Anopheles arabiensis , Anopheles merus and Anopheles funestus were found in every village while Anopheles gambiae s . s . was only found in the village bordering the rice-fields ( Ppinire ) and Anopheles mascarensis , a mosquito native to Madagascar , was only found in the humid region ( Esana ) . In Ppinire , the annual entomological inoculation rate ( EIR ) was low ( EIR=0 . 4 infective bites/man/year ( IBM ) ) . In the irrigated scheme of the sub-arid region , malaria transmission was 150 times higher ( mean EIR=63 IBM ) than in the natural ecosystem and A funestus was the main vector , responsible for 90% of infective bites . In Esana , the level of malaria transmission was high ( EIR=41 IBM ) and 2/3 of the infective bites were due to A mascarensis , despite the presence of A gambiae s . s . and A funestus . These results are discussed with reference to the impact of irrigation on malaria in Africa ( "the paddies paradox" ) .
Score: 1.00
Author: Atkinson HJ Johnston KA Robbins M
Journal: J Nutr . Citation: V : 134 ( 2 ) P : 431-4 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14747684
Abstract: A protein-engineered rice cystatin ( OcIDeltaD86 ) provides transgenic , partial crop resistance to plant nematodes . This study determined whether its oral uptake has adverse effects on male Sprague-Dawley rats when they are administered by oral gavage 0 . 1-10 mg OcIDeltaD86/kg body weight daily for 28 d . Body weight and water and food intakes were unaltered for most of the study . The only significant changes in fresh weight of nine organs were for the liver ( 4% decrease ; P < 0 . 05 ) and the empty cecum ( 14% increase ; P < 0 . 05 ) at the two lowest doses and the highest dose of OcIDeltaD86 , respectively . No abnormalities in either organ were detected by histochemistry . There were no changes in the urine or in hematological variables measured , and blood serum revealed no dose-dependent responses for any of 17 variables measured . OcIDeltaD86 was degraded by boiling with a 50% loss of its inhibition of papain after 9 . 2 +/- 8 . 0 min . It also showed >95% loss of such inhibition after 15 s in simulated gastric fluid . The results suggest that the no effect level ( NOEL ) for OcIDeltaD86 is >10 mg/ ( kg . d ) . This provides a range of dietary exposure >200-2000 fold depending upon the promoter used to control its expression in potato .
Score: 1.00
Author: Gmez de Barreda Ferraz D Sabater C Carrasco JM .
Journal: Chemosphere Citation: V : 56 ( 4 ) P : 315-20 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15183992
Abstract: The Albufera Natural Park situated in Valencia ( Spain ) , with a very rich flora and fauna is surrounded by rice fields in which pesticide spraying is a regular practice . With this in mind , the sensitivity of four algal species , Scenedesmus acutus , Scenedesmus subspicatus , Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella saccharophila to pesticides propanil , tebufenozide and mefenacet was studied using single species toxicity tests . Organisms were exposed to different concentrations of these herbicides and the algal growth was measured in a microplate reader at 410 nm , at 0 , 24 , 48 and 72 h . Tebufenozide appeared to be the most inhibitory to Scenedesmus and Chlorella species growth . 72 h EC50 of propanil , tebufenozide and mefenacet ranged from 0 . 29 to 5 . 98 mg/l , 0 . 12 to 0 . 15 mg/l and from 0 . 25 to 0 . 67 mg/l , respectively for the four algal species . The two species of Chlorella were more tolerant than the two species of Scenedesmus .
Score: 1.00
Author: Jiang KW Yang CW Shui QX Xia ZZ Zhang Y
Journal: Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi Citation: V : 42 ( 6 ) P : 441-5 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15265432
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : The cascade of physiological events underlying hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) remains to be fully established . The perinatal brain shows both an increased tolerance to hypoxic-ischemic ( HI ) injury and a faster and more complete recovery than the adult . It is , therefore , important to understand the sequence of events following hypoxia and ischemia in young animals . The present study aimed to clarify the time-course of the activation of the mu-calpain , and the expression of c-Fos , c-Jun , HSP70 and HSP27 proteins following severe HI ( 2 h hypoxia ) and their relationship with each other . METHODS : A modified newborn rat model of HIBD that included a combination of hypoxia and ischemia as described by Rice was used . Forty-two postnatal 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups ( 6 rats in each ) : 6 time-window groups and a normal control group . Samples were collected at 0 , 1 , 2 , 4 , 12 and 24 h after HI insults . The protein concentration was determined using a modified Bradford assay . mu-calpain activation , c-Fos , c-Jun , HSP70 and HSP27 expressions were observed respectively by Western blot from cortical and hippocampal samples . RESULTS : The cleavage of cytosolic mu-calpain was observed from both cortical and hippocampal samples in neonatal rats after HI . The ratio 76 : 80 of mu-calpain was increased significantly post-HI and reached a maximum at 24 h in cortex and at 12 h in hippocampus after HI . The expressions of c-Fos and c-Jun from both cortical and hippocampal samples in neonatal rats were up-regulated and peaked at 2 or 4 h after HI , demonstrating significant differences at 1 , 2 , 4 , and 12 h compared with that observed in the control ( P < 0 . 05 ) . When compared with that observed in cortex , the nuclear c-Fos expression from hippocampal samples was highly elevated at 2 , 4 and 12 h but significantly decreased at 24 h after HI ( P < 0 . 05 ) , while the nuclear c-Jun expression from hippocampal samples was highly elevated at 0 and 1 h but significantly decreased at 4 and 24 h after HI ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Similarly , the expressions of HSP70 and HSP27 from both cortical and hippocampal samples were up-regulated and reached a maximum at 12 or 24 h after HI , demonstrating significant differences at 12 or 24 h both in cortex and hippocampus for HSP70 , and at 24 h in cerebral cortex as well as at 12 and 24 h in hippocampus for HSP27 compared with the control ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Furthermore , in comparison with that observed in cortex , the HSP70 expression from hippocampal samples was highly elevated at 1 h , but significantly decreased at 4 , 12 and 24 h after HI ( P < 0 . 05 ) , while the HSP27 expression was permanently elevated in hippocampus after HI . CONCLUSION : The neuronal injury induced by HI insults appears to involve many ongoing and simultaneous mechanisms . HI activates the calpains immediately , which may contribute to neuron apoptosis , and induces a significant brain neuroprotection , since there is an increased HSP70 expression and a relatively late remarkable HSP27 expression in hypoxic-ischemic neonatal rat brain . Nuclear c-Fos and c-Jun may participate in the pathogenesis of HIBD .
Score: 1.00
Author: Iqbal J Minhajuddin M Beg ZH .
Journal: Eur . J Cancer Prev . Citation: V : 13 ( 6 ) P : 515-20 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15548946
Abstract: The anticancer efficacy of tocotrienol-rich fraction ( TRF ) was evaluated during diethylnitrosamine ( DEN ) /2-acetylaminofluorene ( AAF ) -induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male Sprague-Dawley rats . TRF treatment was carried out for 6 months , and was started 2 weeks before initiation phase of hepatocarcinogenesis . Morphological examination of the livers from DEN/AAF rats showed numerous off-white patches and few small nodules , which were significantly reduced by TRF treatment . Cytotoxic damage by DEN/AAF was estimated by alkaline phosphatase ( ALP ) release into the plasma from the cell membranes . DEN/AAF caused a twofold increase in the activity of ALP in plasma as compared with normal control rats , and this increase was prevented significantly by TRF treatment . We observed an increase of 79% in liver ALP activity in DEN/AAF rats , which was further increased by another 48% after the administration of TRF . Hepatic activity of glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) was also increased ( 3 . 5-fold ) during the induction of hepatic carcinogenesis . Lipid peroxidation and low-density lipoprotein ( LDL ) oxidation increased threefold following initiation by DEN/AAF as compared with normal control rats . However , TRF treatment to DEN/AAF-treated rats substantially decreased ( 62-66% ) the above parameters and thus limited the action of DEN/AAF . We conclude that long-term intake of TRF could reduce cancer risk by preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation damage due to its antioxidant actions .
Score: 1.00
Author: Koudou BG Tano Y Doumbia M Nsanzabana C Ciss G Girardin O Dao D NGoran EK Vounatsou P Bordmann G Keiser J Tanner M Utzinger J
Journal: Med . Vet . Entomol . Citation: V : 19 ( 1 ) P : 27-37 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15752174
Abstract: The dynamics of malaria transmission was studied comparatively in the villages of Zatta and Tiemelekro , central Cote dIvoire , from February 2002 to August 2003 . Prominent agroecosystems in these villages are irrigated rice growing and vegetable farming , respectively . Mosquitoes ( Diptera : Culicidae ) were collected on human bait at night and by pyrethrum knock-down spray sheet collections at four randomly selected sentinel sites in each village . In 2002 , for a total of 96 man-nights per village , 7716 mosquitoes were collected in Zatta and 3308 in Tiemelekro . In 2003 , with half the sampling effort , 859 and 2056 mosquitoes were collected in Zatta and Tiemelekro , respectively . Anopheles gambiae Giles s . l . was the predominant mosquito and the key malaria vector throughout , followed by An . funestus Giles . Anthropophily among adult female Anopheles exceeded 95% in both villages . Comparison between years revealed that the biting rate of An . gambiae s . l . in Zatta decreased several-fold from 49 . 3 bites per person per night ( b/p/n ) in 2002 to 7 . 9 b/p/n in 2003 ( likelihood ratio test ( LRT ) = 1072 . 66 ; P < 0 . 001 ) . Although the biting rate remained fairly constant in Tiemelekro , the difference between years was significant ( 16 . 1 vs 18 . 2 b/p/n ; LRT = 148 . 06 ; P < 0 . 001 ) . These observations were paralleled by a marked decrease in the infective rate of An . gambiae s . l . in Zatta ( 4 . 6-1 . 2% ) , and an increase in Tiemelekro ( 3 . 1-7 . 6% ) . Meanwhile , the entomological inoculation rate of An . gambiae s . l . decreased 21-fold in Zatta , from 789 to 38 infective bites per person per year ( ib/p/y ) , whereas it remained high in Tiemelekro ( 233 vs 342 ib/p/y ) . The interruption of irrigated rice growing in Zatta in 2003 , consequential to a farmers conflict over land , might be the underlying cause for the significant reduction in malaria transmission , whereas more stable conditions occurred in Tiemelekro .
Score: 1.00
Author: Efird PK Inman AD Weathersbee AA Meisch MV .
Journal: J Am . Mosq . Control Assoc . Citation: V : 8 ( 1 ) P : 77-9 Year: 1992 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1583494
Abstract: Ground-applied ULV , cold aerosol , insecticide sprays were evaluated against caged adult female Anopheles quadrimaculatus . Treatments included 2 rates each of resmethrin , permethrin and a water-based permethrin formulation . Mortality at 24 h posttreatment was not significantly ( P greater than or equal to 0 . 05 ) different between the resmethrin and water-based permethrin treatments . Both rates of permethrin were significantly ( P less than 0 . 05 ) less effective than the other treatments .
Score: 1.00
Author: Wilkerson LA .
Journal: Prim . Care Citation: V : 19 ( 2 ) P : 377-92 Year: 1992 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1609010
Abstract: Ankle injuries are the most frequent cause of physician evaluation in a sports-oriented environment . The lateral ligaments are most commonly injured . With a detailed history , physical and radiographic examination to avoid missing underlying pathology , the primary care physician can diagnose and treat the majority of ankle injuries . Occasionally , stress radiographs , arthograms , or magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) is needed . The vast majority of ankle sprains can be treated with adhesive tape strapping or semirigid orthotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication followed by rehabilitation . Key points of rehabilitation are control of pain and swelling acutely with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories and RICE ( rest , ice , compression , and elevation ) , then restoring normal range of motion , strengthening muscle groups , and retraining proprioception of the ankle joint .
Score: 1.00
Author: Xu ZQ Gong LG Huang X Zhang YY Gao LM .
Journal: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao Citation: V : 20 ( 1 ) P : 120-5 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16108502
Abstract: Direct DNA delivery procedures ( include biolistics method ) often resulted in multiple copies of the transgenes in transformants and certain copies of them were rearranged . Integration of multiple copies of the introduced genes was the main reason of gene silencing which meant inhibition or loss of foreign gene expression in filial generations of transformants . In the present work , we compared the influences of maize Ubi-1 promoter and other promoters on copy number of transgenes in maize transgenic plants . Immature embryos from Zea mays L plants of sib-pollinated of A188 x H99 genotype were used as initial materials . Type I embryonic calluses derived from preculture of immature embryos were treated on N6 medium containing 0 . 6 mol/L sucrose for 3 approximately 5 hours and transformed via particle bombardment with PDS1000/He delivery system ( Bio-Rad ) . Bombarded calluses were treated with hyperosmotic N6 medium for 16 approximately 20 hours continuously . Then the cultures were transferred onto normal N6 medium and incubated at 26 degrees C in dark for two weeks and subsequently selected on N6 medium supplemented with 2 or 5 mg/L phosphinothricin ( PPT ) but without casamino acid for another two weeks . The calluses after selective culture were transferred onto hormone-free MS medium containing 2 or 5 mg/L PPT but without casamino acid , and incubated at 24 degrees C under 16 h illumination for plant regeneration . Regenerated plantlets over 2 cm in height were transferred to Magenta box containing 1/2 hormone-free MS medium . Plantlets over 8 cm in height were transplanted to soil . After growing for one week in greenhouse , the plants were sprayed with 250 mg/L PPT solution . Fertile transgenic maize plants were regenerated and confirmed by Southern blotting and histochemical localization of beta-glucuronidase ( GUS ) activity . Relations between promoter and copy number of transgenes in transformants were analyzed . Maize transgenic plants possessing an intact copy and another incomplete copy of beta-glucuronidase gene ( gus ) were obtained in case gus gene under the control of maize Ubi-1 promoter ( pUbi : GUS ) . Simultaneously the co-transformed phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene ( bar ) controlled by CaMV 35S promoter in another plasmid ( p35S : BAR ) also existed with only one copy . When pDB1 and ( pUbi : in2 ) were cobombarded , the regenerated transgenic maize plant exhibited with only one copy of in2 gene too . It suggested that the copy number of transgenes in maize transformants was low if the transgenes controlled by maize Ubi-1 promoter . The possible reason might be that the foreign genes were integrated site-specifically via homologous recombination between Ubi-1 promoter and its endogenous sequences in maize genome , and two cotransformed plasmids had reconstructed as one intact molecule before integrating into maize chromosome . On the contrary , if p35S : BAR was cobom-barded with plasmid pAct : In1 containing rice Act-1 promoter ( without maize Ubi-1 promoter ) , the transgenic maize plants had 4 approximately 8 copies of bar gene . These results reflected that utilization of self gene promoter could reduce the copy number of the transgenes in transgenic plants of certain species itself and avoid the occurrence of gene silencing . T2 seeds have been harvested .
Score: 1.00
Author: Ree HI .
Journal: Korean J Parasitol . Citation: V : 43 ( 3 ) P : 75-92 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16192749
Abstract: Extensive previous studies on taxonomy , behavior/bionomics and control of Anopheles sinensis are reviewed and summarized . Recent molecular identification revealed that the population of An . sinensis complex includes An . sinensis , An . pullus , An . lesteri and at least two new species , and An . yatsushiroensis is synonmy of An . pullus . An . sinensis is the main vector species of vivax malaria in Korea . Larvae of An . sinensis breed in wide range of habitats which are naturally-made clean water , stagnant or flowing ; main habitats include rice fields , ditches , streams , irrigation canals , marshes , ponds , ground pools , etc Their host preferences are highly zoophilic . Human blood rate is very low ( 0 . 7-1 . 7% ) ; nevertheless An . sinensis readily feeds on man when domestic animals are not found near by . They feed on hosts throughout the night from dusk to dawn with a peak period of 02 : 00-04 : 00 hours ; they are slightly more exophagic ( biting outdoors ) ; much larger numbers come into the room when light is on . Main resting places are outdoors such as grasses , vegetable fields and rice fields . A mark-release-recapture study resulted that 37 . 1% was recaptured within 1 km , 29 . 4% at 1-3 km , 21 . 1% at 3-6 km , 10 . 3% at 6-9 km and 2 . 1% at 9-12 km distance . An . sinensis hibernate outdoors ( mostly under part of dense grasses ) during October-March . At the end of the hibernation period ( March-April ) they feed on cows at daytime . Until today any single measure to effectively control An . sinensis population has not been found . Indoor residual spray with a long-lasting insecticide can not reduce vector population densities , but shorten their life spans in some degree , so contributes to malaria control .
Score: 1.00
Author: Pongjanyakul T Priprem A Chitropas P Puttipipatkhachorn S
Journal: Citation: V : 6 ( 2 ) P : E190-7 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16353977
Abstract: The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of different polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on physical properties of multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan ( DMP ) tablets . DMP resinates were formed by a complexation of DMP and strong cation exchange resins , Dowex 50 W and Amberlite IRP69 . The tablets consisted of the DMP resinates and direct compression fillers , such as microcrystalline cellulose ( MCC ) , dicalcium phosphate dihydrate ( DCP ) , and spray-dried rice starch ( SDRS ) . Physical properties of tablets , such as hardness , disintegration time , and in vitro release , were investigated . A good performance of the tablets was obtained when MCC or SDRS was used . The use of rod-like and plate-like particles of Amberlite IRP69 caused a statistical decrease in tablet hardness , whereas good tablet hardness was obtained when spherical particle of Dowex 50 W was used . The plastic deformation of the fillers , such as MCC and SDRS , caused a little change in the release of DMP . A higher release rate constant was found in the tablets containing DCP and Dowex 50 W , indicating the fracture of the resinates under compression , which was attributable to the fragmentation of DCP . However , the release of DMP from the tablets using Amberlite IRP69 was not significantly changed because of the higher degree of cross-linking of the resinates , which exhibited more resistance to deformation under compression . In conclusion , the properties of polysulfonate resin , such as particle shape and degree of cross-linking , and the deformation under compaction of fillers affect the physical properties and the drug release of the resinate tablets .
Score: 1.00
Author: Ji XL Jin GW Qu LY Cheng JP Wang WH .
Journal: Huan Jing Ke Xue Citation: V : 27 ( 1 ) P : 142-5 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16599137
Abstract: In order to survey the potential health risk of environmental exposure by mercury , Sprague-Dawley rats were reared by mercury contaminated rice from mercury mining area . The changes of neurotransmitter acetylcholine ( ACh ) and acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) in rat brain were examined at different times . The results show that the mercury-contaminated rice significantly increase the content of ACh in rat brain after exposure for 7 days . ACh maintained at a high level even after exposure for 30 days , but decreased significantly after exposure for 90 days . The changes of AChE represented an inverse trend compared with that of ACh . The coexisting selenium in rice exhibited antagonistic effects on both mercury accumulation and toxicity . The findings suggested that neurotoxic effects of environmental mercury contamination had been significantly represented after chronically dietary exposure . Further studies are needed to examine the relationship between the neurotransmitter level changes and the Alzheimers Disease ( AD ) .
Score: 1.00
Author: Sarisuta N Lawanprasert P Puttipipatkhachorn S Srikummoon K
Journal: Citation: V : 32 ( 4 ) P : 463-71 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16638685
Abstract: The influence of fillers and polymeric films on adhesive strength of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ( HPMC ) and Eudragit E100 films coated on ranitidine HCl tablets containing either spray-dried rice starch ( SDRS ) or lactose monohydrate as fillers after storage at 45 degrees C/75% RH for four weeks was investigated by the use of butt adhesion technique . The adhesive strength of film-coated tablets of fillers without drug was found to slightly decrease after storage . In contrast , the adhesive strength of drug-containing film-coated tablets significantly reduced , the degree of which was higher for Eudragit E100 than HPMC . Physicochemical characterization by employing differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC ) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy ( DRIFTS ) revealed that the drug was obviously incompatible with lactose and possibly mild interaction with Eudragit E100 was suggested . The results indicated that the adhesive strength of film-coated tablets would be affected not only by the drug-excipient interaction , but also by the drug-polymeric film interaction .
Score: 1.00
Author: Rood SB Pearce D Williams PH Pharis RP .
Journal: Citation: V : 89 ( 2 ) P : 482-487 Year: 1989 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16666569
Abstract: A single-gene mutant ( rosette [ ros/ros ] ) in which shoot growth and development are inhibited was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa ( syn campestris ) . Relative to normal plants , the mutant germinated slowly , had delayed or incomplete floral development , and reduced leaf , petiole , and internode growth . The exogenous application of GA ( 3 ) by foliar spray or directly to the shoot tip of rosette resulted in rapid flowering , bolting ( shoot elongation ) , and viable seed production . Shoots of rosette contained endogenous levels of total gibberellin ( GA ) -like substances ( ; Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice assay ) of about one-tenth of that of the normal rapid-cycling line of B rapa which consisted almost entirely of a very nonpolar , GA-like substance which yielded GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) upon mild acid hydrolysis . In a normal rapid-cycling B rapa line , the nonpolar putative GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) conjugates were present , but additionally , free GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) were abundant and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring . The quantities of free GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) in the normal line and in rosette were quantified by GC-MS-SIM using [ ( 2 ) H ( 2 ) ] GA ( 1 ) as an internal standard . Fourteen-day-old rosette and normal seedlings contained 5 . 3 and 23 . 2 ng GA ( 1 ) per plant , respectively . At day 21 the rosette plants contained 7 . 7 and 26 . 1 nanograms per plant of GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) , while normal plants contained 31 . 1 and 251 . 5 nanograms per plant , respectively . Thus , normal plants contained from four to ten times higher levels of total GA-like substances , GA ( 1 ) , or GA ( 3 ) , than rosette . The ros allele results in reduced GA level , yielding the rosette phenotype whose delayed germination and flowering , and reduced shoot growth responses indicate a probable role for endogenous GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) in the regulation of these processes in Brassica .
Score: 1.00
Author: Kamau L Vulule JM .
Journal: Malar . J Citation: V : 5 ( ) P : 46 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16756645
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Control of the Anopheline mosquito vectors of malaria by use of insecticides has been shown to impact on both morbidity and mortality due to this disease . Evidence of insecticide resistance in different settings necessitates surveillance studies to allow prompt detection of resistance should it arise and thus enable its management . Possible resistance by Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes from Mwea rice irrigation scheme in Central Kenya to insecticides in the four classes of insecticides approved by WHO for indoor residual spraying was investigated . METHODS : Susceptibility to DDT ( an organochlorine ) , fenitrothion ( an organophosphate ) , bendiocarb ( a carbamate ) , lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin ( both pyrethroids ) was tested using standard WHO diagnostic bioassay kits . Bioassays were performed on non-blood fed mosquitoes one to three-day old . Knockdown was recorded every 10 min and mortality 24 h post-exposure was noted . RESULTS : Mortality 24 h post-exposure was 100% for all insecticides except for lambdacyhalothrin , which averaged 99 . 46% . Knockdown rates at 10 min intervals were not significantly different between the Mwea population and the susceptible KISUMU strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto control . The KDT50 and KDT95 values for the Mwea population were either lower than those for the control or higher by factors of no more than 2 for most comparisons and compared well with those of An . gambiae sensu lato categorized as susceptible in other studies . CONCLUSION : These results suggest that the Mwea population of An . arabiensis is susceptible to all the insecticides tested . This implies that vector control measures employing any of these insecticides would not be hampered by resistance .
Score: 1.00
Author: You J Li Q Yue B Xue WY Luo LJ Xiong LZ .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 33 ( 6 ) P : 532-41 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16800384
Abstract: Abscisic acid ( ABA ) is one of the important plant hormones , which plays a critical role in seed development and adaptation to abiotic stresses . The sensitivity of rice ( Oryza sativa L ) to exogenous ABA at seed germination and seedling stages was investigated in the recombinant inbred line ( RIL ) population derived from a cross between irrigated rice Zhenshan 97 and upland rice IRAT109 , using relative germination vigor ( RGV ) , relative germination rate ( RGR ) and leaf rolling scores of spraying ( LRS ) or culturing ( LRC ) with ABA as sensitivity indexes . The phenotypic correlation analysis revealed that only RGV at germination stage was positively correlated to ABA sensitivity at seedling stage . QTL detection using composite interval mapping ( CIM ) and mixed linear model was conducted to dissect the genetic basis of ABA sensitivity , and the single-locus QTLs detected by both methods are in good agreement with each other . Five single QTLs and six pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected for ABA sensitivity at germination stage . Eight single QTLs and five pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected for ABA sensitivity at seedling stage . Two QTLs were common between LRS and LRC ; and one common QTL was detected for RGV , LRS and LRC simultaneously . These results indicated that both single and epistatic loci were involved in the ABA sensitivity in rice , and the genetic basis of ABA sensitivity at seed germination and seedling stage was largely different .
Score: 1.00
Author: Li CJ Yang SH Wu L Wan JM .
Journal: Yi Chuan Citation: V : 28 ( 6 ) P : 689-94 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16818431
Abstract: A 5 . 7 kb putative promoter region of pib gene was isolated from the pib genomic clone and substituted for the 35S promoter upstream of gus gene in plasmid pCAMBIA1301 to construct a new plant expression vector pNAR604 ( putative pib promoter-GUS + 35S-hpt ) . From Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and hygromycin selective culture in vitro , hygromycin resistant calli and 36 transgenic rice ( Oryza sativa L ) plants were obtained . Histochemical assays of GUS activity showed that no expression was observed in the resistant calli and roots from transgenic rice if cultured under light , but after 24 h dark treatment there was strong GUS staining . Fluorimetric quantitative analysis indicated that GUS expression was organ-specific in transgenic rice . Without the dark treatment , GUS activity in roots and stems were about 7 and 3 times higher than in leaves in which GUS activity was only trace detected . After 24 h dark treatment , GUS activity in roots , stems and leaves of transgenic plants were all promoted and the largest increase was observed in leaves . Twenty-four hours after spraying with 5 mmol/L SA ( Salicylic Acid ) or 0 . 3 mol/L NaCl , GUS activity in leaves of the transgenic plants was 2 . 7 or 3 . 6 times respectively higher than untreated control . It was confirmed that an inductive promoter was involved in this 5 . 7 kb upstream region of pib gene , and dark , SA and NaCl treatments were inductive factors for pib promoter .
Score: 1.00
Author: Muturi EJ Shililu J Jacob B Gu W Githure J Novak R
Journal: J Vector Ecol . Citation: V : 31 ( 1 ) P : 129-37 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16859101
Abstract: We conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in the Mwea rice scheme , Kenya . Adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor spraying of houses and outdoors by CDC light traps in three villages representing planned ( Mbuinjeru ) and unplanned ( Kiamachiri ) rice agroecosystems and a non-irrigated agroecosystem ( Murinduko ) . During the 12-month sampling period , a total of 98 , 708 mosquitoes belonging to five genera and 25 species were collected . The five most common species collected during this study were Anopheles arabiensis Patton ( 52 . 5% ) , Culex quinquefasciatus Say ( 36 . 7% ) , Anopheles pharoensis Theobald ( 5 . 2% ) , Anopheles coustani Laveran ( 1 . 4% ) , and Anopheles funestus Giles ( 1 . 3% ) . Anopheles arabiensis , Cx quinquefasciatus , and An . pharoensis were more abundant in rice agroecosystems than in the non-irrigated agroecosystem , and in planned than in the unplanned rice agroecosystems . In contrast , An . funestus was more abundant in the non-irrigated agroecosystem . The mosquito species diversity ( H ) and evenness ( E ( H ) ) in the non-irrigated agroecosystem ( Shannon diversity Index , H = 1 . 507 , EH = 0 . 503 ) was significantly higher than in the rice agroecosystems ( H ) = 0 . 968 , E ( H ) = 0 . 313 , unplanned ; and H= 1 . 040 , E ( H ) = 0 . 367 planned ) . Results of lag cross correlation analysis revealed a strong relationship between rainfall and the abundance of An . arabiensis , and C quinquefasciatus in the non-irrigated agroecosystem but not in the rice agroecosystems . It is inferred from the data that different levels of habitat perturbations with regard to rice cultivation have different effects on mosquito diversity and abundance . This provides an understanding of how mosquito diversity is impacted by different habitat management and rice cropping strategies .
Score: 1.00
Author: Tanabe S Okada M Jikumaru Y Yamane H Kaku H Shibuya N Minami E
Journal: Biosci . Biotechnol . Biochem . Citation: V : 70 ( 7 ) P : 1599-605 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16861793
Abstract: The mode of action of a potent elicitor , N-acetylchitooligosaccharide , in rice plants was examined . In intact seedlings , no significant uptake of the elicitor via the roots was observed within 3 h , whereas rapid uptake was observed in excised leaves . Rapid and transient expression of an elicitor-responsive gene , EL2 , was induced in the leaves of intact seedlings sprayed with the elicitor or in the roots and leaves of intact seedlings by immersing roots in the elicitor solution . Histochemical analysis indicated that EL2 was expressed in cells exposed to the elicitor of root and leaves . In seedlings treated with the elicitor for 1 d or longer , hyphal growth of rice blast fungus was significantly delayed , and an accumulation of auto-fluorescence around the infection site was observed . Two defense-related genes , PR-1 and PR-10 ( PBZ1 ) , were induced in a systemic and local manner by elicitor treatment , in correlation with the induction of resistance against rice blast fungus . N-Acetylchitoheptaose did not inhibit the hyphal growth of the fungi . These results indicate the occurrence of systemic signal transmission from N-acetylchitooligosaccharide in rice plants .
Score: 1.00
Author: Pan G Zhang X Liu K Zhang J Wu X Zhu J Tu J
Journal: Plant Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 61 ( 6 ) P : 933-43 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16927205
Abstract: Development of hybrid rice has greatly contributed to increased yields during the past three decades . Two bentazon-lethal mutants 8077S and Norin8m are being utilized in developing new hybrid rice systems . When the male sterile lines are developed in such a mutant background , the problem of F1 seed contamination by self-seeds from the sterile lines can be solved by spraying bentazon at seedling stage . We first determined the sensitivity of the mutant plants to bentazon . Both mutants showed symptoms to bentazon starting from 100 mg/l , which was about 60-fold , lower than the sensitivity threshold of their wild-type controls . In addition , both mutants were sensitive to sulfonylurea-type herbicides . The locus for the mutant phenotype is bel for 8077S and bsl for Norin8m . Tests showed that the two loci are allelic to each other . The two genes were cloned by map-based cloning . Interestingly , both mutant alleles had a single-base deletion , which was confirmed by PCR-RFLP . The two loci are renamed bel ( a ) ( for bel ) and bel ( b ) ( for bsl ) . The wild-type Bel gene encodes a novel cytochrome P450 monooxgenase , named CYP81A6 . Analysis of the mutant protein sequence also revealed the reason for bel ( a ) being slightly tolerant than bel ( b ) . Introduction of the wild-type Bel gene rescued the bentazon and sulfonylurea-sensitive phenotype of bel ( a ) mutant . On the other hand , expression of antisense Bel in W6154S induced a mutant phenotype . Based on these results we conclude that the novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP81A6 encoded by Bel confers resistance to two different classes of herbicides .
