Query
Condition Concatenation Type Data Entry Comparison Numerics Sentence Range Exact Match? Case Sensitive? Literatures Fields
0 && keyword SPRA > 0 sentence no no oryza body, title, abstract


417 matches found in 278 documents. Results sorted by score (hits) .
Score: 12.00
Title: The role of altered acetyl-CoA carboxylase in conferring resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) .
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 62 ( 11 ) P : 1109-15 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16964592 Accession (PMID): 16964592
Abstract: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 2.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 2.00 ]: The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: From paddy field observations in 2002 and 2004 , fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Chinese sprangletop ( Leptochloa chinensis ( L ) Nees ) has been studied using information collected from 11 sites in the Saphan-Sung district of Bangkok , Thailand . The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The resistant Chinese sprangletop was found in nine rice fields , whereas the susceptible Chinese sprangletop was found in only two rice fields . In greenhouse experiments , both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible Chinese sprangletop from the same location were investigated for 50% growth reduction based on phytotoxicity , plant height and fresh and dry weight . The resistant Chinese sprangletop showed apparent resistance at 14-21 days after herbicide application at a rate of 21 . 1-337 . 6 g AI ha ( -1 ) . The resistance index of resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10-25 times higher than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . In addition , Chinese sprangletop did not exhibit multiple resistance to oxadiazon , propanil and quinclorac . According to acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACCase ) assays , the level of ACCase specific activity in the resistant Chinese sprangletop was significantly higher than that in the susceptible Chinese sprangletop . Similarly , the ACCase activity of the resistant Chinese sprangletop was 10 times less sensitive to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl than that of the susceptible Chinese sprangletop , based on the I50 values . The present study of the mechanism responsible for resistance in the biotypes investigated indicated that there was a close association between the concentration-response at the whole-plant level and ACCase sensitivity to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl , and resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl was conferred by a modified ACCase at the target site , as suggested by higher specific activity and less sensitivity to the herbicide .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 9.00
Title: Field study on exposure and health effects of an organophosphate pesticide for maintaining registration in the Philippines .
Journal: Citation: V : 81 ( 6 ) P : 463-73 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2100760 Accession (PMID): 2100760
Abstract: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 3.00 ]: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 2.00 ]: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: To support the continued use and the registration of monocrotophos , a field study was conducted at Calauan , Laguna , The Philippines , to assess exposure and the resulting health risk to 21 spraymen applying monocrotophos to rice crop by knapsack spraying during 3 consecutive days . The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The findings of the study were as follows : exposure of uncovered hands and of the skin of the back to the concentrate was visually observed during the filling , and respectively loading operations ; During spraying exposure from airborne diluted formulation occurred ; in addition contamination of the lower parts of the body took place because of direct contact with the sprayed crop ; Determination of the amount of the urinary metabolite dimethylphosphate excreted in 24 hours urine samples demonstrated absorption of monocrotophos into the body of the spraymen . The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The half-life of elimination of the urinary metabolite from the body was on average 18 hours ; No clinically significant inhibitions of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activities were found , ie , 30% below baseline values . However , 8 of 21 spraymen had plasma cholinesterase levels below 50% of baseline values ; --No acute adverse health effects associated with the application of monocrotophos were observed , which was in accordance with the absence of clinically significant cholinesterase depressions . The conclusion of the study was that the use of monocrotophos under prevailing typical conditions in the Philippines , which varies from a frequency of one application per season to a maximum of 3 applications each on 3 consecutive days per week , and where label safety instructions are not necessarily observed , is not expected to pose an acute health risk under the prevailing conditions and practices , which includes filling , spraying and cleaning activities . From the experience in this study it is clear that proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protection will significantly reduce exposure . As such a reduction is highly recommendable , advice on proper spray procedures and adequate personal protection has been reinforced .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 7.00
Title: Indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin controls malaria in Pakistan : a community-randomized trial
Journal: Trop . Med . Int . Health Citation: V : 5 ( 7 ) P : 472-81 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10964269 Accession (PMID): 10964269
Abstract: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin ( Fendona , Cyanamid , NJ , USA ) , applied at 25 mg/m2 , to prevent falciparum and vivax malaria . Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Wettable powder ( WP ) and suspension concentrate ( SC ) formulations were tested against an unsprayed control in an irrigated rice-growing area of Sheikhupura district , Punjab province . The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The study area of 180 km2 was divided into nine sectors , which were assigned at random to control , WP , or SC treatments in replicates of 3 . Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sentinel villages were selected from each sector for entomological and disease monitoring . Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Malaria was monitored by fortnightly active case detection ( ACD ) and by cross sectional parasite surveys on schoolchildren . Mosquito populations were monitored by space spraying of rooms and by cattle-landing catches . The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: The spray campaign took place in June 1997 and covered 96% of compounds . During the 7 months after spraying , the incidence of falciparum malaria was 95% lower and that of vivax malaria 80% lower in WP-sprayed than unsprayed sectors . Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: Similar results were obtained for sectors sprayed with the SC formulation . Cross-sectional surveys gave estimates of efficacy comparable to those obtained by ACD . Anopheles culicifacies was 80% less abundant and Astephensi , the predominant anopheline , was up to 68% less abundant in sprayed areas over the 7-month period . Reductions in anopheline parous rates indicated that the single-spray treatment was effective for the entire transmission season . Sprayed surfaces lacked odour , which contributed to the popularity of the campaign . Alphacypermethrin is a promising insecticide for the control of malaria in Pakistan and South Asia generally .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 7.00
Title: Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on non-target herbivore and natural enemy assemblages in tropical irrigated rice .
Journal: Citation: V : 2 ( 3 ) P : 181-206 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15612416 Accession (PMID): 15612416
Abstract: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance . Analysis of guild-level trajectories revealed population behavior and treatment differences that could not be predicted in whole-community studies of predators and parasitoids . A more conclusive test of the impact of Bt rice will require field experiments with transgenic plants , conducted in a range of Asian environments , and over multiple cropping seasons .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) produced in transgenic pest-resistant Bt crops are generally not toxic to predatory and parasitic arthropods . However , elimination of Bt-susceptible prey and hosts in Bt crops could reduce predator and parasitoid abundance and thereby disrupt biological control of other herbivorous pests . Here we report results of a field study evaluating the effects of Bt sprays on non-target terrestrial herbivore and natural enemy assemblages from three rice ( Oryza sativa L ) fields on Luzon Island , Philippines . Because of restrictions on field-testing of transgenic rice , Bt sprays were used to remove foliage-feeding lepidopteran larvae that would be targeted by Bt rice . Data from a 546-taxa Philippines-wide food web , matched abundance plots , species accumulation curves , time-series analysis , and ecostatistical tests for species richness and ranked abundance were used to compare different subsets of non-target herbivores , predators , and parasitoids in Bt sprayed and water-sprayed ( control ) plots . For whole communities of terrestrial predators and parasitoids , Bt sprays altered parasitoid richness in 3 of 3 sites and predator richness in 1 of 3 sites , as measured by rarefaction ( in half of these cases , richness was greater in Bt plots ) , while Spearman tests on ranked abundances showed that correlations , although significantly positive between all treatment pairs , were stronger for predators than for parasitoids , suggesting that parasitoid complexes may have been more sensitive than predators to the effects of Bt sprays . Species accumulation curves and time-series analyses of population trends revealed no evidence that Bt sprays altered the overall buildup of predator or parasitoid communities or population trajectories of non-target herbivores ( planthoppers and leafhoppers ) nor was evidence found for bottom-up effects in total abundances of non-target species identified in the food web from the addition of spores in the Bt spray formulation . When the same methods were applied to natural enemies ( predators and parasitoids ) of foliage-feeding lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran ( homopteran , hemipteran and dipteran ) herbivores , significant differences between treatments were detected in 7 of 12 cases . However , no treatment differences were found in mean abundances of these natural enemies , either in time-series plots or in total ( seasonal ) abundance .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 7.00
Title: [ Effects of fungicide on temporal and spatial niches of Rhizoctonia solani ]
Journal: Citation: V : 16 ( 8 ) P : 1493-6 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16262065 Accession (PMID): 16262065
Abstract: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper studied the variation of the temporal and spatial niches of rice sheath blight-causing Rhizoctonia solani under spraying fungicide . The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The results showed that between fungicide treatments and control , the spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was different , while its temporal niche breadth was similar . The spatial niche breadth of Rhizoctonia solani was 0 . 5240 when spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages , 0 . 5742 at booting and milkfilling stages , and 0 . 8577 at tillering stage , while the control was 0 . 8563 . Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Spraying fungicide had little effect on temporal niche breath . The spatial niche breath , percentage of diseased leaves and sheathes , index of disease , and control effect all suggested that spraying fungicide two times in rice growth period was better than spraying it one time . Spraying fungicide at booting and full heading stages and at booting stage and milkfilling stages had the best effects . Fungicide could not only narrow the spatial niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani on top leaves which were important for the yield , but also narrow the temporal niche breadth , limit the spread of Rhizoctonia solani during the yield formation period of rice . But , spraying fungicide only changed the distribution of the fungus niches and narrowed the niches during rice yield formation period , with no changes in the whole niches of Rhizoctonia solani .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 7.00
Title: Original research : long-term efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid in acute ankle sprain .
Journal: Phys Sportsmed Citation: V : 37 P : 64-70 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20048489 Accession (PMID): 20048489
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid ( HA ) injections in acute lateral ankle sprain . A randomized , controlled , prospective trial in a primary sports medicine and emergency practice involved 158 competitive athletes who suffered an acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprain , and who were randomly assigned within 48 hours of injury . Patients were randomly assigned at baseline to periarticular injection with HA + standard of care ( rest , ice , elevation , and compression [ RICE ] ) or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and day 4 after injury . Follow-up was at 30 , 90 , and 712 days after treatment . Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , 90 , and 712 included visual analogue scale ( VAS ) ( 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( 5-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( 5-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , recurrent ankle sprain , total number of days missing from primary sport activity , and adverse events ( AEs ) . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours with no difference between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at all follow-up assessments for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 001 ) . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/- 8 ) versus 17 ( +/- 8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . At 24 months , in the PL versus HA group , there were 2 versus 0 lower limb fractures , 16 versus 7 second ankle sprains ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 3 versus 1 third ankle sprains , and a significantly greater number of days missing primary sport activity ( 41 vs 21 ; P < 0 . 002 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was also observed for HA versus PL at all follow-up assessments . No serious AEs were recorded throughout follow-up . Periarticular HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short and long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain , more rapid return to sport , fewer recurrent ankle sprains , fewer missed days from sport , and with few associated AEs to 24 months .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , 90 , and 712 included visual analogue scale ( VAS ) ( 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( 5-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( 5-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , recurrent ankle sprain , total number of days missing from primary sport activity , and adverse events ( AEs ) . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours with no difference between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at all follow-up assessments for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 001 ) . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/- 8 ) versus 17 ( +/- 8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . At 24 months , in the PL versus HA group , there were 2 versus 0 lower limb fractures , 16 versus 7 second ankle sprains ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 3 versus 1 third ankle sprains , and a significantly greater number of days missing primary sport activity ( 41 vs 21 ; P < 0 . 002 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was also observed for HA versus PL at all follow-up assessments . No serious AEs were recorded throughout follow-up . Periarticular HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short and long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain , more rapid return to sport , fewer recurrent ankle sprains , fewer missed days from sport , and with few associated AEs to 24 months .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid ( HA ) injections in acute lateral ankle sprain . A randomized , controlled , prospective trial in a primary sports medicine and emergency practice involved 158 competitive athletes who suffered an acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprain , and who were randomly assigned within 48 hours of injury . Patients were randomly assigned at baseline to periarticular injection with HA + standard of care ( rest , ice , elevation , and compression [ RICE ] ) or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and day 4 after injury . Follow-up was at 30 , 90 , and 712 days after treatment . Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , 90 , and 712 included visual analogue scale ( VAS ) ( 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( 5-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( 5-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , recurrent ankle sprain , total number of days missing from primary sport activity , and adverse events ( AEs ) .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid ( HA ) injections in acute lateral ankle sprain . A randomized , controlled , prospective trial in a primary sports medicine and emergency practice involved 158 competitive athletes who suffered an acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprain , and who were randomly assigned within 48 hours of injury . Patients were randomly assigned at baseline to periarticular injection with HA + standard of care ( rest , ice , elevation , and compression [ RICE ] ) or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and day 4 after injury . Follow-up was at 30 , 90 , and 712 days after treatment . Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , 90 , and 712 included visual analogue scale ( VAS ) ( 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( 5-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( 5-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , recurrent ankle sprain , total number of days missing from primary sport activity , and adverse events ( AEs ) . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours with no difference between groups .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid ( HA ) injections in acute lateral ankle sprain . A randomized , controlled , prospective trial in a primary sports medicine and emergency practice involved 158 competitive athletes who suffered an acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprain , and who were randomly assigned within 48 hours of injury . Patients were randomly assigned at baseline to periarticular injection with HA + standard of care ( rest , ice , elevation , and compression [ RICE ] ) or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and day 4 after injury . Follow-up was at 30 , 90 , and 712 days after treatment . Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , 90 , and 712 included visual analogue scale ( VAS ) ( 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( 5-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( 5-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , recurrent ankle sprain , total number of days missing from primary sport activity , and adverse events ( AEs ) . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours with no difference between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at all follow-up assessments for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 001 ) . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/- 8 ) versus 17 ( +/- 8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . At 24 months , in the PL versus HA group , there were 2 versus 0 lower limb fractures , 16 versus 7 second ankle sprains ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 3 versus 1 third ankle sprains , and a significantly greater number of days missing primary sport activity ( 41 vs 21 ; P < 0 . 002 ) .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/- 8 ) versus 17 ( +/- 8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . At 24 months , in the PL versus HA group , there were 2 versus 0 lower limb fractures , 16 versus 7 second ankle sprains ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 3 versus 1 third ankle sprains , and a significantly greater number of days missing primary sport activity ( 41 vs 21 ; P < 0 . 002 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was also observed for HA versus PL at all follow-up assessments . No serious AEs were recorded throughout follow-up . Periarticular HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short and long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain , more rapid return to sport , fewer recurrent ankle sprains , fewer missed days from sport , and with few associated AEs to 24 months .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: At 24 months , in the PL versus HA group , there were 2 versus 0 lower limb fractures , 16 versus 7 second ankle sprains ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 3 versus 1 third ankle sprains , and a significantly greater number of days missing primary sport activity ( 41 vs 21 ; P < 0 . 002 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was also observed for HA versus PL at all follow-up assessments . No serious AEs were recorded throughout follow-up . Periarticular HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short and long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain , more rapid return to sport , fewer recurrent ankle sprains , fewer missed days from sport , and with few associated AEs to 24 months .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 7.00
Title: TEMPER : an acronym for ankle sprain rehabilitation .
Journal: Citation: V : 5 ( 3 ) P : 661-75 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3293757 Accession (PMID): 3293757
Abstract: As has been previously discussed , the incidence and resultant associated disabilities of ankle sprains have been well documented in the literature . The staggering statistics on long-term disability show that there is no such thing as a simple ankle sprain . The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided . It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program . One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment . One possible reason is the lack of agreement in diagnostic techniques as well as the end diagnosis of a particular grade of ankle sprain . If a sprain is managed correctly , resultant disability will be kept to a minimum . A proper rehabilitation program may be the most important factor in preventing chronic instability . The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management . RICE primarily addresses the ankle edema . Thus , the patients ankle is only partially rehabilitated . A rational approach to the management of ankle sprains is given . Upon reviewing a complete protocol for ankle sprain rehabilitation , the acronym TEMPER can be used judiciously to remember the key steps in the treatment plan . Through the use of this acronym , one can institute a complete rehabilitation program .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: As has been previously discussed , the incidence and resultant associated disabilities of ankle sprains have been well documented in the literature . The staggering statistics on long-term disability show that there is no such thing as a simple ankle sprain . The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided . It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program . One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: As has been previously discussed , the incidence and resultant associated disabilities of ankle sprains have been well documented in the literature . The staggering statistics on long-term disability show that there is no such thing as a simple ankle sprain . The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided . It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program . One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment . One possible reason is the lack of agreement in diagnostic techniques as well as the end diagnosis of a particular grade of ankle sprain .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: As has been previously discussed , the incidence and resultant associated disabilities of ankle sprains have been well documented in the literature . The staggering statistics on long-term disability show that there is no such thing as a simple ankle sprain . The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided . It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program . One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment . One possible reason is the lack of agreement in diagnostic techniques as well as the end diagnosis of a particular grade of ankle sprain . If a sprain is managed correctly , resultant disability will be kept to a minimum . A proper rehabilitation program may be the most important factor in preventing chronic instability . The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The staggering statistics on long-term disability show that there is no such thing as a simple ankle sprain . The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided . It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program . One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment . One possible reason is the lack of agreement in diagnostic techniques as well as the end diagnosis of a particular grade of ankle sprain . If a sprain is managed correctly , resultant disability will be kept to a minimum . A proper rehabilitation program may be the most important factor in preventing chronic instability . The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management . RICE primarily addresses the ankle edema .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The degree of disability is related to the extent of the initial injury as well as the follow-up medical care provided . It is this fact that requires a complete understanding of the injury as well as a proper treatment and rehabilitation program . One of the reasons cited for the long-term disability or lack of consistently good results in treating ankle sprains is the lack of uniformity in treatment . One possible reason is the lack of agreement in diagnostic techniques as well as the end diagnosis of a particular grade of ankle sprain . If a sprain is managed correctly , resultant disability will be kept to a minimum . A proper rehabilitation program may be the most important factor in preventing chronic instability . The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management . RICE primarily addresses the ankle edema . Thus , the patients ankle is only partially rehabilitated .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: A proper rehabilitation program may be the most important factor in preventing chronic instability . The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management . RICE primarily addresses the ankle edema . Thus , the patients ankle is only partially rehabilitated . A rational approach to the management of ankle sprains is given . Upon reviewing a complete protocol for ankle sprain rehabilitation , the acronym TEMPER can be used judiciously to remember the key steps in the treatment plan . Through the use of this acronym , one can institute a complete rehabilitation program .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: The acronym RICE falls short of complete ankle management . RICE primarily addresses the ankle edema . Thus , the patients ankle is only partially rehabilitated . A rational approach to the management of ankle sprains is given . Upon reviewing a complete protocol for ankle sprain rehabilitation , the acronym TEMPER can be used judiciously to remember the key steps in the treatment plan . Through the use of this acronym , one can institute a complete rehabilitation program .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 6.00
Title: Effect of growth stage on the efficacy of postemergence herbicides on four weed species of direct-seeded rice .