Score: 1.00
Author: Tobias DJ Manoharan M Pritsch C Dahleen LS .
Journal: Citation: V : ( ) P : Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17103003
Abstract: Pathogenesis-related ( PR ) proteins associated with degradation of structural components of pathogenic filamentous fungi were overexpressed in the two-rowed malting barley ( Hordeum vulgare L ) cultivar Conlon . Transgenes were introduced by co-bombardment with two plasmids , one carrying a rice ( Oryza sativa L ) chitinase gene ( chi11 ) and another carrying a rice thaumatin-like protein gene ( tlp ) . Each gene was under the control of the maize ubiquitin ( Ubi1 ) promoter . Fifty-eight primary transformants from three independent transformation events were regenerated . T ( 1 ) plants with high rice chi11 and tlp protein expression levels were advanced to identify T ( 2 ) homozygotes by herbicide spray and subjected to further molecular analyses . T ( 3 ) progeny from one event ( E2 ) had stable integration and expression of the rice chi11 and tlp while those from the other events ( E1 and E3 ) showed stable integration only of tlp . The successful production of these lines overexpressing the antifungal chi and tlp proteins provides materials to test the effects of these genes on a variety of fungal diseases that attack barley and to serve as potential additional sources of disease resistance .
Score: 1.00
Author: Breitler JC Vassal JM Del Mar Catala M Meynard D MarfEV MelEE Royer M Murillo I San Segundo B Guiderdoni E Messeguer J
Journal: Plant Biotechnol . J Citation: V : 2 ( 5 ) P : 417-30 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17168888
Abstract: Seven homozygous transgenic lines of two European commercial cultivars of rice ( Ariete ( A ) and Senia ( S ) ) , harbouring the cry1B or cry1Aa Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) delta-endotoxin genes , were field evaluated for protection from striped stem borer ( SSB ) ( Chilo suppressalis ) damage during the 2001 and 2002 summer crop seasons in the Delta de lEbre region , Spain . The plant codon-optimized toxin gene was placed under the control of the promoter of either the constitutive ubi1 gene or the wound-inducible mpi gene from maize . Stable , high-level , insecticidal protein accumulation was observed throughout root , leaf and seed it issues of field-grown plants harbouring the cry1B ( lines A64 . 1 , A33 . 1 , A3 . 4 and S98 . 9 ) or cry1Aa ( lines S05 . 1 and A19 . 14 ) genes under the control of the ubi1 promoter . Conversely , no toxin was detected in unwounded vegetative it issues of the A9 . 1 line harbouring the cry1B gene controlled by the mpi promoter , indicating that natural environmental stresses did not trigger the activity of the wound-inducible promoter . However , the toxin accumulated at 0 . 2% total soluble proteins in A9 . 1 sheath it issue exhibiting brown lesions resulting from SSB damage . The agronomical traits and performance of the transgenic lines were generally comparable with parental controls , except in the two lines accumulating Cry1Aa , which exhibited a high frequency of plants non-true to type . Natural infestation was assisted with manual infestations of L2/L3 SSB larvae in border control plants surrounding the experimental plots , which served as a reservoir for the second-cycle SSB population . The observation of damage ( brown lesions and dead hearts ) during the crop season and dissection of plants at harvest stage revealed a range of protection amongst the transgenic lines , which was highly consistent with the level of toxin accumulation and with previous experience in greenhouse assays . Lines A3 . 4 and S05 . 1 were found to exhibit stable and full protection against SSB attacks , mediated by the accumulation of Cry1B and Cry1Aa toxin , respectively , which was comparable with that afforded by the spraying of chemical insecticides on control plants . The wound-induced A9 . 1 line exhibited a satisfactory level of protection , with a notably low level of penetration of SSB larvae in the stems , but higher external symptoms than constitutive lines , probably due to the time lag to benefit from the protective effect of Cry1B .
Score: 1.00
Author: Ji XL Cheng JP Wang WH Qu LY Zhao XX Zhuang HS .
Journal: Huan Jing Ke Xue Citation: V : 27 ( 10 ) P : 2087-90 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17256615
Abstract: Sprague-Dawley rats were reared by environmental mercury contaminated rice to survey the potential health risk of Wanshan mercury mining area . Electron spin resonance ( ESR ) was introduced to detect the species and the intensities of free radicals , using spin trap 5 , 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide ( DMPO ) . The results showed that the mercury-contaminated rice significantly increased the levels of free radicals and MDA in rat brain at 7 days ( p < 0 . 05 ) . ESR spectrums showed that the principal spin adducts resulted from the trapping of alkyl free radical ( alphaH = 22 . 7 x 10 ( -4 ) T +/- 1 . 6 x 10 ( -4 ) T , alphaN = 15 . 5 x 10 ( -4 ) T +/- 0 . 5 x 10 ( -4 ) T ) , and hydroxyl radical Levels of free radicals and MDA increased slowly until after 90-day exposure period ( 83% , 100% ) . Element correlation analysis showed high correlations of mercury and selenium in the brain of rat fed with Wanshan rice , suggesting that the coexisting selenium in rice exhibited antagonistic effects on both mercury accumulation and toxicity . The slight increases of free radicals in rat brain at 7 , 20 and 30-day exposure periods should be related with the scavenger effect of Se .
Score: 1.00
Author: Corbel V Nguessan R Brengues C Chandre F Djogbenou L Martin T Akogbto M Hougard JM Rowland M
Journal: Acta Trop . Citation: V : 101 ( 3 ) P : 207-16 Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17359927
Abstract: Because free-insecticide treated net distribution is planned in Benin ( West Africa ) during the next few years , we investigated the type , frequency and distribution of insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in four localities selected on the basis of contrasting agricultural practices , use of insecticides and environment . Bioassays with WHO diagnostic test kits were carried out using pyrethroid , carbamate , organophosphate and organochlorine insecticides . An . gambiae mosquitoes were identified to species and to M or S molecular forms using PCR techniques . Molecular and biochemical assays were carried out to identify kdr and Ace . 1 mutations in individual mosquitoes and to detect any increase in the activity of enzymes typically involved in insecticide metabolism ( oxidase , esterase and glutathion-S-transfrases ) . WHO diagnostic tests showed high frequency of resistance in An . gambiae and Cx . quinquefasciatus to permethrin and DDT in three areas . This was consistent with the presence of target site insensitivity due to kdr mutation and to increased metabolism through enzymatic activity . Kdr was expressed in both M and S forms . However , less than 1% of An . gambiae or Cx . quiqnuefasciatus showed the presence of the Ace . 1 ( R ) mutation . Carbamate/OP resistance was present at higher frequency in Culex than in An . gambiae . Dieldrin resistance was present in both species at all four localities . A higher frequency of pyrethroid-resistance was found in An . gambiae mosquitoes collected in urban areas compared to those collected in rice growing areas . The expansion of vegetable growing within urban areas probably contributed to selection pressure on mosquitoes . The detection of multiple resistance mechanisms in both An . gambiae and Cx . quinquefasciatus in Benin may represent a threat for the efficacy of ITNs and other forms of vector control such as indoor residual spraying in the future .
Score: 1.00
Author: Sogoba N Doumbia S Vounatsou P Bagayoko MM Dolo G TraorESF MaEa HM TourEYT Smith T
Journal: Acta Trop . Citation: V : 101 ( 3 ) P : 232-40 Year: 2007 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17362859
Abstract: The type of water management and drainage system could be a potential reason for variation in malaria transmission in rice cultivation areas . To investigate this we have compared the population dynamics of Anopheles mosquitoes ( Diptera , Culicidae ) in rice plots with controlled and uncontrolled water depth , ie casiers and hors-casiers , respectively in the Office du Niger , Mali . We also compared malaria transmission in areas with mixed and casiers plots . Larval collection was performed fortnightly with the standard WHO dipping technique . Adult Anopheles were collected both by pyrethrum spray and landing catches . During the dry season rice cultivation cycle , the larval density in the hors-casier was significantly higher than in the casier plots . The larval peak in the casier plots was considerably smaller than the one in the hors-casier . During the rainy season , no significant difference was observed between the two plot types . However , larval densities begin to rise approximately one month earlier in the casier then in the hors-casier plots , and continued to increase trough the rice development phases until the grain filling/maturation phase , declining thereafter . In contrast , in the hors-casier rice plots larval density increased throughout the rice development . This difference was not significantly reflected in the adult vector density and man biting rate . However , high relative frequencies of Anopheles funestus , survival and entomological inoculation rates of An . gambiae s . l . were observed in the mixed plot sector .
Score: 1.00
Author: Bullangpoti V Visetson S Milne M Milne J Pornbanlualap S Sudthongkongs C Tayapat S
Journal: Commun . Agric . Appl . Biol . Sci . Citation: V : 71 ( 2 Pt B ) P : 475-81 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17385515
Abstract: Brown planthopper , Nilaparvata lugens Stal , ( BPH ) was the most devastating insect pest on rice in many partS of Asia . The Outbreak of BPH? which is resistant to many synthetic insecticides can cause total rice crop loss . This research was done to evaluate the efficiency of mangostin from the pericarp of mangosteen fruit extract ( Garcina mangostana L ) as the alternative control of BPH . The pericarp of mangosteen fruit was extracted by Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol as a solvent and purified by chromatography method then qualified structure by 2D-NMR , MS and IR . The crude extracts contained mangostin ca 2 . 956% w/w . This extract was trailed by the topical sprayer method with 1st , 2nd , 3rd , 4th and 5th nymph and adult BPH shows toxicity in term of LC50 ca 1 . 39 , 2 . 26 , 5 . 44 , 4 . 49 , 4 . 03 and 3 . 84 % w/v at 24 h exposure , respectively . The in vitro enzyme activity from BPH survived after 24 h exposure and showed to inhibit the carboxylesterase ( CarE ) , acetylchoinesterase ( AchE ) and glutathione-S-transferase ( GST ) activities which the correction factors of CarE , AchE and GST indicated ca 1 . 21-2 . 05 fold , 1 . 24-2 . 50 fold and 1 . 01-3 . 34 fold , respectively . Moreover , the data shows that the carboxylesterase may play an important role to detoxify this extract . The results suggested that pericarp of mangosteen fruit extract which have mangostin as active ingredient compound shows mechanism as the inhibitor of detoxification enzymes . Thus , it is likely to be uses this extract as an insecticide alternative to the control of BPH .
Score: 1.00
Author: Jie XL Jin GW Cheng JP Wang WH Lu J Qu LY
Journal: Biomed Environ Sci Citation: V : 20 P : Sep-84 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17458147
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To study the oxidative stress induced by consumption of mercury-contaminated rice in rats , and to assess the possible public health risk of mercury contamination in Wanshan mining area . METHODS : Sprague Dawley rats were fed the mercury-contaminated rice produced from Wanshan area for 90 days . The antioxidant status and the free radicals in rat serum were evaluated . RESULTS : High mercury accumulation in organs of rats fed the mercury-contaminated rice confirmed the server pollution of mercury in Wanshan mining area . The intensity of electron spin resonance ( ESR ) signal increased by 87 . 38% in rats fed the rice from Wanshan compared with that in the control rats fed the rice from Shanghai , suggesting that chronic dietary consumption of rice from mercury mining area could induce an aggravation of free radicals . Feeding the mercury-contaminated rice was associated with significant decreases in the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px ) and concentration of serum nitric oxide ( NO ) , but it had no effect on serum nitric oxide synthase ( NOS ) activity . Feeding the mercury-contaminated rice raised the level of serum malonyldialdehyde ( MDA ) , indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress . CONCLUSION : The long-term dietary consumption of mercury-contaminated rice induces the aggravation of free radicals and exerts oxidative stress .
Score: 1.00
Author: Sondhia S
Journal: Environ Monit Assess Citation: V : 137 P : 205-11 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17562212
Abstract: Imazosulfuron is a new post-emergence sulfonylurea herbicide . It is highly active at low application rates to control annual and perennial broad-leaf weeds and sedges in rice . There is increasing concerned about the persistence of pesticide residues in soils , crop produce and subsequent contamination of groundwater . Thus persistence of imazosulfuron residues under field condition was evaluated . Imazosulfuron was applied at 30 , 40 , 50 and 60 a . i . g ha ( -1 ) rates , 4 days after transplanting of rice as post-emergence herbicide . Soil and plant samples treated with imazosulfuron were collected at 60 , 90 and 120 days after herbicide application and analyzed for residues . Rice grains and straw samples were sampled at harvest ( 120 days ) . Residues of imazosulfuron in soil were not found after 90 and 120 DAS ( days after spraying ) . Rice grains contained 0 . 006 , 0 . 009 microg g ( -1 ) residues at 50 and 60 g ha ( -1 ) application rates . 0 . 009 and 0 . 039 microg g ( -1 ) residues of imazosulfuron were detected at 50 and 60 g/ha rates respectively in rice straw . Residues of imazosulfuron were not detected applied at 30 and 40 g ha ( -1 ) in rice grains and straw , respectively and can be safely applied to the transplanted rice .
Score: 1.00
Author: Wang XL Yang YJ Wang QH Yu XH Xie M Liu CT Wang X
Journal: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi Citation: V : 9 P : 308-12 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17706027
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : A recent study has suggested that hyperbaric oxygen ( HBO ) therapy administered within 3 hrs following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) may alleviate brain white matter damage ( WMD ) in neonatal rats . However it is unclear whether a delayed HBO therapy ( more than 3 hrs following HIBD ) has neuroprotective effects in neonatal rats . This study aimed to explore the effect of HBO therapy administered at different time points following HIBD on WMD in neonatal rats . METHODS : The HIBD model was prepared according to the Rice-Vannucci procedure in 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats . HBO therapy was administered at 3 , 6 , 12 , 24 or 72 hrs after HIBD , once daily for consecutive 7 days . T-maze test , the foot-fault test and the radial arm maze test were performed after 14 days of HIBD . Myelin basic protein ( MBP ) in the callositas and corpora striata was examined by immunohistochemical method 28 days after HIBD . RESULTS : The rats receiving HBO therapy at 3 , 6 and 12 hrs after HIBD performed significantly better in the T-maze test , the radial arm maze test and the foot-fault test than the untreated HIBD rats . There were no significant differences in the behavioral test results between the HBO-treated groups administered HBO at 24 and 72 hrs after HIBD and the untreated HIBD group . The MBP expression in the HBO-treated groups treated within 12 hrs after HIBD was significantly higher than that in the untreated HIBD group ( P < 0 . 05 ) . When the HBO therapeutic window was delayed to 24 hrs after HIBD , there were no significant differences in the MBP expression between the HBO-treated and the untreated HIBD groups . CONCLUSIONS : HBO therapy administered within 12 hrs following HIBD can alleviate brain WMD in neonatal rats , but the efficacy of HBO therapy administered 24 hrs after HIBD does not appear to be satisfactory .
Score: 1.00
Author: Tuc VP Wangsuphachart V Tasanapradit P Fungladda W Van Trong P Nhung NT
Journal: Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health Citation: V : 38 P : 569-75 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17877235
Abstract: This case-control study assessed the effects of pesticide use on semen characteristics among rice farmers of Kienxuong District , Thaibinh Province , Vietnam . Semen samples of 1 , 036 rice farmers were obtained by manual masturbation and screened at Commune Health Stations . Of these , 156 abnormal semen samples were identified ; 314 rice farmers with normal semen were recruited as controls . The semen characteristics ( volume , sperm concentration , total sperm count , motility , vitality and morphology ) of the cases were considerably poorer than the controls . Factors associated with abnormal semen after adjusting for age , smoking and alcohol drinking by logistic regression were : distance of less than 300 meters from household to rice fields and duration of work over 10 years as a farmer ( adjusted OR = 3 . 16 , 95% Cl : 1 . 97-5 . 05 and adjusted OR = 3 . 98 , 95% Cl : 2 . 20-7 . 21 , respectively ) . Rice farmers without personal protective equipment ( PPE ) when spraying pesticides and without pesticide training ( adjusted OR = 3 . 05 , Cl : 1 . 92-4 . 85 and adjusted OR = 1 . 90 , Cl : 1 . 14-3 . 16 , respectively ) were also at risk for abnormal semen compared to controls . These findings showed the strength of association between pesticide use and abnormal semen characteristics among rice farmers in Kienxuong District , Thaibinh Province , Vietnam .
Score: 1.00
Author: Romyen S Hawker D Karnchanasest B
Journal: J Environ Sci Health B Citation: V : 42 P : 869-75 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17978954
Abstract: Sorption and leaching of the organophosphate ( OP ) pesticides chlorpyrifos , profenofos , methyl parathion and malathion were investigated with four different types of biomass : coconut husk , rice husk , peat moss and peanut shell . Organic carbon contents of the biomass were in the range of 35 . 4-45 . 4% . Sorption studies were carried out by the batch ( equilibrium ) method at 4 different OP spike concentrations and at pH 3-7 . Sorption isotherms conformed to a linear Freundlich equation and the Freundlich constant or sorption coefficient ( KD ) confirmed that biomass organic carbon content was the principal sorbent factor affecting OP sorption . For a given sorbent , correlation of the extent of sorption with sorbate chemical properties was examined . Column leaching experiments involving different masses of coconut husk and peanut shell pre-spiked with OPs at the level equivalent to actual spraying concentrations in some Thai tangerine orchards were conducted . These experiments included repeated spikings and leaching . A water flow rate of 20 mL min ( -1 ) was employed corresponding to the current average watering regime . Retardation and biodegradation with these sorbents were also examined .
Score: 1.00
Author: Jutkiewicz EM Baladi MG Folk JE Rice KC Woods JH
Journal: J Pharmacol Exp Ther Citation: V : 324 P : 714-24 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17986650
Abstract: The nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonist SNC80 [ ( + ) -4- [ alpha ( R ) -alpha- [ ( 2S , 5R ) -4-allyl-2 , 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl ] - ( 3-methoxyben zyl ) -N , N-diethylbenzamide ] produces many stimulant-like behavioral effects in rodents and monkeys , such as locomotor stimulation , generalization to cocaine in discrimination procedures , and antiparkinsonian effects . Tolerance to the locomotor-stimulating effects of SNC80 develops after a single administration of SNC80 in rats ; it is not known whether cross-tolerance develops to the effects of other stimulant compounds . In the initial studies to determine whether SNC80 produced cross-tolerance to other stimulant compounds , it was discovered that amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity was greatly enhanced in SNC80-pretreated rats . This study evaluated acute cross-tolerance between delta-opioid agonists and other locomotor-stimulating drugs . Locomotor activity was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with radiotransmitters , and activity levels were recorded in the home cage environment . Three-hour SNC80 pretreatment produced tolerance to further delta-opioid receptor stimulation but also augmented greatly amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner . Pretreatments with other delta-opioid agonists , ( + ) BW373U86 [ ( + ) -4- [ alpha ( R ) -alpha- [ ( 2S , 5R ) -4-allyl-2 , 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl ] -3-hydroxybenz yl ] -N , N-diethylbenzamide ] and oxymorphindole ( 17-methyl-6 , 7-dehydro-4 , 5-epoxy-3 , 14-dihydroxy-6 , 7 , 2 , 3-indolomorphinan ) , also modified amphetamine-induced activity levels . SNC80 pretreatment enhanced the stimulatory effects of the dopamine/norepinephrine transporter ligands cocaine and nomifensine ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-phenyl-8-isoquinolinanmine maleate salt ) , but not the direct dopamine receptor agonists SKF81297 [ R- ( + ) -6-chloro-7 , 8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2 , 3 , 4 , 5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide ] and quinpirole [ trans- ( - ) - ( 4alphaR ) -4 , 4a , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 8a , 9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo [ 3 , 4-g ] quinoline monohydrochloride ] . In conclusion , SNC80 enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effects of monoamine transporter ligands suggesting that delta-opioid receptor activation might alter the functional activity of monoamine transporters or presynaptic monoamine terminals .
Score: 1.00
Author: Jang YJ Kim MH Nam SH Kang MY
Journal: J Med Food Citation: V : 10 P : 608-14 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18158830
Abstract: We investigated the effect of solid-state fermented rice cultured with Basidiomycota ( sangwhang ) and Monascus ruber on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity . Forty 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high cholesterol diets in which carbohydrate sources in the treatment groups consisted of non-fermented rice and sangwhang or M ruber rice at 80% and 20% , respectively , for 5 weeks . Supplementation with sangwhang and M ruber rice had no effect on growth and food intakes in high-cholesterol-fed rats . The plasma triglyceride concentration was not significantly different among the groups . Supplementation with M ruber rice resulted in lower plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations and atherogenic index compared to the control group , while the plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration was elevated . In addition , fermented rice cultured with M ruber-supplemented animals had greater bile acid excretion . The M ruber groups had significantly lower plasma and hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances than the control group . Moreover , hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities , including catalase and superoxide dismutase , were significantly higher in the M ruber group . In conclusion , fermented rice , especially M ruber rice , was very effective for improving the lipid metabolism and reducing oxidative stress by up-regulating the hepatic antioxidant enzymes in high-cholesterol-fed rats .
Score: 1.00
Author: Antonio-Nkondjio C Atangana J Ndo C Awono-Ambene P Fondjo E Fontenille D Simard F
Journal: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg Citation: V : 102 P : 352-9 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18295810
Abstract: Cross-sectional entomological surveys were carried out during the 2006 dry and rainy seasons in Lagdo , Cameroon to measure the impact of rice cultivation on malaria transmission and to monitor vector susceptibility to insecticides . Adult anopheline mosquitoes were captured on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray collections . A total of 4740 mosquitoes was collected during the study . Anopheles arabiensis was the major species and the main malaria vector in all study sites , followed by A funestus . Malaria transmission was high in the non-irrigated zone of Mayo Mbocki , whereas in the irrigated area of Gounougou it was below detection level during the dry season and high during the rainy season . Insecticide susceptibility tests performed on A gambiae s . l . populations detected resistance to lambdacyhalothrin and to a lower extent to deltamethrin . All survivors were A arabiensis . None of the surviving mosquitoes carried the kdr mutation , suggesting an alternative resistance mechanism .
Score: 1.00
Author: Lin C Fang J Xu X Zhao T Cheng J Tu J Ye G Shen Z
Journal: PLoS ONE Citation: V : 3 P : e1818 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18350155
Abstract: Plant transgenic technology has been widely utilized for engineering crops for trait improvements and for production of high value proteins such as pharmaceuticals . However , the unintended spreading of commercial transgenic crops by pollination and seed dispersal is a major concern for environmental and food safety . Simple and reliable containment strategies for transgenes are highly desirable . Here we report a novel method for creating selectively terminable transgenic rice . In this method , the gene ( s ) of interest is tagged with a RNA interference cassette , which specifically suppresses the expression of the bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6 and thus renders transgenic rice to be sensitive to bentazon , a herbicide used for rice weed control . We generated transgenic rice plants by this method using a new glyphosate resistant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase ( EPSPS ) gene from Pesudomonas putida as the gene of interest , and demonstrated that these transgenic rice plants were highly sensitive to bentazon but tolerant to glyphosate , which is exactly the opposite of conventional rice . Field trial of these transgenic rice plants further confirmed that they can be selectively killed at 100% by one spray of bentazon at a regular dose used for conventional rice weed control . Furthermore , we found that the terminable transgenic rice created in this study shows no difference in growth , development and yield compared to its non-transgenic control . Therefore , this method of creating transgenic rice constitutes a novel strategy of transgene containment , which appears simple , reliable and inexpensive for implementation .
Score: 1.00
Author: Luan WJ He CK Hu GC Dey M Fu YP Si HM Zhu L Liu WZ Duan F Zhang H Liu WY Zhuo RY Garg A Wu R Sun ZX
Journal: Genome Citation: V : 51 P : 41-9 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18356938
Abstract: An efficient system was developed , and several variables tested , for generating a large-scale insertional-mutagenesis population of rice . The most important feature in this improved Ac/Ds tagging system is that one can conveniently carry out large-scale screening in the field and select transposants at the seedling stage . Rice was transformed with a plasmid that includes a Basta-resistance gene ( bar ) . After the Ds element is excised during transposition , bar becomes adjacent to the ubiquitin promoter , and the rice plant becomes resistant to the herbicide Basta . In principle , one can plant up to one million plants in the field and select those plants that survive after spraying with Basta . To test the utility of this system , 4 Ds starter lines were crossed with 14 different Ac plants , and many transposants were successfully identified after planting 134 , 285 F2 plants in the field . Over 2 , 800 of these transposants were randomly chosen for PCR analysis , and the results fully confirmed the reliability of the field screening procedure .
Score: 1.00
Author: Jin SF Feng MG Chen JQ
Journal: Pest Manag Sci Citation: V : P : Year: 2008 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18438960
Abstract: BACKGROUND : This study was initiated to search for fungal candidates for microbial control of brown planthopper ( BPH ) Nilaparvata lugens Stal , to which little attention has been paid in the past two decades . RESULTS : Thirty-five isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae ( Metschnikoff ) Sorokin and M flavoviride Gams & Rozsypal from different host insects worldwide were bioassayed for their lethal effects against third-instar BPH nymphs at 25 degrees C and a 14 : 10 h light : dark photoperiod at ca 1000 conidia mm ( -2 ) . On day 9 post-treatment , mortality attributable to mycosis ranged from 6 . 5 to 64 . 2% and differed significantly among the tested isolates with no apparent relationship to their host origin . Only two BPH-derived M anisopliae isolates from the Philippines ( ARSEF456 ) and Indonesia ( ARSEF576 ) killed > 50% of the nymphs . Both isolates were further bioassayed for time-concentration-mortality responses of the nymphs to the sprays of 19-29 , 118-164 and 978-1088 conidia mm ( -2 ) in repeated bioassays . The resultant data fitted a time-concentration-mortality model very well . Their LC ( 50 ) values were estimated as 731 and 1124 conidia mm ( -2 ) on day 7 and fell to 284 and 306 conidia mm ( -2 ) , respectively , on day 10 . CONCLUSION : The two M anisopliae isolates are potential biocontrol agents of BPH for further research . This is the first report of the lethal effects of global Metarhizium isolates on the rice pest Copyright ( c ) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry .
Score: 1.00
Author: Wang YH Gao CF Zhu YC Chen J Li WH Zhuang YL Dai de J Zhou WJ Yong C Shen JL
Journal: J Econ Entomol Citation: V : 101 P : 515-22 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18459419
Abstract: Imidacloprid has been used for many years to control planthopper Nilaparvata lugens ( Stal ) ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) in China . To provide resistance assessment for the national insecticide resistance management program , we collected a total of 42 samples of the planthoppers from 27 locations covering eight provinces to monitor their dose responses and susceptibility changes to imidacloprid over an 11-yr period ( 1996-2006 ) . Results showed that most field populations maintained susceptibility from 1996 to 2003 except for a population from Guilin , Guangxi , in 1997 , which showed a low level of resistance to imidacloprid . However , surveys conducted in 2005 indicated that 16 populations from six provinces quickly developed resistance with resistance ratios ranging from 79 to 811 . The data collected in 2006 revealed that the resistance levels in 12 populations collected from seven different provinces decreased slightly ( RR = 107-316 ) , except the Tongzhou population ( Jiangsu Province ) , which developed 625-fold resistance . Dominant and intensive use of imidacloprid in a wide range of rice , Oryza savita L , growing areas might be a driving force for the resistance development . Migration of the insect also significantly boosted the resistance levels due to extensive and intensive use of imidacloprid in emigrating areas and continuous postmigration sprays of the chemical In addition , laboratory resistance selection using imidacloprid showed that resistance ratio increased to 14-fold after 27 generations , suggesting that quick resistance development might be associated with more frequent applications of the insecticide in recent years .
Score: 1.00
Author: Qiu L Wang HB Xiong J Fang CX Wu WX He HB Lin WX
Journal: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao Citation: V : 19 P : 330-6 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18464639
Abstract: To investigate the feasibility of using exogenous salicylic acid ( SA ) to regulate the allelopathic weed suppression of rice , this paper studied the effects of different concentrations exogenous SA on the weed-suppression and physiological-biochemical characteristics of allelopathic rice PI312777 , and the relative expression quantity of gene ZB8 in the rice by real time quantitative RT-PCR ( FQ-PCR ) . The results showed that exogenous SA induced the enhancement of the allelopathic potential of donor rice in suppressing target weed plants , and this inducing effect was SA dose and treatment time dependent . After foliar spraying SA , the inhibitory effect of PI312777 on barnyardgrass increased significantly , and the root vigor and superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) and perocidase ( POD ) activities of PI312777 increased , while its catalase ( CAT ) activity decreased . The reverse was true for the target weed barnyardgrass . At the same time , the phenylalanine ammonialyase ( PAL ) activity of PI312777 increased significantly , leading to an increase of the total content of phenols . Among the test concentrations of SA , 0 . 2 mmol x L ( -1 ) had the best inducing effect , under which , the relative expression quantity of ZB8 increased first and decreased then , with a peak at 24 hours after treatment .
Score: 1.00
Author: Rice G Teuschler LK Speth TF Richardson SD Miltner RJ Schenck KM Gennings C Hunter ES 3rd Narotsky MG Simmons JE
Journal: J Toxicol Environ Health A Citation: V : 71 P : 1222-34 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18636394
Abstract: This article presents a toxicologically-based risk assessment strategy for identifying the individual components or fractions of a complex mixture that are associated with its toxicity . The strategy relies on conventional component-based mixtures risk approaches such as dose addition , response addition , and analyses of interactions . Developmental toxicity data from two drinking-water concentrates containing disinfection by-products ( DBP ) mixtures were used to illustrate the strategy . The results of this study showed that future studies of DBP concentrates using the Chernoff-Kavlock bioassay need to consider evaluating DBP that are concentrated more than 130-fold and using a rat strain that is more sensitive to chemically-induced pregnancy loss than Sprague-Dawley rats . The results support the planned experimental design of a multigeneration reproductive and developmental study of DBP concentrates . Finally , this article discusses the need for a systematic evaluation of DBP concentrates obtained from multiple source waters and treatment types . The development of such a database could be useful in evaluating whether a specific DBP concentrate is sufficiently similar to tested combinations of source waters and treatment alternatives so that health risks for the former may be estimated using data on the latter .
Score: 1.00
Author: Nganga PN Shililu J Jayasinghe G Kimani V Kabutha C Kabuage L Kabiru E Githure J Mutero C
Journal: Malar J Citation: V : 7 P : 146 Year: 2008 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18667091
Abstract: ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND : Malaria transmission in most agricultural ecosystems is complex and hence the need for developing a holistic malaria control strategy with adequate consideration of socio-economic factors driving transmission at community level . A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in an irrigated ecosystem with the aim of investigating vector control practices applied and factors affecting their application both at household and community level . METHODS : Four villages representing the socio-economic , demographic and geographical diversity within the study area were purposefully selected . A total of 400 households were randomly sampled from the four study villages . Both semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to gather both qualitative and quantitative data . RESULTS : The results showed that malaria was perceived to be a major public health problem in the area and the role of the vector Anopheles mosquitoes in malaria transmission was generally recognized . More than 80% of respondents were aware of the major breeding sites of the vector . Reported personal protection methods applied to prevent mosquito bites included ; use of treated bed nets ( 57% ) , untreated bed nets ( 35% ) , insecticide coils ( 21% ) , traditional methods such as burning of cow dung ( 8% ) , insecticide sprays ( 6% ) , and use of skin repellents ( 2% ) . However , 39% of respondents could not apply some of the known vector control methods due to unaffordability ( 50 . 5% ) , side effects ( 19 . 9% ) , perceived lack of effectiveness ( 16% ) , and lack of time to apply ( 2 . 6% ) . Lack of time was the main reason ( 56 . 3% ) reported for non-application of environmental management practices , such as draining of stagnant water ( 77% ) and clearing of vegetations along water canals ( 67% ) . CONCLUSION : The study provides relevant information necessary for the management , prevention and control of malaria in irrigated agro-ecosystems , where vectors of malaria are abundant and disease transmission is stable .
Score: 1.00
Author: Dabire KR Diabate A Djogbenou L Ouari A NGuessan R Ouedraogo JB Hougard JM Chandre F Baldet T
Journal: Malar J Citation: V : 7 P : 188 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18817564
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Insecticide resistance of the main malaria vector , Anopheles gambiae , has been reported in south-western Burkina Faso , West Africa . Cross-resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was conferred by alterations at site of action in the sodium channel , the Leu-Phe kdr mutation ; resistance to organophosphates and carbamates resulted from a single point mutation in the oxyanion hole of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme designed as ace-1R . METHODS : An entomological survey was carried out during the rainy season of 2005 at Vallee du Kou , a rice growing area in south-western Burkina Faso . At the Vallee du Kou , both insecticide resistance mechanisms have been previously described in the M and S molecular forms of An . gambiae . This survey aimed i ) to update the temporal dynamics and the circumsporozoite infection rate of the two molecular forms M and S of An . gambiae ii ) to update the frequency of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation within these forms and finally iii ) to investigate the occurrence of the ace-1R mutation . Mosquitoes collected by indoor residual collection and by human landing catches were counted and morphologically identified . Species and molecular forms of An . gambiae , ace-1R and Leu-Phe kdr mutations were determined using PCR techniques . The presence of the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum was determined using ELISA . RESULTS : Anopheles gambiae populations were dominated by the M form . However the S form occurred in relative important proportion towards the end of the rainy season with a maximum peak in October at 51% . Sporozoite rates were similar in both forms . The frequency of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation in the S form reached a fixation level while it is still spreading in the M form . Furthermore , the ace-1R mutation prevailed predominately in the S form and has just started spreading in the M form . The two mutations occurred concomitantly both in M and S populations . CONCLUSION : These results showed that the Vallee du Kou , a rice growing area formerly occupied mainly by M susceptible populations , is progressively colonized by S resistant populations living in sympatry with the former . As a result , the distribution pattern of insecticide resistance mutations shows the occurrence of both resistance mechanisms concomitantly in the same populations . The impact of multiple resistance mechanisms in M and S populations of An . gambiae on vector control measures against malaria transmission , such as insecticide-treated nets ( ITNs ) and indoor residual spraying ( IRS ) , in this area is discussed .
Score: 1.00
Author: Muturi EJ Shililu JI Jacob BG Mwangangi JM Mbogo CM Githure JI Novak RJ
Journal: J Am Mosq Control Assoc Citation: V : 24 P : 349-58 Year: 2008 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18939686
Abstract: Knowledge of mosquito species diversity , occurrence , and distribution is an essential component of vector ecology and a guiding principle to formulation and implementation of integrated vector management programs . A 12-month entomological survey was conducted to determine the diversity of riceland mosquitoes and factors affecting their occurrence and distribution at 3 sites targeted for malaria vector control in Mwea , Kenya . Adult mosquitoes were sampled indoors by pyrethrum spray catch and outdoors by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps . Mosquitoes were then morphologically identified to species using taxonomic keys . The characteristics of houses sampled for indoor resting mosquitoes , including number of people sleeping in each house the night preceding collection , presence of bed nets , location of the house , size of eaves , wall type , presence of cattle and distance of the house to the cowshed , and proximity to larval habitats , were recorded . Of the 191 , 378 mosquitoes collected , 95% were identified morphologically to species and comprised 25 species from 5 genera . Common species included Anopheles arabiensis ( 53 . 5% ) , Culex quinquefasciatus ( 35 . 5% ) , An . pharoensis ( 4 . 7% ) , An . coustani ( 2 . 5% ) , and An . funestus ( 1 . 6% ) . Shannons species diversity and evenness indices did not differ significantly among the 3 study sites . There was a marked house-to-house variation in the average number of mosquitoes captured . The number of people sleeping in the house the night preceding collection , size of eaves , distance to the cowshed , and the nearest larval habitat were significant predictors of occurrence of either or both An . arabiensis and Cx . quinquefasciatus . The peak abundance of An . arabiensis coincided with land preparation and the first few weeks after transplanting of rice seedlings , and that of Cx . quinquefasciatus coincided with land preparation , late stage of rice development , and short rains . After transplanting of rice seedlings , the populations of Cx . quinquefasciatus were collected more outdoors than indoors , suggesting a shift from endophily to exophily . These results demonstrate that irrigated rice cultivation has a strong impact on mosquito species occurrence , distribution , abundance , and behavior , and that certain house characteristics increase the degree of human-vector contact .
Score: 1.00
Author: Hayasaka T Fujii H Ishiguro K
Journal: Phytopathology Citation: V : 98 P : 1038-44 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18943742
Abstract: To test the hypothesis that silicon ( Si ) confers resistance against appressorial penetration of the rice blast fungus , the proportion of appressorial penetration into the leaf epidermis to total appressoria formed was compared among rice plants amended with various rates of silica gel to those plants nonamended . The amounts of Si in the youngest leaves were consistent with the amounts of silica gel applied to the rice plants . Relative Si levels on the adaxial surface of leaves as detected by energy dispersive X-ray analysis also increased with the amounts of silica gel applied . Based on light microscopic observation of the adaxial surface of rice leaves , the proportion of appressorial penetration was reduced by increasing amounts of silica gel applied and increased with the length of period after spray inoculation . Consequently , these results strongly support the hypothesis and suggest that Si in the leaf epidermis may confer resistance against appressorial penetration . Meanwhile , the number of lesions per leaf also decreased with the amount of Si applied , while only a certain part of penetrated appressoria could become sporulating susceptible lesions . This suggests that Si also confers physiological resistance against blast infection after the penetration .
Score: 1.00
Author: Kohut SJ Roma PG Davis CM Zernig G Saria A Dominguez JM Rice KC Riley AL
Journal: Psychopharmacology ( Berl ) Citation: V : 203 P : 383-97 Year: 2009 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18953528
Abstract: RATIONALE : A number of environmental manipulations , including maternal separation ( MS ) , have been shown to alter behavioral responses to drugs of abuse . OBJECTIVES : This study assessed if MS affected the stimulus and Fos-inducing effects of cocaine . MATERIALS AND METHODS : In experiment 1 , male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to brief maternal separations ( BMS ) , long maternal separations ( LMS ) , or animal facility rearing ( AFR ) and then trained as adults to discriminate cocaine ( 10 mg/kg , intraperitoneally ) from saline . Following training , generalization tests to novel doses of cocaine and other dopaminergic compounds were performed . Assessments of variations in training dose pretreatment times were also made . In experiment 2 , male and female rats exposed to MS conditions were administered cocaine or saline for 14 days , and Fos expression in the mesolimbic system was measured . RESULTS : In males , BMS retarded the acquisition of the cocaine discrimination . Generalization to novel doses of cocaine did not differ among rearing conditions , but the training dose cue lasted longer in LMS . Distinct generalization and ED ( 50 ) profiles were found between male rearing conditions for all dopamine compounds . While BMS females had higher cocaine ED ( 50 ) estimates , no other differences were found in females . LMS males and females , as well as AFR females , had significant increases in Fos expression after cocaine in a region-specific manner . No differences were found with other rearing groups . CONCLUSION : Early environmental variables altered the stimulus effects ( in a sex-dependent manner ) as well as the neuronal responsiveness to cocaine , which may be mediated by the dopamine system .
Score: 1.00
Author: Shah P Bhavsar K Soni SK Khire JM
Journal: J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol Citation: V : 36 P : 373-80 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19082644
Abstract: Combination of physical and chemical mutagenesis was used to isolate hyper secretory strains of Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 for phytase production . Phytase activity of mutant N-1 and N-79 was about 17 and 47% higher than the parent strain . In shake flask the productivity of phytase in parent , mutant N-1 and N-79 was 6 , 181 , 7 , 619 and 9 , 523 IU/L per day , respectively . Up scaling of the fermentation from shake flask to 3 and 14 L New Brunswick fermenter was studied . After optimizing various fermentation parameters like aeration , agitation and carbon source in fermentation medium the fermentation time to achieve highest phytase activity was reduced considerably from 14 days in shake flask to 8 days in 14 L fermenter . Highest phytase activity of 80 IU/ml was obtained in 1% rice bran-3 . 5% glucose containing medium with aeration 0 . 2 vvm and agitation 550 rpm at room temperature on 8th day of fermentation . Addition of either bavistin ( 0 . 1% ) , penicillin ( 0 . 1% ) , formalin ( 0 . 2% ) and sodium chloride ( 10% ) in fermented broth were effective in retaining 100% phytase activity for 8 days at room temperature while these reagents along with methanol ( 50% ) and ethanol ( 50% ) confer 100% stability of phytase activity at 4 degrees C till 20 days . Among various carriers used for application of phytase in feed , wheat bran and rice bran were superior to silica and calcium carbonate . Thermo stabilization studies indicate 100% protection of phytase activity in presence of 12% skim milk at 70 degrees C , which will be useful for its spray drying .
Score: 1.00
Author: Matchett GA Fathali N Hasegawa Y Jadhav V Ostrowski RP Martin RD Dorotta IR Sun X Zhang JH
Journal: Brain Res Citation: V : 1259 P : 90-7 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19168038
Abstract: Hydrogen gas ( H ( 2 ) ) has been shown to ameliorate brain injury in experimental adult rat focal ischemia and in a mild neonatal hypoxia-ischemia ( HI , 90 min hypoxia ) rat model . In this study we tested H ( 2 ) in moderate ( 120 min hypoxia ) and severe ( 150 min hypoxia ) neonatal HI rat models . We hypothesized that H ( 2 ) would improve outcomes after neonatal HI by scavenging free radicals . Two hundred ( 200 ) unsexed Sprague-Dawley rats at day 10 of life ( p10 ) underwent neonatal HI with the Rice-Vannucci model . Multiple treatment protocols were studied , including pre-ischemic treatment , intra-ischemic treatment , and post-ischemic treatment ( Sham n=32 , HI n=82 , HI+H ( 2 ) n=86 ) . We also tested H ( 2 ) in middle cerebral artery occlusion ( MCAO ) in adult rats ( MCAO n=9 , MCAO+H ( 2 ) n=7 ) for comparison . Analysis at 24 h included infarction volume , measurement of brain concentration of malondialdehyde ( MDA ) ( an end-product of lipid peroxidation ) , daily weight , Nissl histology , and mortality . In moderate and severe neonatal HI models , hydrogen gas therapy ( 2 . 9% concentration H ( 2 ) ) was not associated with decreased volume of infarction or decreased concentration of MDA . H ( 2 ) gas pretreatment ( 2 . 9% ) was associated with increased infarction volume in neonatal HI . In MCAO in adult rats , H ( 2 ) gas therapy demonstrated a trend of beneficial effect . Exposure of H ( 2 ) gas to non-ischemic neonates resulted in a significant increase in brain concentration of MDA . We conclude that 2 . 9% H ( 2 ) gas therapy does not ameliorate moderate to severe ischemic damage in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia .
Score: 1.00
Author: Apinunjarupong S Lapnirun S Theerakulkait C
Journal: Prep Biochem Biotechnol Citation: V : 39 P : 183-93 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19291580
Abstract: Rice bran protein was extracted by using defatted rice bran and water at 1 : 6 ( w/w ) and 6% of bromelain at pH 9 . 0 , 50 degrees C , 500 rpm for 15 and 30 mins . The degree of hydrolysis ( DH ) of rice bran protein extract ( RBPE ) was 19 and 36 . 5% , respectively , and their nitrogen solubility was higher than the controls . Rice bran protein concentrate ( RBPC ) was prepared by spray drying . Emulsion activity of RBPC produced from 19% DH RBPE was increased while emulsion stability index was not significantly different from the control . Foam capacity and rehydration ability of RBPC were greater than the control .
Score: 1.00
Author: Coosemans M
Journal: Bull . Mem . Acad . R Med . Belg . Citation: V : 146 ( 1-2 ) P : 157-65 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1933066
Abstract: Epidemiological studies undertaken in an area of low altitude in Burundi , revealed microgeographic variations of malaria endemicity , naturally unstable in the area . However transmission is relatively high near rice fields . The transmission increases at the end of the rainy season , period of natural decrease of the vector population combined with an increase of their longevity . Indoor spraying with short acting insecticides during that period of the year , reduced considerably the transmission and high parasitaemia in children , without changing the susceptibility of the vector to the insecticide .
Score: 1.00
Author: Atieli H Menya D Githeko A Scott T
Journal: Malar J Citation: V : 8 P : 108 Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19454025
Abstract: ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND : Simple modifications of typical rural house design can be an effective and relatively inexpensive method of reducing indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decreasing malaria transmission . Public health scientists have shown the potential for house design to protect people against malaria , yet this type of intervention remains virtually ignored . A randomized-controlled study was , therefore , undertaken to determine the effects of this method of vector control on the density of indoor resting malaria vectors in a rice irrigation scheme area in lowlands of western Kenya . METHODS : Ten treatment houses were modified with ceilings of papyrus mats and insecticide-treated netting ( ITN ) and tested against ten control houses without papyrus ceilings . To determine densities of mosquitoes resting in homes , the pyrethrum spray method was used to simultaneously collect indoor resting malaria vectors in intervention and control houses . Each house was sampled a total of eight times over a period of four months , resulting in a total of 80 sampling efforts for each treatment . Community response to such intervention was investigated by discussions with residents . RESULTS : Papyrus mats ceiling modification reduced house entry by Anopheles gambiae s . l and Anopheles funestus densities by between 78-80% and 86% respectively compared to unmodified houses . Geometric mean density of Anopheles gambiae s . l . and Anopheles funestus in modified houses were significantly lower ( t18 = 7 . 174 , P < 0 . 0001 and t18 = 2 . 52 , P = 0 . 02 , respectively ) compared to controls . Unmodified houses were associated with relatively higher densities of malaria vectors . There was a 84% ( OR 0 . 16 , 95% CI 0 . 07-0 . 39 , P < 0 . 0001 ) and 87% ( OR 0 . 13 , 95% CI 0 . 03-0 . 5 , P = 0 . 0004 ) reduction in the odds of Anopheles gambiae s . l . and Anopheles funestus presence in modified houses , respectively , compared with unmodified houses . Residents responded favourably to this mode of vector control . CONCLUSION : House modifications involving insect screen ceilings made from locally available materials and small ITN incorporated in house construction have the potential to reduce human exposure to malaria vectors , and thus parasite infection , in a rice irrigation scheme area of western Kenya . Ceiling modification is likely to be acceptable and is expected to be of greatest benefit when used in combination with other malaria control strategies .
Score: 1.00
Author: Kerah-Hinzoumbe C Mallaye P Antonio-Nkondjio C Donan-Gouni I Awono-Ambene P Same-Ekobo A Simard F
Journal: BMC Infect Dis Citation: V : 9 P : 71 Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19463189
Abstract: ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND : Knowledge of some baseline entomological data such as Entomological Inoculation Rates ( EIR ) is crucially needed to assess the epidemiological impact of malaria control activities directed either against parasites or vectors . In Chad , most published surveys date back to the 1960s . In this study , anopheline species composition and their relation to malaria transmission were investigated in a dry Sudanian savannas area of Chad . METHODS : A 12-month longitudinal survey was conducted in the irrigated rice-fields area of Goulmoun in south western Chad . Human landing catches were performed each month from July 2006 to June 2007 in three compounds ( indoors and outdoors ) and pyrethrum spray collections were conducted in July , August and October 2006 in 10 randomly selected rooms . Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and to the An . funestus group were identified by molecular diagnostic tools . Plasmodium falciparum infection and blood meal sources were detected by ELISA . RESULTS : Nine anopheline species were collected by the two sampling methods . The most aggressive species were An . arabiensis ( 51 bites/human/night ) , An . pharoensis ( 12 . 5 b/h/n ) , An . funestus ( 1 . 5 b/h/n ) and An . ziemanni ( 1 . 3 b/h/n ) . The circumsporozoite protein rate was 1 . 4% for An . arabiensis , 1 . 4% for An . funestus , 0 . 8% for An . pharoensis and 0 . 5% for An . ziemanni . Malaria transmission is seasonal , lasting from April to December . However , more than 80% of the total EIR was concentrated in the period from August to October . The overall annual EIR was estimated at 311 bites of infected anophelines/human/year , contributed mostly by An . arabiensis ( 84 . 5% ) and An . pharoensis ( 12 . 2% ) . Anopheles funestus and An . ziemanni played a minor role . Parasite inoculation occurred mostly after 22 : 00 hours but around 20% of bites of infected anophelines were distributed earlier in the evening . CONCLUSIONS : The present study revealed the implication of An . pharoensis in malaria transmission in the irrigated rice fields of Goulmoun , complementing the major role played by An . arabiensis . The transmission period did not depend upon irrigation . Correct use of insecticide treated nets in this area may be effective for vector control although additional protective measures are needed to prevent pre-bedtime exposure to the bites of infected anophelines .
Score: 1.00
Author: Norazalina S Norhaizan ME Hairuszah I Norashareena MS
Journal: Exp Toxicol Pathol Citation: V : 62 P : 259-68 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19464858
Abstract: This study is carried out to determine the potential of phytic acid extracted from rice bran in the suppression of colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane ( AOM ) in rats . Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups with 12 rats in each group . The intended rats for cancer treatment received two intraperitoneal injections of AOM in saline ( 15mg/kg bodyweight ) over a 2-week period . The treatments of phytic acid were given in two concentrations : 0 . 2% ( w/v ) and 0 . 5% ( w/v ) during the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis phase via drinking water . The colons of the animals were analyzed for detection and quantification of aberrant crypt foci ( ACF ) after 8 weeks of treatment . The finding showed treatment with 0 . 2% ( w/v ) extract phytic acid ( EPA ) gave the greatest reduction in the formation of ACF . In addition , phytic acid significantly suppressed the number of ACF in the distal , middle and proximal colon as compared to AOM alone ( p<0 . 05 ) . For the histological classification of ACF , treatment with 0 . 5% ( w/v ) commercial phytic acid ( CPA ) had the highest percentage ( 71% ) of non-dysplastic ACF followed by treatment with 0 . 2% ( w/v ) EPA ( 61% ) . Administration of phytic acid also reduced the incidence and multiplicity of total tumors even though there were no significant differences between groups . In conclusion , this study found the potential value of phytic acid extracted from rice bran in reducing colon cancer risk in rats .
Score: 1.00
Author: Campbell A
Journal: Regul Toxicol Pharmacol Citation: V : P : Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19545510
Abstract: Molinate has been widely used as a pre emergent herbicide in the rice fields of Californias Central Valley . In rat studies , the metabolite molinate sulfoxide is suspected of causing testicular toxicity after exposure to molinate . The sulfoxide is generated in the liver and can circulate in the blood , eventually reaching the testis . Man qualitatively produces the same molinate metabolites as the rat . To extrapolate the reproductive risk to man , the present study outlines the development of a preliminary PBPK ( Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic ) model , validation in the rat and extrapolation to man . The preliminary seven-compartment PBPK model for molinate was constructed for the adult , male Sprague-Dawley rat that employed both flow-limited ( blood , kidney , liver , rapid-perfused it issues and slowly perfused it issues ) and diffusion-limited ( fat ) rate equations . The systemic circulation connects the various compartments . The simulations predict the molinate blood concentrations of the rat blood and testes compartment favorably with the profiles obtained from 10 and 100 mg/kg po or 1 . 5 and 15 mg/kg iv doses . Human physiological parameters were substituted into the oral dosed model and the simulations closely predicted the molinate blood concentration obtained from 5 . 06 mg oral dose . A sensitivity analysis determined for an oral dose that peak blood molinate concentrations were most responsive to the blood flows to kidney and fat compartments while testicular molinate sulfoxide concentrations depended on molinate sulfoxide partition coefficients for the testes compartment and the Km for glutathione conjugation of molinate sulfoxide in the liver compartment .
Score: 1.00
Author: Todoroki Y Kobayashi K Shirakura M Aoyama H Takatori K Nimitkeatkai H Jin MH Hiramatsu S Ueno K Kondo S Mizutani M Hirai N
Journal: Bioorg Med Chem Citation: V : 17 P : 6620-30 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19699646
Abstract: To develop a specific inhibitor of abscisic acid ( ABA ) 8-hydroxylase , a key enzyme in the catabolism of ABA , a plant hormone involved in stress tolerance , seed dormancy , and other various physiological events , we designed and synthesized conformationally restricted analogues of uniconazole ( UNI ) , a well-known plant growth retardant , which inhibits a biosynthetic enzyme ( ent-kaurene oxidase ) of gibberellin as well as ABA 8-hydroxylase . Although most of these analogues were less effective than UNI in inhibition of ABA 8-hydroxylase and rice seedling growth , we found that a lactol-bridged analogue with an imidazole is a potent inhibitor of ABA 8-hydroxylase but not of plant growth . This compound , abscinazole-F1 , induced drought tolerance in apple seedlings upon spray treatment with a 10 microM solution .
Score: 1.00
Author: Ge LQ Hu JH Wu JC Yang GQ Gu H
Journal: J Econ Entomol Citation: V : 102 P : 1506-14 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19736763
Abstract: The widespread use of insecticides is known to cause resurgence in Nilaparvata lugens ( Stal ) ( Hemiptera : Delphacidae ) populations , a serious insect pest of rice , Orzya sativa L , crops in Asia . The current study investigated insecticide-induced changes in protein , RNA , and DNA levels in the ovary and fat body of adult female N lugens . Potted rice plants were sprayed with different concentrations of imidacloprid , triazophos , and detamethrin . The results showed that all three insecticides caused a significant increase in protein and RNA contents in the ovary and fat body of adult females developed from nymphs fed on treated plants compared with those from on untreated plants , although there was no significant effect on DNA content . In general , protein and RNA contents in both ovary and fat body increased linearly with insecticide concentrations or days after emergence ( DAEs ) when they were applied . There was a significant correlation between protein content and RNA content in both ovary and fat body . In addition , the relationship between ratios of RNA to protein in ovary and fat body of adult female N lugens and insecticide concentrations showed a significant positive correlation for most DAEs of imidacloprid and several DAEs of triazophos and deltamethrin treatments . These findings suggest that RNA in both ovary and fat body was more sensitive to insecticides and that the insecticide-induced changes in RNA content in turn influence protein synthesis in ovary and fat body . Consistently , RNA-to-protein ratios in ovary and fat body were approximately 0 . 42 in all treatments and controls .
Score: 1.00
Author: Wang XL Yang YJ Xie M Yu XH Wang QH
Journal: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi Citation: V : 11 P : 749-52 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19755026
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To explore the effects of hyperbaric oxygen ( HBO ) treatment on the migration and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells ( NSCs ) in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) . METHODS : Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal control ( CON ) , the HIBD model and the HBO groups ( HBO treatment was administered at 2 ATA , once daily for 7 days within 3 hrs after HIBD ) . HIBD model was prepared according to the classic Rice-Vannucci method . BrdU/DCX , BrdU/beta-tubulin , BrdU/GFAP and BrdU/O4 immunofluorescence were examined by confocal microscopy in the subventricular zone ( SVZ ) and the cortex 7 , 14 and 28 days after HBO treatment . RESULTS : The BrdU ( + ) DCX ( + ) cells in the SVZ ( 84 +/- 21 cells/mm2 ) in the HBO group were significantly higher than those in the CON group ( 39 +/- 14 cells/mm2 ) ( p<0 . 05 ) and the HIBD model group ( 68 +/- 17 cells/mm2 ) ( p<0 . 05 ) 7 days after HBO treatment . Fourteen days after HBO treatment , the BrdU ( + ) DCX ( + ) cells decreased in the SVZ and more cells were observed in the cortex in the HBO group as compared with the CON group ( p<0 . 01 ) . The BrdU ( + ) beta-tubulin ( + ) , BrdU ( + ) GFAP ( + ) and BrdU ( + ) O4 ( + ) cells were observed in the cortex , and more BrdU ( + ) beta-tubulin ( + ) and BrdU ( + ) O4 ( + ) cells were observed in the HBO group as compared with the CON and the HIBD model groups ( p<0 . 05 ) 28 days after HBO treatment . CONCLUSIONS : HBO treatment may promote endogenous NSCs to migrate to the cortex and differentiate into mature neurocytes in neonatal rats with HIBD .
Score: 1.00
Author: Liu XH Lu JP Dong B Gu Y Lin FC
Journal: Microbiol Res Citation: V : 165 P : 402-10 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19837571
Abstract: Ca ( 2+ ) is a second messenger in pathways that transduce external signals and activate cellular processes in plants and animals . Ca ( 2+ ) -mediated signal transduction is involved in key pathways that contribute to a variety of fundamental physiological processes in eukaryotic cells . However , little is known about the molecular mechanisms of Ca ( 2+ ) -mediated signal transduction in filamentous fungi . In this study , the MoCMK1 gene , encoding a putative Ca ( 2+ ) /calmodulin-dependent kinase , was identified in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae . Three MoCMK1 deletion mutants were obtained by a targeted gene replacement . Colonies of the MoCMK1 mutants had sparse aerial hyphae and fewer conidia than the wild-type strain on complete medium . Conidial germination and appressorial formation were delayed in the DeltaMocmk1 mutants . In spray inoculation tests , DeltaMocmk1 mutants exhibited a weakened ability to infect the susceptible rice cultivar CO-39 , compared to the wild-type strain Guy11 . These results showed that MoCMK1 plays key roles in the pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus .
Score: 1.00
Author: Rice RD Ayubi FS Shaub ZJ Parker DM Armstrong PJ Tsai JW
Journal: Aesthetic Plast Surg Citation: V : P : Year: 2009 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19967358
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Surgisis ( ( R ) ) and AlloDerm ( ( R ) ) , two biosynthetic materials , have been previously used with success in abdominal wall repairs in the setting of contaminated fields . Historically , Vicryl Woven Mesh ( ( R ) ) , a synthetic material , has also been used in such settings as a temporary bridge for abdominal wall reconstruction . This study compares Surgisis and AlloDerm with Vicryl Woven Mesh with respect to tensile strength , collagen remodeling , and neovascularization using a rat hernia model . METHODS : A prospective randomized trial of 54 Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to the Surgisis , AlloDerm , or Vicryl Woven Mesh group with baseline , 30-day , and 60-day end points . A 1 . 5-cm x 5 . 0-cm defect was created in the right abdominis rectus muscle and repaired with an underlay bridge graft using the different treatment materials . Tensile strength was measured using an Instron tensiometer . Histologic specimens were evaluated for neovascularization , collagen deposition , and collagen organization at the 30 and 60-day time points . RESULTS : Surgisis had significantly greater tensile strength compared to Vicryl Woven Mesh at the baseline time point ( 0 . 142 vs 0 . 091 MPa , p < 0 . 05 ) . There were no differences between groups tensile strength at 30 or 60 days postoperatively . The Vicryl Woven Mesh and AlloDerm groups showed increases in tensile strength at 30 days postoperatively versus baseline ( p < 0 . 05 ) . Vicryl Woven Mesh , Surgisis , and AlloDerm all showed increases in tensile strength at 60 days postoperatively compared to 30 days postoperatively and at baseline ( p < 0 . 05 ) . Surgisis and AlloDerm had significantly greater ( p < 0 . 05 ) amounts of collagen deposition and organization at 30 and 60 days compared to Vicryl Woven Mesh . There was no significant difference between AlloDerm and Surgisis with respect to collagen deposition and organization . Surgisis and AlloDerm showed a significantly greater amount ( p < 0 . 05 ) of neovascularization than Vicryl Woven Mesh at both time points . In addition , Surgisis had a significantly greater amount ( p < 0 . 05 ) of neovascularization than AlloDerm at both 30 and 60 days . CONCLUSION : Surgisis has increased baseline tensile strength compared to Vicryl Woven Mesh . Tensile strength in Vicryl Woven Mesh is equal to biosynthetic grafts after it issue incorporation . Biosynthetic grafts showed superior collagen deposition and organization . Surgisis mesh showed increased neovascularization over both AlloDerm and Vicryl Woven Mesh .
Score: 1.00
Author: Lee HS Song J Kim TM Joo SS Park D Jeon JH Shin S Park HK Lee WK Ly SY Kim MR Lee do I Kim YB
Journal: J Med Food Citation: V : 12 P : 1359-67 Year: 2009 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20041794
Abstract: The effects of a preparation of combined glutathione-enriched yeast ( GEY ) and rice embryo/soybean ( RES ) extracts ( 20 : 1 ) , GEY/RES , on experimentally induced ethanol hangover were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats . To evaluate the preventive effects on hangover , rats were orally administered GEY/RES ( 50/2 . 5 , 100/5 , or 200/10 mg/kg ) for 2 weeks . At 30 minutes after the final treatment , they were challenged with 3 mL/kg ethanol ( 15 mL of 20% in water/kg ) . The blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde were analyzed up to 7 hours postchallenge . Hepatic mRNA expression levels of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes , alcohol dehydrogenase ( ADH ) , cytochrome P450 type 2E1 ( CYP2E1 ) , and aldehyde dehydrogenase ( ALDH ) , were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction . Additional rats were challenged with ethanol and , 60 minutes later , administered GEY/RES to evaluate alcohol clearance . Pretreatment with GEY/RES for 2 weeks reduced the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde in a dose-dependent manner , lowering by 29 . 5% and 54 . 6% at the highest dose ( 200/10 mg/kg ) , respectively . The expressions of mRNAs for ADH and ALDH , the major alcohol-metabolizing enzymes , were markedly increased in the livers of rats administered GEY/RES for 2 weeks , whereas CYP2E1 mRNA was suppressed . Postchallenge treatment with GEY/RES enhanced the alcohol clearance rate by lowering blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde by 24% and 26 . 6% , respectively , for the highest dose group . GEY/RES remarkably eliminated 2 , 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical and FeCl ( 3 ) -mediated lipid peroxidation in vitro and attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation following ethanol administration in vivo . Therefore , it is suggested that GEY/RES reduces the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde not only by modulating alcohol-metabolizing enzymes , but also by exerting its antioxidant activity , and that GEY/RES could be a promising candidate for improvements of alcoholic hangover .