Journal: ScientificWorldJournal Citation: V : 2012 P : 123071 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22619576 Accession (PMID): 22619576
Abstract: The efficacy of bispyribac-sodium , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron , and penoxsulam + cyhalofop was evaluated against barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , junglerice , and southern crabgrass when applied at four- , six- , and eight-leaf stages . When applied at the four-leaf stage , bispyribac-sodium provided greater than 97% control of barnyardgrass , junglerice , and southern crabgrass ; however , it was slightly weak ( 74% control ) on Chinese sprangletop . Irrespective of the weed species , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron provided greater than 97% control when applied at the four-leaf stage . At the same leaf stage , penoxsulam + cyhalofop controlled 89 to 100% barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , and junglerice and only 54% of southern crabgrass . The efficacy of herbicides was reduced when applied at the eight-leaf stage of the weeds ; however , at this stage , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron was effective in controlling 99% of Chinese sprangletop . The results demonstrate the importance of early herbicide application in controlling the weeds . The study identified that at the six-leaf stage of the weeds , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron can effectively control Chinese sprangletop and southern crabgrass , penoxsulam + cyhalofop can effectively control Chinese sprangletop , and bispyribac-sodium can effectively control junglerice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 2.00 ]: Irrespective of the weed species , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron provided greater than 97% control when applied at the four-leaf stage . At the same leaf stage , penoxsulam + cyhalofop controlled 89 to 100% barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , and junglerice and only 54% of southern crabgrass . The efficacy of herbicides was reduced when applied at the eight-leaf stage of the weeds ; however , at this stage , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron was effective in controlling 99% of Chinese sprangletop . The results demonstrate the importance of early herbicide application in controlling the weeds . The study identified that at the six-leaf stage of the weeds , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron can effectively control Chinese sprangletop and southern crabgrass , penoxsulam + cyhalofop can effectively control Chinese sprangletop , and bispyribac-sodium can effectively control junglerice .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The efficacy of bispyribac-sodium , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron , and penoxsulam + cyhalofop was evaluated against barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , junglerice , and southern crabgrass when applied at four- , six- , and eight-leaf stages . When applied at the four-leaf stage , bispyribac-sodium provided greater than 97% control of barnyardgrass , junglerice , and southern crabgrass ; however , it was slightly weak ( 74% control ) on Chinese sprangletop . Irrespective of the weed species , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron provided greater than 97% control when applied at the four-leaf stage . At the same leaf stage , penoxsulam + cyhalofop controlled 89 to 100% barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , and junglerice and only 54% of southern crabgrass . The efficacy of herbicides was reduced when applied at the eight-leaf stage of the weeds ; however , at this stage , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron was effective in controlling 99% of Chinese sprangletop .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The efficacy of bispyribac-sodium , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron , and penoxsulam + cyhalofop was evaluated against barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , junglerice , and southern crabgrass when applied at four- , six- , and eight-leaf stages . When applied at the four-leaf stage , bispyribac-sodium provided greater than 97% control of barnyardgrass , junglerice , and southern crabgrass ; however , it was slightly weak ( 74% control ) on Chinese sprangletop . Irrespective of the weed species , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron provided greater than 97% control when applied at the four-leaf stage . At the same leaf stage , penoxsulam + cyhalofop controlled 89 to 100% barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , and junglerice and only 54% of southern crabgrass . The efficacy of herbicides was reduced when applied at the eight-leaf stage of the weeds ; however , at this stage , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron was effective in controlling 99% of Chinese sprangletop . The results demonstrate the importance of early herbicide application in controlling the weeds .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The efficacy of bispyribac-sodium , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron , and penoxsulam + cyhalofop was evaluated against barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , junglerice , and southern crabgrass when applied at four- , six- , and eight-leaf stages . When applied at the four-leaf stage , bispyribac-sodium provided greater than 97% control of barnyardgrass , junglerice , and southern crabgrass ; however , it was slightly weak ( 74% control ) on Chinese sprangletop . Irrespective of the weed species , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron provided greater than 97% control when applied at the four-leaf stage . At the same leaf stage , penoxsulam + cyhalofop controlled 89 to 100% barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , and junglerice and only 54% of southern crabgrass . The efficacy of herbicides was reduced when applied at the eight-leaf stage of the weeds ; however , at this stage , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron was effective in controlling 99% of Chinese sprangletop . The results demonstrate the importance of early herbicide application in controlling the weeds . The study identified that at the six-leaf stage of the weeds , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron can effectively control Chinese sprangletop and southern crabgrass , penoxsulam + cyhalofop can effectively control Chinese sprangletop , and bispyribac-sodium can effectively control junglerice .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The efficacy of bispyribac-sodium , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron , and penoxsulam + cyhalofop was evaluated against barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , junglerice , and southern crabgrass when applied at four- , six- , and eight-leaf stages . When applied at the four-leaf stage , bispyribac-sodium provided greater than 97% control of barnyardgrass , junglerice , and southern crabgrass ; however , it was slightly weak ( 74% control ) on Chinese sprangletop . Irrespective of the weed species , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron provided greater than 97% control when applied at the four-leaf stage . At the same leaf stage , penoxsulam + cyhalofop controlled 89 to 100% barnyardgrass , Chinese sprangletop , and junglerice and only 54% of southern crabgrass . The efficacy of herbicides was reduced when applied at the eight-leaf stage of the weeds ; however , at this stage , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron was effective in controlling 99% of Chinese sprangletop . The results demonstrate the importance of early herbicide application in controlling the weeds . The study identified that at the six-leaf stage of the weeds , fenoxaprop + ethoxysulfuron can effectively control Chinese sprangletop and southern crabgrass , penoxsulam + cyhalofop can effectively control Chinese sprangletop , and bispyribac-sodium can effectively control junglerice .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 6.00
Title: [ The reconquest of the Madagascar highlands by malaria ]
Journal: Citation: V : 90 ( 3 ) P : 162-8 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9410249 Accession (PMID): 9410249
Abstract: A strong malaria epidemic with a high mortality rate occurred on the Madagascar Highlands in 1986-88 . Vector control and free access to antimalaria drugs controlled the disease . The authors have searched for the causes of the epidemic to propose a strategy avoiding such events . The Highlands on Madagascar were known as malaria free . In 1878 a very severe epidemic flooded all the country . Development of irrigated ricefields which house both An . arabiensis and An . funestus had created a new anthropic environment . Moreover manpower imported from malarious coastal areas for rice cultivation and also for building large temples , could have brought P falciparum . After several outbreaks the disease became endemic up to 1949 . In 1949 a malaria eradication programme based on DDT spraying and drug chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy was launched . By 1960 malaria was eliminated and DDT spraying cancelled . Only 3 foci were kept under surveillance with irregular spraying until 1975 . The prophylaxis and treatment centres ( "centres de nivaquinisation" ) were kept open up to 1979 . The catholic dispensary of Analaroa , 100 km NE of Tananarive , opened in 1971 and worked without interruption up to now . The malaria diagnosis has always been controlled by microscopy . Its registers are probably the more reliable source of information on malaria in the area . They show that malaria was already present on the Highlands in 1971 but at a low prevalence ; in 1980 when the "centres de nivaquinisation" were closed the number of cases increased by three times the progressive increase of the number of cases became exponential from 1986 to 1988 which was the peak of the epidemic ; malaria remained at a high level until the end of 1993 ; yearly DDT spraying since 1993 have decreased the number of malaria cases among the dispensary attendants by 90% . The epidemic peak of 1988 was well documented by the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar around Tananarive . Before the epidemic started it was observed a come back of An . funestus which had been previously eliminated of most of the villages by DDT spraying . More than an epidemic the malaria increase in 1988 was a reconquest by malaria of the land from which it had been eliminated in the years 1950 . This episode became dramatic because the lack of immunity of the population and the shortage of medicaments . The global warming which was advocated to explain the epidemic has no responsibility because the temperature on the Madagascar Highlands has not changed during the last 30 years . Also the cyclones do not seem to have played any role . It is very likely that the gradual decline of control measures , first DDT spraying , later drug distributions , had the main responsibility in the Highlands drama . Everywhere An . funestus reached a high level during the time where the parasite reservoir was rebuilding . They synergised each other . These findings should be taken in account in drawing the strategy planning for the next years .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: In 1878 a very severe epidemic flooded all the country . Development of irrigated ricefields which house both An . arabiensis and An . funestus had created a new anthropic environment . Moreover manpower imported from malarious coastal areas for rice cultivation and also for building large temples , could have brought P falciparum . After several outbreaks the disease became endemic up to 1949 . In 1949 a malaria eradication programme based on DDT spraying and drug chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy was launched . By 1960 malaria was eliminated and DDT spraying cancelled . Only 3 foci were kept under surveillance with irregular spraying until 1975 . The prophylaxis and treatment centres ( "centres de nivaquinisation" ) were kept open up to 1979 . The catholic dispensary of Analaroa , 100 km NE of Tananarive , opened in 1971 and worked without interruption up to now .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Development of irrigated ricefields which house both An . arabiensis and An . funestus had created a new anthropic environment . Moreover manpower imported from malarious coastal areas for rice cultivation and also for building large temples , could have brought P falciparum . After several outbreaks the disease became endemic up to 1949 . In 1949 a malaria eradication programme based on DDT spraying and drug chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy was launched . By 1960 malaria was eliminated and DDT spraying cancelled . Only 3 foci were kept under surveillance with irregular spraying until 1975 . The prophylaxis and treatment centres ( "centres de nivaquinisation" ) were kept open up to 1979 . The catholic dispensary of Analaroa , 100 km NE of Tananarive , opened in 1971 and worked without interruption up to now . The malaria diagnosis has always been controlled by microscopy .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Moreover manpower imported from malarious coastal areas for rice cultivation and also for building large temples , could have brought P falciparum . After several outbreaks the disease became endemic up to 1949 . In 1949 a malaria eradication programme based on DDT spraying and drug chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy was launched . By 1960 malaria was eliminated and DDT spraying cancelled . Only 3 foci were kept under surveillance with irregular spraying until 1975 . The prophylaxis and treatment centres ( "centres de nivaquinisation" ) were kept open up to 1979 . The catholic dispensary of Analaroa , 100 km NE of Tananarive , opened in 1971 and worked without interruption up to now . The malaria diagnosis has always been controlled by microscopy . Its registers are probably the more reliable source of information on malaria in the area .
[ Sen. 16, subscore: 1.00 ]: The prophylaxis and treatment centres ( "centres de nivaquinisation" ) were kept open up to 1979 . The catholic dispensary of Analaroa , 100 km NE of Tananarive , opened in 1971 and worked without interruption up to now . The malaria diagnosis has always been controlled by microscopy . Its registers are probably the more reliable source of information on malaria in the area . They show that malaria was already present on the Highlands in 1971 but at a low prevalence ; in 1980 when the "centres de nivaquinisation" were closed the number of cases increased by three times the progressive increase of the number of cases became exponential from 1986 to 1988 which was the peak of the epidemic ; malaria remained at a high level until the end of 1993 ; yearly DDT spraying since 1993 have decreased the number of malaria cases among the dispensary attendants by 90% . The epidemic peak of 1988 was well documented by the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar around Tananarive . Before the epidemic started it was observed a come back of An . funestus which had been previously eliminated of most of the villages by DDT spraying . More than an epidemic the malaria increase in 1988 was a reconquest by malaria of the land from which it had been eliminated in the years 1950 . This episode became dramatic because the lack of immunity of the population and the shortage of medicaments .
[ Sen. 18, subscore: 1.00 ]: The malaria diagnosis has always been controlled by microscopy . Its registers are probably the more reliable source of information on malaria in the area . They show that malaria was already present on the Highlands in 1971 but at a low prevalence ; in 1980 when the "centres de nivaquinisation" were closed the number of cases increased by three times the progressive increase of the number of cases became exponential from 1986 to 1988 which was the peak of the epidemic ; malaria remained at a high level until the end of 1993 ; yearly DDT spraying since 1993 have decreased the number of malaria cases among the dispensary attendants by 90% . The epidemic peak of 1988 was well documented by the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar around Tananarive . Before the epidemic started it was observed a come back of An . funestus which had been previously eliminated of most of the villages by DDT spraying . More than an epidemic the malaria increase in 1988 was a reconquest by malaria of the land from which it had been eliminated in the years 1950 . This episode became dramatic because the lack of immunity of the population and the shortage of medicaments . The global warming which was advocated to explain the epidemic has no responsibility because the temperature on the Madagascar Highlands has not changed during the last 30 years . Also the cyclones do not seem to have played any role .
[ Sen. 23, subscore: 1.00 ]: More than an epidemic the malaria increase in 1988 was a reconquest by malaria of the land from which it had been eliminated in the years 1950 . This episode became dramatic because the lack of immunity of the population and the shortage of medicaments . The global warming which was advocated to explain the epidemic has no responsibility because the temperature on the Madagascar Highlands has not changed during the last 30 years . Also the cyclones do not seem to have played any role . It is very likely that the gradual decline of control measures , first DDT spraying , later drug distributions , had the main responsibility in the Highlands drama . Everywhere An . funestus reached a high level during the time where the parasite reservoir was rebuilding . They synergised each other . These findings should be taken in account in drawing the strategy planning for the next years .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 5.00
Title: Floral spray transformation can efficiently generate Arabidopsis transgenic plants .
Journal: Transgenic Res . Citation: V : 9 ( 6 ) P : 471-6 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11206976 Accession (PMID): 11206976
Abstract: In this study , floral spray and floral dip were used to replace the vacuum step in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) gene into Arabidopsis . The transgene was constructed by using a CaMV 35S promoter to drive a rice cytosolic CuZnSOD coding sequence in Arabidopsis . The transgene construct was developed in binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium . When Arabidopsis plants started to initiate flower buds , the primary inflorescence shoots were removed and then transformed by floral spray or floral dip . More than 300 transgenic plants were generated to assess the feasibility of floral spray used in the in planta transformation . The result indicates that the floral spray method of Agrobacterium can achieve rates of in planta transformation comparable to the vacuum-infiltration and floral dip methods . The floral spray method opens up the possibility of in planta transformation of plant species which are too large for dipping or vacuum infiltration .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , floral spray and floral dip were used to replace the vacuum step in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) gene into Arabidopsis . The transgene was constructed by using a CaMV 35S promoter to drive a rice cytosolic CuZnSOD coding sequence in Arabidopsis . The transgene construct was developed in binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium . When Arabidopsis plants started to initiate flower buds , the primary inflorescence shoots were removed and then transformed by floral spray or floral dip . More than 300 transgenic plants were generated to assess the feasibility of floral spray used in the in planta transformation .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , floral spray and floral dip were used to replace the vacuum step in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) gene into Arabidopsis . The transgene was constructed by using a CaMV 35S promoter to drive a rice cytosolic CuZnSOD coding sequence in Arabidopsis . The transgene construct was developed in binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium . When Arabidopsis plants started to initiate flower buds , the primary inflorescence shoots were removed and then transformed by floral spray or floral dip . More than 300 transgenic plants were generated to assess the feasibility of floral spray used in the in planta transformation . The result indicates that the floral spray method of Agrobacterium can achieve rates of in planta transformation comparable to the vacuum-infiltration and floral dip methods . The floral spray method opens up the possibility of in planta transformation of plant species which are too large for dipping or vacuum infiltration .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , floral spray and floral dip were used to replace the vacuum step in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) gene into Arabidopsis . The transgene was constructed by using a CaMV 35S promoter to drive a rice cytosolic CuZnSOD coding sequence in Arabidopsis . The transgene construct was developed in binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium . When Arabidopsis plants started to initiate flower buds , the primary inflorescence shoots were removed and then transformed by floral spray or floral dip . More than 300 transgenic plants were generated to assess the feasibility of floral spray used in the in planta transformation . The result indicates that the floral spray method of Agrobacterium can achieve rates of in planta transformation comparable to the vacuum-infiltration and floral dip methods . The floral spray method opens up the possibility of in planta transformation of plant species which are too large for dipping or vacuum infiltration .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The transgene was constructed by using a CaMV 35S promoter to drive a rice cytosolic CuZnSOD coding sequence in Arabidopsis . The transgene construct was developed in binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium . When Arabidopsis plants started to initiate flower buds , the primary inflorescence shoots were removed and then transformed by floral spray or floral dip . More than 300 transgenic plants were generated to assess the feasibility of floral spray used in the in planta transformation . The result indicates that the floral spray method of Agrobacterium can achieve rates of in planta transformation comparable to the vacuum-infiltration and floral dip methods . The floral spray method opens up the possibility of in planta transformation of plant species which are too large for dipping or vacuum infiltration .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The transgene construct was developed in binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium . When Arabidopsis plants started to initiate flower buds , the primary inflorescence shoots were removed and then transformed by floral spray or floral dip . More than 300 transgenic plants were generated to assess the feasibility of floral spray used in the in planta transformation . The result indicates that the floral spray method of Agrobacterium can achieve rates of in planta transformation comparable to the vacuum-infiltration and floral dip methods . The floral spray method opens up the possibility of in planta transformation of plant species which are too large for dipping or vacuum infiltration .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 5.00
Title: Susceptibility of adult and larval stages of the horn fly , Haematobia irritans , to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae under field conditions .
Journal: Vet Parasitol Citation: V : 166 P : 136-43 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19713044 Accession (PMID): 19713044
Abstract: The efficacy of M anisopliae strain E9 as a biological insecticide for the adult and larval stages of H irritans was assessed under field conditions . To assess larvicidal activity , nine heifers were randomly divided into three groups , which were maintained separated from each other . The first group ingested fungal spores encapsulated in alginate pellets . The second group ingested in natura spores that were grown on sterilized rice . In both groups , each animal received three meals a day , with each meal containing 2 x 10 ( 10 ) conidia . The third group received no treatment and was used as a control . Fecal samples from manure and whole dung pats were collected from each of the three separate pastures on the day that the animals were allocated and on days 1 , 3 , 6 , 9 and 12 afterwards . The fecal samples were tested for the presence of fungal colony forming units ( CFU ) , and the emergence of horn flies was observed in the dung pats . Significantly less ( P<0 . 01 ) adult horn flies were found in dung pats of the group treated with encapsulated fungi ( 11 . 7 ) than in those from the heifers treated with conidia in natura ( 27 . 9 ) or from the control group ( 29 . 5 ) . The fecal samples of the treated animals presented significantly higher numbers of M anisopliae CFUs then those from the untreated controls . We found that on day 9 fecal samples from animals given microencapsulated conidia had significantly higher CFUs than those from animals treated with conidia in natura . To assess adulticide activity , four heifers were sprayed with a suspension of 3 x 10 ( 10 ) conidial ( -1 ) of M anisopliae , and four control animals were sprayed with the same solution without conidial content . Four sprayings were done at five-day intervals , and all animals were photographed daily to observe the quantity of flies present . After the second spraying , we observed an average of 22 . 9 flies per animal ; untreated heifers had an average of 43 flies per animal ; thus , the treatment significantly ( P<0 . 05 ) decreases fly infestation . The results obtained from both tests show that M anisopliae strain E9 has a pathogenic effect on H irritans larvae in bovine manure when administered orally and on adult fly infestations when applied as a spray on the hosts .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 2.00 ]: The fecal samples were tested for the presence of fungal colony forming units ( CFU ) , and the emergence of horn flies was observed in the dung pats . Significantly less ( P<0 . 01 ) adult horn flies were found in dung pats of the group treated with encapsulated fungi ( 11 . 7 ) than in those from the heifers treated with conidia in natura ( 27 . 9 ) or from the control group ( 29 . 5 ) . The fecal samples of the treated animals presented significantly higher numbers of M anisopliae CFUs then those from the untreated controls . We found that on day 9 fecal samples from animals given microencapsulated conidia had significantly higher CFUs than those from animals treated with conidia in natura . To assess adulticide activity , four heifers were sprayed with a suspension of 3 x 10 ( 10 ) conidial ( -1 ) of M anisopliae , and four control animals were sprayed with the same solution without conidial content . Four sprayings were done at five-day intervals , and all animals were photographed daily to observe the quantity of flies present . After the second spraying , we observed an average of 22 . 9 flies per animal ; untreated heifers had an average of 43 flies per animal ; thus , the treatment significantly ( P<0 . 05 ) decreases fly infestation . The results obtained from both tests show that M anisopliae strain E9 has a pathogenic effect on H irritans larvae in bovine manure when administered orally and on adult fly infestations when applied as a spray on the hosts .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: Significantly less ( P<0 . 01 ) adult horn flies were found in dung pats of the group treated with encapsulated fungi ( 11 . 7 ) than in those from the heifers treated with conidia in natura ( 27 . 9 ) or from the control group ( 29 . 5 ) . The fecal samples of the treated animals presented significantly higher numbers of M anisopliae CFUs then those from the untreated controls . We found that on day 9 fecal samples from animals given microencapsulated conidia had significantly higher CFUs than those from animals treated with conidia in natura . To assess adulticide activity , four heifers were sprayed with a suspension of 3 x 10 ( 10 ) conidial ( -1 ) of M anisopliae , and four control animals were sprayed with the same solution without conidial content . Four sprayings were done at five-day intervals , and all animals were photographed daily to observe the quantity of flies present . After the second spraying , we observed an average of 22 . 9 flies per animal ; untreated heifers had an average of 43 flies per animal ; thus , the treatment significantly ( P<0 . 05 ) decreases fly infestation . The results obtained from both tests show that M anisopliae strain E9 has a pathogenic effect on H irritans larvae in bovine manure when administered orally and on adult fly infestations when applied as a spray on the hosts .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: The fecal samples of the treated animals presented significantly higher numbers of M anisopliae CFUs then those from the untreated controls . We found that on day 9 fecal samples from animals given microencapsulated conidia had significantly higher CFUs than those from animals treated with conidia in natura . To assess adulticide activity , four heifers were sprayed with a suspension of 3 x 10 ( 10 ) conidial ( -1 ) of M anisopliae , and four control animals were sprayed with the same solution without conidial content . Four sprayings were done at five-day intervals , and all animals were photographed daily to observe the quantity of flies present . After the second spraying , we observed an average of 22 . 9 flies per animal ; untreated heifers had an average of 43 flies per animal ; thus , the treatment significantly ( P<0 . 05 ) decreases fly infestation . The results obtained from both tests show that M anisopliae strain E9 has a pathogenic effect on H irritans larvae in bovine manure when administered orally and on adult fly infestations when applied as a spray on the hosts .