Score: 1.00
Author: Dambach P Sie A Lacaux JP Vignolles C Machault V Sauerborn R
Journal: Glob Health Action Citation: V : 2 P : Year: 2009 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20052428
Abstract: INTRODUCTION : Malaria control measures such as early diagnosis and treatment , intermittent treatment of pregnant women , impregnated bed nets , indoor spraying and larval control measures are difficult to target specifically because of imprecise estimates of risk at a small-scale level . Ways of estimating local risks for malaria are therefore important . METHODS : A high-resolution satellite view from the SPOT 5 satellite during 2008 was used to generate a land cover classification in the malaria endemic lowland of North-Western Burkina Faso . For the area of a complete satellite view of 60 x 60 km , a supervised land cover classification was carried out . Ten classes were built and correlated to land cover types known for acting as Anopheles mosquito breeding sites . RESULTS : According to known correlations of Anopheles larvae presence and surface water-related land cover , cultivated areas in the riverine vicinity of Kossi River were shown to be one of the most favourable sites for Anopheles production . Similar conditions prevail in the South of the study region , where clayey soils and higher precipitations benefit the occurrence of surface water . Besides pools , which are often directly detectable , rice fields and occasionally flooded crops represent most appropriate habitats . On the other hand , forests , elevated regions on porous soils , grasslands and the dryer , sandy soils in the north-western part turned out to deliver fewer mosquito breeding opportunities . CONCLUSIONS : Potential high and low risks for malaria at the village level can be differentiated from satellite data . While much remains to be done in terms of establishing correlations between remotely sensed risks and malaria disease patterns , this is a potentially useful approach which could lead to more focused disease control programmes .
Score: 1.00
Author: Liu W Gibbons RV Kari K Clemens JD Nisalak A Marks F Xu ZY
Journal: Epidemiol Infect Citation: V : 138 P : 1292-7 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20109262
Abstract: Japanese encephalitis ( JE ) has been found to be endemic in Bali , Indonesia . A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with JE infection . All 94 serologically confirmed JE cases ( cases ) and 163 cases of encephalitis or aseptic meningitis without JE ( controls ) identified in Bali during 2001-2004 were included in the study . Potential risk factors were surveyed at hospital admission . Univariate analyses revealed the following factors to be associated with JE : older age , referral from sub-district health centre or private hospital , playing outdoors after dinner , use of mosquito repellent or spraying , proximity of the residence to rice fields , and pig ownership by the family or next-door neighbours . Multivariate analysis identified proximity to rice fields ( OR 2 . 93 , 95% CI 1 . 57-5 . 45 ) , pig ownership ( OR 2 . 24 , 95% CI 1 . 17-4 . 26 ) , and older age ( OR 1 . 21 , 95% CI 1 . 09-1 . 33 ) as being independently associated with the risk of JE . Because rice cultivation and pig rearing are essential to the economy of Bali , JE immunization is the best intervention for prevention of JE in Bali .
Score: 1.00
Author: Laovachirasuwan P Peerapattana J Srijesdaruk V Chitropas P Otsuka M
Journal: Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces Citation: V : 78 P : 30-5 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20307959
Abstract: Glutinous rice starch ( GRS ) is a biopolymer used widely in the food industry but not at all in the pharmaceutical industry . There are several ways to modify this biopolymer . Physical modification is simple and cheap because it requires no chemicals or biological agents . The aim of this study was to characterize the physicochemical properties of a spray dried glutinous rice starch ( SGRS ) produced from pregelatinized GRS . The surface morphology changed from an irregular to concave spherical shape as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy ( SEM ) . SGRS was almost amorphous as determined by X-ray Diffraction ( XRD ) spectroscopy . The water molecules became linked through hydrogen bonds to the exposed hydroxyl group of amorphous SGRS as determined by Near Infrared ( NIR ) spectroscopy . Then , SGRS formed a colloid gel matrix with water and developed a highly viscous gelatinous form as determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry ( DSC ) and a stress control type rheometer . In addition , SGRS can swell and produce a gelatinous surface barrier like a hydrophilic matrix biopolymer which controls drug release . Therefore , a novel application of SGRS is as a sustained release modifier for direct compression tablets in the pharmaceutical industry .
Score: 1.00
Author: Latifah SY Armania N Tze TH Azhar Y Nordiana AH Norazalina S Hairuszah I Saidi M Maznah I
Journal: Nutr J Citation: V : 9 P : 16 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20346115
Abstract: Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to the failure of current therapeutic modalities . Epidemiological and preclinical studies have demonstrated that nutrition plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer . This study was conducted to determine the chemopreventive effects of germinated brown rice ( GBR ) in rats induced with colon cancer . GBR is brown rice that has been claimed to be richer in nutrients compared to the common white rice . The male Sprague Dawley rats ( 6 weeks of age ) were randomly divided into 5 groups : ( G1 ) positive control ( with colon cancer , unfed with GBR ) , ( G2 ) fed with 2 . 5 g/kg of GBR ( GBR ( g ) /weight of rat ( kg ) ) , ( G3 ) fed with 5 g/kg of GBR , ( G4 ) fed with 10 g/kg of GBR and ( G5 ) negative control ( without colon cancer , unfed with GBR ) . GBR was administered orally once daily via gavage after injection of 15 mg/kg of body weight of azoxymethane ( AOM ) once a week for two weeks , intraperitonially . After 8 weeks of treatment , animals were sacrificed and colons were removed . Colonic aberrant crypt foci ( ACF ) were evaluated histopathologically . Total number of ACF and AC , and multicrypt of ACF , and the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2 reduced significantly ( p < 0 . 05 ) in all the groups treated with GBR ( G2 , G3 and G4 ) compared to the control group ( G1 ) . Spearman rank correlation test showed significant positive linear relationship between total beta-catenin and COX-2 score ( Spearmans rho = 0 . 616 , p = 0 . 0001 ) . It is demonstrated that GBR inhibits the development of total number of ACF and AC , and multicrypt of ACF , reduces the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2 , and thus can be a promising dietary supplement in prevention of colon cancer .
Score: 1.00
Author: Ding Z Wang X Zhai C Jin X Zhang Q Guo Y
Journal: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu Citation: V : 39 P : 29-31 , 35 Year: 2010 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20364582
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To explore the effect of compound coarse grain food on insulin resistance ( IR ) in rats . METHODS : Forty Sprague-Dawlay rats were randomly divided into normal control group ( n=10 ) and model group ( n=30 ) , provided regular diet and high fat diet separately . After 6 weeks , the model group were divided into high fat diet group , rice flour group and coarse grain group , and provided the corresponding feed . After feeding 9 weeks , the fasting blood glucose , insulin and the expression of PPAR-gamma mRNA in rats were measured . RESULTS : IR was successfully induced by 6-weeks high fat diet . The body weight and insulin resistance index ( HOMA-IR ) in coarse grain group were significantly lower than high fat diet group and rice flour group . The expression of PPAR-gamma mRNA in coarse grain group was significantly higher than other three groups ( P < 0 . 05 ) . CONCLUSION : The coarse grain food can reduce the concentration of blood glucose and insulin in rat with insulin resistance induced by high-fat dietary , and improve insulin sensitivity . The possible mechanism is the over-expression of PPAR-gamma .
Score: 1.00
Author: Lin C Nie P Lu W Zhang Q Li J Shen Z
Journal: Protein Expr Purif Citation: V : 74 P : 60-4 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20433928
Abstract: Human lactoferrin ( hLF ) is a multifunctional milk protein which could be utilized for promoting human health . Transgenic rice has been used as a bioreactor for mass production of recombinant hLF . However , one major concern over such transgenic rice is the risk of its unintended spreading into environment and into our food supplies . Here we report the development of selectively terminable transgenic rice expressing human lactoferrin in seeds . These transgenic rice plants could be selectively terminated by bentazon , a common herbicide used for rice weed control . The hLF expression cassette was constructed into a T-DNA containing the RNA interference cassette suppressing the expression of the rice gene CYP81A6 which detoxifies herbicide bentazon , and the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase ( EPSPS ) cassette which confers to glyphosate tolerance . A transgenic line , named as G281 , was identified for its high sensitivity to bentazon , high tolerance to glyphosate , and high expression of hLF . Southern analysis suggested G281 is a single copy insertion event . Field tests demonstrated that G281 plants can be completely killed by a single spray of bentazon at 1000 mg/L , which is safe to regular rice and represents only half of the dose recommended by manufacturer for rice field weed control . Therefore , any G281 contaminations in regular rice could be selectively terminated to make sure it will not enter food or feed supplies .
Score: 1.00
Author: Lee SH Chung IM Cha YS Park Y
Journal: Nutr Res Citation: V : 30 P : 290-6 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20534332
Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that whole grain consumption would have beneficial effects on lipid profiles , antioxidant status , and the inflammation state of hyperlipidemic rats compared to those resulting from a white rice ( WR ) diet . Forty-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats ( n = 24 ) were fed a high-fat diet ( 188 . 3 kJ% energy as fat ) for 8 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia and were then randomly divided into 4 groups ( n = 6 each ) that were fed diets containing WR ( control ) , sorghum , foxtail millet ( FM ) , or proso millet for the next 5 weeks . Blood lipid profiles , hepatic antioxidant parameters , and inflammation-related measurements were determined in all of the groups . The concentrations of serum triglycerides were significantly lower in the FM and proso millet groups compared to those of the WR and sorghum groups . The concentrations of serum total , high-density lipoprotein ( HDL ) , and low-density lipoprotein ( LDL ) -cholesterol were significantly higher in the sorghum group than in the WR , FM , and proso millet groups . Hepatic catalase , superoxide dismutase , and glutathione activities , as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels were not significantly different between the groups . Levels of C-reactive protein were significantly lower in the FM group than in the WR , sorghum , and proso millet groups . Inhibitor kappaB-alpha was expressed in the liver cytosolic fraction , and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB ( p65 ) into the liver nucleus was blocked in all groups . In conclusion , FM and proso millet may prevent cardiovascular disease by reducing plasma triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats ; in contrast , sorghum increases total cholesterol , HDL-cholesterol , and LDL-cholesterol concentrations .
Score: 1.00
Author: Deng Y He Y Zhan T Huang Q
Journal: Carbohydr Res Citation: V : 345 P : 1872-6 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20619399
Abstract: Twelve novel 2-hydroxylfurylchalcones have been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation with galactosylisomaltol , a reagent prepared from lactose . The procedures are environmentally benign and economical All the compounds are identified by IR , ( 1 ) H NMR and ( 13 ) C NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry . Preliminary bioassays indicate that all the title compounds show moderately high herbicidal activities against the height and/or the fresh weight of the seedlings of cucumber , rape , amaranth , wheat , sorghum and Chinese sprangletop at 7 . 5g of active ingredient per hm ( 2 ) . However , the compounds exhibit weak fungicidal activities against cucumber powdery mildew , and no activities against rice blast , cucumber grey mould and cucumber downy mildew . The structure-activity relationships are discussed . The present work demonstrates that 2-hydroxylfurylchalcones could be used as potential lead compounds for further study of novel herbicides .
Score: 1.00
Author: Ronis MJ Badeaux J Chen Y Badger TM
Journal: Exp Biol Med ( Maywood ) Citation: V : 235 P : 1102-13 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20667909
Abstract: In order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying effects of feeding rice protein on lipid and glucose homeostasis , weanling rats were fed AIN-93G diets made with casein or rice protein isolate ( RPI ) for 14 d . Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ( PPAR ) alpha genes and proteins involved in fatty acid degradation were upregulated by feeding RPI ( P < 0 . 05 ) , accompanied by increased promoter binding and nuclear expression of PPARalpha and its heterodimerization partner retinoid X receptor ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Effects of RPI feeding on hepatic PPARgamma signaling were significant but less robust Feeding RPI also increased hepatic genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and transport . However , feeding RPI had no effect on binding of liver X-receptor ( LXR ) alpha to the cytochrome P450 ( CYP ) 7A1 promoter . The effect of RPI feeding on PPARalpha signaling appeared to be direct and was reversed when RPI diets were switched to casein . In another experiment , male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed casein diets from postnatal day ( PND ) 24 to PND64 or were fed high fat Western diets containing 0 . 5% cholesterol made with either casein or RPI . Increased liver triglyceride content , hypercholesterolemia and insulin resistance in the Western diet-fed rats were partially prevented by feeding RPI ( P < 0 . 05 ) . mRNA and protein expression of hepatic enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis were suppressed by feeding Western diets containing RPI ( P < 0 . 05 ) , despite a lack of effects on nuclear concentrations of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c . These data suggest that attenuation of metabolic syndrome observed in RPI-fed rats after consumption of diets high in fat and cholesterol occur as a result of improved lipid and glucose homeostasis partly as a result of activation of PPARs .
Score: 1.00
Author: Komiyama Y Andoh A Fujiwara D Ohmae H Araki Y Fujiyama Y Mitsuyama K Kanauchi O
Journal: Scand J Gastroenterol Citation: V : 46 P : 40-52 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20735154
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Enzyme-treated rice fiber ( ERF ) is a recently developed prebiotic product made from rice bran by heat-resistant amylase , protease and hemicellulase treatment . Although the detailed mechanism of inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD ) is still unclear , the role of the resident luminal bacteria and its interaction on the mucosal barrier seem to be an important factor in the development of IBD and its chronicity . With the objective of manipulating the intestinal microbiota in IBD , this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ERF on IBD with using experimental colitis models . METHODS : Three colitis models were used and they were induced by the oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate in male Sprague-Dawley rats or BALB/c mice and transferring CD4+ CD45RB ( high ) T cells to female SCID mice , sequentially their CD4+ T cells were retransferred to new SCID mice . The evaluation included the measurement of body weight , spleen weight , colon length , histological examination , serum and mucosal cytokine ( tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-alpha ) , an interferon-gamma ( IFN-gamma ) , interleukin-12 p70 ( IL-12p70 ) , IL-1beta , IL-6 , IL-4 ) analysis , mucosal serotonin ( 5HT ) , and organic acid production and a microbiota analysis of the cecal contents . The characteristics of T cell surface markers including CD4 , CD69 , CD45RB of spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes ( MLN ) were also analyzed . In addition , the effects of ERF on the change in the induction of dendritic cells ( DCs ) were evaluated . RESULTS : The preventive effect of ERF on colitis was significantly superior to that of raw material rice bran or control group . An overexpression of inflammatory cytokine production was attenuated by ERF treatment , which was accompanied with a decrease in both the colonic mucosal damage and 5HT production . Furthermore , ERF significantly attenuated the T cell activation ( CD4+CD69+ ) of spleen and MLN , and this characteristic was inherited by the retransferred mice . ERF significantly suppressed the growth of Clostiridium , and increased short-chain fatty acids ( acetate , propionate and butyrate ) content in colitis . The relatively hydrophilic fraction of ERF ( ethanol-methanol soluble fraction ) is therefore considered to have a potent ability to attenuate the induction of DCs . CONCLUSION : A new prebiotic , ERF , reduced inflammation by modulating the colonic environment and regulating immune cell differentiation . Although a more detailed study is required , this study showed the promising anti-inflammatory effects of an adjunctive prebiotic treatment for IBD .
Score: 1.00
Author: Oxborough RM Kitau J Matowo J Mndeme R Feston E Boko P Odjo A Metonnou CG Irish S Nguessan R Mosha FW Rowland MW
Journal: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg Citation: V : 104 P : 639-45 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20850003
Abstract: Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide with a unique non-neurological mode of action . Laboratory bioassays of chlorfenapyr comparing the mortality of pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant Anopheles gambiae s . s . and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes indicated that operational cross-resistance is unlikely to occur ( resistance ratio ranged between 0 and 2 . 1 ) . Three trials of chlorfenapyr indoor residual spraying were undertaken in experimental huts in an area of rice irrigation in northern Tanzania that supports breeding of A arabiensis . Daily mosquito collections were undertaken to assess product performance primarily in terms of mortality . In the second trial , 250mg/m ( 2 ) and 500mg/m ( 2 ) chlorfenapyr were tested for residual efficacy over 6 months . Both dosages killed 54% of C quinquefasciatus , whilst for A arabiensis 250mg/m ( 2 ) killed 48% compared with 41% for 500mg/m ( 2 ) ; mortality was as high at the end of the trial as at the beginning . In the third trial , 250mg/m ( 2 ) chlorfenapyr was compared with the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin dosed at 30mg/m ( 2 ) . Chlorfenapyr performance was equivalent to the pyrethroid against A arabiensis , with both insecticides killing 50% of mosquitoes . Chlorfenapyr killed a significantly higher proportion of pyrethroid-resistant C quinquefasciatus ( 56% ) compared with alpha-cypermethrin ( 17% ) . Chlorfenapyr has the potential to be an important addition to the limited arsenal of public health insecticides for indoor residual control of A arabiensis and pyrethroid-resistant species of mosquito .
Score: 1.00
Author: Muller GC Beier JC Traore SF Toure MB Traore MM Bah S Doumbia S Schlein Y
Journal: Malar J Citation: V : 9 P : 262 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20854666
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Based on recent studies in Israel demonstrating that attractive toxic sugar bait ( ATSB ) methods can be used to decimate local anopheline and culicine mosquito populations , an important consideration is whether the same methods can be adapted and improved to attract and kill malaria vectors in Africa . The ATSB approach uses fruit or flower scent as an attractant , sugar solution as a feeding stimulant , and an oral toxin . The ATSB solutions are either sprayed on vegetation or suspended in simple bait stations , and the mosquitoes ingesting the toxic solutions are killed . As such , this approach targets sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes . This study examines the attractiveness of African malaria vectors to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants , key biological elements of the ATSB approach for mosquito control . METHODS : Three field experiments were conducted at sites in Mali . The attraction of Anopheles gambiae s . l . to 26 different local fruits and seedpods was determined at a site in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali . Wire mesh glue traps with fruits/seedpods suspended on skewers inside were set along a seasonal lagoon . Seven replicates of each fruit/seedpod species were tested , with a water-soaked sponge and a sugar-soaked sponge as controls . The attraction of An . gambiae s . l . to 26 different types of flowering plants was determined at a site near Mopti in Mali . The flowering plants held in a water-filled buried container were tested using the same glue traps , with controls including water only and sugar solution . Six replicates of each selected plant type were tested on transects between rice paddies . Additional studies using CDC light traps were done to determine the relative densities and periodicity of An . gambiae s . l . attraction to branches of the most highly attractive flowering plant , branches without flowers , human odor , and candescent light . RESULTS : Of the 26 fruits and seedpods tested , 6 were attractive to An . gambiae s . l . females and males , respectively . Guava ( Psidium guajava ) and honey melon ( Cucumis melo ) were the two most attractive fruits for both females and males . Of the 26 flowering plants tested , 9 were significantly attractive for females , and 8 were attractive for males . Acacia macrostachya was the most attractive flowering plant . Periodicity studies using this plant showed peaks of An . gambiae s . l . attraction between 1930 and 2200 h and 0400-0500 h , which differed considerably from the response to human odors , which expectedly peaked at around midnight . CONCLUSION : These field experiments in Mali highlight that female and male An . gambiae s . l . have pronounced differences in attraction for diverse types of indigenous fruits/seedpods and flowering plants . The identification of attractive fruits and seedpods shows that a variety of indigenous and locally abundant natural products could potentially be used as juices to make ATSB solution for mosquito control . As well , the simple methods used to identify the most attractive flowering plants provide valuable insights into the natural history of sugar feeding for An . gambiae s . l . These observations can be used to guide future strategies for employing ATSB methods for malaria vector control in Africa . They also provide a basis for subsequent chemical analysis and development of attractive baits for mosquito control .
Score: 1.00
Author: MacGillivray L Lagrou LM Reynolds KB Rosebush PI Mazurek MF
Journal: Neuroscience Citation: V : 171 P : 407-20 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20868730
Abstract: Drugs that selectively inhibit the serotonin transporter ( SERT ) are widely prescribed for treatment of depression and a range of anxiety disorders . We studied the time course of changes in tryptophan hydroxylase ( TPH ) in four raphe nuclei after initiation of two different SERT inhibitors , citalopram and fluoxetine . In the first experiment , groups of Sprague-Dawley rats received daily meals of rice pudding either alone ( n=9 ) or mixed with citalopram 5 mg/kg/day ( n=27 ) . Rats were sacrificed after 24 h , 7 days or 28 days of treatment . Sections of dorsal raphe nucleus ( DRN ) , median raphe nucleus ( MRN ) , raphe magnus nucleus ( RMN ) and caudal linear nucleus ( CLN ) were processed for TPH immunohistochemistry . Citalopram induced a significant reduction in DRN TPH-positive cell counts at 24 h ( 41% ) , 7 days ( 38% ) and 28 days ( 52% ) . Similar reductions in TPH-positive cell counts were also observed at each timepoint in the MRN and in the RMN . In the MRN , citalopram resulted in significant reductions at 24 h ( 26% ) , 7 days ( 16% ) and 28 days ( 23% ) . In the RMN , citalopram induced significant reductions of TPH-positive cell counts at 24 h ( 45% ) , 7 days ( 34% ) and 28 days ( 43% ) . By contrast , no significant differences between control and treatment groups were observed in the CLN at any of the time points that we studied . To investigate whether these changes would occur with other SERT inhibitors , we conducted a second experiment , this time with a 28-day course of fluoxetine . As was observed with citalopram , fluoxetine induced significant reductions of TPH cell counts in the DRN ( 39% ) , MRN ( 38% ) and RMN ( 41% ) , with no significant differences in the CLN . These results indicate that SERT inhibition can alter the regulation of TPH , the rate limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis . This persistent and regionally specific downregulation of serotonin biosynthesis may account for some of the clinical withdrawal symptoms associated with drugs that inhibit SERT .
Score: 1.00
Author: Song TT Feng MG
Journal: J Invertebr Pathol Citation: V : 106 P : 211-6 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20932842
Abstract: In entomopathogenic hyphomycetes , desired candidates against the brown planthopper , Nilaparvata lugens ( a sap-sucking rice pest in Asia ) , are lacking . In this study , 21 Beauveria bassiana isolates from heterologous host insects showed low pathogenicity to third-instar nymphs sprayed at the high concentration of approximately 1000 conidia/mm ( 2 ) , causing only 2-23% mortalities . Of those , three isolates killed significantly more nymphs ( up to 45-62% ) after two in vivo passages but no more after further passage . Conidial hydrophobicity rates ( H ( r ) ) , zeta potentials ( P ( z ) ) , and subtilisin-like protease ( Pr1 ) activities ( A ( p ) ) of these isolates showed the same trends in the three host passages ( N : 0-3 ) . In multivariate correlation , the variables N , H ( r ) and P ( z ) were found contributing 89% to the mortality variation ( r ( 2 ) =0 . 89 ) . Significant positive correlations were also found between H ( r ) and N ( r ( 2 ) =0 . 64 ) , P ( z ) and N ( r ( 2 ) =0 . 52 ) , A ( p ) and N ( r ( 2 ) =0 . 51 ) , H ( r ) and A ( p ) ( r ( 2 ) =0 . 45 ) , and P ( z ) and A ( p ) ( r ( 2 ) =0 . 57 ) , respectively . However , irregular changes of H ( r ) and P ( z ) occurred in four other isolates , whose pathogenicity to N lugens was not enhanced by repeated host passages , resulting in no correlation between the variables . Our data indicate that the conidial surface properties H ( r ) and P ( z ) associated with cuticle adhesion reflect the heterologous host-induced adaptation and help to select fungal candidates against N lugens from repeated in vivo passages .
Score: 1.00
Author: Mukherjee S Ray D Lekli I Bak I Tosaki A Das DK
Journal: Can J Physiol Pharmacol Citation: V : 88 P : 1017-25 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21076489
Abstract: Although resveratrol has been proven to possess diverse health benefits , several recent reports have demonstrated conflicting results on some aspects of its effects , including its anti-aging properties . Considerable debate appears to exist on the dose and bioavailability of resveratrol , leading to the controversies on its effectiveness . To resolve the problem , we designed a study with a resveratrol formulation that contained resveratrol supplemented with 5% quercetin and 5% rice bran phytate ( commercially known as Longevinex ) . These ingredients were micronized to increase the bioavailability . Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with either Longevinex or vehicle ( 5% quercetin plus 5% rice bran phytate ) , and rats were sacrificed after 1 or 3 months , when isolated working hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion . Longevinex-treated hearts , irrespective of the duration of treatments , revealed superior cardiac performance , reduced infarct size , and induction of survival signals as evidenced by increased Bcl2/Bax ratio and enhanced Akt phosphorylation . In contrast , LC3-II and Beclin were enhanced significantly after 3 months of Longevinex treatment , suggesting that autophagy occurred only after feeding Longevinex to rats for a prolonged period of time . Corroborating with the results of autophagy , Sirt1 and Sirt3 increased significantly only after 3 months of Longevinex treatment , suggesting that enhanced expression of Sirts correlated with induction of autophagy . In concert , Longevinex caused phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of FoxO1 , FoxO3a , and FoxO4 , indicating involvement of FoxOs with autophagy . Since Sirts and FoxOs are reliable markers of longevity , the results appear to suggest that Longevinex induces longevity after prolonged feeding via induction of autophagy , while it converts death signals into survival signals and provides cardioprotection within a relatively shorter period of time .
Score: 1.00
Author: Attademo AM Cabagna-Zenklusen M Lajmanovich RC Peltzer PM Junges C Basso A
Journal: Ecotoxicology Citation: V : 20 P : 274-82 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21113795
Abstract: Activity of B-esterases ( BChE : butyrylcholinesterase and CbE : carboxylesterase using two model substrates : alpha-naphthyl acetate and 4-nitrophenyl valerate ) in a native frog , Leptodactylus chaquensis from rice fields ( RF1 : methamidophos and RF2 : cypermethrin and endosulfan sprayed by aircraft ) and non-contaminated area ( pristine forest ) was measured . The ability of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride ( 2-PAM ) to reactivate BChE levels was also explored . In addition , changes in blood cell morphology and parasite infection were determined . Mean values of plasma BChE activities were lower in samples from the two rice fields than in those from the reference site . CbE ( 4-nitrophenyl valerate ) levels varied in the three sites studied , being highest in RF1 . Frog plasma from RF1 showed positive reactivation of BChE activity after incubation with 2-PAM . Blood parameters of frogs from RF2 revealed morphological alterations ( anisochromasia and immature erythrocytes frequency ) . Moreover , a major infection of protozoan Trypanosoma sp . in individuals from the two rice fields was detected . We suggest that integrated use of several biomarkers ( BChE and CBEs , chemical reactivation of plasma with 2-PAM , and blood cell parameters ) may be a promising procedure for use in biomonitoring programmes to diagnose pesticide exposure of wild populations of this frog and other native anuran species in Argentina .
Score: 1.00
Author: Hei MY Huang WQ Liu FR
Journal: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi Citation: V : 12 P : 963-966 Year: 2010 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21172133
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To study the effect of rhIGF-1on the mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome C ( Cyt-C ) and caspase-3 in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) . METHODS : Ninety neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups : normal control , HIBD , and HIBD+rhIGF-1 ( rhIGF-1 was given intraperitoneally right after HI ) . Rat HIBD model was prepared according the Rice-Vannucci method . RT-PCR and Western blot methods were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of Cyt-C and caspase-3 24 , 48 and 72 hrs after HI ( n=10 each time point ) . RESULTS : At all time points , both Cyt-C mRNA and caspase-3 mRNA expression levels in the HIBD group increased compared with those in the normal control group , and those in the HIBD+rhIGF-1 group also increased compared with that in the normal control group but decreased compared with that in the HIBD group . There were statistical significances among the three groups ( P<0 . 01 ) . At all time points , the changes of both Cyt-C and caspase-3 protein expression in the three groups were similar to those of the mRNA expression : both Cyt-C and caspase-3 protein expression levels increased in the HIBD group compared with those in the normal control group , and those in the HIBD+rhIGF-1 group also increased compared with those in the normal control group but decreased compared with those in the HIBD group . There were statistical significances among the three groups ( P<0 . 01 ) . Pearson correlation analysis showed that mRNA and protein expression of Cyt-C were positively correlated to casapse-3 mRNA and protein expression in the HIBD and the HIBD+rhIGF-1 groups . CONCLUSIONS : rhIGF-1 may inhibit the Cyt-C release and caspase-3 expression , and thus provides neuroprotection against HIBD in neonatal rats .
Score: 1.00
Author: Li X Xiong H Yang K Peng D Li W Yin Y Liu J
Journal: J Sci Food Agric Citation: V : P : Year: 2010 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21184451
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Protein hydrolysate has more efficient peptide absorption and less hypertonic protein absorption . This study aims to investigate the influences of rice dreg ( RD ) protein and its hydrolysate on growth and somatropic axis in early-weaned Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with soybean ( SB ) protein . RESULTS : Compared with a SB diet control , a rice dregs protein hydrolysate ( RD-H ) diet decreased average daily feed intake and feed/gain in weeks 1 ( P < 0 . 01 ) and 2 ( P < 0 . 05 ) , while an RD diet decreased average daily feed intake and feed/gain in week 1 ( P < 0 . 01 ) . Average daily body gain exhibited no significant differences between either treatment during the 28-day period . After 28 d , villus height and lamina propria depth of jejunum and duodenum were greater in the RD-H treatment than in RD and control treatments ( P < 0 . 01 ) , while serum urea nitrogen concentration was lower in RD and RD-H treatments than in the control ( P < 0 . 05 ) . There were no differences in serum growth hormone concentration , hepatic and muscle insulin-like growth factor-1 expression , and muscle growth hormone receptor expression at 7 and 28 d ( P > 0 . 05 ) , but hepatic growth hormone receptor expression was higher in RD-H treatment than in RD and control treatments after 7 d ( P < 0 . 05 ) . CONCLUSION : Results showed that RD and RD-H diets improved feed utilisation efficiency in the first 2 weeks post-weaning and small intestine morphology at 28 d post-weaning for an early-weaned mammal compared with a SB diet . Copyright ( c ) 2011 Society of Chemical Industry .
Score: 1.00
Author: Yang Z Chen H Tang W Hua H Lin Y
Journal: Pest Manag Sci Citation: V : P : Year: 2011 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21226009
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner ( Bt ) were first commercialised in 1996 . The risk that pests have the potential to evolve resistance to Bt toxins is one of the most serious challenges to this technology . Gene stacking , pyramiding two Bt genes into one variety , is considered to be an effective insect resistance management ( IRM ) strategy . In this study , insect-resistant rice expressing two Bt genes was developed by sexual crossing , and then characterised . RESULTS : Homozygous rice lines of two pyramided Bt genes were obtained in the F ( 3 ) generation . Quantification of Bt toxin showed that protein concentrations of Cry1Ab , Cry1Ac and Cry2A in the two-gene lines were comparable with their single-gene parents , while the expression of cry1C gene decreased after gene stacking . Four two-gene lines showed higher activity to striped stem borer ( Chilo suppressalis Walker ) than parental lines in the laboratory bioassay . All pyramided lines and their hybrids exhibited excellent efficacy against stemborers and leaffolders in field evaluation , while most pyramided lines had no significant differences from original variety in yield under spraying of insecticide . CONCLUSION : These results demonstrate that the two-gene lines have commercial potential and could serve as a valuable IRM strategy . Copyright ( c ) 2011 Society of Chemical Industry .