[ Sen. 15, subscore: 1.00 ]: We found that on day 9 fecal samples from animals given microencapsulated conidia had significantly higher CFUs than those from animals treated with conidia in natura . To assess adulticide activity , four heifers were sprayed with a suspension of 3 x 10 ( 10 ) conidial ( -1 ) of M anisopliae , and four control animals were sprayed with the same solution without conidial content . Four sprayings were done at five-day intervals , and all animals were photographed daily to observe the quantity of flies present . After the second spraying , we observed an average of 22 . 9 flies per animal ; untreated heifers had an average of 43 flies per animal ; thus , the treatment significantly ( P<0 . 05 ) decreases fly infestation . The results obtained from both tests show that M anisopliae strain E9 has a pathogenic effect on H irritans larvae in bovine manure when administered orally and on adult fly infestations when applied as a spray on the hosts .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: Management of ankle sprains .
Journal: Citation: V : 63 ( 1 ) P : 93-104 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11195774 Accession (PMID): 11195774
Abstract: Without adequate care , acute ankle trauma can result in chronic joint instability . Use of a standardized protocol enhances the management of ankle sprains . In patients with grades I or II sprains , emphasis should be placed on accurate diagnosis , early use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression and elevation ) , maintenance of range of motion and use of an ankle support . Sprains with complete ligament [ corrected ] tears ( grade III ) may require surgical intervention . Although early motion and mobility are recommended , ligamentous strength does not return until months after an ankle sprain .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Without adequate care , acute ankle trauma can result in chronic joint instability . Use of a standardized protocol enhances the management of ankle sprains . In patients with grades I or II sprains , emphasis should be placed on accurate diagnosis , early use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression and elevation ) , maintenance of range of motion and use of an ankle support . Sprains with complete ligament [ corrected ] tears ( grade III ) may require surgical intervention . Although early motion and mobility are recommended , ligamentous strength does not return until months after an ankle sprain .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Without adequate care , acute ankle trauma can result in chronic joint instability . Use of a standardized protocol enhances the management of ankle sprains . In patients with grades I or II sprains , emphasis should be placed on accurate diagnosis , early use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression and elevation ) , maintenance of range of motion and use of an ankle support . Sprains with complete ligament [ corrected ] tears ( grade III ) may require surgical intervention . Although early motion and mobility are recommended , ligamentous strength does not return until months after an ankle sprain .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Without adequate care , acute ankle trauma can result in chronic joint instability . Use of a standardized protocol enhances the management of ankle sprains . In patients with grades I or II sprains , emphasis should be placed on accurate diagnosis , early use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression and elevation ) , maintenance of range of motion and use of an ankle support . Sprains with complete ligament [ corrected ] tears ( grade III ) may require surgical intervention . Although early motion and mobility are recommended , ligamentous strength does not return until months after an ankle sprain .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Without adequate care , acute ankle trauma can result in chronic joint instability . Use of a standardized protocol enhances the management of ankle sprains . In patients with grades I or II sprains , emphasis should be placed on accurate diagnosis , early use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression and elevation ) , maintenance of range of motion and use of an ankle support . Sprains with complete ligament [ corrected ] tears ( grade III ) may require surgical intervention . Although early motion and mobility are recommended , ligamentous strength does not return until months after an ankle sprain .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: Biological monitoring of combined exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroids .
Journal: Toxicol . Lett . Citation: V : 134 ( 1-3 ) P : 119-24 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12191869 Accession (PMID): 12191869
Abstract: A total of 132 farmers were selected from two areas ( J and S ) for this study . In area J , the subgroups Ja ( 40 subjects ) and Jb ( 36 subjects ) sprayed on rice crops either the organophosphate ( OP ) insecticide methamidophos or the mixture methamidophos-deltamethrin ( a pyrethroid , Pyr ) . In area S , the subgroups Sa ( 27 subjects ) and Sb ( 29 subjects ) sprayed on cottons either the OP methyl-parathion or the mixture methyl-parathion-deltamethrin . Groups Jc ( 22 subjects ) and Sc ( 20 subjects ) were non-exposed controls . Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) was measured by the Ellmans method before spraying , after 2-h exposure and 1 h later . Inhibition of AChE occurred after 2-h exposure to both single OP ( Ja and Sa ) and OP-containing mixtures ( Jb and Sb ) as compared with both pre-exposure and control values ( Jc and Sc ) . A similar recovery was found in subgroups Ja , Jb , Sa and Sb 1 h after spraying , but all remained lower than the pre-exposure level . There was no difference in AChE inhibition and recovery between the single OP subgroups and the OP mixture subgroups . The inhibitory effect on AChE shown in subjects with combined OP-Pyr exposure was induced by the OP component of the insecticide mixture and to a similar extent as that induced by the single OP formulations . In addition to the fact that the OP is more potent than Pyrs , the above results might explain why the clinical manifestations of OP mixture poisonings are similar to those of single OP poisoning .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: A total of 132 farmers were selected from two areas ( J and S ) for this study . In area J , the subgroups Ja ( 40 subjects ) and Jb ( 36 subjects ) sprayed on rice crops either the organophosphate ( OP ) insecticide methamidophos or the mixture methamidophos-deltamethrin ( a pyrethroid , Pyr ) . In area S , the subgroups Sa ( 27 subjects ) and Sb ( 29 subjects ) sprayed on cottons either the OP methyl-parathion or the mixture methyl-parathion-deltamethrin . Groups Jc ( 22 subjects ) and Sc ( 20 subjects ) were non-exposed controls . Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) was measured by the Ellmans method before spraying , after 2-h exposure and 1 h later . Inhibition of AChE occurred after 2-h exposure to both single OP ( Ja and Sa ) and OP-containing mixtures ( Jb and Sb ) as compared with both pre-exposure and control values ( Jc and Sc ) .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: A total of 132 farmers were selected from two areas ( J and S ) for this study . In area J , the subgroups Ja ( 40 subjects ) and Jb ( 36 subjects ) sprayed on rice crops either the organophosphate ( OP ) insecticide methamidophos or the mixture methamidophos-deltamethrin ( a pyrethroid , Pyr ) . In area S , the subgroups Sa ( 27 subjects ) and Sb ( 29 subjects ) sprayed on cottons either the OP methyl-parathion or the mixture methyl-parathion-deltamethrin . Groups Jc ( 22 subjects ) and Sc ( 20 subjects ) were non-exposed controls . Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) was measured by the Ellmans method before spraying , after 2-h exposure and 1 h later . Inhibition of AChE occurred after 2-h exposure to both single OP ( Ja and Sa ) and OP-containing mixtures ( Jb and Sb ) as compared with both pre-exposure and control values ( Jc and Sc ) . A similar recovery was found in subgroups Ja , Jb , Sa and Sb 1 h after spraying , but all remained lower than the pre-exposure level .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: A total of 132 farmers were selected from two areas ( J and S ) for this study . In area J , the subgroups Ja ( 40 subjects ) and Jb ( 36 subjects ) sprayed on rice crops either the organophosphate ( OP ) insecticide methamidophos or the mixture methamidophos-deltamethrin ( a pyrethroid , Pyr ) . In area S , the subgroups Sa ( 27 subjects ) and Sb ( 29 subjects ) sprayed on cottons either the OP methyl-parathion or the mixture methyl-parathion-deltamethrin . Groups Jc ( 22 subjects ) and Sc ( 20 subjects ) were non-exposed controls . Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) was measured by the Ellmans method before spraying , after 2-h exposure and 1 h later . Inhibition of AChE occurred after 2-h exposure to both single OP ( Ja and Sa ) and OP-containing mixtures ( Jb and Sb ) as compared with both pre-exposure and control values ( Jc and Sc ) . A similar recovery was found in subgroups Ja , Jb , Sa and Sb 1 h after spraying , but all remained lower than the pre-exposure level . There was no difference in AChE inhibition and recovery between the single OP subgroups and the OP mixture subgroups . The inhibitory effect on AChE shown in subjects with combined OP-Pyr exposure was induced by the OP component of the insecticide mixture and to a similar extent as that induced by the single OP formulations .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: In area S , the subgroups Sa ( 27 subjects ) and Sb ( 29 subjects ) sprayed on cottons either the OP methyl-parathion or the mixture methyl-parathion-deltamethrin . Groups Jc ( 22 subjects ) and Sc ( 20 subjects ) were non-exposed controls . Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) was measured by the Ellmans method before spraying , after 2-h exposure and 1 h later . Inhibition of AChE occurred after 2-h exposure to both single OP ( Ja and Sa ) and OP-containing mixtures ( Jb and Sb ) as compared with both pre-exposure and control values ( Jc and Sc ) . A similar recovery was found in subgroups Ja , Jb , Sa and Sb 1 h after spraying , but all remained lower than the pre-exposure level . There was no difference in AChE inhibition and recovery between the single OP subgroups and the OP mixture subgroups . The inhibitory effect on AChE shown in subjects with combined OP-Pyr exposure was induced by the OP component of the insecticide mixture and to a similar extent as that induced by the single OP formulations . In addition to the fact that the OP is more potent than Pyrs , the above results might explain why the clinical manifestations of OP mixture poisonings are similar to those of single OP poisoning .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: [ Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil , fenobucarb , silafluofen and buprofezin in rice ]
Journal: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi Citation: V : 44 ( 1 ) P : 7-12 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12749190 Accession (PMID): 12749190
Abstract: We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil , fenobucarb , silafluofen and buprofezin in rice . The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city , with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols : spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides , repeated spraying ( 3 times ) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides . The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process . Silafluofen , which has a higher log Pow value , remained in the hull of the rice . Fenobucarb , which has a lower log Pow value , penetrated inside the rice . The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking . During the cooking procedure , the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 4.00 ]: We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil , fenobucarb , silafluofen and buprofezin in rice . The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city , with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols : spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides , repeated spraying ( 3 times ) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides . The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process . Silafluofen , which has a higher log Pow value , remained in the hull of the rice . Fenobucarb , which has a lower log Pow value , penetrated inside the rice . The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: [ Techniques of diseases , insect pests and weeds control and their efficacy in bio-rational rice production ]
Journal: Citation: V : 15 ( 1 ) P : 111-5 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15139200 Accession (PMID): 15139200
Abstract: Studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus , and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75 . 16%-94 . 27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice , respectively , and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon . The efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50 . 54%-72 . 67% on rice leaf blast and 76 . 66%-87 . 42% on rice head blast , and equal to the chemical fungicide tricyclazole after sprayed once at the initial stage of rice leaf blast occurrence and the initial and end stages of earing , respectively . The efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis on Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was better than that of chemical insecticide bisultap , and the efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was equal to that of chemical insecticide bisultap when the three biorational insecticides were sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of pests . The efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was above 70% , and lower than that of chemical insecticide imidacloprid 3-30 d after sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of Nilaparvata lugens . The occurrence of weeds could be controlled , and the rice yield could be raised when the suitable non-thorough decomposed organism was applied or weeding was carried after the field had been ploughed twice before rice transplant . The rice yield could be raised by using biorational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice . The residue of pesticides in rice was lower in the bio-control area than in the chemical control area , according with the demands of health target of green food .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus , and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75 . 16%-94 . 27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice , respectively , and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon . The efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50 . 54%-72 . 67% on rice leaf blast and 76 . 66%-87 . 42% on rice head blast , and equal to the chemical fungicide tricyclazole after sprayed once at the initial stage of rice leaf blast occurrence and the initial and end stages of earing , respectively . The efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis on Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was better than that of chemical insecticide bisultap , and the efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was equal to that of chemical insecticide bisultap when the three biorational insecticides were sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of pests . The efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was above 70% , and lower than that of chemical insecticide imidacloprid 3-30 d after sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of Nilaparvata lugens . The occurrence of weeds could be controlled , and the rice yield could be raised when the suitable non-thorough decomposed organism was applied or weeding was carried after the field had been ploughed twice before rice transplant .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus , and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75 . 16%-94 . 27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice , respectively , and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon . The efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50 . 54%-72 . 67% on rice leaf blast and 76 . 66%-87 . 42% on rice head blast , and equal to the chemical fungicide tricyclazole after sprayed once at the initial stage of rice leaf blast occurrence and the initial and end stages of earing , respectively . The efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis on Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was better than that of chemical insecticide bisultap , and the efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was equal to that of chemical insecticide bisultap when the three biorational insecticides were sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of pests . The efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was above 70% , and lower than that of chemical insecticide imidacloprid 3-30 d after sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of Nilaparvata lugens . The occurrence of weeds could be controlled , and the rice yield could be raised when the suitable non-thorough decomposed organism was applied or weeding was carried after the field had been ploughed twice before rice transplant . The rice yield could be raised by using biorational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus , and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75 . 16%-94 . 27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice , respectively , and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon . The efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50 . 54%-72 . 67% on rice leaf blast and 76 . 66%-87 . 42% on rice head blast , and equal to the chemical fungicide tricyclazole after sprayed once at the initial stage of rice leaf blast occurrence and the initial and end stages of earing , respectively . The efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis on Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was better than that of chemical insecticide bisultap , and the efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was equal to that of chemical insecticide bisultap when the three biorational insecticides were sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of pests . The efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was above 70% , and lower than that of chemical insecticide imidacloprid 3-30 d after sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of Nilaparvata lugens . The occurrence of weeds could be controlled , and the rice yield could be raised when the suitable non-thorough decomposed organism was applied or weeding was carried after the field had been ploughed twice before rice transplant . The rice yield could be raised by using biorational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice . The residue of pesticides in rice was lower in the bio-control area than in the chemical control area , according with the demands of health target of green food .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus , and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75 . 16%-94 . 27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice , respectively , and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon . The efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50 . 54%-72 . 67% on rice leaf blast and 76 . 66%-87 . 42% on rice head blast , and equal to the chemical fungicide tricyclazole after sprayed once at the initial stage of rice leaf blast occurrence and the initial and end stages of earing , respectively . The efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis on Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was better than that of chemical insecticide bisultap , and the efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was equal to that of chemical insecticide bisultap when the three biorational insecticides were sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of pests . The efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was above 70% , and lower than that of chemical insecticide imidacloprid 3-30 d after sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of Nilaparvata lugens . The occurrence of weeds could be controlled , and the rice yield could be raised when the suitable non-thorough decomposed organism was applied or weeding was carried after the field had been ploughed twice before rice transplant . The rice yield could be raised by using biorational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases , insect pests and weeds of rice . The residue of pesticides in rice was lower in the bio-control area than in the chemical control area , according with the demands of health target of green food .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: Distribution of organo-chlorine pesticides ( DDT and HCH ) between plant and soil system .