Score: 1.00
Author: Li X Xiong H Yang K Peng D Li W Yin Y Liu J
Journal: J Sci Food Agric Citation: V : 91 P : 687-93 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21302323
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Protein hydrolysate has more efficient peptide absorption and less hypertonic protein absorption . This study aims to investigate the influences of rice dreg ( RD ) protein and its hydrolysate on growth and somatropic axis in early-weaned Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with soybean ( SB ) protein . RESULTS : Compared with a SB diet control , a rice dregs protein hydrolysate ( RD-H ) diet decreased average daily feed intake and feed/gain in weeks 1 ( P < 0 . 01 ) and 2 ( P < 0 . 05 ) , while an RD diet decreased average daily feed intake and feed/gain in week 1 ( P < 0 . 01 ) . Average daily body gain exhibited no significant differences between either treatment during the 28-day period . After 28 d , villus height and lamina propria depth of jejunum and duodenum were greater in the RD-H treatment than in RD and control treatments ( P < 0 . 01 ) , while serum urea nitrogen concentration was lower in RD and RD-H treatments than in the control ( P < 0 . 05 ) . There were no differences in serum growth hormone concentration , hepatic and muscle insulin-like growth factor-1 expression , and muscle growth hormone receptor expression at 7 and 28 d ( P > 0 . 05 ) , but hepatic growth hormone receptor expression was higher in RD-H treatment than in RD and control treatments after 7 d ( P < 0 . 05 ) . CONCLUSION : Results showed that RD and RD-H diets improved feed utilisation efficiency in the first 2 weeks post-weaning and small intestine morphology at 28 d post-weaning for an early-weaned mammal compared with a SB diet .
Score: 1.00
Author: Yang Z Chen H Tang W Hua H Lin Y
Journal: Pest Manag Sci Citation: V : 67 P : 414-22 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21394874
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner ( Bt ) were first commercialised in 1996 . The risk that pests have the potential to evolve resistance to Bt toxins is one of the most serious challenges to this technology . Gene stacking , pyramiding two Bt genes into one variety , is considered to be an effective insect resistance management ( IRM ) strategy . In this study , insect-resistant rice expressing two Bt genes was developed by sexual crossing , and then characterised . RESULTS : Homozygous rice lines of two pyramided Bt genes were obtained in the F ( 3 ) generation . Quantification of Bt toxin showed that protein concentrations of Cry1Ab , Cry1Ac and Cry2A in the two-gene lines were comparable with their single-gene parents , while the expression of cry1C gene decreased after gene stacking . Four two-gene lines showed higher activity to striped stem borer ( Chilo suppressalis Walker ) than parental lines in the laboratory bioassay . All pyramided lines and their hybrids exhibited excellent efficacy against stemborers and leaffolders in field evaluation , while most pyramided lines had no significant differences from original variety in yield under spraying of insecticide . CONCLUSION : These results demonstrate that the two-gene lines have commercial potential and could serve as a valuable IRM strategy .
Score: 1.00
Author: Li XL Jia TM Luan B Liu T Yuan Y
Journal: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi Citation: V : 13 P : 317-20 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21507303
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To study the effects of electric stimulation at the cerebellar fastigial nucleus on astrocytes in the hippocampus of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) and the possible mechanism . METHODS : One hundred and eighty 7-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups : sham-operation ( control group ) and HIBD with and without electric stimulation ( n=60 each ) . The HIBD model of neonatal rats was prepared by the Rice-Vennucci method . Electric stimulation at the cerebellar fastigial nucleus was given 24 hrs after the operation in the electric stimulation group once daily and lasted for 30 minutes each time . The other two groups were not subjected to electric stimulation but captured to fix in corresponding periods . Rats were sacrificed 3 , 7 , 14 and 21 days after stimulations to observe the glial fibrillary acidic protein ( GFAP ) expression by immunohistochemisty and the ultrastructural changes of astrocytes in the hippocampus under an electron microscope . RESULTS : Immunohistochemical analysis showed the expression of GFAP in the HIBD groups with and without electric stimulation increased significantly compared with the control group on day 3 , reached the peak on day 7 , and the increased expression remained till to day 21 . The GFAP expression in the electric stimulation group was significantly lower than that in the untreated HIBD group at all time points . Under the electron microscope , the astrocytes in the untreated HIBD group were swollen and the amount of organelles was reduced , while the swelling of astrocytes was alleviated and the organelles remained in integrity in the electric stimulation group . CONCLUSIONS : The electric stimulation at the cerebellar fastigial nucleus can inhibit the excessive proliferation of astrocytes and relieve the structural damage of astrocytes in neonatal rats following HIBD .
Score: 1.00
Author: Iwafune T Yokoyama A Nagai T Horio T
Journal: Environ Toxicol Chem Citation: V : 30 P : 1834-42 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21560145
Abstract: To assess the risk of mixtures of six paddy insecticides and their transformation products ( TPs ) to aquatic organisms in the Sakura River , Japan , their concentrations in the river water were monitored during the rice cultivation season in 2008 and 2009 , and acute toxicity tests for Cheumatopsyche brevilineata ( caddisflies ) and Daphnia magna ( daphnids ) , surrogate test species for caddisflies and cladocerans , respectively , were conducted . The mixture of fipronil , applied in the rice nursery box , and its desulfinyl , sulfide , and sulfone TPs were detected in the river for several months after transplanting , and they were more toxic to C brevilineata than the other tested compounds . The toxicities of the parent compound and its TPs , such as fipronil and its TPs , may be related to their hydrophobicities . Risk quotients for mixtures ( RQ ( mix ) ) of only parent compounds did not exceed 1 , but , in mid-June 2009 , the RQ ( mix ) of parent compounds and TPs for caddisflies exceeded 1 . Diazinon , fenitrothion , and fenthion sprayed on the rice crop and their TPs posed a sporadic risk for cladocerans , depending on the application timing , whereas fipronil TPs contributed to the RQ ( mix ) for caddisflies for several months after transplanting . The risk of mixtures of insecticides and their TPs differed seasonally between caddisflies and cladocerans , depending on insecticide application timing and the persistence and toxicity of TPs .
Score: 1.00
Author: MacGillivray L Reynolds KB Sickand M Rosebush PI Mazurek MF
Journal: Synapse Citation: V : 65 P : 1166-72 Year: 2011 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21584867
Abstract: Drugs that selectively inhibit the serotonin transporter ( SERT ) are widely used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders . These agents are associated with a range of extrapyramidal syndromes such as akathisia , dystonia , dyskinesia and parkinsonism , suggesting an effect on dopaminergic transmission . We studied the time course of changes in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra ( SN ) after initiation of two different SERT inhibitors , citalopram and fluoxetine . In the first experiment , groups of Sprague-Dawley rats received daily meals of rice pudding either alone ( N = 9 ) or mixed with citalopram 5 mg/kg/day ( N = 27 ) . Rats were sacrificed after 24 h , 7 days or 28 days of treatment . Sections of SN were processed for tyrosine hydroxylase ( TH ) immunohistochemistry . Citalopram induced a significant decrease in TH-positive cell counts at 24 h ( 44% ) , 7 days ( 38% ) and 28 days ( 33% ) . No significant differences among the citalopram treatment groups were observed in the SN . To determine whether these changes would occur with other SERT inhibitors , we conducted a second experiment , this time with a 28 day course of fluoxetine . As was observed with citalopram , fluoxetine induced a significant 21% reduction of TH cell counts in the SN . Immunoblot analysis showed that fluoxetine also induced a 45% reduction of striatal TH . To investigate a possible role for the innate immune system in mediating these changes , we also studied the microglial marker OX42 after administration of fluoxetine and noted a significant 63% increase in the SN of fluoxtine-treated animals . These results indicate that SERT inhibition can activate microglia and alter the regulation of TH , the rate limiting enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis . These changes may play a role in mediating the extrapyramidal side effects associated with SERT inhibitors .
Score: 1.00
Author: Venu RC Zhang Y Weaver B Carswell P Mitchell TK Meyers BC Boehm MJ Wang GL
Journal: Methods Mol Biol Citation: V : 722 P : 167-78 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21590420
Abstract: Deep transcriptome profiling of pathogen-infected it issues enhances the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions . Illuminas next generation sequencing technology sequencing-by-synthesis ( SBS ) is a powerful tool to rapidly sequence genomes and transcriptomes at an affordable rate . We modified the procedure for SBS library construction to significantly increase the efficiency of library construction . Using our improved method , two Sclerotinia homoeocarpa libraries were constructed from mycelia grown in potato dextrose broth ( PDB ) or potato dextrose agar ( PDA ) for 96 h , respectively , and two creeping bentgrass libraries were constructed from leaves 96 h after inoculation with S homoeocarpa or water sprayed , respectively . About 4-7 million mRNA signatures were sequenced from each library . Sequence analysis using BLAST was performed against sequenced fungal genomes and rice genomic sequence to identify the expressed genes in both S homoeocarpa mycelia and creeping bentgrass . Bioinformatic analysis identified many expressed genes in the pathogen and host A public database to access the sequence data was developed at http : //www . dstidb . org . Our results demonstrate how SBS technology can unravel transcriptome complexity during the creeping bentgrass-S homoeocarpa interaction .
Score: 1.00
Author: Choi IH Choi JH Ko SH Moore PA Jr
Journal: J Environ Sci Health B Citation: V : 46 P : 432-5 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21614718
Abstract: This study was a pen trial in which the effects of adding different rates of liquid aluminum chloride ( AlCl ( 3 ) ) on litter pH , total volatile fatty acids ( VFAs ) , and ammonia ( NH ( 3 ) ) fluxes was evaluated . Liquid AlCl ( 3 ) treatments used in this study were sprayed on the rice hull surface at rates of 100 g , 200 g , and 300 g liquid AlCl ( 3 ) /kg rice hulls ; untreated rice hulls served as controls . Litter pH , total VFAs , and NH ( 3 ) fluxes were all lowered ( P< 0 . 05 ) by all of the liquid AlCl ( 3 ) treatments compared with controls during certain times of the 5 week study . However , there were no significant differences among treatments on litter pH at the end of the study ( from 3 to 5 weeks ) or NH ( 3 ) fluxes at beginning of the study ( 0 to 3 weeks ) . Total VFAs were reduced 16 % , 29 % , and 53 % by 100 g liquid AlCl ( 3 ) /kg rice hulls , 200 g liquid AlCl ( 3 ) /kg rice hulls , and 300 g liquid AlCl ( 3 ) /kg rice hulls , respectively . Liquid AlCl ( 3 ) additions reduced NH ( 3 ) fluxes by 35 % , 57 % and 67 % , respectively , at the low , medium and high rates . In summary , these results indicate that adding liquid aluminum chloride to rice hulls would be a useful tool in reducing the negative environmental impact of poultry litter . It should be noted that the decreased VFA production and NH ( 3 ) volatilization was chiefly associated with reduction in litter pH .
Score: 1.00
Author: Sarowar S Zhao Y Soria-Guerra RE Ali S Zheng D Wang D Korban SS
Journal: J Exp Bot Citation: V : 62 P : 4851-61 Year: 2011 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21725032
Abstract: To identify genes involved in the response to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora in apple ( Malusxdomestica ) , expression profiles were investigated using an apple oligo ( 70-mer ) array representing 40 , 000 genes . Blossoms of a fire blight-susceptible apple cultivar Gala were collected from trees growing in the orchard , placed on a tray in the laboratory , and spray-inoculated with a suspension of E amylovora at a concentration of 10 ( 8 ) cfu ml ( -1 ) . Uninoculated detached flowers served as controls at each time point . Expression profiles were captured at three different time points post-inoculation at 2 , 8 , and 24 h , together with those at 0 h ( uninoculated ) . A total of about 3500 genes were found to be significantly modulated in response to at least one of the three time points . Among those , a total of 770 , 855 , and 1002 genes were up-regulated , by 2-fold , at 2 , 8 , and 24 h following inoculation , respectively ; while , 748 , 1024 , and 1455 genes were down-regulated , by 2-fold , at 2 , 8 , and 24 h following inoculation , respectively . Over the three time points post-inoculation , 365 genes were commonly up-regulated and 374 genes were commonly down-regulated . Both sets of genes were classified based on their functional categories . The majority of up-regulated genes were involved in metabolism , signal transduction , signalling , transport , and stress response . A number of transcripts encoding proteins/enzymes known to be up-regulated under particular biotic and abiotic stress were also up-regulated following E amylovora treatment . Those up or down-regulated genes encode transcription factors , signaling components , defense-related , transporter , and metabolism , all of which have been associated with disease responses in Arabidopsis and rice , suggesting similar response pathways are involved in apple blossoms .
Score: 1.00
Author: Khatibi NH Lee LK Zhou Y Chen W Rolland W Fathali N Martin R Applegate R Stier G Zhang JH
Journal: Acta Neurochir Suppl Citation: V : 111 P : 207-12 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21725757
Abstract: Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia ( HI ) is an important cause of mortality and disability in newborns . It is a result of insufficient oxygen and glucose circulation to the brain , initiating long-term cerebral damage and cell death . Emerging evidence suggests that endothelin receptor-A ( ETA ) activation can play an important role in mediating brain damage . In this study , we investigated the role of ETA receptor inhibition using ABT-627 in neonatal HI injured rats . Postnatal day 10 Sprague-Dawley rat pups ( n=91 ) were assigned to the following groups : sham ( n=28 ) , HI ( vehicle , n=32 ) , and HI with ABT-627 at 3 mg/kg ( n=31 ) . The Rice-Vannucci model was used to induce ischemia by ligating the right common carotid artery , followed by a 2 h hypoxic episode using 8% oxygen in a 37 degrees C chamber . Postoperative assessment was conducted at 48 h after injury and again at 4 weeks . At the acute time point , investigative markers included cerebral edema , infarction volume , and body weight change . Neurobehavioral testing was measured at 4 weeks post-injury . Our findings indicated that ABT-627 had no effect on the measured parameters . This study suggests that ETA receptor blockade using ABT-627 post-treatment fails to improve neurological outcomes in neonatal HI injured rats .
Score: 1.00
Author: Konan KG Kone AB Konan YL Fofana D Konan KL Diallo A Ziogba JC Toure M Kouassi KP Doannio JM
Journal: Bull Soc Pathol Exot Citation: V : 104 P : 303-6 Year: 2011 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21818678
Abstract: An assessment of the sensitivity of Anopheles gambiae s . l . to three pyrethroids ( alphacypermethrin , permethrin , deltamethrin ) and DDT has been carried out with a laboratory strain ( Kisumu reference sensitive strain ) and a wild strain ( Tiassalekro strain ) using larvae from an irrigated rice-growing area of Tiassalekro , located in the southern forest of Ivory Coast The sensitivity tests were performed according to the standard WHO cylinder tests with adult female A gambiae s . l . aged 2 to 4 days . The results showed that the strain of Tiassalekro is resistant to the three tested pyrethroids and DDT . The molecular forms M and S were identified , with a predominance of M form . The resistance mechanism involved is the Kdr mutation . In this region , control measures against malaria vectors by using bed nets impregnated with these insecticides or household sprays could be compromised .
Score: 1.00
Author: Inklaar H van Beek PA
Journal: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd Citation: V : 155 P : A3324 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21854659
Abstract: This multidisciplinary guideline has been developed as an aid to diagnosis and treatment of patients , especially athletes , with an acute inversion trauma of the ankle . Diagnosis of an acute inversion trauma is by means of a combination of location of the swelling , palpation and executing an anterior drawer test X-rays are only indicated if weight-bearing is not possible and palpation of specific areas according to the Ottawa ankle rules causes pain . Physical diagnostic examination 4-5 days post-trauma is a reliable method for discriminating between ankle sprain and lateral ligament rupture . - Rest , application of ice , compression and elevation ( RICE ) during the first days post-trauma is recommended . Analgesic therapy , with paracetamol as medication of choice , should be restricted to 2-7 days post-trauma . Conservative treatment is preferential to surgical treatment . A semi-rigid brace protection should become a standard treatment procedure . Exercise therapy results in a faster recovery and a faster resumption of work and sporting activities . Exercises to improve proprioception , coordination and muscle strength are indicated .
Score: 1.00
Author: Colosio C Rubino FM Alegakis A Ariano E Brambilla G Mandic-Rajcevic S Metruccio F Minoia C Moretto A Somaruga C Tsatsakis A Turci R Vellere F
Journal: Toxicol Lett Citation: V : 213 P : 49-56 Year: 2012 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21903154
Abstract: Open field , variability of climatic and working conditions , and the use of complex mixtures of pesticides makes biological and environmental monitoring in agriculture , and therefore risk assessment and management , very complicated . A need of pointing out alternative risk assessment approaches , not necessarily based on measures , but simple , user-friendly and reliable , feasible also in the less advanced situations and in particular in small size enterprises , arises . This aim can be reached through a combination of environmental monitoring , biological monitoring and computational modelling . We have used this combination of methods for the creation of "exposure and risk profiles" to be applied in specific exposure scenarios , and we have tested this approach on a sample of Italian rice and maize herbicide applicators . We have given specific "toxicity scores" to the different products used and we have identified , for each of the major working phases , that is mixing and loading , spraying , maintenance and cleaning of equipment , the main variables affecting exposure and inserted them into a simple algorithm , able to produce "exposure indices" . Based on the combination of toxicity indices and exposure indices it is possible to obtain semiquantitative estimates of the risk levels experienced by the workers in the exposure scenarios considered . Results of operator exposure data collected under real-life conditions can be used to validate and refine the algorithms ; moreover , the AOEL derived from pre-marketing studies can be combined to estimate tentative biological exposure limits for pesticides , useful to perform individual risk assessment based on technical surveys and on simple biological monitoring . A proof of principle example of this approach is the subject of this article .
Score: 1.00
Author: Zhou XH Dong Y Xiao X Wang Y Xu Y Xu B Shi WD Zhang Y Zhu LJ Liu QQ
Journal: Food Chem Toxicol Citation: V : 49 P : 3112-8 Year: 2011 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21967780
Abstract: A transgenic rice line ( TRS ) with high amylose level has been developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes . Compositional analysis of TRS demonstrated that the content of resistant starch ( RS ) was significantly higher compared to conventional non-transgenic rice . High level of RS is an important raw material in food industry and has various physiological effects for human health . In order to provide the reliable theory basis for field release of TRS rice , we evaluated the potential health effects of long-term consumption of the TRS . The 90-day toxicology feeding experiment was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with diets containing 70% of either TRS rice flour , its near-isogenic rice flour or the control diet . The clinical performance variables ( body weight , body weight gain and food consumption ) were measured and pathological responses ( hematological parameters and serum chemistry at the midterm and the completion of the experiment , urinalysis profile and serum sex hormone response at the completion of the experiment ) were performed . Besides , clinical signs , relative organ weights and microscopic observations were also compared between TRS group and its near-isogenic rice group . The combined data indicates that high-amylose TRS grain is as safe as the conventional non-transgenic rice for rat consumption .
Score: 1.00
Author: Kim B Yang HJ Chang MJ Kim SH
Journal: Nutr Res Pract Citation: V : 5 P : 294-300 Year: 2011 Type: PubMed-not-MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21994523
Abstract: Takju is a Korean alcoholic beverage made from rice , and is brewed with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise training and moderate Takju consumption on learning ability in 6-week old Sprague-Dawley male rats . The rats were treated with exercise and alcohol for 4 weeks in six separate groups as follows : non-exercised control ( CC ) , exercised control ( EC ) , non-exercised consuming ethanol ( CA ) , exercised consuming ethanol ( EA ) , non-exercised consuming Takju ( CT ) , and exercised consuming Takju ( ET ) . An AIN-93M diet was provided ad libitum . Exercise training was performed at a speed of 10 m/min for 15 minutes per day . Ethanol and Takju were administered daily for 6-7 hours to achieve an intake of about 10 ml after 12 hours of deprivation , and , thereafter , the animals were allowed free access to deionized water . A Y-shaped water maze was used from the third week to understand the effects of exercise and alcohol consumption on learning and memory . After sacrifice , brain acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) activity was analyzed . Total caloric intake and body weight changes during the experiment were not significantly different among the groups . AChE activity was not significantly different among the groups . The number of errors for position reversal training in the maze was significantly smaller in the EA group than that in the CA and ET groups , and latency times were shorter in the EA group than those in the CC , EC , CT , and ET groups . The latency difference from the first to the fifth day was shortest in the ET group . The exercised groups showed more errors and latency than those of the non-exercised groups on the first day , but the data became equivalent from the second day . The results indicate that moderate exercise can increase memory and learning and that the combination of exercise and Takju ingestion may enhance learning ability .
Score: 1.00
Author: Ahmad MZ Akhter S Anwar M Singh A Ahmad I Ain R Jain GK Khar RK Ahmad FJ
Journal: Curr Drug Deliv Citation: V : P : Year: 2011 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22023205
Abstract: The colon and rectum are the parts of digestive system of human beings . Cancer affecting either of these organs may be called colorectal cancers . Conventional cancer chemotherapy is not very effective for treatment of colorectal cancer , as the drug molecule does not reach the target site at therapeutic concentration , on the other side they produces sever systemic toxic effect . Aim of this study was to develop a novel colon targeted Assam Bora rice starch compression coated tablet for site specific delivery of 5-FU to the colon without the drug being released in stomach or small intestine . Core tablet of 5-FU was prepared using microcrystalline cellulose ( MCC ) and spray dried lactose by direct compression method . The in vitro drug release study in different physiological environment confirmed insignificant release of 5-FU in physiological condition of stomach and small intestine further fast and major drug release in caecal content . In vivo drug absorption of optimized formulation was performed in order to establish its targeting potential in colon . It is concluded from the present study that Assam Bora rice starch can be used as a drug carrier for an effective colon targeted delivery system for drugs effective against the large intestine resident disease condition .
Score: 1.00
Author: Phung DT Connell D Miller G Hodge M Patel R Cheng R Abeyewardene M Chu C
Journal: Chemosphere Citation: V : 87 P : 294-300 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22209251
Abstract: Chlorpyrifos is the most common organophosphate insecticide registered for use in Vietnam and is widely used in agriculture , particularly rice farming . However , chlorpyrifos exposure to and adverse effects on farmers has not been evaluated . In this study , biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure in a group of rice farmers was conducted after a typical application event using back-pack spraying . Urine samples ( 24 h ) were collected from the rice farmers before and post insecticide application . Samples were analysed for 3 , 5 , 6-trichloropyridinol ( TCP ) , the major urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos , using an enzymatic pre-treatment before extraction followed by HPLC-MS/MS . Absorbed Daily Dose ( ADD ) of chlorpyrifos for farmers were then estimated from urinary TCP levels , expressed as mug g ( -1 ) creatinine . The analytical method for urinary TCP had a low detection limit ( 0 . 6 mug L ( -1 ) ) , acceptable recovery values ( 80-114% ) , and low relative percentage differences in duplicate and repeated samples . Post-application chlorpyrifos ADD of farmers varied from 0 . 4 to 94 . 2 mug kg ( -1 ) ( body weight ) d ( -1 ) with a mean of 19 . 4 mug kg ( -1 ) d ( -1 ) which was approximately 80-fold higher than the mean baseline exposure level ( 0 . 24 mug kg ( -1 ) d ( -1 ) ) . Hazard Quotients ( ratio of the mean ADD for rice farmers to acute oral reference dose ) calculated using acute oral reference doses recommended by United States and Australian agencies varied from 2 . 1 ( Australian NRA ) , 4 . 2 ( US EPA ) to 6 . 9 ( ATSDR ) . Biological monitoring using HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urinary TCP ( 24 h ) was found to be an effective method for measuring chlorpyrifos exposure among farmers . This case study found that Vietnamese rice farmers had relatively high exposures to chlorpyrifos after application , which were likely to have adverse health effects .
Score: 1.00
Author: Manimaran P Ramkumar G Mohan M Mangrauthia SK Padmakumari AP Muthuraman P J S B Viraktamath BC Balachandran SM
Journal: GM Crops Citation: V : 2 P : Year: 2011 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22233571
Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) , a gram positive soil bacteria was first identified and named by Japanese Microbiologist Shigetane Ishiwata in 1901 . During sporulation Bt produces proteinaceous parasporal crystal proteins called delta-endotoxins , or Cry proteins , which are insecticidal Numerous Cry proteins have been isolated and characterized from different Bt strains with activity against insects , mites and nematodes . Sprayable formulations containing these Cry proteins as active ingredients have contributed significantly in the field of insect pest management . Since the first cloning of cry genes from Bt , 1 scientists have successively demonstrated that plants could be genetically engineered to express these cry genes for the control of dreadful insect pests . Eventually , the first transgenic crop expressing Btcry1Ac gene in cotton was approved in 1996 for commercial cultivation in the USA to manage bollworms .
Score: 1.00
Author: Atangana J Fomena A Tamesse JL Fondjo E
Journal: Bull Soc Pathol Exot Citation: V : 105 P : 23-9 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22294407
Abstract: We have comparatively studied the dynamics of malaria transmission in the villages of Mokolo-Douvar located in the rural area with traditional agriculture and Gounougou irrigated rice area , in 2004 August and November and 2006 May and October , to assess vectors biting habits , and malaria inoculation rate and malaria parasite prevalence in cohort of children from 0 to 15 years . Mosquitoes were collected by landing catches on volunteers and by pyrethrum spray collections . A total of 5961 Anopheles were collected . Seven Anopheles species were identified : Anopheles gambiae s . s . , Anopheles arabiensis , Anopheles funestus , Anopheles pharoensis , Anopheles rufipes , Anopheles ziemanni and Anopheles squamosus . A arabiensis was the major species ( 56 . 2% ) and the main malaria vector in both study sites , followed by A funestus ( 32 . 6% ) . Malaria transmission was high in the irrigated area of Gounougou ( 1 . 42 infection bites per man per night ) whereas in the non-irrigated zone of Mokolo-Douvar , it was below detection level during the rainy season ( 0 , 245 ib/h/n ) . In Gounougou , a total of 655 children were examined . The mean plasmodic index was 21 . 1% . Our findings confirm that changes in irrigated rice agriculture influence malaria transmission dynamics , and call for control measures that are readily adapted to local eco-epidemiological settings .
Score: 1.00
Author: Levy A Salamon A Tucci M Limebeer CL Parker LA Leri F
Journal: Addict Biol Citation: V : P : Year: 2012 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22340075
Abstract: Several lines of evidence suggest that there may be a shared vulnerability to acquire behaviors motivated by strong incentive stimuli . Non-food restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats ( n = 78 ) underwent place conditioning with Oreos , and were subsequently tested on cocaine self-administration ( SA ) on fixed and progressive ratios , as well as extinction and reinstatement by cocaine primes and by consumption of Oreos . Although there was a group preference for the Oreo-paired compartment , at the individual level some rats ( 69% ) displayed a preference and others did not . In cocaine SA , preference rats achieved higher break points on a progressive ratio , and displayed greater responding during extinction and cocaine-induced reinstatement . Within the context of this study , Oreo-cocaine cross-reinstatement was not observed . In a control study , rats ( n = 29 ) conditioned with a less palatable food ( rice cakes ) also displayed individual differences in place preference , but not on subsequent cocaine tests . These findings indicate that there is a relationship between incentive learning promoted by palatable foods and by cocaine . This supports the hypothesis that co-morbid food-drug addictions may result from a shared vulnerability to acquire behaviors motivated by strong incentives .
Score: 1.00
Author: Chen GF Zhang YF Long Q Wen W Xu MQ Yang YL
Journal: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi Citation: V : 14 P : 139-43 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22357475
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To study the effects of environmental enrichment on neuron proliferation , learning and memory ability and motor ability in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) . METHODS : One hundred and eight 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups : sham operation ( CON group ) , HIBD and intervention group . HIBD model was prepared according to the classic Rice-Vannucci method . Environmental enrichment was administered for the rats in the intervention group after HIBD inducement . Behavioral tests ( Water maze test , Suspension test and Slope test ) were performed and the number of neural cells in the left hippocampus was examined 7 , 14 and 28 days after intervention . RESULTS : The pyramid cells in the hippocampus CA1 area in the HIBD group were significantly less than in the CON group at 7 , 14 and 28 days ( P<0 . 05 ) . The number of pyramid cells in the hippocampus CA1 area in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the HIBD group ( P<0 . 01 ) at 7 , 14 and 28 days . The hidden platform escape latency period ( EL ) in the Water maze test was significantly more prolonged and the cross-platform number within 2 minutes was significantly less in the HIBD and the intervention groups than in the CON group at all observed time points ( P<0 . 01 ) . The EL was significantly shorter and the cross-platform number within 2 minutes was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the HIBD group at all observed time points ( P<0 . 01 ) . The maintain time and score in the Suspension test were significantly lower and the time in the Slope test was significantly more prolonged in the HIBD and intervention groups than in the CON group at 7 , 14 and 28 days ( P<0 . 01 ) . An increased maintain time and score and a decreased time in the Slope test were found in the intervention group compared with the HIBD group at 14 and 28 days ( P<0 . 01 ) . CONCLUSIONS : Environmental enrichment can improve motor function , learning and memory ability , and promote the repair and proliferation of neurons in neonatal rats with HIBD .
Score: 1.00
Author: Liu C Li J Gao J Shen Z Lu BR Lin C
Journal: PLoS One Citation: V : 7 P : e31625 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22359609
Abstract: BACKGROUND : The major challenge of cultivating genetically modified ( GM ) rice ( Oryza sativa ) at the commercial scale is to prevent the spread of transgenes from GM cultivated rice to its coexisting weedy rice ( O sativa f . spontanea ) . The strategic development of GM rice with a built-in control mechanism can mitigate transgene spread in weedy rice populations . METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS : An RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the bentazon detoxifying enzyme CYP81A6 was constructed into the T-DNA which contained two tightly linked transgenes expressing the Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab and the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase ( EPSPS ) , respectively . GM rice plants developed from this T-DNA were resistant to lepidopteran pests and tolerant to glyphosate , but sensitive to bentazon . The application of bentazon of 2000 mg/L at the rate of 40 mL/m ( 2 ) , which is approximately the recommended dose for the field application to control common rice weeds , killed all F ( 2 ) plants containing the transgenes generated from the Crop-weed hybrids between a GM rice line ( CGH-13 ) and two weedy rice strains ( PI-63 and PI-1401 ) . CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE : Weedy rice plants containing transgenes from GM rice through gene flow can be selectively killed by the spray of bentazon when a non-GM rice variety is cultivated alternately in a few-year interval The built-in control mechanism in combination of cropping management is likely to mitigate the spread of transgenes into weedy rice populations .
Score: 1.00
Author: Ha AW Han GJ Kim WK
Journal: Nutr Res Pract Citation: V : 6 P : 16-20 Year: 2012 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22413036
Abstract: The effects of retrograded rice on body weight gain , gut functions , and hypolipidemic actions in rats were examined . When the retrograded rice was produced by repetitive heating and cooling cycles , it contained significantly higher amounts of resistant starch ( 13 . 9 +/- 0 . 98% ) than is found in common rice ( 9 . 1 +/- 1 . 02% ) ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either common rice powder or retrograded rice powder , and mean body weight gain was significantly lower in the retrograded rice group ( P < 0 . 05 ) . The liver weight of the retrograded rice group ( 14 . 5 +/- 0 . 5 g ) was significantly lower than that of the common rice group ( 17 . 1 +/- 0 . 3 g , P < 0 . 05 ) . However , the weights of other organs , such as the kidney , spleen , thymus , and epididymal fat pad were not significantly affected by rice feeding . Intestinal transit time tended to be lower in rats fed retrograded rice when compared to rats fed the common rice , but the difference was not significant . The retrograded rice diet significantly increased stool output when compared to that in the common rice powder diet ( P < 0 . 05 ) , whereas fecal moisture content ( % ) was significantly higher in the retrograded rice group ( 23 . 3 +/- 1 . 2 ) than that in the common rice group ( 19 . 1 +/- 1 . 2 ) ( P < 0 . 05 ) . The retrograded rice group had significantly lower plasma cholesterol ( P < 0 . 05 ) , liver cholesterol ( P < 0 . 05 ) , and triacylglycerol contents in adipose it issue ( P < 0 . 05 ) when compared to those in the common rice group . In conclusion , retrograded rice had higher resistant starch levels compared with those of common rice powder , and it lowered body weight gain and improved lipid profiles and gut function in rats .
Score: 1.00
Author: Kushiro M Saitoh H Sugiura Y Aoki T Kawamoto S Sato T
Journal: Int J Food Microbiol Citation: V : 156 P : 204-8 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22534354
Abstract: Fusarium proliferatum is a plant pathogenic fungus associated with crops such as asparagus and corn , and it possesses the ability to produce a range of mycotoxins , including fumonisins . In Asia , rice ( Oryza sativa ) is a staple cereal and is occasionally colonized by this fungus without obvious physiological changes . F proliferatum is closely related to Gibberella fujikuroi ( anamorph F fujikuroi ) responsible for Bakanae disease in rice ; however there are few reports of F proliferatum as a rice pathogen . In this study , we examined the pathogenic potential of F proliferatum in rice plants with respect to browning , fumonisin production , and survival rates in rice grains . Fungal inoculation was conducted by spraying a conidial suspension of F proliferatum onto rice plants during the flowering period . Browning was found on the stalk , leaf , and ear of rice . Fumonisin B ( 1 ) was detected at levels from trace to 21 ng/g grains , using tandem mass spectrometry . Fungal recovery after 6 months indicated that F proliferatum had high affinity to rice plants being still viable in grains . From this study , it can be concluded that F proliferatum is a possible pathogen of rice and possesses a potential to produce fumonisin B ( 1 ) in rice grains in the field .
Score: 1.00
Author: Mei N Zhang Y Chen Y Guo X Ding W Ali SF Biris AS Rice P Moore MM Chen T
Journal: Environ Mol Mutagen Citation: V : 53 P : 409-19 Year: 2012 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22576574
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles ( Ag-NPs ) have increasingly been used for coatings on various textiles and certain implants , for the treatment of wounds and burns , as a water disinfectant , and in air-freshener sprays . The wide use of Ag-NPs may have potential human health impacts . In this study , the mutagenicity of 5-nm Ag-NPs was evaluated in the mouse lymphoma assay system , and modes of action were assessed using standard alkaline and enzyme-modified Comet assays and gene expression analysis . Treatments of L5178Y/Tk ( +/- ) mouse lymphoma cells with 5-nm uncoated Ag-NPs resulted in a significant yield of mutants at doses between 3 and 6 mug/mL ; the upper range was limited by toxicity . Loss of heterozygosity analysis of the Tk mutants revealed that treatments with uncoated Ag-NPs induced mainly chromosomal alterations spanning less than 34 megabase pairs on chromosome 11 . Although no significant induction of DNA damage in Ag-NP-treated mouse lymphoma cells was observed in the standard Comet assay , the Ag-NP treatments induced a dose-responsive increase in oxidative DNA damage in the enzyme-modified Comet assay in which oxidative lesion-specific endonucleases were added . Gene expression analysis using an oxidative stress and antioxidant defense polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) array showed that the expressions of 17 of the 59 genes on the arrays were altered in the cells treated with Ag-NPs . These genes are involved in production of reactive oxygen species , oxidative stress response , antioxidants , oxygen transporters , and DNA repair . These results suggest that 5 nm Ag-NPs are mutagenic in mouse lymphoma cells due to induction of oxidative stress by the Ag-NPs . Environ . Mol . Mutagen . 2012 . ( c ) 2012Wiley Periodicals , Inc .
Score: 1.00
Author: Serafine KM Briscione MA Rice KC Riley AL
Journal: Pharmacol Biochem Behav Citation: V : 102 P : 269-74 Year: 2012 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22579912
Abstract: Although cocaine readily induces taste aversions , little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect . It has been suggested that its inhibitory effects at one of the monoamine transporters may be mediating this suppression . Using the cross-drug preexposure preparation , the present series of studies examined a possible role of dopamine ( DA ) in this effect . Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to cocaine ( 18mg/kg ; Experiment 1 ) or the selective DA transporter ( DAT ) inhibitor GBR 12909 ( 50mg/kg ; Experiment 2 ) prior to the pairing of a novel saccharin solution with injections of GBR 12909 ( 32mg/kg ) , cocaine ( 18mg/kg ) or vehicle in a conditioned taste aversion ( CTA ) procedure . Preexposure to cocaine attenuated aversions induced by itself but not aversions induced by GBR 12909 ( Experiment 1 ) . Conversely , preexposure to GBR 12909 attenuated aversions induced by itself and cocaine ( Experiment 2 ) . This asymmetry suggests that cocaine and GBR 12909 induce CTAs via similar , but non-identical , mechanisms . These data are discussed in the context of previous work demonstrating roles for dopamine , norepinephrine and serotonin in cocaine-induced CTAs .
Score: 1.00
Author: Tao P Peng L Huang X Wang J
Journal: Plant Cell Rep Citation: V : P : Year: 2012 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22648014
Abstract: As the crucial members of the cold-regulated ( COR ) gene family , KIN genes are involved in diverse abiotic stress responses in plants . In the present study , KIN genes from the widespread plant Capsella bursa-pastoris were identified and analyzed to better understand the powerful adaptation of this species . Two KIN genes were cloned and sequenced by 3 RACE . As some COR genes are homologous to LEA genes , three KIN-homologous LEA genes were also identified . We deduced the amino acid sequences of the five proteins to estimate their phylogenetic relationships , and grouped them into three subfamilies ( CI , CII , and CIII ) . Variable 3 UTRs were found in CI , CII , and CIII genes . Using qPCR , we evaluated the transcriptional levels of the five genes in different organs and embryonic stages . Two CI genes were exclusively expressed in early embryos and flowers . The CII and CIII genes showed obvious up-regulation in young leaves after heat stress , cold stress , and ABA treatment . Two of the CI genes , however , rarely responded to those stresses in young leaves . In contrast , all five genes showed differential responses in flowers when C bursa-pastoris plants were sprayed with ABA . Furthermore , the expression of these genes in C bursa-pastoris was compared to that of the corresponding Arabidopsis genes , and similar gene expression profiles were found in both species . Our findings suggest that these five genes play different roles in development and the responses to abiotic stresses in C bursa-pastoris . Key message We characterized two KIN and three KIN-homologous LEA genes , and analyzed their variable 3UTR and organ-specific , embryo-developmental , stress-induced gene expression in Capsella bursa-pastoris .
Score: 1.00
Author: Kumar B Sharma R Singh SB
Journal: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol Citation: V : 89 P : 344-7 Year: 2012 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22729719
Abstract: Cyhalofop-butyl is a recently registered herbicide from the aryloxyphenoxy propionate group in India to control a wide range of grass weed species at various growth stages in rice crop . Field experiment with rice variety Pusa Sugandh 5 was conducted at IARI , New Delhi . Rice crop was sprayed thrice with cyhalofopa-butyl at 40 , 60 and 80 g ha ( -1 ) at the 10 , 20 and 30 DAS . Harvest soil samples were extracted and analysed for cyhalofop-butyl and cyhalofop acid residues by HPLC using CH ( 3 ) OH : H ( 2 ) O ( 80 : 20 ) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL min ( -1 ) at 240 nm wavelength using PDA detector . In harvest soil the residues were below the detectable limits .
Score: 1.00
Author: Yuan L Wu L Yang C Lv Q
Journal: J Sci Food Agric Citation: V : P : Year: 2012 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22740351
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Foliar sprays of iron ( Fe ) and zinc ( Zn ) fertilisers are known to be an effective way to improve Fe and Zn concentrations in rice grain . However , results can differ significantly among different rice cultivars and/or types of foliar fertiliser . In this study , several Fe-rich rice cultivars were used to identify an effective foliar fertiliser for optimal Fe and Zn enrichment of rice grain . RESULTS : Foliar Fe amino acid ( Fe-AA ) fertiliser significantly improved the Fe concentration in brown rice of most cultivars . Compared with the control , the average Fe concentration in all tested cultivars was increased by 14 . 5% . The average Fe concentration was increased by 32 . 5% when 1% ( w/v ) nicotianamine ( NA ) was added to Fe-AA , while the average Zn concentration was increased by 42 . 4% when 0 . 5% ( w/v ) ZnSO ( 4 ) . 7H ( 2 ) O was added to Fe-AA . CONCLUSION : The results suggested that NA at a suitable concentration added to Fe-AA fertiliser could accelerate Fe accumulation in rice grain . A relatively low concentration of ZnSO ( 4 ) . 7H ( 2 ) O added to Fe-AA significantly increased Fe and Zn accumulation in rice grain . The study identified some useful foliar fertilisers for enhancing the levels of Fe and Zn in selected Fe-rich rice cultivars . Copyright ( c ) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry .
Score: 1.00
Author: Mitchell R Brighton B Sherker S
Journal: J Sci Med Sport Citation: V : P : Year: 2012 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22743236
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To describe the epidemiology of competition and training-based surf sport-related injury in Australia in the years 2003-2011 . DESIGN : A retrospective epidemiological review . METHOD : Information on surf sport-related injuries was obtained from Surf Life Saving Australias SurfGuard Incident Reporting Database during 1 January 2003 to 20 August 2011 . RESULTS : There were 2645 surf sport-related competition or training-related incidents . Males and females experienced similar proportions of injury by activity type , with older individuals experiencing a higher proportion of injuries during training than younger individuals . Minor first aid was required for 54 . 5% of the competition and 43 . 7% of the training-related incidents , with major first aid required in just over 10% of both incident types . Overall , inflatable rescue boats , beach flags , and surf boats were the most common activities performed at the time of the incident , with returning to shore and negotiating the break the most common possible contributing factors to surf boat incidents . Bruises/contusions , strains , inflammation/swelling , and sprains were the most common types of injuries that occurred during both competition and training . RICE - Rest-Ice-Compression-Elevation - was the most common form of initial treatment for the injury during both competition and training . CONCLUSIONS : Participation in surf sports is not without risk of injury . Information from this study will inform injury prevention efforts for surf sport and act as a guide for future research in this area , and towards improved injury surveillance for surf sport-related injuries .
Score: 1.00
Author: Coosemans M Barutwanyo M
Journal: Trans . R Soc . Trop . Med . Hyg . Citation: V : 83 Suppl ( ) P : 97-8 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2623758
Abstract: Within a large project for the socio-economic development of the rice growing area of the Rusizi valley in Burundi , a malarial control programme has been set up . This programme has several components : improvement of curative services , promotion of use of impregnated mosquito nets , and use of environmental engineering and indoor spraying with residual insecticides to control infection .
Score: 1.00
Author: Mitchell GV Jenkins MY Grundel E
Journal: Citation: V : 39 ( 1 ) P : 53-8 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2710752
Abstract: As a part of a cooperative study initiated to assess both in vitro and in vivo protein quality methods , the protein efficiency ratio ( PER ) and net protein ratios ( NPR ) of 15 different protein sources were determined . Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 10% protein diet . Fourteen-day NPR and relative NPR ( RNPR ) values and 14 and 28-day PER and relative PER ( RPER ) values were calculated for each protein source . When protein quality values were expressed relative to ANRC casein , the 14 and 28-day PER data ranked the protein sources essentially in the same order . RPER values of nonfat dried skim milk ( unheated ) and tuna were more than 100% that of casein ; nonfat dried skim milk ( heated ) , chickpeas , and breakfast sausage were between 50 and 70% of that of casein ; and pinto beans and rice-wheat gluten cereal did not support substantial growth of the rat . The NPR method did not always rank the protein sources in the same order as the PER method . For the poor quality proteins , RNPR values were much higher than the RPER values ; however , the RNPR and RPER values agreed closely for high quality protein sources .
Score: 1.00
Author: Webber A
Journal: Citation: V : 7 ( 3 ) P : 611-24 Year: 1988 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3042162
Abstract: Although the incidence of soft-tissue injury is high in the young athlete , one must be constantly aware of the tendency toward epiphyseal and apophyseal injuries in individuals with open growth plates . After the diagnosis of a soft-tissue injury ( sprain , strain , or contusion ) has been made , treatment must include an initial 24 to 48-hour period of RICE . Appropriate splinting may be required . Rehabilitation then proceeds aggressively , with early restoration of strength , flexibility , and joint range of motion . Prior to return to full athletic activity , the athlete should meet the criteria outlined in this article . Protective taping or bracing may be necessary upon return to full activity . The treatment of soft-tissue injuries should start with prophylaxis . All predisposing factors to the development of injury should be sought on preparticipation physical examinations and corrected prior to allowing the young athlete to compete . Using the program described as a guide to treating the injured athlete should result in early return to function with low recurrence rates of injury .
Score: 1.00
Author: Bhan MK Arora NK Khoshoo V Raj P Bhatnager S Sazawal S Sharma K
Journal: J Pediatr . Gastroenterol . Nutr . Citation: V : 7 ( 2 ) P : 208-13 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3351705
Abstract: Sixty children less than 2 years of age suffering from mild acute gastroenteritis with less than 5% dehydration were randomly assigned to two different isocaloric feeding regimens , viz . , a locally prepared milk-free formulation ( group A ) of rice , lentil , sugar , and coconut oil and a spray dried commercial cows milk formula ( group B ) . There were two treatment failures in group A and one in group B The postintervention duration of diarrhea ( days ) in group A ( 11 . 0 +/- 10 . 0 ) was higher than in group B ( 7 . 6 +/- 10 . 8 ) , but these differences were not significant ( p greater than 0 . 05 ) . The energy intake ( kcal/kg/24 h ) on postintervention day 4 was 78 . 7 +/- 31 . 7 in group A and 101 . 3 +/- 41 . 1 in group B ( p greater than 0 . 05 ) . The corresponding values for day 7 were 74 . 2 +/- 29 . 1 and 110 . 0 +/- 41 . 1 , respectively ( p less than 0 . 05 ) . The mean weight gain ( g/kg/24 h ) between admission and the day of recovery in group A ( 2 . 0 +/- 4 . 2 ) was significantly lower ( p less than 0 . 05 ) than in group B ( 5 . 8 +/- 7 . 8 ) . Similar trends in weight gain were observed at days 4 and 7 . These findings suggest that a cows milk-based formula is well tolerated by majority of the infants with mild acute gastroenteritis after initial rehydration with ORS . The infants who were fed the milk-free cereal-based diet showed significantly less energy intake and gained weight less rapidly than those who were fed the cows milk-based formula .
Score: 1.00
Author: Lacey LA Heitzman CM Meisch M Billodeaux J
Journal: J Am . Mosq . Control Assoc . Citation: V : 2 ( 4 ) P : 548-51 Year: 1986 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3507530
Abstract: An aerially applied flowable concentrate ( FC ) of Bacillus sphaericus Neide ( isolate 2362 ) was evaluated against riceland mosquitoes using the Beecomist spray head . Application of the FC at 0 . 58 and 1 . 17 liter/ha in maturing rice fields resulted in a 48 hr mean posttreatment reduction of Anopheles quadrimaculatus of 71 and 82% , respectively . A significant reduction in larval populations one week posttreatment was also observed . Treatment rates of 0 . 29 , 0 . 44 , and 0 . 58 liter/ha in reflooded second crop rice fields resulted in 48 hr posttreatment reduction of Psorophora columbiae larvae of 50 , 76 and 98% respectively .
Score: 1.00
Author: Shiga N Matano O Goto S
Journal: J Chromatogr . Citation: V : 396 ( ) P : 327-35 Year: 1987 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3624378
Abstract: A procedure for high-performance liquid chromatographic ( HPLC ) determination of triflumizole and its metabolite ( Met ) in crops was examined . Triflumizole and Met in sample crops were extracted with methanol and re-extracted into methylene chloride . After clean-up of the extract on a Florisil column , triflumizole and Met were determined by HPLC with UV detection at 238 nm . The HPLC column was packed with Nucleosil 5 C18 ( ODS , 5 micron ) and the eluent was acetonitrile-3 mM carbonate buffer ( 7 : 3 , v/v , pH 9 . 0 ) . The detection limit was 0 . 01-0 . 02 ppm and the recoveries from spiked crops ( 0 . 5 ppm ) were 73-99% for triflumizole and 74-94% for Met . Triflumizole and Met were determined simultaneously and the method was shown to be applicable to residue analysis of these compounds in crops sprayed with Trifmine in fields .
Score: 1.00
Author: Pappas PW Leiby DA .
Journal: J Parasitol . Citation: V : 72 ( 3 ) P : 383-91 Year: 1986 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3746559
Abstract: Four "strains" of Hymenolepis diminuta were examined for morphological variation . These included the ARME "strain" ( currently maintained at the University of Keele , UK ) , the OSU "strain" ( currently maintained at The Ohio State University ) and the TOR ( or UT ) "strain" ( currently maintained at the University of Toronto ) , all of which were derived from the parental RICE "strain , " and the ANU "strain" ( currently maintained at the Australian National University ) . Additionally , 2 separate "clonal" populations ( populations derived from single cysticercoids ) from both the OSU and ANU "strains" were examined . All "strains" and "clones" were maintained under identical conditions using Tenebrio molitor and male Sprague-Dawley rats as the intermediate and definitive hosts , respectively . The lengths and widths of eggs and larvae ( oncospheres ) passed in the hosts feces , and the numbers and distributions of testes in proglottids were quantified and the data analyzed . Although analyses of the lengths and widths of eggs and larvae demonstrated significant differences among some "strains" and "clones , " a discriminate analysis of the data indicated these parameters to be of questionable taxonomic significance . The eggs of all "strains" and "clones" consisted of 2 distinct populations differing in density and size but not infectivity ; the relative proportions of eggs in the 2 populations were not determined . Considering all possible numbers and distributions of testes , 17 variations were seen in the strobilae of tapeworms . Analyses of the data demonstrated that the "strains" and "clones" could be differentiated clearly using only the frequencies of the 1p2a ( 1 poral and 2 aporal testes ) or 1p3a distribution , or the frequencies of proglottids containing 3 or 4 testes ; all other variations failed to clearly differentiate or group the various "strains" and "clones . " ( ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS )
Score: 1.00
Author: Ninomiya S Hashimoto K Tanaka N
Journal: Citation: V : 11 Suppl 2 ( ) P : 107-19 Year: 1986 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3761402
Abstract: The oral acute toxicity studies of SF-1008C , an elemental diet for hepatic failure , and its components ( peptide and rice oil ) were evaluated in ICR mice and Sprague-Dawley rats . The following results were obtained . Mortality ; The minimum lethal doses for SF-1008C in male and female mice and rats were higher than 40 g/kg . The minimum lethal doses for peptide in male and female mice and rats were higher than 6 g/kg . The minimum lethal doses for rice oil in male and female mice and rats were higher than 20 ml/kg . General symptoms ; the major signs observed were loose stool in the mice treated with SF-1008C , yellowish brown urine in the rats treated with SF-1008C or peptide and diarrhea in the rats treated with rice oil . Body weight and food consumption ; decrease in food consumption and slight decrease in body weight gain were observed in the female mice treated with SF-1008C , peptide and rice oil , but the decrease was not dose-dependent . Decrease in food consumption was also observed in the male and female rats treated with of SF-1008C and rice oil , but the decrease was not dose-dependent . Body weight , however , did not show significant change in any group of rats . Gross pathology ; no drug-related changes in organs and it issues were observed by necropsy in any group of mice or rats . Based on these results , the acute toxicities of SF-1008C and its components were low , respectively .
Score: 1.00
Author: Dyment PG .
Journal: Citation: V : 7 ( 6 Suppl ) P : 133S-135S Year: 1986 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3781900
Abstract: Rest , ice therapy , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) are important components of the initial management of acute soft-tissue injuries such as contusions , strains , and sprains . Cryotherapy should be used , in the form of an ice pack , as soon as possible after the injury , and then several times a day for 20 minutes for several days . The use of ice has a theoretical , clinical , and experimental basis . Mild pain due to an injury should be treated with acetaminophen rather than aspirin because of the latters effect on blood coagulation .
Score: 1.00
Author: Clanton TO Butler JE Eggert A
Journal: Citation: V : 7 ( 3 ) P : 162-76 Year: 1986 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3804139
Abstract: Injury to the metatarsophalangeal joints in sports has become an increasing problem with the advent of more flexible shoewear and artificial playing surfaces . These injuries vary from mild sprains to severe tearing of the capsuloligamentous complex including avulsion fractures . This may include a compression fracture of the metatarsal head in the more severe cases . At the extreme , dislocation or fracture-dislocation of the metatarsophalangeal joint occurs . The findings in 62 cases of these injuries in Rice University athletes from 1971 to 1985 are presented . Treatment follows a standard regimen of ice , taping and anti-inflammatory medication with gradual return to sports activity as symptoms allow . Recommendations for preventive therapy include stiffening the forefoot in athletic shoes or the use of an orthotic device . This should reduce the incidence of long-term sequelae .
Score: 1.00
Author: Sandoski CA Yates MM Olson JK Meisch MV .
Journal: J Am . Mosq . Control Assoc . Citation: V : 1 ( 3 ) P : 316-9 Year: 1985 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3880248
Abstract: The Beecomist spray head was evaluated for aerial application of Bacillus thuringiensis var . israelensis ( serotype H-14 ; Bti ) at various ultra low volume ( ULV ) rates against natural populations of Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae in rice fields . Deposits on Kromekote cards indicated that 0 . 54 liter/ha of neat Bti penetrated the dense canopy of the rice field . Mean number of droplets 65 cm below canopy level was 4 . 9 +/- 5 . 0/100 cm2 . At 1 day posttreatment , applications of 0 . 54 , 0 . 27 , 0 . 11 , 0 . 07 and 0 . 04 liter of Bti/ha resulted in reductions of 97 . 9 , 94 . 4 , 93 . 0 , 71 . 1 and 21 . 8% , respectively , of An . quadrimaculatus larvae/dip . Calculated lethal field dosages ( LFD50 and LFD90 ) were 0 . 05 and 0 . 16 liter/ha , respectively .
Score: 1.00
Author: Kunita N Hori S Obana H Otake T Nishimura H Kashimoto T Ikegami N
Journal: Environ . Health Perspect . Citation: V : 59 ( ) P : 79-84 Year: 1985 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3921369
Abstract: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily given orally for 22 days a regimen consisting of polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) , 1 mg/day ; polychlorinated quaterphenyls ( PCQs ) , 1 mg/day ; polychlorinated dibenzofurans ( PCDFs ) , 10 micrograms/day ; or a mixture of PCBs , PCQs and PCDFs ( Mix-1 , 1 mg + 1 mg + 10 micrograms/day ) . Female Cynomolgus monkeys were daily administered PCBs ( 5 mg ) , PCQs ( 5 mg ) or a mixture ( Mix-2 ) containing 5 mg PCBs + 20 micrograms PCDFs for 20 weeks . The PCBs , and PCDFs had the components of PCBs , PCQs and PCDFs similar to those contained in Japanese yusho oils , respectively . The PCB-treated rats and monkeys showed hepatic hypertrophy , immunosuppression and increased drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in hepatic microsomes , but were devoid of the dermal symptoms characteristic of yusho . PCQs caused an increase in drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in hepatic microsomes and immunosuppression in monkeys , but these effects were much smaller than those found with PCBs treatment . On the other hand , treatment with PCDF or Mix-1 or Mix-2 caused hypertrophy of the liver , immunosuppression , increase in drug-metabolizing enzyme activities of hepatic microsome to much greater extent than observed with PCBs , being more than 100 times as effective as PCBs . In addition PCDFs and the mixtures containing PCDFs caused weight loss and thymic atrophy . PCDFs and Mix-2-treated monkeys showed the dermal symptoms that are characteristic of yusho patients but were not observed in monkeys treated with PCBs and PCQs alone . These results suggest that PCDFs are the primary causative agent of yusho .
Score: 1.00
Author: Vargas E Blanco A Lastreto C Romn AV .
Journal: Citation: V : 35 ( 1 ) P : 90-104 Year: 1985 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3938938
Abstract: An infant food , a mixture of soy , rice and banana was biologically evaluated in three studies carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats . In the first assay , the caloric supplementation and milk protein complementation effect on the nutritive value of the product was studied . Results indicated that an equal nutritive value as that of milk is obtained when 50% of the vegetable protein is replaced by animal protein . The fact that caloric supplementation does not exert any positive effect on the nutritive value of the infant food , under the conditions of the study , was also confirmed . In the second assay , the effect of amino acid ( lysine and methionine ) supplementation was evaluated . Results revealed a significant improvement of the product quality with lysine supplementation , a finding that implies thermal protein damage caused by industrial processing . In the third study , whole milk supplementation effect at the levels that the product could be offered in school lunch programs and Nutrition and Education Centers was investigated . Such values , as determined , correspond to 343 to 655 ml of fluid milk per 100 g of the cereal product . It was also found that milk complements and improves the nutritive value of the product at equal statistical ( P less than 0 . 05 ) values as those of milk .
Score: 1.00
Author: Rao CS Devadath S Dath AP .
Journal: Can . J Microbiol . Citation: V : 24 ( 8 ) P : 1010-2 Year: 1978 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub567522
Abstract: Among 11 epiphytic microorganisms one species each of Pseudomonas , Erwinia , and Aspergillus were antagonistic to Xanthomonas translucens subsp . oryzicola . Symptoms of bacterial leaf streak did not develop when the antagonists were sprayed on rice leaves 24 h before inoculation . Although the symptoms developed when the antagonists were applied 24 h after inoculation , the number of lesions and their length was significantly reduced over control . When the mixture of each antagonist and the pathogen was applied , no symptoms developed with Pseudomonas and Aspergillus sp . However , the symptoms could develop with Erwinia sp . although the number and length of the lesions was reduced over control .
Score: 1.00
Author: Richardson KE Hagler WM Hamilton PB .
Journal: Appl . Environ . Microbiol . Citation: V : 47 ( 4 ) P : 643-6 Year: 1984 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub6232897
Abstract: Three methods for detecting toxigenic fusaria in culture were compared by using known producers of zearalenone , zearalenol , T-2 toxin , and deoxynivalenol . Moist , autoclaved rice cultures of known toxigenic isolates grown in 20-ml tubes yielded oily extracts containing compounds which interfered with qualitative and quantitative analysis for the mycotoxins . Vermiculite moistened with nutrient broth in 20-ml tubes yielded a much cleaner extract . Growing the fungi on a liquid medium required a shorter incubation period , but yields of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol were low and variable , and the method required greater space in the incubator . Screening of the extracts by thin-layer chromatography with colorimetric spray reagents to detect the presence of these toxins permitted reduction in the number of extracts quantified by the more lengthy gas-liquid chromatographic method . Culturing in nutrient broth on vermiculite in tubes coupled to a qualitative screen before quantitation proved to be a convenient , inexpensive , and relatively rapid method that enabled reliable screening of a large number of Fusarium isolates for toxin production as compared with prior methods .
Score: 1.00
Author: Ning-Qing C
Journal: Citation: V : 40 ( 5 ) P : 555-9 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub6255282
Abstract: Japanese B encephalitis is the most important and widespread arbovirus disease in China . Except Tibet and Sinjiang autonomous regions , it occured in every province . JBE virus were isolated from six species of Culex , three species of Aedes , one species of Anopheles and Lasiohelea . The main vector of JBE virus in China is Culex tritaeniorhynchus . The main spreading reservoir host , no doubt , is the pig , but the persistant reservoir is not clear yet . Vaccination of the children under ten years is an efficient measure to control the epidemics of JBE . However , integrated measures will ensure better results . It includes health educational programmes , vaccination , early applying larvicidal insecticides , residual spraying in livestock pens , biological measures against mosquitoes in rice fields .
Score: 1.00
Author: Ameenuddin S Bird HR Pringle DJ Sunde ML .
Journal: Poult . Sci . Citation: V : 62 ( 3 ) P : 505-11 Year: 1983 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub6844215
Abstract: Spray-dried leaf protein concentrate prepared from Red Clover and alfalfa with low or high saponin content were evaluated by studying their effect on growth and feed efficiency of broiler chicks at the 40% level . Excellent growth and feed efficiency were recorded when 40% of low saponin alfalfa protein concentrate ( APC ) prepared from fresh alfalfa was incorporated in the diets . Saponin in APC estimated by hemolysis test was an important factor affecting the growth , feed efficiency , and mortality of chicks . Analysis of variance showed no significant ( P less than . 05 ) difference in body weight gain between Red Clover protein concentrate and low saponin APC . A significant reduction in body weight gain of both broiler and egg type chicks was observed when 40 parts of wet alfalfa protein concentrate were incorporated in the diets . A combination of 30 parts of wet alfalfa protein concentrate ( wet APC ) and rice bran in a broiler diet did not adversely affect growth . Supplementation of additional vitamins did not improve gain in body weight when 40 parts of wet APC and rice bran were included in the diet . Supplementation of vitamin E seems to be crucial when higher levels of wet APC and rice bran are included in broiler diets .
Score: 1.00
Author: Yap HH Ho SC .
Journal: Southeast Asian J Trop . Med . Public Health Citation: V : 8 ( 1 ) P : 63-70 Year: 1977 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub70078
Abstract: Emulsifiable concentrates of DursbanR ( chlorpyrifos ) and Dowco 214 ( chlorpyrifos-methyl ) were tested as mosquito larvicides using Hudson knapsack sprayers on small plots of rice-fields on Penang Island . The mosquitoes found in these rice-fields are predominantly Anopheles campestris and Culex tritaeniorhynchus . At dosages of 14 , 28 and 56 gm hectare-1 , Dursban is effective in maintaining the rice-fields free of Anopheles larvae for at least 2 , 3 and 7 days respectively . Dowco 214 at 56 gm hectare-1 is able to keep the fields free of all mosquito larvae for at least 2 days .