Journal: Citation: V : 26 ( 2-3 ) P : 253-8 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15499781 Accession (PMID): 15499781
Abstract: This paper reports a study of the distribution of organo-chlorine pesticides ( DDT and HCH ) between rice plants and the soil system by spraying before the heading stage at four different dosage levels--control , normal dosage ( 15 kg ha ( -1 ) of 6% HCH and 7 . 5 kg ha ( -1 ) of 25% DDT ) , double dosage and four times dosage . Soil and plant samples were taken respectively at the 1st h , 3rd , 10th , 20th , and 40th day after spraying and at the harvest time . The results indicate that less than 5% of HCH and 15% of DDT were absorbed by the surface of rice leaves for normal dosage . Most of both pesticides moved into the soil in solution after spraying . Compared with DDT , HCH was degraded and run off more easily . HCH residues in the surface soil layer ( 1-3 cm ) were already below 6 . 4 microg kg ( -1 ) at the mature stage , lower than Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Agricultural Soils : HCH < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . However DDT residues in the surface soil layer remained 172 microg kg ( -1 ) , higher than the national standard : DDT < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . According to the test f OCP residues in rice seeds , it can be concluded that the OCP sprayed onto the surface of rice leaves can move into rice plants and accumulate in the seeds at the mature stage . HCH residues in rice seeds of the double and four times dosage treatments , and DDT residues in all treatments , exceeded the Chinese National Food Standard ( HCH < 0 . 10 mg kg ( -1 ) , DDT < 0 . 20 mg kg ( -1 ) ) .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper reports a study of the distribution of organo-chlorine pesticides ( DDT and HCH ) between rice plants and the soil system by spraying before the heading stage at four different dosage levels--control , normal dosage ( 15 kg ha ( -1 ) of 6% HCH and 7 . 5 kg ha ( -1 ) of 25% DDT ) , double dosage and four times dosage . Soil and plant samples were taken respectively at the 1st h , 3rd , 10th , 20th , and 40th day after spraying and at the harvest time . The results indicate that less than 5% of HCH and 15% of DDT were absorbed by the surface of rice leaves for normal dosage . Most of both pesticides moved into the soil in solution after spraying . Compared with DDT , HCH was degraded and run off more easily .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper reports a study of the distribution of organo-chlorine pesticides ( DDT and HCH ) between rice plants and the soil system by spraying before the heading stage at four different dosage levels--control , normal dosage ( 15 kg ha ( -1 ) of 6% HCH and 7 . 5 kg ha ( -1 ) of 25% DDT ) , double dosage and four times dosage . Soil and plant samples were taken respectively at the 1st h , 3rd , 10th , 20th , and 40th day after spraying and at the harvest time . The results indicate that less than 5% of HCH and 15% of DDT were absorbed by the surface of rice leaves for normal dosage . Most of both pesticides moved into the soil in solution after spraying . Compared with DDT , HCH was degraded and run off more easily . HCH residues in the surface soil layer ( 1-3 cm ) were already below 6 . 4 microg kg ( -1 ) at the mature stage , lower than Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Agricultural Soils : HCH < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper reports a study of the distribution of organo-chlorine pesticides ( DDT and HCH ) between rice plants and the soil system by spraying before the heading stage at four different dosage levels--control , normal dosage ( 15 kg ha ( -1 ) of 6% HCH and 7 . 5 kg ha ( -1 ) of 25% DDT ) , double dosage and four times dosage . Soil and plant samples were taken respectively at the 1st h , 3rd , 10th , 20th , and 40th day after spraying and at the harvest time . The results indicate that less than 5% of HCH and 15% of DDT were absorbed by the surface of rice leaves for normal dosage . Most of both pesticides moved into the soil in solution after spraying . Compared with DDT , HCH was degraded and run off more easily . HCH residues in the surface soil layer ( 1-3 cm ) were already below 6 . 4 microg kg ( -1 ) at the mature stage , lower than Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Agricultural Soils : HCH < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . However DDT residues in the surface soil layer remained 172 microg kg ( -1 ) , higher than the national standard : DDT < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . According to the test f OCP residues in rice seeds , it can be concluded that the OCP sprayed onto the surface of rice leaves can move into rice plants and accumulate in the seeds at the mature stage .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Most of both pesticides moved into the soil in solution after spraying . Compared with DDT , HCH was degraded and run off more easily . HCH residues in the surface soil layer ( 1-3 cm ) were already below 6 . 4 microg kg ( -1 ) at the mature stage , lower than Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Agricultural Soils : HCH < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . However DDT residues in the surface soil layer remained 172 microg kg ( -1 ) , higher than the national standard : DDT < 0 . 05 mg kg ( -1 ) . According to the test f OCP residues in rice seeds , it can be concluded that the OCP sprayed onto the surface of rice leaves can move into rice plants and accumulate in the seeds at the mature stage . HCH residues in rice seeds of the double and four times dosage treatments , and DDT residues in all treatments , exceeded the Chinese National Food Standard ( HCH < 0 . 10 mg kg ( -1 ) , DDT < 0 . 20 mg kg ( -1 ) ) .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: [ Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic rice and chemical insecticides on arthropod communities in paddy-fields ]
Journal: Citation: V : 15 ( 12 ) P : 2309-14 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15825447 Accession (PMID): 15825447
Abstract: This paper assessed the effects of cry1Abl/cry1Ac-carrying transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice ( Bt rice ) and chemical insecticides on the arthropod communities under paddy-field conditions in terms of arthropod guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution of each guild , individuals of each guild , some common indices of arthropod communities , and community dissimilarity . In most cases , no significant differences were found between the Bt and control rice plots without any chemical insecticide spray in such arthropod community specific parameters as guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution , temporal dynamics of the individuals of each guild or all arthropod , as well as some common community indices ( including species richness , Shannon-Wiener diversity index , evenness index and dominant index ) and their temporal dynamics . The similarity of arthropod community between the Bt and control rice plots were apparently higher . It was clear that Bt rice generally showed no marked negative effect on the arthropod community in paddy field . In contrast , some arthropod community specific parameters such as guild dominances in the control plot with chemical insecticide spray were in some cases markedly and even significantly different from those in the control plot without any chemical insecticide spray . The similarity of arthropod community between the control plots with and without chemical insecticide spray was relatively lower . It could be concluded that the effect of Bt rice on the arthropod community was apparently lower than that of chemical insecticides .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 2.00 ]: This paper assessed the effects of cry1Abl/cry1Ac-carrying transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice ( Bt rice ) and chemical insecticides on the arthropod communities under paddy-field conditions in terms of arthropod guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution of each guild , individuals of each guild , some common indices of arthropod communities , and community dissimilarity . In most cases , no significant differences were found between the Bt and control rice plots without any chemical insecticide spray in such arthropod community specific parameters as guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution , temporal dynamics of the individuals of each guild or all arthropod , as well as some common community indices ( including species richness , Shannon-Wiener diversity index , evenness index and dominant index ) and their temporal dynamics . The similarity of arthropod community between the Bt and control rice plots were apparently higher . It was clear that Bt rice generally showed no marked negative effect on the arthropod community in paddy field . In contrast , some arthropod community specific parameters such as guild dominances in the control plot with chemical insecticide spray were in some cases markedly and even significantly different from those in the control plot without any chemical insecticide spray . The similarity of arthropod community between the control plots with and without chemical insecticide spray was relatively lower . It could be concluded that the effect of Bt rice on the arthropod community was apparently lower than that of chemical insecticides .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper assessed the effects of cry1Abl/cry1Ac-carrying transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice ( Bt rice ) and chemical insecticides on the arthropod communities under paddy-field conditions in terms of arthropod guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution of each guild , individuals of each guild , some common indices of arthropod communities , and community dissimilarity . In most cases , no significant differences were found between the Bt and control rice plots without any chemical insecticide spray in such arthropod community specific parameters as guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution , temporal dynamics of the individuals of each guild or all arthropod , as well as some common community indices ( including species richness , Shannon-Wiener diversity index , evenness index and dominant index ) and their temporal dynamics . The similarity of arthropod community between the Bt and control rice plots were apparently higher . It was clear that Bt rice generally showed no marked negative effect on the arthropod community in paddy field . In contrast , some arthropod community specific parameters such as guild dominances in the control plot with chemical insecticide spray were in some cases markedly and even significantly different from those in the control plot without any chemical insecticide spray . The similarity of arthropod community between the control plots with and without chemical insecticide spray was relatively lower .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: In most cases , no significant differences were found between the Bt and control rice plots without any chemical insecticide spray in such arthropod community specific parameters as guild dominance , family composition and dominance distribution , temporal dynamics of the individuals of each guild or all arthropod , as well as some common community indices ( including species richness , Shannon-Wiener diversity index , evenness index and dominant index ) and their temporal dynamics . The similarity of arthropod community between the Bt and control rice plots were apparently higher . It was clear that Bt rice generally showed no marked negative effect on the arthropod community in paddy field . In contrast , some arthropod community specific parameters such as guild dominances in the control plot with chemical insecticide spray were in some cases markedly and even significantly different from those in the control plot without any chemical insecticide spray . The similarity of arthropod community between the control plots with and without chemical insecticide spray was relatively lower . It could be concluded that the effect of Bt rice on the arthropod community was apparently lower than that of chemical insecticides .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: [ Use of agricultural insecticides in Benin ]
Journal: Citation: V : 98 ( 5 ) P : 400-5 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16425724 Accession (PMID): 16425724
Abstract: The use of insecticides in households and in agriculture has been incriminated in the emergence of insecticide resistance in insect vectors . For farming staff , the emergence of vector resistance is due to indoors spray of insecticides using aerosols and other low quality products in rural and urban settings against mosquitoes . On the other hand , public health specialists believe that the phenomenon of resistance could be due to massive use of insecticides in agriculture for field pests control . In Turkey , the implication of agricultural use of pesticides in the selection of vector resistance is clearly established . This study was framed to identify potential practices favouring the emergence of insecticide resistance in the Republic of Benin . Interviews and focus group discussions were organized with cotton , rice and vegetables farmers . The final aim of these surveys was to point out practices likely to favour the emergence of resistance . The research is conducted in 3 cotton fields , 2 rice fields and 2 vegetable plantations . After filling and signing concerned forms , farmers are subjected to quantitative and qualitative questionnaires to generate data on : insecticides being used , the various doses applied for pests eradication , the frequency of treatments , the cost of treatments ( cost/hectare/year ) the origin of insecticides , the place of purchase , safety precautions and related health hazards . The results of this study have shown that the use of insecticides in agriculture is a clear fact . During treatments , insecticide residues get in contact with mosquito breeding sites where they diffuse into water and exercise a selection pressure on larvae . This partially explains the high levels of resistance recorded in with strains of Anopheles gambiae collected in agricultural settings under insecticides pressure . Pyrethroids and more specifically deltamethrin and cyfluthrin are the insecticides mainly used in studied localities . Bedrooms of farmers are used as storage place for half-used and un-used insecticides containers . For a proper management of insecticides , cotton and vegetable plantations farmers receive assistance from the ministry of rural development . Because of the importance of cotton production in the Republic of Benin , trainings on management of insecticides in agricultural settings are frequently organised by the ministry of rural development and are opened to farmers and their family members ( husbands , wives , children and relatives . . . ) . In the long run , the whole family learns and becomes very versant with the use of insecticides , spraying frequencies , spraying devices and spraying techniques .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 17, subscore: 3.00 ]: Pyrethroids and more specifically deltamethrin and cyfluthrin are the insecticides mainly used in studied localities . Bedrooms of farmers are used as storage place for half-used and un-used insecticides containers . For a proper management of insecticides , cotton and vegetable plantations farmers receive assistance from the ministry of rural development . Because of the importance of cotton production in the Republic of Benin , trainings on management of insecticides in agricultural settings are frequently organised by the ministry of rural development and are opened to farmers and their family members ( husbands , wives , children and relatives . . . ) . In the long run , the whole family learns and becomes very versant with the use of insecticides , spraying frequencies , spraying devices and spraying techniques .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The use of insecticides in households and in agriculture has been incriminated in the emergence of insecticide resistance in insect vectors . For farming staff , the emergence of vector resistance is due to indoors spray of insecticides using aerosols and other low quality products in rural and urban settings against mosquitoes . On the other hand , public health specialists believe that the phenomenon of resistance could be due to massive use of insecticides in agriculture for field pests control . In Turkey , the implication of agricultural use of pesticides in the selection of vector resistance is clearly established . This study was framed to identify potential practices favouring the emergence of insecticide resistance in the Republic of Benin . Interviews and focus group discussions were organized with cotton , rice and vegetables farmers .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: Amino acid and energy digestibility of protein sources for growing pigs .
Journal: J Anim . Sci . Citation: V : 84 ( 6 ) P : 1396-402 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16699096 Accession (PMID): 16699096
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility ( AID ) and standardized ileal digestibility ( SID ) of AA and DE , and to estimate ME and NE of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , and spray-dried plasma protein . In Exp . 1 , 6 barrows ( initially 29 . 5 +/- 2 . 5 kg of BW ) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and fed each of 5 cornstarch-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d . During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 test diets ( fed from d 0 to 28 ) were formulated to contain 12 . 5% CP by using analyzed nutrient compositions of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , or spray-dried plasma protein . The fifth ( N-free ) diet was fed from d 28 to 35 to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA , which were used to calculate SID . Ileal digesta were collected and analyzed , and AID and SID values were calculated . Apparent ileal digestible Lys , Met , and Thr values were 80 . 0 +/- 3 . 3 , 65 . 6 +/- 3 . 1 , and 68 . 4 +/- 4 . 5% for rice protein concentrate ; 85 . 6 +/- 4 . 8 , 85 . 5 +/- 4 . 3 , and 69 . 8 +/- 8 . 5% for salmon protein hydrolysate ; 93 . 3 +/- 1 . 4 , 89 . 9 +/- 5 . 8 , and 83 . 6 +/- 5 . 3% for whey protein concentrate ; and 92 . 8 +/- 0 . 9 , 85 . 7 +/- 2 . 1 , 86 . 5 +/- 2 . 3% for spray-dried plasma protein , respectively . In Exp . 2 , 6 barrows ( initially 37 . 6 +/- 1 . 7 kg of BW ) were fed each of 5 corn-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d . During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 diets containing the test ingredients were formulated to contain approximately 20% CP by using their analyzed nutrient compositions . The fifth ( corn control ) diet containing 8 . 2% CP was also used to calculate energy values by difference . Feces were collected to determine DE . The ME and NE contents were estimated using published regression equations . The DE , ME , and NE ( as-fed ) values were 4 , 724 +/- 461 , 4 , 226 +/- 437 , and 3 , 235 +/- 380 kcal/kg for rice protein concentrate ; 4 , 173 +/- 1 , 052 , 3 , 523 +/- 1 , 002 , and 2 , 623 +/- 872 kcal/kg for salmon protein hydrolysate ; 4 , 949 +/- 1 , 002 , 4 , 352 +/- 955 , and 3 , 344 +/- 831 kcal/kg for whey protein concentrate ; and 4 , 546 +/- 673 , 3 , 979 +/- 652 , and 3 , 020 +/- 567 kcal/kg for spray-dried plasma protein , respectively . The excellent AA digestibility and relatively high DE , ME , and NE values indicate that these protein sources warrant further investigation as ingredients for growing pig diets .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility ( AID ) and standardized ileal digestibility ( SID ) of AA and DE , and to estimate ME and NE of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , and spray-dried plasma protein . In Exp . 1 , 6 barrows ( initially 29 . 5 +/- 2 . 5 kg of BW ) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and fed each of 5 cornstarch-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d . During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 test diets ( fed from d 0 to 28 ) were formulated to contain 12 . 5% CP by using analyzed nutrient compositions of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , or spray-dried plasma protein .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility ( AID ) and standardized ileal digestibility ( SID ) of AA and DE , and to estimate ME and NE of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , and spray-dried plasma protein . In Exp . 1 , 6 barrows ( initially 29 . 5 +/- 2 . 5 kg of BW ) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and fed each of 5 cornstarch-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d . During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 test diets ( fed from d 0 to 28 ) were formulated to contain 12 . 5% CP by using analyzed nutrient compositions of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , or spray-dried plasma protein . The fifth ( N-free ) diet was fed from d 28 to 35 to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA , which were used to calculate SID . Ileal digesta were collected and analyzed , and AID and SID values were calculated . Apparent ileal digestible Lys , Met , and Thr values were 80 . 0 +/- 3 . 3 , 65 . 6 +/- 3 . 1 , and 68 . 4 +/- 4 . 5% for rice protein concentrate ; 85 . 6 +/- 4 . 8 , 85 . 5 +/- 4 . 3 , and 69 . 8 +/- 8 . 5% for salmon protein hydrolysate ; 93 . 3 +/- 1 . 4 , 89 . 9 +/- 5 . 8 , and 83 . 6 +/- 5 . 3% for whey protein concentrate ; and 92 . 8 +/- 0 . 9 , 85 . 7 +/- 2 . 1 , 86 . 5 +/- 2 . 3% for spray-dried plasma protein , respectively . In Exp .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 test diets ( fed from d 0 to 28 ) were formulated to contain 12 . 5% CP by using analyzed nutrient compositions of rice protein concentrate , salmon protein hydrolysate , whey protein concentrate , or spray-dried plasma protein . The fifth ( N-free ) diet was fed from d 28 to 35 to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA , which were used to calculate SID . Ileal digesta were collected and analyzed , and AID and SID values were calculated . Apparent ileal digestible Lys , Met , and Thr values were 80 . 0 +/- 3 . 3 , 65 . 6 +/- 3 . 1 , and 68 . 4 +/- 4 . 5% for rice protein concentrate ; 85 . 6 +/- 4 . 8 , 85 . 5 +/- 4 . 3 , and 69 . 8 +/- 8 . 5% for salmon protein hydrolysate ; 93 . 3 +/- 1 . 4 , 89 . 9 +/- 5 . 8 , and 83 . 6 +/- 5 . 3% for whey protein concentrate ; and 92 . 8 +/- 0 . 9 , 85 . 7 +/- 2 . 1 , 86 . 5 +/- 2 . 3% for spray-dried plasma protein , respectively . In Exp . 2 , 6 barrows ( initially 37 . 6 +/- 1 . 7 kg of BW ) were fed each of 5 corn-based diets in a balanced crossover design over 35 d . During a given week , there were either 1 or 2 replications of each treatment , resulting in 6 total replications over 5 wk . The 4 diets containing the test ingredients were formulated to contain approximately 20% CP by using their analyzed nutrient compositions .
[ Sen. 16, subscore: 1.00 ]: The 4 diets containing the test ingredients were formulated to contain approximately 20% CP by using their analyzed nutrient compositions . The fifth ( corn control ) diet containing 8 . 2% CP was also used to calculate energy values by difference . Feces were collected to determine DE . The ME and NE contents were estimated using published regression equations . The DE , ME , and NE ( as-fed ) values were 4 , 724 +/- 461 , 4 , 226 +/- 437 , and 3 , 235 +/- 380 kcal/kg for rice protein concentrate ; 4 , 173 +/- 1 , 052 , 3 , 523 +/- 1 , 002 , and 2 , 623 +/- 872 kcal/kg for salmon protein hydrolysate ; 4 , 949 +/- 1 , 002 , 4 , 352 +/- 955 , and 3 , 344 +/- 831 kcal/kg for whey protein concentrate ; and 4 , 546 +/- 673 , 3 , 979 +/- 652 , and 3 , 020 +/- 567 kcal/kg for spray-dried plasma protein , respectively . The excellent AA digestibility and relatively high DE , ME , and NE values indicate that these protein sources warrant further investigation as ingredients for growing pig diets .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: Effervescent fast-disintegrating bacterial formulation for biological control of rice sheath blight .
Journal: Citation: V : ( ) P : Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17428569 Accession (PMID): 17428569
Abstract: A lack of effective , easily applied and stable formulation has been a major obstacle to widespread use of biocontrol agents for control of rice sheath blight . In this study , effervescent fast-disintegrating granules containing endospores of Bacillus megaterium were developed for use either by broadcast or spray application . The formulation composed of lactose , polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 ( PVP , K-30 ) and effervescent base ( citric acid , tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate ) . The number of living bacteria in effervescent granules that performed mycelial growth inhibition was in the range of 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g after 12 months storage at room temperature . The number of viable bacteria after applying into the water and spraying on the rice seedling for 7 days in the greenhouse tests were also satisfactory high ( 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g of granules and 10 ( 6 ) CFU/g of plant , respectively ) . The scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) was used to observe bacterial antagonist on the surface of leaf sheath and leaf blade after spraying with formulation . Effervescent formulation applied either broadcasting or spraying reduced incidence of sheath blight disease in the greenhouse experiments .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: A lack of effective , easily applied and stable formulation has been a major obstacle to widespread use of biocontrol agents for control of rice sheath blight . In this study , effervescent fast-disintegrating granules containing endospores of Bacillus megaterium were developed for use either by broadcast or spray application . The formulation composed of lactose , polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 ( PVP , K-30 ) and effervescent base ( citric acid , tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate ) . The number of living bacteria in effervescent granules that performed mycelial growth inhibition was in the range of 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g after 12 months storage at room temperature . The number of viable bacteria after applying into the water and spraying on the rice seedling for 7 days in the greenhouse tests were also satisfactory high ( 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g of granules and 10 ( 6 ) CFU/g of plant , respectively ) . The scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) was used to observe bacterial antagonist on the surface of leaf sheath and leaf blade after spraying with formulation .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: A lack of effective , easily applied and stable formulation has been a major obstacle to widespread use of biocontrol agents for control of rice sheath blight . In this study , effervescent fast-disintegrating granules containing endospores of Bacillus megaterium were developed for use either by broadcast or spray application . The formulation composed of lactose , polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 ( PVP , K-30 ) and effervescent base ( citric acid , tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate ) . The number of living bacteria in effervescent granules that performed mycelial growth inhibition was in the range of 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g after 12 months storage at room temperature . The number of viable bacteria after applying into the water and spraying on the rice seedling for 7 days in the greenhouse tests were also satisfactory high ( 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g of granules and 10 ( 6 ) CFU/g of plant , respectively ) . The scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) was used to observe bacterial antagonist on the surface of leaf sheath and leaf blade after spraying with formulation . Effervescent formulation applied either broadcasting or spraying reduced incidence of sheath blight disease in the greenhouse experiments .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: In this study , effervescent fast-disintegrating granules containing endospores of Bacillus megaterium were developed for use either by broadcast or spray application . The formulation composed of lactose , polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 ( PVP , K-30 ) and effervescent base ( citric acid , tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate ) . The number of living bacteria in effervescent granules that performed mycelial growth inhibition was in the range of 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g after 12 months storage at room temperature . The number of viable bacteria after applying into the water and spraying on the rice seedling for 7 days in the greenhouse tests were also satisfactory high ( 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g of granules and 10 ( 6 ) CFU/g of plant , respectively ) . The scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) was used to observe bacterial antagonist on the surface of leaf sheath and leaf blade after spraying with formulation . Effervescent formulation applied either broadcasting or spraying reduced incidence of sheath blight disease in the greenhouse experiments .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The formulation composed of lactose , polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 ( PVP , K-30 ) and effervescent base ( citric acid , tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate ) . The number of living bacteria in effervescent granules that performed mycelial growth inhibition was in the range of 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g after 12 months storage at room temperature . The number of viable bacteria after applying into the water and spraying on the rice seedling for 7 days in the greenhouse tests were also satisfactory high ( 10 ( 9 ) CFU/g of granules and 10 ( 6 ) CFU/g of plant , respectively ) . The scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) was used to observe bacterial antagonist on the surface of leaf sheath and leaf blade after spraying with formulation . Effervescent formulation applied either broadcasting or spraying reduced incidence of sheath blight disease in the greenhouse experiments .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: Periarticular hyaluronic acid in acute ankle sprain .