Score: 1.00
Author: OBrien BC Reiser R
Journal: J Nutr . Citation: V : 112 ( 8 ) P : 1490-7 Year: 1982 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub7097359
Abstract: The average serum cholesterol level of rats fed a human-type diet that contained 28% ( wt/wt ) beef fat and 0 . 5% added cholesterol and that was low in non-digestible constituents was lower than that of rats fed an equivalent diet prepared from purified ingredients , 94 mg/dl and 163 mg/dl , respectively . In order to identify the hypocholesterolemic ingredients in the human-type diet , the sources of protein and carbohydrate in the purified diet , casein and cornstarch , were substituted for the corresponding sources in the human-type diet , beef tenderloin , bread , and rice . These prepared diets were fed to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 10 weeks . Diets containing casein were hypercholesterolemic compared to stock rat diet , but rats fed the bread with the casein had the lowest serum cholesterol level , 112 mg/dl , of any casein diet group . The cholesterolemic response of rats fed the beef and bread diet was the same as that of stock-fed rats , 94 mg/dl and 86 mg/dl , respectively . The level of cholesterol in the liver of rats fed the beef and bread diet was lower than that of rats fed the purified diet , 7 . 7 mg/g and 28 . 5 mg/g , respectively , but it was higher than that of rats fed the stock diet , 3 . 8 mg/g . The hypocholesterolemic effect of beef and bread may be related to reduced cholesterol absorption . These data demonstrate the sensitive control on cholesterol metabolism of nonlipid diet ingredients .
Score: 1.00
Author: Nagarajan S
Journal: Ciba Found . Symp . Citation: V : 177 ( ) P : 208-23 ; discussion 223-7 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8149823
Abstract: The concept of development is reviewed in terms of sustainability . Food production in India driven by pressure from an increasing human population uses 90 , 000 t per year of technical-grade pesticide : 12% of this is fungicide and a good part is insecticide for the control of vectors of plant viruses . A change in the cropping pattern and irrigation have provided a summer green bridge along Tamil Nadu/Andhra Pradesh border areas for the tungro virus that affects rice and its vector . Epidemics occur along the coramandal coast , if the weather is suitable . Red rot disease of sugarcane is promoted by poor drainage , river widening , ratooning , contaminated planting material and variation in the pathogen throughout the Indo-Gangetic plain . Apple production uses large amounts of fungicide . For every 1000 t of apples produced 1t of fungicide is sprayed 8-10 times sequentially . Systemic application of fungicides has led to pesticide resistance and resurgence of other diseases . 70-80% of the Nagpur Mandrin produce reaches the market by trucks that have to traverse 1000 km . 10 . 6% of fruits are lost to post-harvest diseases ; culling , sunburn and injuries account for another 11 . 6% . In the control of leaf rust of wheat in North India , the use of varietal mosaics , resistance genes and extra-late wheat sowings that do not coincide with favourable weather have all collectively contributed to loss reduction . The drop in the production of exportable crops such as peppers and coconuts because of diseases needs attention . The traditional wisdom on crop mixtures , organic manuring , shifting sowings , etc , needs scientific re-evaluation .
Score: 1.00
Author: Monzon RB Kitikoon V Thammapalerd N Temcharoen P Sornmani S Viyanant V
Journal: Southeast Asian J Trop . Med . Public Health Citation: V : 24 ( 3 ) P : 563-9 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8160069
Abstract: Field surveys conducted at Echague , Isabela and San Pablo , Laguna revealed that Lymnaea ( Bullastra ) cumingiana , the natural second snail intermediate host of Echinostoma malayanum in the Philippines , exhibits a moderate degree of diversity in its choice of habitats . Rice fields of all stages of development , stagnant shallow streams and springs are the main areas where the snail can be collected from at Echague , Isabela . However , they were absent in rice fields that had been extensively sprayed with molluscicides to control the "golden apple snail" ( Ampullarius canaliculatus ) . In contrast , they were also very abundant in the highly eutrophic waters of Sampaloc lake , San Pablo , Laguna . L cumingiana co-exists with various species of insects , snails , fish and plants in these habitats . Information on ecological characteristics affecting its distribution will be useful for those who wish to collect and study this species in the future .
Score: 1.00
Author: Elissa N Mouchet J Rivire F Meunier JY Yao K
Journal: Citation: V : 4 ( 2 ) P : 95-9 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8186931
Abstract: Studies on the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to insecticides were carried out in rice field areas of Cte-dIvoire . An . _gambiae larvae populations from Cte-dIvoire were resistant to DDT but susceptible to organophosphorous insecticides . Adult populations from the surroundings of Bouake were resistant to DDT and permethrin . Resistance to propoxur was strongly suspected . The knock-down effect of both deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin was delayed and strongly decreased . The control strain from Bobo-Dioulasso and populations from rice fields of Katiola located far from the city were still susceptible to the three pyrethroids . It is likely that resistance to pyrethroids in Bouake has been promoted by the intensive use of domestic aerosol sprays .
Score: 1.00
Author: Bockarie MJ Service MW TourEYT TraorES Barnish G Greenwood BM .
Journal: Parassitologia Citation: V : 35 Suppl ( ) P : 5-8 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8233612
Abstract: Studies on the ecology of Anopheles gambiae s . s . and the transmission of malaria were undertaken in a high rainfall forested area in southern Sierra Leone . Anopheles gambiae s . s . , identified by chromosomal techniques as the Forest form , was the only malaria vector in the study village . Surprisingly , rice fields or swamps were not favoured breeding places for this species ; breeding mainly occurred in temporary pools . The mean annual sporozoite rate of An . gambiae s . s . determined by ELISA was 3 . 9% . Pyrethrum spray , human bait , and exit trap collections , as well as identification of mosquito blood-meals using the ELISA method , showed that the forest chromosomal form of An . gambiae s . s . was highly anthropophagic and exophilic .
Score: 1.00
Author: Anderson JW Jones AE Riddell-Mason S
Journal: J Nutr . Citation: V : 124 ( 1 ) P : 78-83 Year: 1994 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8283297
Abstract: The comparative effects of 10 different dietary fibers on serum and liver lipids were investigated by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats diets containing 10 g cholesterol + 2 g cholic acid/kg diet , with 60 g fiber/kg diet . Diets were fed for 3 wk ; cellulose was the control fiber . Rats fed psyllium ( rich in soluble fiber ) had the lowest serum and liver cholesterol concentrations . Rats fed other soluble fiber-rich fibers ( oat gum , guar gum and pectin ) also had significantly lower serum and liver cholesterol concentrations than rats fed cellulose . Although feeding diets containing both soluble and insoluble fibers ( soybean fiber and oat bran ) did not significantly alter serum cholesterol , liver cholesterol values were significantly lower than those of cellulose-fed rats . Rats fed rice bran , predominantly an insoluble fiber source , had significantly higher liver cholesterol and significantly lower body weight gains and serum triglyceride concentrations than cellulose-fed rats . Values for serum and liver cholesterol were similar for rats were fed insoluble-rich fibers ( corn bran , cellulose and wheat bran ) . These observations indicate that feeding dietary fibers rich in soluble fiber produces lower serum and liver cholesterol concentrations than does feeding commonly available sources of water-insoluble fiber .
Score: 1.00
Author: Zheng BY Khin-Maung-U Lu RB Maiese RL Maiese S Lebenthal E
Journal: Gastroenterology Citation: V : 104 ( 1 ) P : 81-5 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8419265
Abstract: BACKGROUND : This study aims to determine the effect of replacing glucose in oral rehydration solution ( ORS ) with starch hydrolysates from rice on absorption in the small intestine and levels of glucose in portal venous blood and on disaccharidase levels and morphometric measurements in intestines of rats . METHODS : ORS containing standard composition of salts and 2% glucose ( WHO ORS ) or 2% , 5% , or 10% starch hydrolysates were infused into duodena of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats ( 250-350 g ) . Portal venous blood glucose levels were determined at 0 , 30 , 60 , 90 , and 120 minutes . RESULTS : Significantly larger areas under the curve of glucose absorption ( AUCs ) were produced by ORS containing 10% unfractionated starch hydrolysates ( 123 . 2 +/- 3 . 8 ) , 2% , 5% , and 10% starch hydrolysates with long-chain ( > 9 molecules ) glucose polymers ( 109 . 5 +/- 10 . 6 , 109 . 3 +/- 7 . 4 , and 115 . 3 +/- 7 . 1 , respectively ) , and 5% and 10% starch hydrolysates with short-chain ( 2-9 molecules ) glucose polymers ( 124 . 4 +/- 6 . 1 and 128 . 1 +/- 6 . 8 ) . ORS with 2% and 5% unfractionated starch hydrolysates and 2% short-chain glucose polymers produced AUCs comparable with those of WHO ORS ( 96 . 48 +/- 5 . 7 ) . Disaccharidase levels and morphometric measurements were not significantly different . CONCLUSIONS : Starch hydrolysates from rice containing glucose polymers can be used in ORS in higher concentrations than glucose to provide higher caloric density without increased osmolality .
Score: 1.00
Author: Burdmann EA Rosen S Lindsley J Elzinga L Andoh T Bennett WM .
Journal: Transplantation Citation: V : 55 ( 5 ) P : 963-6 Year: 1993 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8497907
Abstract: Chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy during long-term cyclosporine A ( CsA ) use has led to a search for equally effective but safer analogues . In this study we evaluated one of these analogues , cyclosporine G ( CsG ) , in a rat model of chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity . CsG has immunosuppressive effects equivalent to CsA when dosed on a weight basis . Pair-fed Sprague-Dawley rats kept on a low-salt rice diet were given CsA 15 mg/kg , CsG 15 mg/kg , CsG 25 mg/kg , or vehicle subcutaneously . After 21 days , CsA animals had a lower glomerular filtration rate , measured by inulin clearance ( 0 . 16 +/- 0 . 04 ml/min/100 g ) and higher serum creatinine ( 0 . 94 +/- 0 . 06 mg/dl ) than CsG 15 mg/kg ( GFR : 0 . 41 +/- 0 . 10 ml/min/100 g and serum creatinine : 0 . 68 +/- 0 . 09 mg/dl ) , CsG 25 mg/kg ( GFR : 0 . 39 +/- 0 . 16 ml/min/100 g ) or control rats ( GFR : 0 . 62 +/- 0 . 06 ml/min/100 g ; serum creatinine : 0 . 56 +/- 0 . 03 mg/dl ) , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . The CsA group had considerable cortical and medullary injury ( interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy ) , whereas both groups of CsG animals had more limited changes . Despite the same or larger doses of CsG on a weight basis , cyclosporine blood levels were significantly lower in CsG than CsA rats . We conclude that CsG , an analogue of cyclosporine with immunosuppressive activity equivalent to that of CsA , produced less nephrotoxicity in a model of chronic renal injury in rats , using both functional and structural parameters .
Score: 1.00
Author: Murata K Nishikaze M Tanaka M
Journal: J Nutr . Sci . Vitaminol . Citation: V : 23 ( 2 ) P : 125-31 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub874579
Abstract: The nutritional quality of rice protein was compared with that of whole egg protein by slope ratio assay . Diets for each food at four levels of protein , 4 , 6 , 10 and 15% and a protein-free diet were given to male weanling rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain for 21 days . The slopes of the regression lines of the whole egg and rice groups calculated from the changes of body weight ( Y in g/21 days ) with nitrogen intake ( X in g/21 days ) , including and ( excluding ) zero protein group were , respectively , Y=27 . 39 X-12 . 26 ( Y=24 . 41 X-1 . 86 ) and Y = 13 . 86 X-8 . 06 ( Y = 12 . 54 X +0 . 50 ) . Assuming a potency of 100 for the egg protein , the relative potency of rice estimated from body weight gain with nitrogen intake was 51 ( 51 ) . The values for rice calculated from body water gain and nitrogen retention with nitrogen intake were , respectively , 51 ( 47 ) and 46 ( 44 ) . These values were compared with RNV of several varieties of conventional rice and high-protein rice .
Score: 1.00
Author: Mouchet J Blanchy S
Journal: Citation: V : 5 ( 6 ) P : 386-8 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8784545
Abstract: The first factor is the malaria parasite , for which the species P falciparum and P vivax are important . Secondly , the transmission determines the disease stability and challenges the hosts immunity . The third factor is the human host , consisting of people of both African and Asiatic origin , the latter of whom are more susceptible to P vivax . Human activities such as cultivating rice fields are of paramount importance for the proliferation of the vectors . The vectors A gambiae , A arabiensis and A funestus are very similar to those of the African continent . These vectors are not endemic on Madagascar , suggesting that they were recently introduced to the island where 95% of the fauna species are endemic . On the Plateau and in the South , the rice fields provide most of the breeding places for A gambiae s . l . and A funestus . Five epidemiological belts are found in Madagascar which are very similar to their analogs on continental Africa ( fig 1 ) . These facies include the equatorial belt on the east coast and the tropical belt on the west coast north of Morondava , the Plateau belt analogous to the southern African continent , the southern Madagascar belt which is similar to the Sahelian areas , and finally the zones above 1 , 500m , which are essentially free of malaria . The first two facies have a stable type of malaria , and in the following two , malaria is unstable . These areas include the Plateau , the area of the severe epidemics which occurred between 1985 and 1988 with more than 50 , 00 deaths . Malaria control is based on a variety of strategies to respond to the epidemiological heterogeneity of the disease . Spraying within the homes with DDT , used on the Plateau after 1988 , was and still is very successful .
Score: 1.00
Author: Bruce-Chwatt LJ .
Journal: Trans . R Soc . Trop . Med . Hyg . Citation: V : 71 ( 3 ) P : 232-40 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub888169
Abstract: Research on malaria , which was endemic in several parts of Portugal at the beginning of this century , was intensified in the 1940s and led to the development of better control methods , especially in the rice-growing areas of the country . In the 1950s residual DDT spraying was introduced and followed by extensive detection of cases of malaria and their treatment . Plans for eradication of the disease were made , and by 1958 the transmission of the infection was interrupted in nearly all areas of European Portugal The country was placed in the maintenance phase of malaria eradication and the certification of malaria eradication was confirmed by the WHO in 1973 . The political and military events of the past five years greatly increased the number of cases of malaria imported into Portugal from tropical Africa and indicated the need for much vigilance to prevent the resumption of transmission by the local vectors . It appears that the measures put into action have succeeded in this respect . This was due to the high degree of effective surveillance and also to the fact that Anopheles atroparvus does not readily transmit the exotic strains of Plasmodium falciparum and P vivax . However , further vigilance must be maintained and intensified .
Score: 1.00
Author: Morita T Kiriyama S
Journal: J Nutr . Sci . Vitaminol . Citation: V : 42 ( 4 ) P : 325-37 Year: 1996 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8906633
Abstract: The effects of a rice protein isolate ( RPI ) on 7 , 12-dimethylbenz [ alpha ] anthracene ( DMBA ) -induced mammary tumor progression were investigated in female Sprague-Dawley rats . At 6 weeks of age , rats were fed a casein , RPI or soybean protein isolate ( SPI ) diet , respectively . After 1 week , DMBA was administered orally at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight . The mean tumor number per tumor-bearing rat at autopsy was significantly lower only in rats fed RPI than in those fed casein . Palpable tumors at the mid point of the experiment were significantly lower in rats fed RPI and SPI than in those fed casein . Serum estradiol-17 beta concentrations were lower in rats fed the SPI ( but not in those fed RPI ) than in those fed casein . In a further experiment , no differences were found in hepatic microsomal DMBA-arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase activity after 7 days of feeding the respective diets . These results suggest that RPI exerts its inhibitory effect on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis irrespective of changes in circulating estrogens or modulation of hepatic DMBA metabolism .
Score: 1.00
Author: Faye O Konate L Mouchet J Fontenille D Sy N Hebrard G Herve JP .
Journal: J Med . Entomol . Citation: V : 34 ( 3 ) P : 285-9 Year: 1997 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9151491
Abstract: Three villages in the Senegal River basin were selected to study the biting and resting behavior of Anopheles gambiae s . l . in relation to human habits , rainfalls , and rice culture irrigation . All inhabitants sleep outside throughout the year , mainly under poor quality bednets . Mosquitoes were collected host-seeking during the night on human bait outside and resting during the day inside and outside in pit shelters . An . gambiae s . s . and An . arabiensis fed mainly outside , the only place where hosts are available ; fed and gravid females resting indoors fed outside . The proportions of An . gambiae s . s . and An . arabiensis in outdoor biting catches and in indoor spray catches were not significantly different , but they differed from year to year with the latter sampling method , An . gambiae s . s . predominated in 1990 , a more wet and humid year , whereas An . arabiensis was more common in 1991 , which was an arid year . Both species are highly endophilic in this arid area where outdoor-resting places are limited .
Score: 1.00
Author: Githeko AK Service MW Mbogo CM Atieli FK .
Journal: Parassitologia Citation: V : 38 ( 3 ) P : 481-9 Year: 1996 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9257337
Abstract: In Kenya indoor and outdoor resting densities of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus at the Ahero rice irrigation scheme , and Anopheles gambiae s . s . , An . arabiensis and An . funestus at the Miwani sugar belt were assessed for 13 months by pyrethrum spray collections in houses and granaries . The vectors house leaving behaviour was evaluated with exit traps and it was noted that early exophily ( ie , deliberate ) was not detected in any of the vectors . Assortative indoor/outdoor resting behaviour was studied by a capture-mark-release-recapture method and showed that in An . arabiensis both indoor and outdoor resting traits were present in the same individuals . Samples of half-gravid female An . gambiae s . l . were chromosomally identified either as Anopheles gambiae s . s . or An . arabiensis and in a subsample chromosomal inversions were read . Anopheles gambiae s . s . and An . arabiensis had the 2Rb inversion but in addition the 2La inversion was found in An . gambiae s . s . and this is an indication of low chromosomal variation . At Ahero An . arabiensis was most abundant when the rice crop was immature and An . funestus when the crop was mature . This succession of vectors facilitated the transmission of malaria throughout the year . At Miwani , An . gambiae s . l . population peaked during the long rains but the proportion of An . arabiensis was highest during the dry season . The indoor resting density of males of the three vector species was less than half of the females .
Score: 1.00
Author: Dohi H Yamada A
Journal: J Anim . Sci . Citation: V : 75 ( 8 ) P : 2073-7 Year: 1997 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9263053
Abstract: Appetite stimulants were extracted and partially isolated from high-grain concentrate . The stimulants were fed daily and were palatable to sheep and goats used in the experiments . The stimulative effects were tested by comparing the intake of two types of hay : with or without the extracts . Diethylether and n-pentane extracts of the concentrate stimulated feeding in sheep ( P < . 01 and P < . 05 , respectively ) . However , methanol extracts had no significant stimulative effect on selective feeding in sheep . Goats also preferentially fed on hay sprayed with the diethyl ether extracts ( P < . 01 ) . The diethyl ether extracts were divided into acid , neutral , and basic fractions . Sheep and goats had a marked preference for the acid fraction only ( P < . 01 and P < . 05 , respectively ) . These results suggest that specific chemicals to increase palatability of hay are present in high-grain concentrate and that the chemical are nonpolar , acidic substances .
Score: 1.00
Author: Bera S Purkayastha RP .
Journal: Indian J Exp . Biol . Citation: V : 35 ( 6 ) P : 644-9 Year: 1997 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9357170
Abstract: Significant reduction ( 68 . 38% ) in sheath blight disease of rice was noticed when foliar spray of a systemic fungicide , kitazin ( 480 micrograms mg-1 ) , was applied twice at an interval of 2 days before inoculation . SDS-PAGE analysis of proteins of Rhizoctonia-infected rice leaf sheaths revealed the presence of 16 proteins ranging from 20 to 90 kDa ( approx . ) . Six were identified as constitutive defense proteins ( increased after infection ) , 6 as secondary defense proteins ( formed de novo ) and the rest 4 appeared non-defense proteins . Non-inoculated kitazin-treated leaf sheaths showed 15 proteins of which 5 were constitutive and 4 secondary defense proteins ( both are PR-proteins ) . Among the PR-proteins , five beta-1 , 3-glucanases and one chitinase was identified and characterized . One rice chitinase ( MW 20 kDa ) and 2 glucanases ( 60 & 69 kDa ) showed serological relationships with tobacco chitinase ( 32 kDa ) and tobacco glucanase ( 33 kDa ) respectively . The implications of results have been discussed in relation to biotic and abiotic induction of PR-proteins in rice .
Score: 1.00
Author: Tanaka H Tsuji M
Journal: Int . J Parasitol . Citation: V : 27 ( 12 ) P : 1465-80 Year: 1997 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9467732
Abstract: Among the areas in Japan where schistosome infections have occurred for many years , three major areas were Katayama District , Kofu Basin and Chikugo River Basin and three minor areas were Numazu District , Tone River Basin and Obitsu River Bank . The presence of the disease had long been recognised in the Katayama Memoir written by Fujii ( 1847 , in the Chinese Classics ) . The cause of this endemic disease had been studied by many researchers , and finally a new trematode , Schistosoma japonicum , was discovered by Katsurada in 1904 [ Tokyo Iji Shinshi , Vol 1371 , pp . 13-32 ] . The route of percutaneous infection was proven by Fujinami & Nakamura ( 1909 ) [ Kyoto Medical Journal , Vol 6 , pp . 224-252 ] using 17 calves . Miyairi & Suzuki ( 1913 ) [ Tokyo Iji Shinshi , Vol 1836 , pp . 1961-1965 ] determined a small snail , Oncomelania nosophora , as being the intermediate host , and clarified the development of the schistosome in the snail . To kill schistosome eggs , human faecal matter ( night soil ) was stored for 2 weeks or more before using as fertiliser . Control of the parasite used caustic lime and calcium cyanamide to kill eggs , cercariae and Oncomelania snails . Susceptible cows were replaced with horses , which were more resistant to infection as the animal of burden for agriculture . Ditches around the rice fields were cemented for destruction of snail habitats . For snail control , sodium pentachlorophenate ( NaPCP ) was sprayed extensively . Some wetlands were drained and reclaimed and in selected localities , the river bottom was dredged . Such projects were undertaken with government support and aided by community participation . Epidemiological surveys began in 1910 , first at Kofu , and infected people were treated with sodium tartar emetic ( Stibnal ) after 1921 . The total number of cases detected in Japan in 1920 was about 8000 . This figure was reduced annually down to 438 by 1970 . The last human case of new infection found in Japan was at Kofu in 1977 . Although snails were eradicated in most areas by 1983 , a limited number of uninfected snails remain at Kofu and Obitsu .
Score: 1.00
Author: Mouchet J
Journal: Citation: V : 91 ( 1 ) P : 64-6 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9559166
Abstract: The Highlands of Madagascar were malaria free until 1878 , when a severe epidemic occurred , following the development of irrigated rice farming . Then , the disease became endemic . Between 1949 and 1962 , malaria was "eradicated" on the Highlands by joint house spraying and chemoprophylaxis measures . The main vector An . funestus disappeared . In 1986-1988 , a very severe epidemic with high lethality rate devastated the Highlands . It is now under control . Thanks to the data of a religious dispensary , we could follow the evolution of malaria on the Highlands from 1971 to 1995 . The number of cases begin to grow in 1975 when the surveillance was neglected . A second step was observed in 1979 , when chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy centres were closed . Then , the increase of malaria became exponential up to 1988 . At the time , the prevalence had became similar to that of 1948 , before the eradication . The epidemic is not due to global warming because the temperature has been stable for the last 30 years . The malaria rise was due the cancellation of control measures . When control was reactivated , the epidemic ceased . In Swaziland , Zimbabwe and South Africa , malaria epidemics were also due to control failure . In Uganda Highlands , above 1500 m , malaria rise seems linked to the environmental changes , eg the cultures which replace papyrus swamp in the valley . But malaria did not overcame the altitude of 1900 which it had already reached in 1960 . Rainfall should also be considered as a key factor in the epidemics . In the Sahel West Africa , temperature increased from 0 . 5 degree C to 01 degree C degree in the last 25 years , but rainfall decreased from 30% . As a result , one of the vector , Anopheles funestus disappeared and malaria prevalence dropped by 60 to 80% . It is not acceptable to predict the future evolution of malaria in taking in account only one parameter : the temperature . The whole factors involved in the epidemiology should be taken into account . The predictions based only on the temperature increase ( global warming ) can be totally wrong if the rainfall , for example , decreases .
Score: 1.00
Author: Jewell WT Hess RA Miller MG .
Journal: Toxicol . Appl . Pharmacol . Citation: V : 149 ( 2 ) P : 159-66 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9571984
Abstract: Molinate is a thiocarbamate herbicide widely used in rice culture . Studies conducted for regulatory purposes have indicated that molinate exposure causes male reproductive damage in rats . The present study describes the testicular lesion after administration of single doses of molinate . The hypothesis that a metabolite of molinate is responsible for testicular toxicity was also investigated . Testicular damage was evaluated histopathologically in Sprague-Dawley rats 48 h and 1 , 2 , and 3 weeks after administration of molinate ( 100-400 mg/kg i . p . ) . No testicular damage was seen at any time point at the 100 mg/kg dose level . Damage was first seen 1 week after 200 mg/kg and 48 h after 400 mg/kg . The lesion was characterized by Sertoli cell vacuolation , failed spermiation , and phagocytosis of spermatids particularly evident at Stages X and XI . With increasing time , damage progressed until disorganization of the seminiferous epithelium was extensive , multinucleated giant cells were numerous , and neither spermatozoa nor late step spermatids were present . At 3 weeks after administration of the two higher-dose levels , germ cells in the seminiferous tubules were almost completely absent . Administration of the sulfoxide metabolite of molinate ( 200 mg/kg i . p . ) caused testicular damage similar in severity to that seen at the 400 mg/kg dose level for the parent compound , indicating that it was more potent as a testicular toxicant . In vitro metabolism studies using liver and testis microsomes found that the major metabolite in both preparations was molinate sulfoxide . Testis microsomes produced only slightly less sulfoxide when compared with liver microsomes . Molinate was also metabolized via ring hydroxylation to form small amounts of hydroxymolinate . The amount of hydroxymolinate was substantially less in testis microsomes . Overall , these data indicate that sulfoxidation of molinate plays a role in molinat-induced testicular toxicity . Moreover , molinate is metabolized readily by both liver and testis microsomal enzymes , suggesting that the molinate toxic metabolite could be formed in the testis in close proximity to its site of action .
Score: 1.00
Author: Jewell WT Miller MG .
Journal: Toxicol . Appl . Pharmacol . Citation: V : 149 ( 2 ) P : 226-34 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9571992
Abstract: Molinate , a herbicide widely used on rice , has been previously shown to cause testicular toxicity when a single dose is administered to Sprague-Dawley rats . The sulfoxide metabolite of molinate also was capable of eliciting testicular damage but at lower dose levels than molinate , suggesting that metabolic activation via sulfoxidation could be important in testicular toxicity . Both the sulfoxide and sulfone metabolites of molinate are electrophilic and molinate covalent binding to cellular macromolecules has been attributed to formation of these reactive metabolites . The present study has investigated the nature of the binding reaction of 14C-molinate as well as 14C-molinate sulfoxide and 14C-molinate sulfone in liver and testis microsomal preparations . All three compounds in preparations from both it issues bound extensively and tightly to only one protein of approximately 60 kDa molecular weight on SDS-PAGE . Isoelectric focusing PAGE revealed a pI of approximately 6 . 0 and native PAGE analysis revealed a native molecular weight of 180 kDa . These data , along with the ability of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride to block binding of the 14C-molinate , suggested the molinate-bound protein was an esterase . The protein was purified to homogeneity and MALDI-TOF mass spectral analysis was consistent with Hydrolase A , a carboxylesterase present in both liver and testis . N-terminal sequence analysis revealed 100% homology with Hydrolase A for the first 17 residues . The effect of molinate administration on in vivo esterase activity was assessed both by enzymatic measurement and by histochemical measurement . Molinate treatment caused a marked inhibition of nonspecific esterase activity in both liver and testis . In the testis , histochemical staining showed the esterase activity inhibited by molinate was localized primarily to the Leydig cell , consistent with the localization of Hydrolase A From these data , it is proposed that molinate-induced inhibition of esterase activity in the Leydig cell could inhibit the mobilization of cholesterol esters required for testosterone biosynthesis .
Score: 1.00
Author: Kanauchi O Nakamura T Agata K Mitsuyama K Iwanaga T
Journal: J Gastroenterol . Citation: V : 33 ( 2 ) P : 179-88 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9605946
Abstract: Germinated barley foodstuff ( GBF ) , derived from the aleurone and scutellum fractions of germinated barley , is rich in glutamine and low-lignified hemicellulose , and increases mucosal protein , RNA , and DNA content in the intestine when fed to normal rats . The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding GBF or germinated gramineous seeds on experimental ulcerative colitis . Sprague-Dawley rats that received 3% dextran sulfate sodium in their diets were used as an experimental colitis model . The effects of sulfasalazine , a drug used to treat inflammatory bowel disease , were compared with those of GBF . After rats had consumed diets containing GBF or various aleurone and scutellum fractions , mucosal damage ; the content of mucosal protein , RNA , and DNA in the colo-rectum ; and serum interleukin-8 and alpha1-acid glycoprotein levels were assessed . GBF and germinated seeds more effectively prevented bloody diarrhea and mucosal damage in colitis compared with controls and rats receiving sulfasalazine , but non-germinated samples did not have a protective effect . GBF increased mucosal protein and RNA content in the colitis model . The consumption of GBF appears to prevent inflammation in a colitis model , and its effect seems to be related to the germination process . GBF and germinated seeds have the potential to serve as nutritional therapy for ulcerative colitis .
Score: 1.00
Author: Birn AE .
Journal: Parassitologia Citation: V : 40 ( 1-2 ) P : 137-47 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9653741
Abstract: Malarias epidemiological importance in Mexico greatly exceeded that of hookworm , but the Rockefeller Foundation ( RF ) paid far more attention to hookworm . Although the RF collaborated with malaria campaigns around the world , malaria was only incidental to the RFs activities in Mexico The hookworm campaign , on the other hand , involved the RF at every stage , from conceptualization and design to financing , hiring , and day-to-day administration . This paper seeks to understand why the RFs involvement in Mexico differed for the two diseases and what the organizational , political , and health implications were for these divergent approaches . Beginning in the mid 1920s the Mexican government developed a modest anti-larval service , periodically draining and filling ditches and swamps , dusting Paris green , petrolizing stagnant water , and administering quinine . Following the RFs 1927 shift towards scientific investigation , it began to sponsor small-scale malaria research , collecting climatological , entomological , epidemiological , and clinical information . The Mexican government eagerly petitioned the RF to join a national effort , but it was reluctant to become involved . A National Malaria Campaign was established in 1935 under President Lzaro Crdenas to coordinate education , sanitary engineering , and treatment . The popular Campaign followed RF strategies even without its direct participation . Meanwhile , the RF avidly pursued modest malaria research in Mexico , funding US investigators to conduct experiments on pesticides , mosquito-trapping , and controversially , watering methods for rice . These efforts culminated in the worlds first field trial of DDT against louse-borne typhus and later as a residual spray for malaria . In the end the RF used Mexico as a convenient locale for scientific research that had global implications but only an incidental relationship to Mexicos own Malaria Campaign . Likewise , the RFs much more active hookworm program was more a means than an end , leading not to eradication of the disease , but to Mexicos commitment to modern public health organization and methods .
Score: 1.00
Author: Mitsumori K Shibutani M Sato S Onodera H Nakagawa J Hayashi Y Ando M
Journal: Arch . Toxicol . Citation: V : 72 ( 9 ) P : 545-52 Year: 1998 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9806425
Abstract: We wished to clarify the relationship between the sensitivity to induce hepato-renal toxicity and the level of cadmium ( Cd ) in the organs of rats exposed to minimum to large amounts of cadmium chloride ( CdCl2 ) . For this purpose , groups of female Sprague-Dawley ( SD ) rats , each consisting of 24 animals , were fed diet containing CdCl2 at concentrations of 0 , 8 , 40 , 200 , and 600 ppm for 2 , 4 , and 8 months from 5 weeks of age . All surviving rats given 600 ppm Cd were killed at 4 months because of deterioration of their general condition . Animals of this group showed anemia and decreased hematopoiesis in the bone marrow , in addition to reduction of cancellous bone in their femurs . Hepatotoxicity was observed after 2 months in the groups treated with > or = 200 ppm . By 4 months , the rats in the 600 ppm group had developed periportal liver cell necrosis . Renal toxicity characterized by degeneration of proximal tubular epithelia was apparent in the groups treated with > or = 200 ppm from 2 months , becoming more prominent in the high-dose rats at 4 months . Hepatic accumulation of Cd increased linearly with the duration of treatment . In contrast , the concentration of Cd in the renal cortex of rats treated with 600 ppm reached a plateau level of approximately 250 microg/g within the first 2 months . The renal concentration of Cd in the 200 ppm group when renal toxic lesions were first detected at 2 months ranged from 104 to 244 microg/g . No renal lesions were observed in the 40 ppm group after 8 months , despite the presence of 91-183 microg/g of Cd in the kidneys . The results thus suggest that renal toxicity would not be induced by treatment with minimum amounts of CdCl2 for periods longer than 8 months , although accumulation of Cd might gradually progress . A further 2-year feeding study of CdCl2 and Cd-polluted rice is now in progress .
Score: 1.00
Author: Rowland M Mahmood P Iqbal J Carneiro I Chavasse D
Journal: Trop . Med . Int . Health Citation: V : 5 ( 7 ) P : 472-81 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub10964269
Abstract: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
Score: 1.00
Author: Wolfe MW Uhl TL Mattacola CG McCluskey LC .
Journal: Citation: V : 63 ( 1 ) P : 93-104 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub11195774
Abstract: Without adequate care , acute ankle trauma can result in chronic joint instability . Use of a standardized protocol enhances the management of ankle sprains . In patients with grades I or II sprains , emphasis should be placed on accurate diagnosis , early use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression and elevation ) , maintenance of range of motion and use of an ankle support . Sprains with complete ligament [ corrected ] tears ( grade III ) may require surgical intervention . Although early motion and mobility are recommended , ligamentous strength does not return until months after an ankle sprain .
Score: 1.00
Author: Chung MH Chen MK Pan SM .
Journal: Transgenic Res . Citation: V : 9 ( 6 ) P : 471-6 Year: 2000 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub11206976
Abstract: In this study , floral spray and floral dip were used to replace the vacuum step in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) gene into Arabidopsis . The transgene was constructed by using a CaMV 35S promoter to drive a rice cytosolic CuZnSOD coding sequence in Arabidopsis . The transgene construct was developed in binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium . When Arabidopsis plants started to initiate flower buds , the primary inflorescence shoots were removed and then transformed by floral spray or floral dip . More than 300 transgenic plants were generated to assess the feasibility of floral spray used in the in planta transformation . The result indicates that the floral spray method of Agrobacterium can achieve rates of in planta transformation comparable to the vacuum-infiltration and floral dip methods . The floral spray method opens up the possibility of in planta transformation of plant species which are too large for dipping or vacuum infiltration .
Score: 1.00
Author: Green T Refshauge K Crosbie J Adams R
Journal: Citation: V : 81 ( 4 ) P : 984-94 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub11276181
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : Passive joint mobilization is commonly used by physical therapists as an intervention for acute ankle inversion sprains . A randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors was conducted to investigate the effect of a specific joint mobilization , the anteroposterior glide on the talus , on increasing pain-free dorsiflexion and 3 gait variables : stride speed ( gait speed ) , step length , and single support time . SUBJECTS : Forty-one subjects with acute ankle inversion sprains ( <72 hours ) and no other injury to the lower limb entered the trial METHODS : Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups . The control group received a protocol of rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) . The experimental group received the anteroposterior mobilization , using a force that avoided incurring any increase in pain , in addition to the RICE protocol . Subjects in both groups were treated every second day for a maximum of 2 weeks or until the discharge criteria were met , and all subjects were given a home program of continued RICE application . Outcomes were measured before and after each treatment . RESULTS : The results showed that the experimental group required fewer treatment sessions than the control group to achieve full pain-free dorsiflexion . The experimental group had greater improvement in range of movement before and after each of the first 3 treatment sessions . The experimental group also had greater increases in stride speed during the first and third treatment sessions . DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Addition of a talocrural mobilization to the RICE protocol in the management of ankle inversion injuries necessitated fewer treatments to achieve pain-free dorsiflexion and to improve stride speed more than RICE alone . Improvement in step length symmetry and single support time was similar in both groups .
Score: 1.00
Author: Richards SM McClure GY Lavy TL Mattice JD Keller RJ Gandy J
Journal: Arch . Environ . Contam . Toxicol . Citation: V : 41 ( 1 ) P : 112-6 Year: 2001 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub11385597
Abstract: Propanil is widely used as a postemergence herbicide in rice . Because it is typically applied aerially , there is a potential for propanil to drift into and around homes of those living adjacent to rice fields . Propanil has been shown to be immunotoxic in rodent models . The objective of this study was to measure the levels of propanil to which families living adjacent to aerially sprayed rice fields may be exposed . Air levels were sampled by actively and passively collecting propanil in and around the homes of volunteer families living in close proximity to rice fields sprayed with propanil . Homes ranged from 73 m to 113 m from treated rice fields . Sampling was conducted in the home , adjacent to the home ( within 5 m of the home ) , 30 m from the home , and at the edge of the rice field . Concentrations were determined via gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy . Propanil levels adjacent to the homes ranged from nondetectable to 1 , 106 . 4 microg per 400 cm2 collection surface ( 2 . 0 microg detection limit ) . Wind direction and wind velocity were the primary determinants of propanil drift . At sites where the prevailing wind was blowing away from the home , no propanil was detected except at the edge of the field . Distance from the edge of the rice field also influenced the amount of drift with higher levels measured at 30 m from the house than adjacent to the house . No propanil vapor was detected on absorbent media sampled in and around the homes . The results indicate that individuals living adjacent to rice fields aerially sprayed with propanil are potentially exposed to variable amounts of propanil , and wind speed and direction are the most important factors that influence the concentration of aerially applied pesticide .
Score: 1.00
Author: Shiga H Yoshii H Taguchi R Nishiyama T Furuta T Linko P
Journal: Biosci . Biotechnol . Biochem . Citation: V : 67 ( 2 ) P : 426-8 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub12729014
Abstract: The release characteristics of flavor in boiling water and the flavor retention in the rice after cooking were investigated by using spray dried powder in encapsulated in or emulsified with d-limonene or ethyl n-hexanoate in cyclodextrin and maltodextrin , or in gum arabic and maltodextrin . The behavior of flavor release into the boiling water was well simulated by Avramis equation . The retention of d-limonene and ethyl n-hexanoate in cooked rice was correlated in each case with the flavor amount of spray-dried powder added .
Score: 1.00
Author: Teera-Arunsiri A Suphantharika M Ketunuti U
Journal: J Econ . Entomol . Citation: V : 96 ( 2 ) P : 292-9 Year: 2003 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub14994793
Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used biopesticide among many methods available to control insects . To make a saleable product , B thuringiensis must be substantially concentrated by removal of water and formulated to improve longevity , efficacy , and ease of transport of the product . B thuringiensis subsp . aizawai culture broth as an active ingredient was mixed with various adjuvants and then spray dried . The optimum conditions for spray drying were found to be an outlet temperature of 60-85 degrees C and an inlet temperature of 120-180 degrees C Various adjuvants had different effects on physical and biological properties of the dried product . Gelatinized tapioca starch and milk powder improved suspensibility but adversely affected wettability of the dried formulated product . Vegetable oil and Tween 20 enhanced wettability but resulted in poor suspensibility . Silica fume was used to enhance flowability because it reduced clumping and caking of the powder resulting from the addition of vegetable oil . Formulation containing 10% wt : wt B thuringiensis , 10% wt : wt gelatinized tapioca starch , 10% wt : wt sucrose , 38% wt : wt tapioca starch , 20% wt : wt milk powder , 10% wt : wt silica fume , 2% wt : wt polyvinyl alcohol , 5% vol : vol Tween 20 , 1% vol : vol refined rice bran oil , and 1% vol : vol antifoam solution was found to be optimum in terms of the physical and biological properties of the dried product . This formulation had 55% suspensibility , 24 s for wetting time , and 5 . 69 x 10 ( 4 ) CFU/ml of LC50 value against Spodoptera exigua larvae .
Score: 1.00
Author: Stergioulas A
Journal: Citation: V : 22 ( 2 ) P : 125-8 Year: 2004 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub15165387
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : Low-level laser therapy ( LLLT ) has been used for the last few years to treat sports injuries . The purpose of this study was to compare three therapeutic protocols in treating edema in second degree ankle sprains that did not require immobilization with a splint , under placebo-controlled conditions . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Forty-seven soccer players with second degree ankle sprains , selected at random , were divided into the following groups : The first group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the conventional initial treatment ( RICE , rest , ice , compression , elevation ) , the second group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the RICE method plus placebo laser , and the third group ( n = 15 ) was treated with the RICE method plus an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser with a radiant power output of 40 mW at 16 Hz . Before the treatment , and 24 , 48 , and 72 h later , the volume of the edema was measured . RESULTS : A three by three repeated measures ANOVA with a follow up post hoc test revealed that the group treated with the RICE and an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser presented a statistically significant reduction in the volume of the edema after 24 h ( 40 . 3 +/- 2 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 01 ) , 48 h ( 56 . 4 +/- 3 . 1 mL , p < 0 . 002 ) , and 72 h ( 65 . 1 +/- 4 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSIONS : LLLT combined with RICE can reduce edema in second-degree ankle sprains .
Score: 1.00
Author: Chorley JN .
Journal: Citation: V : 21 ( 8 ) P : 498-501 Year: 2005 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub16096593
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : ( 1 ) To describe the incidence of inclusion of early mobilization components in emergency department ( ED ) discharge instructions ; ( 2 ) to describe the prescribed follow-up appointments ; and ( 3 ) to analyze the differences between the treatment of pediatric and adult patients . METHODS : A 1-year retrospective chart review of ED records of a large urban hospital was performed . Medical records of 374 ( 95% ) of the 397 adult and pediatric patients with ICD-9 code for ankle sprains were reviewed ( 213 males and 171 females , mean age 28 . 4 +/- 14 . 5 ; 291 adults , 93 pediatric ) . RESULTS : Sixteen percent of records contained discharge instructions that included rest , ice , compression , elevation , and medications ( RICEM ) . Twenty percent included RICE . Pediatricians ( 33 . 7% ) were more likely than adult physicians ( 10 . 3% ) to have given RICEM ( P < 0 . 0001 ) and RICE ( P = 0 . 05 , pedi = 45 . 8% , adult = 13 . 1% ) . Follow-up referrals were recommended as needed 50% of the time . Follow-up referrals were made to community clinics ( 59% ) , orthopedic clinic ( 23% ) , the ED ( 14% ) , and others ( 4% ) . Pediatricians were more likely to recommend routine scheduled follow up ( pedi = 62% , adult = 47% , P = 0 . 018 ) , suggest follow-up in a community clinic or doctors office ( pedi = 68 . 6% , adult = 51 . 2% , P < 0 . 0001 ) , and to recommend earlier follow up ( pedi = 1 . 6 weeks +/- 1 . 1 , adult = 2 . 0 weeks +/- 1 . 1 , P = 0 . 002 ) than adult physicians . CONCLUSIONS : Programs that train physicians who work in the ED need to include education on the proper treatment , rehabilitation , and follow up of patients with acute ankle sprains . Providing easy-to-complete discharge instruction templates can help providers give patients discharge instructions that may help patients minimize the risk of long-term sequelae .
Score: 1.00
Author: Pornprom T Mahatamnuchoke P Usui K
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 62 ( 11 ) P : 1109-15 Year: 2006 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub16964592
Abstract: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
Score: 1.00
Author: Rakotomanana F Randremanana RV Rabarijaona LP Duchemin JB Ratovonjato J Ariey F Rudant JP Jeanne I
Journal: Citation: V : 6 ( ) P : 2 Year: Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub17261177
Abstract: BACKGROUND : The highlands of Madagascar present an unstable transmission pattern of malaria . The population has no immunity , and the central highlands have been the sites of epidemics with particularly high fatality . The most recent epidemic occurred in the 1980s , and caused about 30 , 000 deaths . The fight against malaria epidemics in the highlands has been based on indoor insecticide spraying to control malaria vectors . Any preventive programme involving generalised cover in the highlands will require very substantial logistical support . We used multicriteria evaluation , by the method of weighted linear combination , as basis for improved targeting of actions by determining priority zones for intervention . RESULTS : Image analysis and field validation showed the accuracy of mapping rice fields to be between 82 . 3% and 100% , and the Kappa coefficient was 0 . 86 to 0 . 99 . A significant positive correlation was observed between the abundance of the vector Anopheles funestus and temperature ; the correlation coefficient was 0 . 599 ( p < 0 . 001 ) . A significant negative correlation was observed between vector abundance and human population density : the correlation coefficient was -0 . 551 ( p < 0 . 003 ) . Factor weights were determined by pair-wise comparison and the consistency ratio was 0 . 04 . Risk maps of the six study zones were obtained according to a gradient of risk . Nine of thirteen results of alert confirmed by the Epidemiological Surveillance Post were in concordance with the risk map . CONCLUSION : This study is particularly valuable for the management of vector control programmes , and particularly the reduction of the vector population with a view to preventing disease . The risk map obtained can be used to identify priority zones for the management of resources , and also help avoid systematic and generalised spraying throughout the highlands : such spraying is particularly difficult and expensive . The accuracy of the mapping , both as concerns time and space , is dependent on the availability of data . Continuous monitoring of malaria transmission factors must be undertaken to detect any changes . A regular case notification allows risk map to be verified . These actions should therefore be implemented so that risk maps can be satisfactorily assessed .
Score: 1.00
Author: Petrella RJ Petrella MJ Cogliano A
Journal: Clin J Sport Med Citation: V : 17 P : 251-7 Year: 2007 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub17620777
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : To determine the efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid injections in acute lateral ankle sprain during 9 months at a sports injuries center . DESIGN : Randomized controlled prospective trial SETTING : Primary sport medicine and emergency practice . PATIENTS : One hundred fifty-eight consecutive competitive athletes who suffered acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprains were randomized within 48 hours of injury . INTERVENTIONS : Patients were randomized at baseline to periarticular injection with hyaluronic acid ( HA ) + standard of care [ rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) ] or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and on day 4 after injury . OUTCOMES MEASURES : Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , and 90 included Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ; 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( five-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( five-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , and adverse events . Differences between groups were determined using an intent-to-treat analysis of variance . RESULTS : About 30% of the ankle sprains were "first" events , and no differences in clinical assessments with those presenting but not volunteering for the study ( n = 341 ) were observed . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours , with no difference between groups . No serious adverse events were recorded during the 8-day treatment period . No difference in concomitant treatment or physical therapy was observed between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at day 8 for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was observed for HA versus PL at days 4 ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 8 ( P < 0 . 001 ) , 30 ( P < 0 . 001 ) , and 90 ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Patient global assessment of ankle injury was significantly better compared with baseline in the HA group at day 8 , but this was not different between groups . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/-8 ) versus 17 ( +/-8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . CONCLUSION : HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short term and the long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain and more rapid return to sport , with few associated adverse events .
Score: 1.00
Author: Phong TK Nhung DT Yamazaki K Takagi K Watanabe H
Journal: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol Citation: V : 80 P : 438-42 Year: 2008 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub18488130
Abstract: Two rainfall simulations of 30 mm h ( -1 ) , with 48-h interval between two simulations , were performed on rice lysimeters at 24 , 48 , and 72 h after being sprayed with tricyclazole . In the first simulated rainfall , wash-off concentration of tricyclazole was significant irrespective of the interval between the spray time and the rainfall simulation . And from 20 . 5% to 24 . 2% of tricyclazole deposited on leaves was removed from the rice foliage . In the second simulated rainfall , concentration of tricyclazole in wash-off water was significantly lower and less than 3 . 6% of the deposited tricyclazole was lost
Score: 1.00
Author: Phong TK Nhung DT Yamazaki K Takagi K Watanabe H
Journal: Chemosphere Citation: V : 74 P : 1085-9 Year: 2009 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub19062069
Abstract: The behavior of sprayed tricyclazole in rice paddy lysimeters was studied . Tricyclazole residues were measured from rice leaves and paddy water after tricyclazole spraying in paddy lysimeters . The rate of photolysis and hydrolysis of tricyclazole on the surface of rice leaves was also determined in a laboratory experiment . Tricyclazole was extracted from leaf and water samples and determined by liquid chromatography with UV or mass spectrometry . The hydrolysis half-lives of tricyclazole on rice leaves were 11 . 9 and 5 . 1 d for the formulated product and standard , respectively . The photolysis half-lives were longer , 16 . 4d for the formulated product and 20 . 9 d for the standard . In the paddy lysimeter , tricyclazole dissipation on leaves involved either biphasic first-order kinetics or single-phase first-order kinetics , depending on the rainfall pattern . Half-lives of tricyclazole on lysimeter rice leaves were from 3 . 0 to 5 . 7 d . The dissipation of tricyclazole in paddy water followed single-phase first-order kinetics with half-lives ranging from 2 . 1 to 5 . 0 d .
Score: 1.00
Author: Petrella MJ Cogliano A Petrella RJ
Journal: Phys Sportsmed Citation: V : 37 P : 64-70 Year: 2009 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub20048489
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid ( HA ) injections in acute lateral ankle sprain . A randomized , controlled , prospective trial in a primary sports medicine and emergency practice involved 158 competitive athletes who suffered an acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprain , and who were randomly assigned within 48 hours of injury . Patients were randomly assigned at baseline to periarticular injection with HA + standard of care ( rest , ice , elevation , and compression [ RICE ] ) or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and day 4 after injury . Follow-up was at 30 , 90 , and 712 days after treatment . Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , 90 , and 712 included visual analogue scale ( VAS ) ( 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( 5-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( 5-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , recurrent ankle sprain , total number of days missing from primary sport activity , and adverse events ( AEs ) . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours with no difference between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at all follow-up assessments for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 001 ) . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/- 8 ) versus 17 ( +/- 8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . At 24 months , in the PL versus HA group , there were 2 versus 0 lower limb fractures , 16 versus 7 second ankle sprains ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 3 versus 1 third ankle sprains , and a significantly greater number of days missing primary sport activity ( 41 vs 21 ; P < 0 . 002 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was also observed for HA versus PL at all follow-up assessments . No serious AEs were recorded throughout follow-up . Periarticular HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short and long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain , more rapid return to sport , fewer recurrent ankle sprains , fewer missed days from sport , and with few associated AEs to 24 months .
Score: 1.00
Author: Laovachirasuwan P Peerapattana J Srijesdaruk V Chitropas P Otsuka M
Journal: Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces Citation: V : 78 P : 30-5 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub20307959
Abstract: Glutinous rice starch ( GRS ) is a biopolymer used widely in the food industry but not at all in the pharmaceutical industry . There are several ways to modify this biopolymer . Physical modification is simple and cheap because it requires no chemicals or biological agents . The aim of this study was to characterize the physicochemical properties of a spray dried glutinous rice starch ( SGRS ) produced from pregelatinized GRS . The surface morphology changed from an irregular to concave spherical shape as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy ( SEM ) . SGRS was almost amorphous as determined by X-ray Diffraction ( XRD ) spectroscopy . The water molecules became linked through hydrogen bonds to the exposed hydroxyl group of amorphous SGRS as determined by Near Infrared ( NIR ) spectroscopy . Then , SGRS formed a colloid gel matrix with water and developed a highly viscous gelatinous form as determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry ( DSC ) and a stress control type rheometer . In addition , SGRS can swell and produce a gelatinous surface barrier like a hydrophilic matrix biopolymer which controls drug release . Therefore , a novel application of SGRS is as a sustained release modifier for direct compression tablets in the pharmaceutical industry .
Score: 1.00
Author: van Rijn RM
Journal: Evid Based Med Citation: V : 15 P : 141-2 Year: 2010 Type: PubMed-not-MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub20610448
Abstract: 2010
Score: 1.00
Author: Oxborough RM Kitau J Matowo J Mndeme R Feston E Boko P Odjo A Metonnou CG Irish S Nguessan R Mosha FW Rowland MW
Journal: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg Citation: V : 104 P : 639-45 Year: 2010 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub20850003
Abstract: Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide with a unique non-neurological mode of action . Laboratory bioassays of chlorfenapyr comparing the mortality of pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant Anopheles gambiae s . s . and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes indicated that operational cross-resistance is unlikely to occur ( resistance ratio ranged between 0 and 2 . 1 ) . Three trials of chlorfenapyr indoor residual spraying were undertaken in experimental huts in an area of rice irrigation in northern Tanzania that supports breeding of A arabiensis . Daily mosquito collections were undertaken to assess product performance primarily in terms of mortality . In the second trial , 250mg/m ( 2 ) and 500mg/m ( 2 ) chlorfenapyr were tested for residual efficacy over 6 months . Both dosages killed 54% of C quinquefasciatus , whilst for A arabiensis 250mg/m ( 2 ) killed 48% compared with 41% for 500mg/m ( 2 ) ; mortality was as high at the end of the trial as at the beginning . In the third trial , 250mg/m ( 2 ) chlorfenapyr was compared with the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin dosed at 30mg/m ( 2 ) . Chlorfenapyr performance was equivalent to the pyrethroid against A arabiensis , with both insecticides killing 50% of mosquitoes . Chlorfenapyr killed a significantly higher proportion of pyrethroid-resistant C quinquefasciatus ( 56% ) compared with alpha-cypermethrin ( 17% ) . Chlorfenapyr has the potential to be an important addition to the limited arsenal of public health insecticides for indoor residual control of A arabiensis and pyrethroid-resistant species of mosquito .
Score: 1.00
Author: Lyrtzis C Natsis K Papadopoulos C Noussios G Papathanasiou E
Journal: Foot Ankle Int Citation: V : 32 P : 571-5 Year: 2011 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub21733417
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Ankle sprains are usually treated with the RICE protocol often with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAID ) for pain reduction . We evaluated the effect of diclofenac , an NSAID , versus paracematol in the reduction of pain and acute edema of severe ankle sprains . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Ninety patients , 18 to 60 years old , with Grade II acute ankle sprains were randomized into two groups . Group A ( 45 patients ) received for the first 10 days diclofenac 75 mg orally twice per day . Group B ( 45 patients ) received paracetamol 500 mg orally three times per day for the same period . We evaluated ankle joint edema with the Figure-of-Eight method and with the volumetric method , as well as pain with the Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ) in both groups . RESULTS : The patients had no significant differences concerning their baseline values ( p > 0 . 05 ) . The ankle joint edema was decreased in both groups ( p < 0 . 001 ) but there was more edema in group A than in group B at the third post-traumatic day with both measurement methods ( p = 0 . 028/0 . 025 ) . By the tenth post-traumatic day no difference was found . Pain decreased in both groups at the third day and at the tenth day ( p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSION : According to these results , diclofenac and paracetamol had the same effect on pain reduction of ankle sprains but more acute ankle edema was present in patients who were treated with diclofenac than in patients who were treated with paracetamol .
Score: 1.00
Author: Zhou XH Dong Y Xiao X Wang Y Xu Y Xu B Shi WD Zhang Y Zhu LJ Liu QQ
Journal: Food Chem Toxicol Citation: V : 49 P : 3112-8 Year: 2011 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub21967780
Abstract: A transgenic rice line ( TRS ) with high amylose level has been developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes . Compositional analysis of TRS demonstrated that the content of resistant starch ( RS ) was significantly higher compared to conventional non-transgenic rice . High level of RS is an important raw material in food industry and has various physiological effects for human health . In order to provide the reliable theory basis for field release of TRS rice , we evaluated the potential health effects of long-term consumption of the TRS . The 90-day toxicology feeding experiment was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with diets containing 70% of either TRS rice flour , its near-isogenic rice flour or the control diet . The clinical performance variables ( body weight , body weight gain and food consumption ) were measured and pathological responses ( hematological parameters and serum chemistry at the midterm and the completion of the experiment , urinalysis profile and serum sex hormone response at the completion of the experiment ) were performed . Besides , clinical signs , relative organ weights and microscopic observations were also compared between TRS group and its near-isogenic rice group . The combined data indicates that high-amylose TRS grain is as safe as the conventional non-transgenic rice for rat consumption .
Score: 1.00
Author: Cao S He X Xu W Luo Y Yuan Y Liu P Cao B Shi H Huang K
Journal: IUBMB Life Citation: V : 64 P : 242-50 Year: 2012 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub22215564
Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis rice is facing commercialization as the main food source in the near future . The unintended effects of genetically modified ( GM ) organisms are the most important barriers to their promotion . We aimed to establish a new in vivo evaluation model for genetically modified foods by using metabonomics and bacterial profile approaches . T1c-19 rice flour or its transgenic parent MH63 was used at 70% wt/wt to produce diets that were fed to rats for approximately 90 days . Urine metabolite changes were detected using ( 1 ) H NMR . Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ) were used to detect the bacterial profiles between the two groups . The metabonomics was analyzed for metabolite changes in rat urine , when compared with the non-GM rice group , where rats were fed a GM rice diet . Several metabolites correlated with rat age and sex but not with GM rice diet . Significant biological differences were not identified between the GM rice diet and the non-GM rice diet . The bacteria related to rat urine metabolites were also discussed . The results from metabonomics and bacterial profile analyses were comparable with the results attained using the traditional method . Because metabonomics and bacterial profiling offer noninvasive , dynamic approaches for monitoring food safety , they provide a novel process for assessing the safety of GM foods .
Score: 1.00
Author: Zhou XH Dong Y Wang Y Xiao X Xu Y Xu B Li X Wei XS Liu QQ
Journal: Food Chem Toxicol Citation: V : 50 P : 1902-10 Year: 2012 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub22510491
Abstract: Lysine-rich rice ( LR ) is a transgenic rice produced by fusion protein expressed genes into the germline of rice seeds . Compositional analysis of LR showed that the absolute concentration of lysine was significantly higher as compared to a near-isogenic non-transgenic rice . Lysine is believed to be the first limiting essential amino acid in rice , it is important to improve lysine content on rice nutritional quality . Here we report the results of a three generation study comparing the outcome in rats fed the transgenic rice to those fed conventional , near-isogenic rice or a control diet . In the study , both clinical performance variables and pathological responses such as body weight , food consumption , reproductive data , hematological parameters , serum chemistry and relative organ weights were examined respectively . It was evident that there were no adverse effects observed in rats that were fed transgenic rice compared with non-transgenic rice . There were significant differences in some hematology , serum chemistry parameters and relative organ weights in rats consuming the transgenic rice diet or non-transgenic rice diet compared with the control diet , but no macroscopic or histological adverse effects were observed . So the results from this study demonstrate that LR rice is as safe as near-isogenic non-transgenic rice .
Score: 1.00
Author: Rzonca EC Lue BY .
Journal: Citation: V : 5 ( 3 ) P : 661-75 Year: 1988 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub3293757
Abstract: As has been previously discussed , the incidence and resultant associated disabilities of ankle sprains have been well documented in the literature . The staggering statistics on long-term disability show that there is no such thing as a simple ankle sprain . The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided . It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program . One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment . One possible reason is the lack of agreement in diagnostic techniques as well as the end diagnosis of a particular grade of ankle sprain . If a sprain is managed correctly , resultant disability will be kept to a minimum . A proper rehabilitation program may be the most important factor in preventing chronic instability . The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management . RICE primarily addresses the ankle edema . Thus , the patients ankle is only partially rehabilitated . A rational approach to the management of ankle sprains is given . Upon reviewing a complete protocol for ankle sprain rehabilitation , the acronym TEMPER can be used judiciously to remember the key steps in the treatment plan . Through the use of this acronym , one can institute a complete rehabilitation program .
Score: 1.00
Author: Oliver BF Gifford JR Trahan GB .
Journal: J Econ . Entomol . Citation: V : 65 ( 1 ) P : 268-70 Year: 1972 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub5008976
Abstract:
Score: 1.00
Author: McDowell LD Seymour SF .
Journal: Citation: V : 19 ( 3 ) P : 36-9 , 43 Year: 1994 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub8008261
Abstract: Clinicians in ambulatory and primary care are almost guaranteed , at some point in their practice , to encounter a patient who has suffered an ankle injury . They must be prepared to diagnose , treat , and refer appropriately . By understanding the anatomy of the ankle , the health care provider will understand the mechanisms and common types of injury . By using techniques of inspection , palpation , and performing the anterior drawer and talar tilt tests , the clinician can grade a sprain accordingly , and refer for x-rays or orthopedic consultation appropriately . The principles of RICE ( rest , ice , compression , elevation ) are explained and different treatment methodologies for grades I to III of sprain are discussed .
Score: 1.00
Author: Lembcke JL Peerson JM Brown KH .
Journal: J Pediatr . Gastroenterol . Nutr . Citation: V : 25 ( 4 ) P : 381-4 Year: 1997 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: title Doc ID: pub9327366
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Specially collected , spray-dried bovine and porcine blood plasma have been incorporated previously in feeds of weanling farm animals , resulting in increased dietary intakes and greater rates of weight gain than observed in control animals . Before conducting similar trials in human populations , preliminary studies have been completed to assess the acceptability , safety , and digestibility of processed animal plasma in young children . METHODS : Masked study diets were provided sequentially to each of ten young , Peruvian children recovering from severe protein-energy malnutrition during three randomly ordered 7-day dietary periods . The control diet was prepared from rice , milk , vegetable oil , and sugar ; the two study diets included spray-dried , bovine serum concentrate to replace either 25% or 50% of the milk protein of the control diet . Urine and feces were collected quantitatively during the last four days of each diet period to assess stool weight , apparent absorption of macronutrients , and retention of nitrogen . RESULTS : All children consumed the entire amounts offered of each of the diets . The mean number of daily bowel movements and mean apparent absorption and retention of nitrogen and mean apparent absorption of carbohydrate were similar for each diet . Fractional absorption of dietary lipid and of total energy increased significantly in relation to the amount of bovine serum concentrate in the diet , although this might be explained by the simultaneous replacement of milk fat with additional vegetable oil . CONCLUSIONS : Each of the diets was well accepted by the study children , and there was no evidence of any adverse effects of bovine serum concentrate .

Textpresso Sun Oct 25 08:33:30 2020 . All rights reserved.