Journal: Clin J Sport Med Citation: V : 17 P : 251-7 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17620777 Accession (PMID): 17620777
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : To determine the efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid injections in acute lateral ankle sprain during 9 months at a sports injuries center . DESIGN : Randomized controlled prospective trial SETTING : Primary sport medicine and emergency practice . PATIENTS : One hundred fifty-eight consecutive competitive athletes who suffered acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprains were randomized within 48 hours of injury . INTERVENTIONS : Patients were randomized at baseline to periarticular injection with hyaluronic acid ( HA ) + standard of care [ rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) ] or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and on day 4 after injury . OUTCOMES MEASURES : Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , and 90 included Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ; 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( five-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( five-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , and adverse events . Differences between groups were determined using an intent-to-treat analysis of variance . RESULTS : About 30% of the ankle sprains were "first" events , and no differences in clinical assessments with those presenting but not volunteering for the study ( n = 341 ) were observed . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours , with no difference between groups . No serious adverse events were recorded during the 8-day treatment period . No difference in concomitant treatment or physical therapy was observed between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at day 8 for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was observed for HA versus PL at days 4 ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 8 ( P < 0 . 001 ) , 30 ( P < 0 . 001 ) , and 90 ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Patient global assessment of ankle injury was significantly better compared with baseline in the HA group at day 8 , but this was not different between groups . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/-8 ) versus 17 ( +/-8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . CONCLUSION : HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short term and the long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain and more rapid return to sport , with few associated adverse events .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVES : To determine the efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid injections in acute lateral ankle sprain during 9 months at a sports injuries center . DESIGN : Randomized controlled prospective trial SETTING : Primary sport medicine and emergency practice . PATIENTS : One hundred fifty-eight consecutive competitive athletes who suffered acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprains were randomized within 48 hours of injury . INTERVENTIONS : Patients were randomized at baseline to periarticular injection with hyaluronic acid ( HA ) + standard of care [ rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) ] or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and on day 4 after injury . OUTCOMES MEASURES : Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , and 90 included Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ; 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( five-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( five-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , and adverse events .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVES : To determine the efficacy and safety of periarticular hyaluronic acid injections in acute lateral ankle sprain during 9 months at a sports injuries center . DESIGN : Randomized controlled prospective trial SETTING : Primary sport medicine and emergency practice . PATIENTS : One hundred fifty-eight consecutive competitive athletes who suffered acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprains were randomized within 48 hours of injury . INTERVENTIONS : Patients were randomized at baseline to periarticular injection with hyaluronic acid ( HA ) + standard of care [ rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) ] or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and on day 4 after injury . OUTCOMES MEASURES : Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , and 90 included Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ; 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( five-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( five-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , and adverse events . Differences between groups were determined using an intent-to-treat analysis of variance . RESULTS : About 30% of the ankle sprains were "first" events , and no differences in clinical assessments with those presenting but not volunteering for the study ( n = 341 ) were observed .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: PATIENTS : One hundred fifty-eight consecutive competitive athletes who suffered acute grade 1 or 2 lateral ankle sprains were randomized within 48 hours of injury . INTERVENTIONS : Patients were randomized at baseline to periarticular injection with hyaluronic acid ( HA ) + standard of care [ rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) ] or placebo injection ( PL ) + standard of care ( RICE ) treatment at baseline assessment and on day 4 after injury . OUTCOMES MEASURES : Assessments at baseline and days 4 , 8 , 30 , and 90 included Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ; 0-10 cm ) pain on weight bearing and walking 20 m , patient global assessment of ankle injury ( five-point categorical scale ) , patient satisfaction with treatment ( five-point categorical scale ) , time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport , and adverse events . Differences between groups were determined using an intent-to-treat analysis of variance . RESULTS : About 30% of the ankle sprains were "first" events , and no differences in clinical assessments with those presenting but not volunteering for the study ( n = 341 ) were observed . Time to intervention was 39 +/- 4 hours , with no difference between groups . No serious adverse events were recorded during the 8-day treatment period . No difference in concomitant treatment or physical therapy was observed between groups . A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at day 8 for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 05 ) .
[ Sen. 15, subscore: 1.00 ]: A significant reduction in VAS pain on both weight bearing and walking was observed at day 8 for HA compared with PL ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Significantly greater patient satisfaction was observed for HA versus PL at days 4 ( P < 0 . 05 ) , 8 ( P < 0 . 001 ) , 30 ( P < 0 . 001 ) , and 90 ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Patient global assessment of ankle injury was significantly better compared with baseline in the HA group at day 8 , but this was not different between groups . Time to pain-free and disability-free return to sport was 11 ( +/-8 ) versus 17 ( +/-8 ) days for HA and PL , respectively ( P < 0 . 05 ) . CONCLUSION : HA treatment for acute ankle sprain was highly satisfactory in the short term and the long term versus PL . This was associated with reduced pain and more rapid return to sport , with few associated adverse events .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: Changes in levels of juvenile hormone and molting hormone in larvae and adult females of Chilo suppressalis ( Lepidoptera : Pyralidae ) after imidacloprid applications to rice .
Journal: J Econ Entomol Citation: V : 100 P : 1188-93 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17849869 Accession (PMID): 17849869
Abstract: Insect hormones regulate growth and development and fecundity of insects . The current study investigated changes in juvenile hormone ( JH ) and molting hormone ( MH ) levels in fourth instars and adult females of Chilo suppressalis ( Walker ) ( Lepidoptera : Pyralidae ) after imidacloprid application to rice , Oryza sativa L The results showed that JH level in fourth instars that developed feeding on Fengyouxiangzhan rice plants sprayed with 15 , 30 , and 60 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than that of larvae that developed on control plants , increasing by 5 . 04 , 6 . 39 , and 4 . 89 times , respectively . The relationships between JH level and imidacloprid concentrations showed a significant negative correlation . In contrast , molting hormone ( MH ) level in larvae fed on control plants was significantly higher than that on treated plants . JH : MH values in fourth instars developed from larvae feeding on rice plants treated with 15 , 30 , 60 , 80 , and 100 ppm imidacloprid increased by 49 . 17 , 39 . 43 , 13 . 48 , 15 . 80 , and 0 . 2 times , respectively , compared with control . JH and JH : MH ratio in larvae fed on Wujing 15 plants treated with imidacloprid were significantly lower than those fed on Fengyouxiangzhan under the same treatments . JH level in adult females that developed from larvae feeding on rice plants sprayed with imidacloprid significantly decreased with increase in imidacloprid concentration , but it increased compared with control . JH level in adult females was associated with times of imidacloprid application . JH level in adult females developed from larvae feeding on rice plants after double spray with 30 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than control , increasing by 61 . 6 and 116 . 5% , respectively , compared with a single spray and the control . Moreover , hormone levels in the larvae were related to the application method of imidacloprid . JH level in fourth instars after root application and topical application of imidacloprid was significantly lower than in control . Thus , the dynamics of JH and MH in insects after insecticide applications are an extremely interesting problem , because hormones are related to insect growth and development .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 2.00 ]: JH : MH values in fourth instars developed from larvae feeding on rice plants treated with 15 , 30 , 60 , 80 , and 100 ppm imidacloprid increased by 49 . 17 , 39 . 43 , 13 . 48 , 15 . 80 , and 0 . 2 times , respectively , compared with control . JH and JH : MH ratio in larvae fed on Wujing 15 plants treated with imidacloprid were significantly lower than those fed on Fengyouxiangzhan under the same treatments . JH level in adult females that developed from larvae feeding on rice plants sprayed with imidacloprid significantly decreased with increase in imidacloprid concentration , but it increased compared with control . JH level in adult females was associated with times of imidacloprid application . JH level in adult females developed from larvae feeding on rice plants after double spray with 30 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than control , increasing by 61 . 6 and 116 . 5% , respectively , compared with a single spray and the control . Moreover , hormone levels in the larvae were related to the application method of imidacloprid . JH level in fourth instars after root application and topical application of imidacloprid was significantly lower than in control . Thus , the dynamics of JH and MH in insects after insecticide applications are an extremely interesting problem , because hormones are related to insect growth and development .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Insect hormones regulate growth and development and fecundity of insects . The current study investigated changes in juvenile hormone ( JH ) and molting hormone ( MH ) levels in fourth instars and adult females of Chilo suppressalis ( Walker ) ( Lepidoptera : Pyralidae ) after imidacloprid application to rice , Oryza sativa L The results showed that JH level in fourth instars that developed feeding on Fengyouxiangzhan rice plants sprayed with 15 , 30 , and 60 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than that of larvae that developed on control plants , increasing by 5 . 04 , 6 . 39 , and 4 . 89 times , respectively . The relationships between JH level and imidacloprid concentrations showed a significant negative correlation . In contrast , molting hormone ( MH ) level in larvae fed on control plants was significantly higher than that on treated plants . JH : MH values in fourth instars developed from larvae feeding on rice plants treated with 15 , 30 , 60 , 80 , and 100 ppm imidacloprid increased by 49 . 17 , 39 . 43 , 13 . 48 , 15 . 80 , and 0 . 2 times , respectively , compared with control . JH and JH : MH ratio in larvae fed on Wujing 15 plants treated with imidacloprid were significantly lower than those fed on Fengyouxiangzhan under the same treatments .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The relationships between JH level and imidacloprid concentrations showed a significant negative correlation . In contrast , molting hormone ( MH ) level in larvae fed on control plants was significantly higher than that on treated plants . JH : MH values in fourth instars developed from larvae feeding on rice plants treated with 15 , 30 , 60 , 80 , and 100 ppm imidacloprid increased by 49 . 17 , 39 . 43 , 13 . 48 , 15 . 80 , and 0 . 2 times , respectively , compared with control . JH and JH : MH ratio in larvae fed on Wujing 15 plants treated with imidacloprid were significantly lower than those fed on Fengyouxiangzhan under the same treatments . JH level in adult females that developed from larvae feeding on rice plants sprayed with imidacloprid significantly decreased with increase in imidacloprid concentration , but it increased compared with control . JH level in adult females was associated with times of imidacloprid application . JH level in adult females developed from larvae feeding on rice plants after double spray with 30 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than control , increasing by 61 . 6 and 116 . 5% , respectively , compared with a single spray and the control . Moreover , hormone levels in the larvae were related to the application method of imidacloprid . JH level in fourth instars after root application and topical application of imidacloprid was significantly lower than in control .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing transgenic maize grains from event DP-O9814O-6 ( Optimum GAT ) , near-isogenic control maize grain , or commercial reference maize grains .
Journal: Poult Sci Citation: V : 87 P : 2562-72 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19038812 Accession (PMID): 19038812
Abstract: A genetically modified maize ( Zea mays L ) line that contains the Optimum GAT trait ( event DP-O9814O-6 ; 98140 ) was produced by integration of the gat4621 and zm-hra genes . The expressed GAT4621 and ZM-HRA proteins confer tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides , respectively . The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of 98140 maize grain to nontransgenic maize grain in a 42-d feeding trial in broiler chickens . Diets were prepared using grain from untreated 98140 plants and from plants treated with an in-field application of herbicides ( 98140 + Spray ) . For comparison , additional diets were produced with maize grain obtained from the nontransgenic near-isogenic control ( control ) and nontransgenic commercial reference Pioneer brand hybrids 33J56 , 33P66 , and 33R77 . Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers ( n = 120/group , 50% male and 50% female ) in 3 phases : starter , grower , and finisher containing 58 . 5 , 64 , and 71 . 5% maize grain , respectively . No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality , growth performance variables , or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with maize grains from unsprayed or sprayed 98140 and those consuming diets produced with near-isogenic control maize grain . Additionally , all performance and carcass variables from control , 98140 , and 98140 + Spray test maize treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from reference maize groups . Based on these results , it was concluded that 98140 maize grain ( unsprayed or sprayed with a herbicide mixture ) was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic control maize with comparable genetic background .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: A genetically modified maize ( Zea mays L ) line that contains the Optimum GAT trait ( event DP-O9814O-6 ; 98140 ) was produced by integration of the gat4621 and zm-hra genes . The expressed GAT4621 and ZM-HRA proteins confer tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides , respectively . The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of 98140 maize grain to nontransgenic maize grain in a 42-d feeding trial in broiler chickens . Diets were prepared using grain from untreated 98140 plants and from plants treated with an in-field application of herbicides ( 98140 + Spray ) . For comparison , additional diets were produced with maize grain obtained from the nontransgenic near-isogenic control ( control ) and nontransgenic commercial reference Pioneer brand hybrids 33J56 , 33P66 , and 33R77 . Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers ( n = 120/group , 50% male and 50% female ) in 3 phases : starter , grower , and finisher containing 58 . 5 , 64 , and 71 . 5% maize grain , respectively . No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality , growth performance variables , or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with maize grains from unsprayed or sprayed 98140 and those consuming diets produced with near-isogenic control maize grain . Additionally , all performance and carcass variables from control , 98140 , and 98140 + Spray test maize treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from reference maize groups .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of 98140 maize grain to nontransgenic maize grain in a 42-d feeding trial in broiler chickens . Diets were prepared using grain from untreated 98140 plants and from plants treated with an in-field application of herbicides ( 98140 + Spray ) . For comparison , additional diets were produced with maize grain obtained from the nontransgenic near-isogenic control ( control ) and nontransgenic commercial reference Pioneer brand hybrids 33J56 , 33P66 , and 33R77 . Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers ( n = 120/group , 50% male and 50% female ) in 3 phases : starter , grower , and finisher containing 58 . 5 , 64 , and 71 . 5% maize grain , respectively . No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality , growth performance variables , or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with maize grains from unsprayed or sprayed 98140 and those consuming diets produced with near-isogenic control maize grain . Additionally , all performance and carcass variables from control , 98140 , and 98140 + Spray test maize treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from reference maize groups . Based on these results , it was concluded that 98140 maize grain ( unsprayed or sprayed with a herbicide mixture ) was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic control maize with comparable genetic background .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Diets were prepared using grain from untreated 98140 plants and from plants treated with an in-field application of herbicides ( 98140 + Spray ) . For comparison , additional diets were produced with maize grain obtained from the nontransgenic near-isogenic control ( control ) and nontransgenic commercial reference Pioneer brand hybrids 33J56 , 33P66 , and 33R77 . Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers ( n = 120/group , 50% male and 50% female ) in 3 phases : starter , grower , and finisher containing 58 . 5 , 64 , and 71 . 5% maize grain , respectively . No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality , growth performance variables , or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with maize grains from unsprayed or sprayed 98140 and those consuming diets produced with near-isogenic control maize grain . Additionally , all performance and carcass variables from control , 98140 , and 98140 + Spray test maize treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from reference maize groups . Based on these results , it was concluded that 98140 maize grain ( unsprayed or sprayed with a herbicide mixture ) was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic control maize with comparable genetic background .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: For comparison , additional diets were produced with maize grain obtained from the nontransgenic near-isogenic control ( control ) and nontransgenic commercial reference Pioneer brand hybrids 33J56 , 33P66 , and 33R77 . Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers ( n = 120/group , 50% male and 50% female ) in 3 phases : starter , grower , and finisher containing 58 . 5 , 64 , and 71 . 5% maize grain , respectively . No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality , growth performance variables , or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with maize grains from unsprayed or sprayed 98140 and those consuming diets produced with near-isogenic control maize grain . Additionally , all performance and carcass variables from control , 98140 , and 98140 + Spray test maize treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from reference maize groups . Based on these results , it was concluded that 98140 maize grain ( unsprayed or sprayed with a herbicide mixture ) was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic control maize with comparable genetic background .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 4.00
Title: Efficacy of paracetamol versus diclofenac for Grade II ankle sprains .
Journal: Foot Ankle Int Citation: V : 32 P : 571-5 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21733417 Accession (PMID): 21733417
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Ankle sprains are usually treated with the RICE protocol often with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAID ) for pain reduction . We evaluated the effect of diclofenac , an NSAID , versus paracematol in the reduction of pain and acute edema of severe ankle sprains . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Ninety patients , 18 to 60 years old , with Grade II acute ankle sprains were randomized into two groups . Group A ( 45 patients ) received for the first 10 days diclofenac 75 mg orally twice per day . Group B ( 45 patients ) received paracetamol 500 mg orally three times per day for the same period . We evaluated ankle joint edema with the Figure-of-Eight method and with the volumetric method , as well as pain with the Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ) in both groups . RESULTS : The patients had no significant differences concerning their baseline values ( p > 0 . 05 ) . The ankle joint edema was decreased in both groups ( p < 0 . 001 ) but there was more edema in group A than in group B at the third post-traumatic day with both measurement methods ( p = 0 . 028/0 . 025 ) . By the tenth post-traumatic day no difference was found . Pain decreased in both groups at the third day and at the tenth day ( p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSION : According to these results , diclofenac and paracetamol had the same effect on pain reduction of ankle sprains but more acute ankle edema was present in patients who were treated with diclofenac than in patients who were treated with paracetamol .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Ankle sprains are usually treated with the RICE protocol often with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAID ) for pain reduction . We evaluated the effect of diclofenac , an NSAID , versus paracematol in the reduction of pain and acute edema of severe ankle sprains . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Ninety patients , 18 to 60 years old , with Grade II acute ankle sprains were randomized into two groups . Group A ( 45 patients ) received for the first 10 days diclofenac 75 mg orally twice per day . Group B ( 45 patients ) received paracetamol 500 mg orally three times per day for the same period .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Ankle sprains are usually treated with the RICE protocol often with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAID ) for pain reduction . We evaluated the effect of diclofenac , an NSAID , versus paracematol in the reduction of pain and acute edema of severe ankle sprains . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Ninety patients , 18 to 60 years old , with Grade II acute ankle sprains were randomized into two groups . Group A ( 45 patients ) received for the first 10 days diclofenac 75 mg orally twice per day . Group B ( 45 patients ) received paracetamol 500 mg orally three times per day for the same period . We evaluated ankle joint edema with the Figure-of-Eight method and with the volumetric method , as well as pain with the Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ) in both groups .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Ankle sprains are usually treated with the RICE protocol often with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAID ) for pain reduction . We evaluated the effect of diclofenac , an NSAID , versus paracematol in the reduction of pain and acute edema of severe ankle sprains . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Ninety patients , 18 to 60 years old , with Grade II acute ankle sprains were randomized into two groups . Group A ( 45 patients ) received for the first 10 days diclofenac 75 mg orally twice per day . Group B ( 45 patients ) received paracetamol 500 mg orally three times per day for the same period . We evaluated ankle joint edema with the Figure-of-Eight method and with the volumetric method , as well as pain with the Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ) in both groups . RESULTS : The patients had no significant differences concerning their baseline values ( p > 0 . 05 ) .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: RESULTS : The patients had no significant differences concerning their baseline values ( p > 0 . 05 ) . The ankle joint edema was decreased in both groups ( p < 0 . 001 ) but there was more edema in group A than in group B at the third post-traumatic day with both measurement methods ( p = 0 . 028/0 . 025 ) . By the tenth post-traumatic day no difference was found . Pain decreased in both groups at the third day and at the tenth day ( p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSION : According to these results , diclofenac and paracetamol had the same effect on pain reduction of ankle sprains but more acute ankle edema was present in patients who were treated with diclofenac than in patients who were treated with paracetamol .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: Treatment of acute lateral ankle ligament rupture in the athlete . Conservative versus surgical treatment .
Journal: Citation: V : 27 ( 1 ) P : 61-71 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10028133 Accession (PMID): 10028133
Abstract: Acute lateral ankle ligament sprains are common in young athletes ( 15 to 35 years of age ) . Diagnostic and treatment protocols vary . Therapies range from cast immobilisation or acute surgical repair to functional rehabilitation . The lateral ligament complex includes 3 capsular ligaments : the anterior tibiofibular ( ATFL ) , calcaneofibular ( CFL ) and posterior talofibular ( PTFL ) ligaments . Injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion ; the ATFL is most commonly torn . The CFL and the PTFL can also be injured and , after severe inversion , subtalar joint ligaments are also affected . Commonly , an athlete with a lateral ankle ligament sprain reports having rolled over the outside of their ankle . The entire ankle and foot must be examined to ensure there are no other injuries . Clinical stability tests for ligamentous disruption include the anterior drawer test of ATFL function and inversion tilt test of both ATFL and CFL function . Radiographs may rule out treatable fractures in severe injuries or when pain or tenderness are not associated with lateral ligaments . Stress radiographs do not affect treatment . Ankle sprains are classified from grades I to III ( mild , moderate or severe ) . Grade I and II injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management . A non-operative functional treatment programme includes immediate use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression , elevation ) , a short period of immobilisation and protection with a tape or bandage , and early range of motion , weight-bearing and neuromuscular training exercises . Proprioceptive training on a tilt board after 3 to 4 weeks helps improve balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle . Treatment for grade III injuries is more controversial A comprehensive literature evaluation and meta-analysis showed that early functional treatment provided the fastest recovery of ankle mobility and earliest return to work and physical activity without affecting late mechanical stability . Functional treatment was complication-free , whereas surgery had serious , though infrequent , complications . Functional treatment produced no more sequelae than casting with or without surgical repair . Secondary surgical repair , even years after an injury , has results comparable to those of primary repair , so even competitive athletes can receive initial conservative treatment . Sequelae of lateral ligament injuries are common . After conservative or surgical treatment , 10 to 30% of patients have chronic symptoms , including persistent synovitis or tendinitis , ankle stiffness , swelling , pain , muscle weakness and giving-way . Well-designed physical therapy programmes usually reduce instability . For individuals with chronic instability refractory to conservative measures , surgery may be needed . Subtalar instability should be carefully evaluated when considering surgery .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Acute lateral ankle ligament sprains are common in young athletes ( 15 to 35 years of age ) . Diagnostic and treatment protocols vary . Therapies range from cast immobilisation or acute surgical repair to functional rehabilitation . The lateral ligament complex includes 3 capsular ligaments : the anterior tibiofibular ( ATFL ) , calcaneofibular ( CFL ) and posterior talofibular ( PTFL ) ligaments . Injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion ; the ATFL is most commonly torn .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Therapies range from cast immobilisation or acute surgical repair to functional rehabilitation . The lateral ligament complex includes 3 capsular ligaments : the anterior tibiofibular ( ATFL ) , calcaneofibular ( CFL ) and posterior talofibular ( PTFL ) ligaments . Injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion ; the ATFL is most commonly torn . The CFL and the PTFL can also be injured and , after severe inversion , subtalar joint ligaments are also affected . Commonly , an athlete with a lateral ankle ligament sprain reports having rolled over the outside of their ankle . The entire ankle and foot must be examined to ensure there are no other injuries . Clinical stability tests for ligamentous disruption include the anterior drawer test of ATFL function and inversion tilt test of both ATFL and CFL function . Radiographs may rule out treatable fractures in severe injuries or when pain or tenderness are not associated with lateral ligaments . Stress radiographs do not affect treatment .
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: The entire ankle and foot must be examined to ensure there are no other injuries . Clinical stability tests for ligamentous disruption include the anterior drawer test of ATFL function and inversion tilt test of both ATFL and CFL function . Radiographs may rule out treatable fractures in severe injuries or when pain or tenderness are not associated with lateral ligaments . Stress radiographs do not affect treatment . Ankle sprains are classified from grades I to III ( mild , moderate or severe ) . Grade I and II injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management . A non-operative functional treatment programme includes immediate use of RICE ( rest , ice , compression , elevation ) , a short period of immobilisation and protection with a tape or bandage , and early range of motion , weight-bearing and neuromuscular training exercises . Proprioceptive training on a tilt board after 3 to 4 weeks helps improve balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle . Treatment for grade III injuries is more controversial A comprehensive literature evaluation and meta-analysis showed that early functional treatment provided the fastest recovery of ankle mobility and earliest return to work and physical activity without affecting late mechanical stability .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: Propanil ( 3 , 4-dichloropropionanilide ) particulate concentrations within and near the residences of families living adjacent to aerially sprayed rice fields .
Journal: Arch . Environ . Contam . Toxicol . Citation: V : 41 ( 1 ) P : 112-6 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11385597 Accession (PMID): 11385597
Abstract: Propanil is widely used as a postemergence herbicide in rice . Because it is typically applied aerially , there is a potential for propanil to drift into and around homes of those living adjacent to rice fields . Propanil has been shown to be immunotoxic in rodent models . The objective of this study was to measure the levels of propanil to which families living adjacent to aerially sprayed rice fields may be exposed . Air levels were sampled by actively and passively collecting propanil in and around the homes of volunteer families living in close proximity to rice fields sprayed with propanil . Homes ranged from 73 m to 113 m from treated rice fields . Sampling was conducted in the home , adjacent to the home ( within 5 m of the home ) , 30 m from the home , and at the edge of the rice field . Concentrations were determined via gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy . Propanil levels adjacent to the homes ranged from nondetectable to 1 , 106 . 4 microg per 400 cm2 collection surface ( 2 . 0 microg detection limit ) . Wind direction and wind velocity were the primary determinants of propanil drift . At sites where the prevailing wind was blowing away from the home , no propanil was detected except at the edge of the field . Distance from the edge of the rice field also influenced the amount of drift with higher levels measured at 30 m from the house than adjacent to the house . No propanil vapor was detected on absorbent media sampled in and around the homes . The results indicate that individuals living adjacent to rice fields aerially sprayed with propanil are potentially exposed to variable amounts of propanil , and wind speed and direction are the most important factors that influence the concentration of aerially applied pesticide .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Propanil is widely used as a postemergence herbicide in rice . Because it is typically applied aerially , there is a potential for propanil to drift into and around homes of those living adjacent to rice fields . Propanil has been shown to be immunotoxic in rodent models . The objective of this study was to measure the levels of propanil to which families living adjacent to aerially sprayed rice fields may be exposed . Air levels were sampled by actively and passively collecting propanil in and around the homes of volunteer families living in close proximity to rice fields sprayed with propanil . Homes ranged from 73 m to 113 m from treated rice fields . Sampling was conducted in the home , adjacent to the home ( within 5 m of the home ) , 30 m from the home , and at the edge of the rice field . Concentrations were determined via gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Propanil is widely used as a postemergence herbicide in rice . Because it is typically applied aerially , there is a potential for propanil to drift into and around homes of those living adjacent to rice fields . Propanil has been shown to be immunotoxic in rodent models . The objective of this study was to measure the levels of propanil to which families living adjacent to aerially sprayed rice fields may be exposed . Air levels were sampled by actively and passively collecting propanil in and around the homes of volunteer families living in close proximity to rice fields sprayed with propanil . Homes ranged from 73 m to 113 m from treated rice fields . Sampling was conducted in the home , adjacent to the home ( within 5 m of the home ) , 30 m from the home , and at the edge of the rice field . Concentrations were determined via gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy . Propanil levels adjacent to the homes ranged from nondetectable to 1 , 106 . 4 microg per 400 cm2 collection surface ( 2 . 0 microg detection limit ) .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: Wind direction and wind velocity were the primary determinants of propanil drift . At sites where the prevailing wind was blowing away from the home , no propanil was detected except at the edge of the field . Distance from the edge of the rice field also influenced the amount of drift with higher levels measured at 30 m from the house than adjacent to the house . No propanil vapor was detected on absorbent media sampled in and around the homes . The results indicate that individuals living adjacent to rice fields aerially sprayed with propanil are potentially exposed to variable amounts of propanil , and wind speed and direction are the most important factors that influence the concentration of aerially applied pesticide .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: Effects of the agricultural insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin ( Warrior ) on mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis ) .
Journal: J Am . Mosq . Control Assoc . Citation: V : 19 ( 4 ) P : 430-2 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14710748 Accession (PMID): 14710748
Abstract: Because agricultural insecticides have potential to disrupt biological control of mosquitoes , we quantified whether an insecticide used in rice fields causes mortality of mosquitofish . Laboratory studies have shown that lambda-cyhalothrin ( Warrior ) is toxic to fish ; however , some studies report low field toxicities of pyrethroids to fish because they degrade rapidly and adsorb to soil . We tested whether Warrior kills mosquitofish under field conditions . Replicated enclosures in a rice field were either sprayed with Warrior at 5 . 8 g active ingredient/ha or were untreated . Mosquitofish were either added before the spray , or 7 days later . Of those added before the spray , none survived . Most fish added 7 days later survived .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Because agricultural insecticides have potential to disrupt biological control of mosquitoes , we quantified whether an insecticide used in rice fields causes mortality of mosquitofish . Laboratory studies have shown that lambda-cyhalothrin ( Warrior ) is toxic to fish ; however , some studies report low field toxicities of pyrethroids to fish because they degrade rapidly and adsorb to soil . We tested whether Warrior kills mosquitofish under field conditions . Replicated enclosures in a rice field were either sprayed with Warrior at 5 . 8 g active ingredient/ha or were untreated . Mosquitofish were either added before the spray , or 7 days later . Of those added before the spray , none survived . Most fish added 7 days later survived .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Because agricultural insecticides have potential to disrupt biological control of mosquitoes , we quantified whether an insecticide used in rice fields causes mortality of mosquitofish . Laboratory studies have shown that lambda-cyhalothrin ( Warrior ) is toxic to fish ; however , some studies report low field toxicities of pyrethroids to fish because they degrade rapidly and adsorb to soil . We tested whether Warrior kills mosquitofish under field conditions . Replicated enclosures in a rice field were either sprayed with Warrior at 5 . 8 g active ingredient/ha or were untreated . Mosquitofish were either added before the spray , or 7 days later . Of those added before the spray , none survived . Most fish added 7 days later survived .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Laboratory studies have shown that lambda-cyhalothrin ( Warrior ) is toxic to fish ; however , some studies report low field toxicities of pyrethroids to fish because they degrade rapidly and adsorb to soil . We tested whether Warrior kills mosquitofish under field conditions . Replicated enclosures in a rice field were either sprayed with Warrior at 5 . 8 g active ingredient/ha or were untreated . Mosquitofish were either added before the spray , or 7 days later . Of those added before the spray , none survived . Most fish added 7 days later survived .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: Low-level laser treatment can reduce edema in second degree ankle sprains .
Journal: Citation: V : 22 ( 2 ) P : 125-8 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15165387 Accession (PMID): 15165387
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : Low-level laser therapy ( LLLT ) has been used for the last few years to treat sports injuries . The purpose of this study was to compare three therapeutic protocols in treating edema in second degree ankle sprains that did not require immobilization with a splint , under placebo-controlled conditions . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Forty-seven soccer players with second degree ankle sprains , selected at random , were divided into the following groups : The first group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the conventional initial treatment ( RICE , rest , ice , compression , elevation ) , the second group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the RICE method plus placebo laser , and the third group ( n = 15 ) was treated with the RICE method plus an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser with a radiant power output of 40 mW at 16 Hz . Before the treatment , and 24 , 48 , and 72 h later , the volume of the edema was measured . RESULTS : A three by three repeated measures ANOVA with a follow up post hoc test revealed that the group treated with the RICE and an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser presented a statistically significant reduction in the volume of the edema after 24 h ( 40 . 3 +/- 2 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 01 ) , 48 h ( 56 . 4 +/- 3 . 1 mL , p < 0 . 002 ) , and 72 h ( 65 . 1 +/- 4 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSIONS : LLLT combined with RICE can reduce edema in second-degree ankle sprains .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVE : Low-level laser therapy ( LLLT ) has been used for the last few years to treat sports injuries . The purpose of this study was to compare three therapeutic protocols in treating edema in second degree ankle sprains that did not require immobilization with a splint , under placebo-controlled conditions . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Forty-seven soccer players with second degree ankle sprains , selected at random , were divided into the following groups : The first group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the conventional initial treatment ( RICE , rest , ice , compression , elevation ) , the second group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the RICE method plus placebo laser , and the third group ( n = 15 ) was treated with the RICE method plus an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser with a radiant power output of 40 mW at 16 Hz . Before the treatment , and 24 , 48 , and 72 h later , the volume of the edema was measured . RESULTS : A three by three repeated measures ANOVA with a follow up post hoc test revealed that the group treated with the RICE and an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser presented a statistically significant reduction in the volume of the edema after 24 h ( 40 . 3 +/- 2 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 01 ) , 48 h ( 56 . 4 +/- 3 . 1 mL , p < 0 . 002 ) , and 72 h ( 65 . 1 +/- 4 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSIONS : LLLT combined with RICE can reduce edema in second-degree ankle sprains .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVE : Low-level laser therapy ( LLLT ) has been used for the last few years to treat sports injuries . The purpose of this study was to compare three therapeutic protocols in treating edema in second degree ankle sprains that did not require immobilization with a splint , under placebo-controlled conditions . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Forty-seven soccer players with second degree ankle sprains , selected at random , were divided into the following groups : The first group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the conventional initial treatment ( RICE , rest , ice , compression , elevation ) , the second group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the RICE method plus placebo laser , and the third group ( n = 15 ) was treated with the RICE method plus an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser with a radiant power output of 40 mW at 16 Hz . Before the treatment , and 24 , 48 , and 72 h later , the volume of the edema was measured . RESULTS : A three by three repeated measures ANOVA with a follow up post hoc test revealed that the group treated with the RICE and an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser presented a statistically significant reduction in the volume of the edema after 24 h ( 40 . 3 +/- 2 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 01 ) , 48 h ( 56 . 4 +/- 3 . 1 mL , p < 0 . 002 ) , and 72 h ( 65 . 1 +/- 4 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSIONS : LLLT combined with RICE can reduce edema in second-degree ankle sprains .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The purpose of this study was to compare three therapeutic protocols in treating edema in second degree ankle sprains that did not require immobilization with a splint , under placebo-controlled conditions . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Forty-seven soccer players with second degree ankle sprains , selected at random , were divided into the following groups : The first group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the conventional initial treatment ( RICE , rest , ice , compression , elevation ) , the second group ( n = 16 ) was treated with the RICE method plus placebo laser , and the third group ( n = 15 ) was treated with the RICE method plus an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser with a radiant power output of 40 mW at 16 Hz . Before the treatment , and 24 , 48 , and 72 h later , the volume of the edema was measured . RESULTS : A three by three repeated measures ANOVA with a follow up post hoc test revealed that the group treated with the RICE and an 820-nm GaA1As diode laser presented a statistically significant reduction in the volume of the edema after 24 h ( 40 . 3 +/- 2 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 01 ) , 48 h ( 56 . 4 +/- 3 . 1 mL , p < 0 . 002 ) , and 72 h ( 65 . 1 +/- 4 . 4 mL , p < 0 . 001 ) . CONCLUSIONS : LLLT combined with RICE can reduce edema in second-degree ankle sprains .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: Does Cryotherapy Improve Outcomes With Soft it issue Injury?
Journal: Citation: V : 39 ( 3 ) P : 278-279 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15496998 Accession (PMID): 15496998
Abstract: REFERENCE : Bleakley C , McDonough S , MacAuley D The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injury : a systematic review of randomized controlled trials . Am J Sport Med . 2004 ; 32 : 251-261 . CLINICAL QUESTION : What is the clinical evidence base for cryotherapy use? DATA SOURCES : Studies were identified by using a computer-based literature search on a total of 8 databases : MEDLINE , Proquest , ISI Web of Science , Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health ( CINAHL ) on Ovid , Allied and Complementary Medicine Database ( AMED ) on Ovid , Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness , and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register ( Central ) . This was supplemented with citation tracking of relevant primary and review articles . Search terms included surgery , orthopaedics , sports injury , soft it issue injury , sprains and strains , contusions , athletic injury , acute , compression , cryotherapy , ice , RICE , andcold . STUDY SELECTION : To be included in the review , each study had to fulfill the following conditions : be a randomized , controlled trial of human subjects ; be published in English as a full paper ; include patients recovering from acute soft it issue or orthopaedic surgical interventions who received cryotherapy in inpatient , outpatient , or home-based treatment , in isolation or in combination with placebo or other therapies ; provide comparisons with no treatment , placebo , a different mode or protocol of cryotherapy , or other physiotherapeutic interventions ; and have outcome measures that included function ( subjective or objective ) , pain , swelling , or range of motion . DATA EXTRACTION : The study population , interventions , outcomes , follow-up , and reported results of the assessed trials were extracted and tabulated . The primary outcome measures were pain , swelling , and range of motion . Only 2 groups reported adequate data for return to normal function . All eligible articles were rated for methodologic quality using the PEDro scale . The PEDro scale is a checklist that examines the believability ( internal validity ) and the interpretability of trial quality . The 11-item checklist yields a maximum score of 10 if all criteria are satisfied . The intraclass correlation coefficient and kappa values are similar to those reported for 3 other frequently used quality scales ( Chalmers Scale , Jadad Scale , and Maastricht List ) . Two reviewers graded the articles , a method that has been reported to be more reliable than one evaluator . MAIN RESULTS : Specific search criteria identified 55 articles for review , of which 22 were eligible randomized , controlled clinical trials . The articles scores on the PEDro scale were low , ranging from 1 to 5 , with an average score of 3 . 4 . Five studies provided adequate information on the subjects baseline data , and only 3 studies concealed allocation during subject recruitment . No studies blinded their therapists administration of therapy , and just 1 study blinded subjects . Only 1 study included an intention-to-treat analysis . The average number of subjects in the studies was 66 . 7 ; however , only 1 group undertook a power analysis . The types of injuries varied widely ( eg , acute or surgical ) . No authors investigated subjects with muscle contusions or strains , and only 5 groups studied subjects with acute ligament sprains . The remaining 17 groups examined patients recovering from operative procedures ( anterior cruciate ligament repair , knee arthroscopy , lateral retinacular release , total knee and hip arthroplasties , and carpal tunnel release ) . Additionally , the mode of cryotherapy varied widely , as did the duration and frequency of cryotherapy application . The time period when cryotherapy was applied after injury ranged from immediately after injury to 1 to 3 days postinjury . Adequate information on the actual surface temperature of the cooling device was not provided in the selected studies . Most authors recorded outcome variables over short periods ( 1 week ) , with the longest reporting follow-ups of pain , swelling , and range of motion recorded at 4 weeks postinjury . Data in that study were insufficient to calculate effect size . Nine studies did not provide data of the key outcome measures , so individual study effect estimates could not be calculated . A total of 12 treatment comparisons were made . Ice submersion with simultaneous exercises was significantly more effective than heat and contrast therapy plus simultaneous exercises at reducing swelling . Ice was reported to be no different from ice and low-frequency or high-frequency electric stimulation in effect on swelling , pain , and range of motion . Ice alone seemed to be more effective than applying no form of cryotherapy after minor knee surgery in terms of pain , but no differences were reported for range of motion and girth . Continuous cryotherapy was associated with a significantly greater decrease in pain and wrist circumference after surgery than intermittent cryotherapy . Evidence was marginal that a single simultaneous treatment with ice and compression is no more effective than no cryotherapy after an ankle sprain . The authors reported ice to be no more effective than rehabilitation only with regard to pain , swelling , and range of motion . Ice and compression seemed to be significantly more effective than ice alone in terms of decreasing pain . Additionally , ice , compression , and a placebo injection reduced pain more than a placebo injection alone . Lastly , in 8 studies , there seemed to be little difference in the effectiveness of ice and compression compared with compression alone . Only 2 of the 8 groups reported significant differences in favor of ice and compression . CONCLUSIONS : Based on the available evidence , cryotherapy seems to be effective in decreasing pain . In comparison with other rehabilitation techniques , the efficacy of cryotherapy has been questioned . The exact effect of cryotherapy on more frequently treated acute injuries ( eg , muscle strains and contusions ) has not been fully elucidated . Additionally , the low methodologic quality of the available evidence is of concern . Many more high-quality studies are required to create evidence-based guidelines on the use of cryotherapy . These must focus on developing modes , durations , and frequencies of ice application that will optimize outcomes after injury .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: 2004 ; 32 : 251-261 . CLINICAL QUESTION : What is the clinical evidence base for cryotherapy use?DATA SOURCES : Studies were identified by using a computer-based literature search on a total of 8 databases : MEDLINE , Proquest , ISI Web of Science , Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health ( CINAHL ) on Ovid , Allied and Complementary Medicine Database ( AMED ) on Ovid , Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness , and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register ( Central ) . This was supplemented with citation tracking of relevant primary and review articles . Search terms included surgery , orthopaedics , sports injury , soft it issue injury , sprains and strains , contusions , athletic injury , acute , compression , cryotherapy , ice , RICE , andcold . STUDY SELECTION : To be included in the review , each study had to fulfill the following conditions : be a randomized , controlled trial of human subjects ; be published in English as a full paper ; include patients recovering from acute soft it issue or orthopaedic surgical interventions who received cryotherapy in inpatient , outpatient , or home-based treatment , in isolation or in combination with placebo or other therapies ; provide comparisons with no treatment , placebo , a different mode or protocol of cryotherapy , or other physiotherapeutic interventions ; and have outcome measures that included function ( subjective or objective ) , pain , swelling , or range of motion . DATA EXTRACTION : The study population , interventions , outcomes , follow-up , and reported results of the assessed trials were extracted and tabulated . The primary outcome measures were pain , swelling , and range of motion . Only 2 groups reported adequate data for return to normal function .
[ Sen. 24, subscore: 1.00 ]: No studies blinded their therapists administration of therapy , and just 1 study blinded subjects . Only 1 study included an intention-to-treat analysis . The average number of subjects in the studies was 66 . 7 ; however , only 1 group undertook a power analysis . The types of injuries varied widely ( eg , acute or surgical ) . No authors investigated subjects with muscle contusions or strains , and only 5 groups studied subjects with acute ligament sprains . The remaining 17 groups examined patients recovering from operative procedures ( anterior cruciate ligament repair , knee arthroscopy , lateral retinacular release , total knee and hip arthroplasties , and carpal tunnel release ) . Additionally , the mode of cryotherapy varied widely , as did the duration and frequency of cryotherapy application . The time period when cryotherapy was applied after injury ranged from immediately after injury to 1 to 3 days postinjury . Adequate information on the actual surface temperature of the cooling device was not provided in the selected studies .
[ Sen. 37, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ice submersion with simultaneous exercises was significantly more effective than heat and contrast therapy plus simultaneous exercises at reducing swelling . Ice was reported to be no different from ice and low-frequency or high-frequency electric stimulation in effect on swelling , pain , and range of motion . Ice alone seemed to be more effective than applying no form of cryotherapy after minor knee surgery in terms of pain , but no differences were reported for range of motion and girth . Continuous cryotherapy was associated with a significantly greater decrease in pain and wrist circumference after surgery than intermittent cryotherapy . Evidence was marginal that a single simultaneous treatment with ice and compression is no more effective than no cryotherapy after an ankle sprain . The authors reported ice to be no more effective than rehabilitation only with regard to pain , swelling , and range of motion . Ice and compression seemed to be significantly more effective than ice alone in terms of decreasing pain . Additionally , ice , compression , and a placebo injection reduced pain more than a placebo injection alone . Lastly , in 8 studies , there seemed to be little difference in the effectiveness of ice and compression compared with compression alone .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: Mortality factors of eggs of Leptocorisa chinensis ( Hemiptera : Alydidae ) in rice fields .
Journal: J Econ . Entomol . Citation: V : 99 ( 2 ) P : 366-72 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16686134 Accession (PMID): 16686134
Abstract: To clarify factors causing mortality of Leptocorisa chinensis Dallas ( Hemiptera : Alydidae ) eggs in rice fields , sentinel egg masses were exposed for seven days in two rice , Oryza sativa L ( Poaceae ) , fields . An insecticide was sprayed to remove natural enemies in one-half of each field before exposing egg masses to predation . An egg mass containing 14 eggs was glued to a plastic label , and 21 egg masses each were placed in the sprayed and unsprayed control plots . During exposure , the number of hatched and missing eggs was observed daily . Egg predators were sampled in the fields before and after insecticide application . After the egg masses were retrieved from the fields , mortality factors of the unhatched eggs were assessed in the laboratory . The mean number of hatched and missing eggs was not significantly different between the sprayed and control plots in field A In field B , however , the numbers were significantly different . The percentage of missing eggs in damaged egg masses ranged from 80 to 100% . In the laboratory , we observed that feeding marks caused by the grasshopper Conocephalus chinensis ( Redtenbacher ) were similar to those on the eggs exposed in the rice fields . The density of C chinensis was low in control plots of field A In contrast , the density was high in those of field B These observations suggest that the density of egg predators , eg , C chinensis , is a mortality factor of L chinensis eggs in rice fields .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: To clarify factors causing mortality of Leptocorisa chinensis Dallas ( Hemiptera : Alydidae ) eggs in rice fields , sentinel egg masses were exposed for seven days in two rice , Oryza sativa L ( Poaceae ) , fields . An insecticide was sprayed to remove natural enemies in one-half of each field before exposing egg masses to predation . An egg mass containing 14 eggs was glued to a plastic label , and 21 egg masses each were placed in the sprayed and unsprayed control plots . During exposure , the number of hatched and missing eggs was observed daily . Egg predators were sampled in the fields before and after insecticide application . After the egg masses were retrieved from the fields , mortality factors of the unhatched eggs were assessed in the laboratory .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: To clarify factors causing mortality of Leptocorisa chinensis Dallas ( Hemiptera : Alydidae ) eggs in rice fields , sentinel egg masses were exposed for seven days in two rice , Oryza sativa L ( Poaceae ) , fields . An insecticide was sprayed to remove natural enemies in one-half of each field before exposing egg masses to predation . An egg mass containing 14 eggs was glued to a plastic label , and 21 egg masses each were placed in the sprayed and unsprayed control plots . During exposure , the number of hatched and missing eggs was observed daily . Egg predators were sampled in the fields before and after insecticide application . After the egg masses were retrieved from the fields , mortality factors of the unhatched eggs were assessed in the laboratory . The mean number of hatched and missing eggs was not significantly different between the sprayed and control plots in field A In field B , however , the numbers were significantly different .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: An egg mass containing 14 eggs was glued to a plastic label , and 21 egg masses each were placed in the sprayed and unsprayed control plots . During exposure , the number of hatched and missing eggs was observed daily . Egg predators were sampled in the fields before and after insecticide application . After the egg masses were retrieved from the fields , mortality factors of the unhatched eggs were assessed in the laboratory . The mean number of hatched and missing eggs was not significantly different between the sprayed and control plots in field A In field B , however , the numbers were significantly different . The percentage of missing eggs in damaged egg masses ranged from 80 to 100% . In the laboratory , we observed that feeding marks caused by the grasshopper Conocephalus chinensis ( Redtenbacher ) were similar to those on the eggs exposed in the rice fields . The density of C chinensis was low in control plots of field A In contrast , the density was high in those of field B These observations suggest that the density of egg predators , eg , C chinensis , is a mortality factor of L chinensis eggs in rice fields .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: Determining areas that require indoor insecticide spraying using Multi Criteria Evaluation , a decision-support tool for malaria vector control programmes in the Central Highlands of Madagascar .
Journal: Citation: V : 6 ( ) P : 2 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17261177 Accession (PMID): 17261177
Abstract: BACKGROUND : The highlands of Madagascar present an unstable transmission pattern of malaria . The population has no immunity , and the central highlands have been the sites of epidemics with particularly high fatality . The most recent epidemic occurred in the 1980s , and caused about 30 , 000 deaths . The fight against malaria epidemics in the highlands has been based on indoor insecticide spraying to control malaria vectors . Any preventive programme involving generalised cover in the highlands will require very substantial logistical support . We used multicriteria evaluation , by the method of weighted linear combination , as basis for improved targeting of actions by determining priority zones for intervention . RESULTS : Image analysis and field validation showed the accuracy of mapping rice fields to be between 82 . 3% and 100% , and the Kappa coefficient was 0 . 86 to 0 . 99 . A significant positive correlation was observed between the abundance of the vector Anopheles funestus and temperature ; the correlation coefficient was 0 . 599 ( p < 0 . 001 ) . A significant negative correlation was observed between vector abundance and human population density : the correlation coefficient was -0 . 551 ( p < 0 . 003 ) . Factor weights were determined by pair-wise comparison and the consistency ratio was 0 . 04 . Risk maps of the six study zones were obtained according to a gradient of risk . Nine of thirteen results of alert confirmed by the Epidemiological Surveillance Post were in concordance with the risk map . CONCLUSION : This study is particularly valuable for the management of vector control programmes , and particularly the reduction of the vector population with a view to preventing disease . The risk map obtained can be used to identify priority zones for the management of resources , and also help avoid systematic and generalised spraying throughout the highlands : such spraying is particularly difficult and expensive . The accuracy of the mapping , both as concerns time and space , is dependent on the availability of data . Continuous monitoring of malaria transmission factors must be undertaken to detect any changes . A regular case notification allows risk map to be verified . These actions should therefore be implemented so that risk maps can be satisfactorily assessed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 2.00 ]: Factor weights were determined by pair-wise comparison and the consistency ratio was 0 . 04 . Risk maps of the six study zones were obtained according to a gradient of risk . Nine of thirteen results of alert confirmed by the Epidemiological Surveillance Post were in concordance with the risk map . CONCLUSION : This study is particularly valuable for the management of vector control programmes , and particularly the reduction of the vector population with a view to preventing disease . The risk map obtained can be used to identify priority zones for the management of resources , and also help avoid systematic and generalised spraying throughout the highlands : such spraying is particularly difficult and expensive . The accuracy of the mapping , both as concerns time and space , is dependent on the availability of data . Continuous monitoring of malaria transmission factors must be undertaken to detect any changes . A regular case notification allows risk map to be verified . These actions should therefore be implemented so that risk maps can be satisfactorily assessed .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : The highlands of Madagascar present an unstable transmission pattern of malaria . The population has no immunity , and the central highlands have been the sites of epidemics with particularly high fatality . The most recent epidemic occurred in the 1980s , and caused about 30 , 000 deaths . The fight against malaria epidemics in the highlands has been based on indoor insecticide spraying to control malaria vectors . Any preventive programme involving generalised cover in the highlands will require very substantial logistical support . We used multicriteria evaluation , by the method of weighted linear combination , as basis for improved targeting of actions by determining priority zones for intervention . RESULTS : Image analysis and field validation showed the accuracy of mapping rice fields to be between 82 . 3% and 100% , and the Kappa coefficient was 0 . 86 to 0 . 99 . A significant positive correlation was observed between the abundance of the vector Anopheles funestus and temperature ; the correlation coefficient was 0 . 599 ( p < 0 . 001 ) . A significant negative correlation was observed between vector abundance and human population density : the correlation coefficient was -0 . 551 ( p < 0 . 003 ) .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: Effect of pre-germination time of brown rice on serum cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolaemic rats .
Journal: J Sci Food Agric Citation: V : 90 P : 245-51 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20355038 Accession (PMID): 20355038
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Brown rice is unpolished rice with immeasurable benefits for human health . Brown rice ( BR ) and pre-germinated brown rice ( PGBR ) are known to contain various functional compounds such as gamma-oryzanol , dietary fibre and gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA ) . In the present study , the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 , 48 h pre-germination ) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats . RESULTS : Hypercholesterolaemia and elevation of LDL-cholesterol were successfully ameliorated by the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 and 48 h pre-germination ) . As compared to the control sample , the pre-germination time had a significant ( P < 0 . 05 ) effect on blood cholesterol of Sprague-Dawley male rats . It was also found that the significantly ( P < 0 . 05 ) better effect on lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats was observed by prolonging the pre-germination time . As compared to non-germinated brown rice , the germinated brown rice showed the higher cardio-protective effect on hypercholesterolaemic Sprague-Dawley male rats . CONCLUSION : The present study suggests that the changes of blood cholesterol can be mainly modulated by using the PGBR rather than BR . The prolonging of pre-germination time led to an increase in the bioactive components , thereby providing a more efficient functional diet affecting the high blood cholesterol . This study suggests that PGBR can be used instead of BR and polished rice in the human diet .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Brown rice is unpolished rice with immeasurable benefits for human health . Brown rice ( BR ) and pre-germinated brown rice ( PGBR ) are known to contain various functional compounds such as gamma-oryzanol , dietary fibre and gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA ) . In the present study , the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 , 48 h pre-germination ) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats . RESULTS : Hypercholesterolaemia and elevation of LDL-cholesterol were successfully ameliorated by the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 and 48 h pre-germination ) . As compared to the control sample , the pre-germination time had a significant ( P < 0 . 05 ) effect on blood cholesterol of Sprague-Dawley male rats . It was also found that the significantly ( P < 0 . 05 ) better effect on lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats was observed by prolonging the pre-germination time . As compared to non-germinated brown rice , the germinated brown rice showed the higher cardio-protective effect on hypercholesterolaemic Sprague-Dawley male rats .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Brown rice is unpolished rice with immeasurable benefits for human health . Brown rice ( BR ) and pre-germinated brown rice ( PGBR ) are known to contain various functional compounds such as gamma-oryzanol , dietary fibre and gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA ) . In the present study , the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 , 48 h pre-germination ) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats . RESULTS : Hypercholesterolaemia and elevation of LDL-cholesterol were successfully ameliorated by the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 and 48 h pre-germination ) . As compared to the control sample , the pre-germination time had a significant ( P < 0 . 05 ) effect on blood cholesterol of Sprague-Dawley male rats . It was also found that the significantly ( P < 0 . 05 ) better effect on lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats was observed by prolonging the pre-germination time . As compared to non-germinated brown rice , the germinated brown rice showed the higher cardio-protective effect on hypercholesterolaemic Sprague-Dawley male rats . CONCLUSION : The present study suggests that the changes of blood cholesterol can be mainly modulated by using the PGBR rather than BR . The prolonging of pre-germination time led to an increase in the bioactive components , thereby providing a more efficient functional diet affecting the high blood cholesterol .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the present study , the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 , 48 h pre-germination ) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats . RESULTS : Hypercholesterolaemia and elevation of LDL-cholesterol were successfully ameliorated by the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR ( 24 and 48 h pre-germination ) . As compared to the control sample , the pre-germination time had a significant ( P < 0 . 05 ) effect on blood cholesterol of Sprague-Dawley male rats . It was also found that the significantly ( P < 0 . 05 ) better effect on lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats was observed by prolonging the pre-germination time . As compared to non-germinated brown rice , the germinated brown rice showed the higher cardio-protective effect on hypercholesterolaemic Sprague-Dawley male rats . CONCLUSION : The present study suggests that the changes of blood cholesterol can be mainly modulated by using the PGBR rather than BR . The prolonging of pre-germination time led to an increase in the bioactive components , thereby providing a more efficient functional diet affecting the high blood cholesterol . This study suggests that PGBR can be used instead of BR and polished rice in the human diet .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: Evaluation of alternative rice planthopper control by the combined action of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae and low-rate buprofezin .
Journal: Pest Manag Sci Citation: V : 67 P : 36-43 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20949549 Accession (PMID): 20949549
Abstract: BACKGROUND : High resistance of brown planthopper ( BPH ) Nilaparvata lugens Stal to common insecticides is a challenge for control of the pest An alternative control strategy based on the combined application of fungal and chemical agents has been evaluated . RESULTS : Three gradient spore concentrations of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae ( Metschnikoff ) Sorokin ( Ma456 ) were sprayed onto third-instar nymphs in five bioassays comprising the low buprofezin rates of 0 , 10 , 20 , 30 and 40 microg mL ( -1 ) respectively . Fungal LC ( 50 ) after 1 week at 25 degrees C and 14 : 10 h light : dark photoperiod decreased from 386 conidia mm ( -2 ) in the buprofezin-free bioassay to 40 at the highest chemical rate . Buprofezin ( LC ( 50 ) : 1647 , 486 and 233 microg mL ( -1 ) on days 2 to 4 ) had no significant effect on the fungal outgrowths of mycosis-killed cadavers at the low application rates . The fungal infection was found to cause 81% reduction in reproductive potential of BPH adults . In two 40 day field trials , significant planthopper ( mainly BPH ) control ( 54-60% ) was achieved by biweekly sprays of two fungal candidates ( Ma456 and Ma576 ) at 1 . 5 x 10 ( 13 ) conidia ha ( -1 ) and elevated to 80-83% by incorporating 30 . 8 g buprofezin ha ( -1 ) into the fungal sprays . CONCLUSION : The combined application of the fungal and chemical agents is a promising alternative strategy for BPH control .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 2.00 ]: RESULTS : Three gradient spore concentrations of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae ( Metschnikoff ) Sorokin ( Ma456 ) were sprayed onto third-instar nymphs in five bioassays comprising the low buprofezin rates of 0 , 10 , 20 , 30 and 40 microg mL ( -1 ) respectively . Fungal LC ( 50 ) after 1 week at 25 degrees C and 14 : 10 h light : dark photoperiod decreased from 386 conidia mm ( -2 ) in the buprofezin-free bioassay to 40 at the highest chemical rate . Buprofezin ( LC ( 50 ) : 1647 , 486 and 233 microg mL ( -1 ) on days 2 to 4 ) had no significant effect on the fungal outgrowths of mycosis-killed cadavers at the low application rates . The fungal infection was found to cause 81% reduction in reproductive potential of BPH adults . In two 40 day field trials , significant planthopper ( mainly BPH ) control ( 54-60% ) was achieved by biweekly sprays of two fungal candidates ( Ma456 and Ma576 ) at 1 . 5 x 10 ( 13 ) conidia ha ( -1 ) and elevated to 80-83% by incorporating 30 . 8 g buprofezin ha ( -1 ) into the fungal sprays . CONCLUSION : The combined application of the fungal and chemical agents is a promising alternative strategy for BPH control .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : High resistance of brown planthopper ( BPH ) Nilaparvata lugens Stal to common insecticides is a challenge for control of the pest An alternative control strategy based on the combined application of fungal and chemical agents has been evaluated . RESULTS : Three gradient spore concentrations of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae ( Metschnikoff ) Sorokin ( Ma456 ) were sprayed onto third-instar nymphs in five bioassays comprising the low buprofezin rates of 0 , 10 , 20 , 30 and 40 microg mL ( -1 ) respectively . Fungal LC ( 50 ) after 1 week at 25 degrees C and 14 : 10 h light : dark photoperiod decreased from 386 conidia mm ( -2 ) in the buprofezin-free bioassay to 40 at the highest chemical rate . Buprofezin ( LC ( 50 ) : 1647 , 486 and 233 microg mL ( -1 ) on days 2 to 4 ) had no significant effect on the fungal outgrowths of mycosis-killed cadavers at the low application rates . The fungal infection was found to cause 81% reduction in reproductive potential of BPH adults . In two 40 day field trials , significant planthopper ( mainly BPH ) control ( 54-60% ) was achieved by biweekly sprays of two fungal candidates ( Ma456 and Ma576 ) at 1 . 5 x 10 ( 13 ) conidia ha ( -1 ) and elevated to 80-83% by incorporating 30 . 8 g buprofezin ha ( -1 ) into the fungal sprays .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: Malaria resurgence in India : a critical study .
Journal: Citation: V : 22 ( 8 ) P : 835-45 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub3749959 Accession (PMID): 3749959
Abstract: In 1953 , the Indian National Malaria Control Programme ( NMCP ) was started . Encouraged by the results , and the fact that insecticide resistance in vector species may evolve and become an obstacle , in 1958 a control programme was converted to the National Malaria Eradication Programme ( NMEP ) . By 1964 , malaria was eradicated from 88% of the area and it was in the advanced stage of spraying in the remaining parts . At that time , focal outbreaks that occurred in 1965 and increased in later years , could not be contained due to the shortages of DDT . As a result , large areas in consolidation and maintenance phases were reverted to the attack phase . Besides , the infrastructure in general health services was not adequate and mature enough to take up surveillance and vigilance . This produced a large number of secondary cases due to the re-introduction and relapse of malaria . Added to this was the problem of urban malaria , the control of which was the responsibility of local bodies . Malaria cases increased in towns , and started diffusing to the rural areas , due to inadequate staff and the shortages of malarial larvicidal oil ( MLO ) . Later , it turned out , that while it was technically feasible to eradicate malaria from 91% of the population , the strategy of indoor spraying of DDT to interrupt transmission did not succeed in 9 . 0% of the population , despite more than 12-14 years of regular spraying . During the years of resurgence , there was no research support to the programme , so that technical problems were not properly appreciated , understood and tackled . The reservoir of parasites that were present throughout the country started multiplying and spreading to newer areas due to the presence of vectors in high densities . Thus malaria resurged and re-established itself even in areas that were at one time freed from the disease . The analysis of the pattern of malaria resurgence revealed that malaria outbreaks preceded the true problem of insecticide resistance . It is noteworthy to mention that malaria resurgence occurred in towns where the control measures were non-insecticidal and in regions which were not under the influence of insecticide-resistant vectors . The study also revealed that resurgence occurred before the introduction of high-yielding varieties programme in the country , and had no relationship to either the cotton or rice growing or intensive agriculture .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 2.00 ]: Besides , the infrastructure in general health services was not adequate and mature enough to take up surveillance and vigilance . This produced a large number of secondary cases due to the re-introduction and relapse of malaria . Added to this was the problem of urban malaria , the control of which was the responsibility of local bodies . Malaria cases increased in towns , and started diffusing to the rural areas , due to inadequate staff and the shortages of malarial larvicidal oil ( MLO ) . Later , it turned out , that while it was technically feasible to eradicate malaria from 91% of the population , the strategy of indoor spraying of DDT to interrupt transmission did not succeed in 9 . 0% of the population , despite more than 12-14 years of regular spraying . During the years of resurgence , there was no research support to the programme , so that technical problems were not properly appreciated , understood and tackled . The reservoir of parasites that were present throughout the country started multiplying and spreading to newer areas due to the presence of vectors in high densities . Thus malaria resurged and re-established itself even in areas that were at one time freed from the disease . The analysis of the pattern of malaria resurgence revealed that malaria outbreaks preceded the true problem of insecticide resistance .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: In 1953 , the Indian National Malaria Control Programme ( NMCP ) was started . Encouraged by the results , and the fact that insecticide resistance in vector species may evolve and become an obstacle , in 1958 a control programme was converted to the National Malaria Eradication Programme ( NMEP ) . By 1964 , malaria was eradicated from 88% of the area and it was in the advanced stage of spraying in the remaining parts . At that time , focal outbreaks that occurred in 1965 and increased in later years , could not be contained due to the shortages of DDT . As a result , large areas in consolidation and maintenance phases were reverted to the attack phase . Besides , the infrastructure in general health services was not adequate and mature enough to take up surveillance and vigilance . This produced a large number of secondary cases due to the re-introduction and relapse of malaria .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: Anopheline mosquito ( Diptera : Culicidae ) ecology in relation to malaria transmission in the inner and outer terai of Nepal , 1987-1989 .
Journal: J Med . Entomol . Citation: V : 30 ( 4 ) P : 664-82 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8360891 Accession (PMID): 8360891
Abstract: The ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to malaria transmission was studied at sprayed and unsprayed villages and two unsprayed cattle sheds in the inner terai of Sindhuli District , Central Region , and at two unsprayed villages and one cattle shed in Kanchanpur , Far Western Region of Nepal , from August 1987 to August 1989 . Anopheles maculatus was the most abundant of 26 anopheline species collected in Sindhuli District ; however , An . fluviatilis was collected most frequently at human bait and was infected most frequently with malaria sporozoites . Residual house spray controlled the indoor resting abundance of the endophilic resting species and protected the population from malaria during midsummer , but had less effect on exophilic resting species and those abundant after and before spray application during the fall and spring , respectively . Malaria at the unsprayed village was detected predominantly in adults of both sexes , perhaps because young children retired early and frequently slept indoors under bed nets during the early evening period of elevated anopheline host-seeking activity . Malaria transmission was verified by the collection of sporozoite infected An . fluviatilis and An . maculatus during spring at cattle sheds in the forested Churia Hills and during the summer monsoon season within the unsprayed village . An . culicifacies was the most abundant of 12 anopheline species collected in Kanchanpur District . Few females of all species were collected at human bait positioned in or out of houses or had human positive blood meals ; none were infected with sporozoites . Malaria incidence was higher in the study village positioned along the forest-rice field ecotone than in the cleared rice growing area .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: The ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to malaria transmission was studied at sprayed and unsprayed villages and two unsprayed cattle sheds in the inner terai of Sindhuli District , Central Region , and at two unsprayed villages and one cattle shed in Kanchanpur , Far Western Region of Nepal , from August 1987 to August 1989 . Anopheles maculatus was the most abundant of 26 anopheline species collected in Sindhuli District ; however , An . fluviatilis was collected most frequently at human bait and was infected most frequently with malaria sporozoites . Residual house spray controlled the indoor resting abundance of the endophilic resting species and protected the population from malaria during midsummer , but had less effect on exophilic resting species and those abundant after and before spray application during the fall and spring , respectively . Malaria at the unsprayed village was detected predominantly in adults of both sexes , perhaps because young children retired early and frequently slept indoors under bed nets during the early evening period of elevated anopheline host-seeking activity . Malaria transmission was verified by the collection of sporozoite infected An . fluviatilis and An . maculatus during spring at cattle sheds in the forested Churia Hills and during the summer monsoon season within the unsprayed village . An . culicifacies was the most abundant of 12 anopheline species collected in Kanchanpur District . Few females of all species were collected at human bait positioned in or out of houses or had human positive blood meals ; none were infected with sporozoites .
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to malaria transmission was studied at sprayed and unsprayed villages and two unsprayed cattle sheds in the inner terai of Sindhuli District , Central Region , and at two unsprayed villages and one cattle shed in Kanchanpur , Far Western Region of Nepal , from August 1987 to August 1989 . Anopheles maculatus was the most abundant of 26 anopheline species collected in Sindhuli District ; however , An . fluviatilis was collected most frequently at human bait and was infected most frequently with malaria sporozoites . Residual house spray controlled the indoor resting abundance of the endophilic resting species and protected the population from malaria during midsummer , but had less effect on exophilic resting species and those abundant after and before spray application during the fall and spring , respectively . Malaria at the unsprayed village was detected predominantly in adults of both sexes , perhaps because young children retired early and frequently slept indoors under bed nets during the early evening period of elevated anopheline host-seeking activity . Malaria transmission was verified by the collection of sporozoite infected An . fluviatilis and An . maculatus during spring at cattle sheds in the forested Churia Hills and during the summer monsoon season within the unsprayed village .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 3.00
Title: The treatment of acute soft it issue trauma in Danish emergency rooms .
Journal: Citation: V : 7 ( 3 ) P : 178-81 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9200323 Accession (PMID): 9200323
Abstract: Rest , ice , compression , elevation ( RICE ) is the most recommended treatment for acute traumatic soft it issue injuries . A questionnaire was given to all Danish emergency rooms ( n = 5 ) regarding their routines for acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions . Complete answers were received from 37 emergency rooms ( 73% ) , covering the treatment of 111 ankle sprains and 101 muscle contusions . Treatment with RICE was given in a minority of injuries , ice ( 21% ) , compression ( 32% ) and elevation ( 58% ) similarly between injury types . A complete RICE treatment was rarely applied ( 3% ) . Verbal information on RICE and rehabilitation was given in less than half of the cases . We conclude that the acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions in the Danish emergency rooms is not applied in accordance with consensus from international literature , and that the instruction in rehabilitation should be improved .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Rest , ice , compression , elevation ( RICE ) is the most recommended treatment for acute traumatic soft it issue injuries . A questionnaire was given to all Danish emergency rooms ( n = 5 ) regarding their routines for acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions . Complete answers were received from 37 emergency rooms ( 73% ) , covering the treatment of 111 ankle sprains and 101 muscle contusions . Treatment with RICE was given in a minority of injuries , ice ( 21% ) , compression ( 32% ) and elevation ( 58% ) similarly between injury types . A complete RICE treatment was rarely applied ( 3% ) . Verbal information on RICE and rehabilitation was given in less than half of the cases .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Rest , ice , compression , elevation ( RICE ) is the most recommended treatment for acute traumatic soft it issue injuries . A questionnaire was given to all Danish emergency rooms ( n = 5 ) regarding their routines for acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions . Complete answers were received from 37 emergency rooms ( 73% ) , covering the treatment of 111 ankle sprains and 101 muscle contusions . Treatment with RICE was given in a minority of injuries , ice ( 21% ) , compression ( 32% ) and elevation ( 58% ) similarly between injury types . A complete RICE treatment was rarely applied ( 3% ) . Verbal information on RICE and rehabilitation was given in less than half of the cases . We conclude that the acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions in the Danish emergency rooms is not applied in accordance with consensus from international literature , and that the instruction in rehabilitation should be improved .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Complete answers were received from 37 emergency rooms ( 73% ) , covering the treatment of 111 ankle sprains and 101 muscle contusions . Treatment with RICE was given in a minority of injuries , ice ( 21% ) , compression ( 32% ) and elevation ( 58% ) similarly between injury types . A complete RICE treatment was rarely applied ( 3% ) . Verbal information on RICE and rehabilitation was given in less than half of the cases . We conclude that the acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions in the Danish emergency rooms is not applied in accordance with consensus from international literature , and that the instruction in rehabilitation should be improved .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: The stability of ascorbic acid microencapsulated in granules of rice starch and in gum arabic .
Journal: Citation: V : 17 ( 2 ) P : 169-76 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10738692 Accession (PMID): 10738692
Abstract: Ascorbic acid ( AA ) was microencapsulated by spray drying , using gum arabic and rice starch as covering materials . The AA was dissolved in solutions of the wall material prior to processing . For the rice starch , gelatin was used as a binding agent and recovery was effected with calcium pectate . The morphology of the materials was analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy , it thus being possible to verify the formation and evaluate the structural characteristics of the microcapsules . The capsules produced with gum arabic were smaller ( d50% = 8 . 0 microns ) and with a multimode particle size distribution , whilst uncovered starch capsules containing 1-2% gelatin presented a distribution mainly in the range of 5-40 microns . The capsules recovered with calcium pectate had average diameters 10-15 times greater than those obtained only by spray drying . The stability of the encapsulated materials was studied at room temperature ( RH 60-65% ) and at 45 degrees C ( RH 60-65% and 90 . 7% ) . AA microencapsulated in gum arabic was shown to be as stable as free crystalline AA under environmental conditions , whereas that encapsulated in rice starch was less stable . Increasing the amount of the binding agent gelatin increased the stability of the uncovered starch encapsulated AA . Recovery with calcium pectate notably increased the stability of the starch encapsulated AA , as compared to the uncovered samples .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ascorbic acid ( AA ) was microencapsulated by spray drying , using gum arabic and rice starch as covering materials . The AA was dissolved in solutions of the wall material prior to processing . For the rice starch , gelatin was used as a binding agent and recovery was effected with calcium pectate . The morphology of the materials was analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy , it thus being possible to verify the formation and evaluate the structural characteristics of the microcapsules . The capsules produced with gum arabic were smaller ( d50% = 8 . 0 microns ) and with a multimode particle size distribution , whilst uncovered starch capsules containing 1-2% gelatin presented a distribution mainly in the range of 5-40 microns .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The AA was dissolved in solutions of the wall material prior to processing . For the rice starch , gelatin was used as a binding agent and recovery was effected with calcium pectate . The morphology of the materials was analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy , it thus being possible to verify the formation and evaluate the structural characteristics of the microcapsules . The capsules produced with gum arabic were smaller ( d50% = 8 . 0 microns ) and with a multimode particle size distribution , whilst uncovered starch capsules containing 1-2% gelatin presented a distribution mainly in the range of 5-40 microns . The capsules recovered with calcium pectate had average diameters 10-15 times greater than those obtained only by spray drying . The stability of the encapsulated materials was studied at room temperature ( RH 60-65% ) and at 45 degrees C ( RH 60-65% and 90 . 7% ) . AA microencapsulated in gum arabic was shown to be as stable as free crystalline AA under environmental conditions , whereas that encapsulated in rice starch was less stable . Increasing the amount of the binding agent gelatin increased the stability of the uncovered starch encapsulated AA . Recovery with calcium pectate notably increased the stability of the starch encapsulated AA , as compared to the uncovered samples .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Laboratory evaluation of chemical-biological control of the rice weevil ( Sitophilus oryzae L ) in stored grains .
Journal: Citation: V : 37 ( 1 ) P : 77-84 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11124371 Accession (PMID): 11124371
Abstract: The virulence of ten different fungal isolates of : Beauveria bassiana , Metarhizium anisopliae , Verticillium lecanii and Paecilomyces farinosus to the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae was tested . A fungal mix of the most efficient isolates , B bassiana ARSEF 5500+M anisopliae ARSEF 2974 , which caused the highest mortality , was assayed in combination with fenitrothion at a concentration lower ( 3 ppm ) than the normal 6 ppm . Fungal inoculation of insects was done by spraying conidial suspensions of each fungus on wheat . Insecticide formulations were added by spraying wheat . Treated and untreated insects were incubated on durum wheat . Insects were kept in a climatized chamber for 30 days . Observations were performed at 7 , 14 and 30 days to record insect mortality . Highly significant differences were demonstrated for B bassiana 5500 and 5501 and for M anisopliae 2974 . The level of mortality produced by treatments was : 6 ppm insecticide=97 . 50% , B bassiana ARSEF 5500+M anisopliae ARSEF 2974+3 ppm insecticide=74 . 17% , B bassiana ARSEF 5500+Manisopliae ARSEF 2974=50% and 3 ppm insecticide=37 . 50% . There was a statistically significant difference ( p<0 . 05 ) among treatments .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The virulence of ten different fungal isolates of : Beauveria bassiana , Metarhizium anisopliae , Verticillium lecanii and Paecilomyces farinosus to the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae was tested . A fungal mix of the most efficient isolates , B bassiana ARSEF 5500+M anisopliae ARSEF 2974 , which caused the highest mortality , was assayed in combination with fenitrothion at a concentration lower ( 3 ppm ) than the normal 6 ppm . Fungal inoculation of insects was done by spraying conidial suspensions of each fungus on wheat . Insecticide formulations were added by spraying wheat . Treated and untreated insects were incubated on durum wheat . Insects were kept in a climatized chamber for 30 days . Observations were performed at 7 , 14 and 30 days to record insect mortality .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The virulence of ten different fungal isolates of : Beauveria bassiana , Metarhizium anisopliae , Verticillium lecanii and Paecilomyces farinosus to the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae was tested . A fungal mix of the most efficient isolates , B bassiana ARSEF 5500+M anisopliae ARSEF 2974 , which caused the highest mortality , was assayed in combination with fenitrothion at a concentration lower ( 3 ppm ) than the normal 6 ppm . Fungal inoculation of insects was done by spraying conidial suspensions of each fungus on wheat . Insecticide formulations were added by spraying wheat . Treated and untreated insects were incubated on durum wheat . Insects were kept in a climatized chamber for 30 days . Observations were performed at 7 , 14 and 30 days to record insect mortality . Highly significant differences were demonstrated for B bassiana 5500 and 5501 and for M anisopliae 2974 .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: A randomized controlled trial of a passive accessory joint mobilization on acute ankle inversion sprains .
Journal: Citation: V : 81 ( 4 ) P : 984-94 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11276181 Accession (PMID): 11276181
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : Passive joint mobilization is commonly used by physical therapists as an intervention for acute ankle inversion sprains . A randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors was conducted to investigate the effect of a specific joint mobilization , the anteroposterior glide on the talus , on increasing pain-free dorsiflexion and 3 gait variables : stride speed ( gait speed ) , step length , and single support time . SUBJECTS : Forty-one subjects with acute ankle inversion sprains ( <72 hours ) and no other injury to the lower limb entered the trial METHODS : Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups . The control group received a protocol of rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) . The experimental group received the anteroposterior mobilization , using a force that avoided incurring any increase in pain , in addition to the RICE protocol . Subjects in both groups were treated every second day for a maximum of 2 weeks or until the discharge criteria were met , and all subjects were given a home program of continued RICE application . Outcomes were measured before and after each treatment . RESULTS : The results showed that the experimental group required fewer treatment sessions than the control group to achieve full pain-free dorsiflexion . The experimental group had greater improvement in range of movement before and after each of the first 3 treatment sessions . The experimental group also had greater increases in stride speed during the first and third treatment sessions . DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Addition of a talocrural mobilization to the RICE protocol in the management of ankle inversion injuries necessitated fewer treatments to achieve pain-free dorsiflexion and to improve stride speed more than RICE alone . Improvement in step length symmetry and single support time was similar in both groups .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : Passive joint mobilization is commonly used by physical therapists as an intervention for acute ankle inversion sprains . A randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors was conducted to investigate the effect of a specific joint mobilization , the anteroposterior glide on the talus , on increasing pain-free dorsiflexion and 3 gait variables : stride speed ( gait speed ) , step length , and single support time . SUBJECTS : Forty-one subjects with acute ankle inversion sprains ( <72 hours ) and no other injury to the lower limb entered the trial METHODS : Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups . The control group received a protocol of rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) . The experimental group received the anteroposterior mobilization , using a force that avoided incurring any increase in pain , in addition to the RICE protocol .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : Passive joint mobilization is commonly used by physical therapists as an intervention for acute ankle inversion sprains . A randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors was conducted to investigate the effect of a specific joint mobilization , the anteroposterior glide on the talus , on increasing pain-free dorsiflexion and 3 gait variables : stride speed ( gait speed ) , step length , and single support time . SUBJECTS : Forty-one subjects with acute ankle inversion sprains ( <72 hours ) and no other injury to the lower limb entered the trial METHODS : Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups . The control group received a protocol of rest , ice , compression , and elevation ( RICE ) . The experimental group received the anteroposterior mobilization , using a force that avoided incurring any increase in pain , in addition to the RICE protocol . Subjects in both groups were treated every second day for a maximum of 2 weeks or until the discharge criteria were met , and all subjects were given a home program of continued RICE application . Outcomes were measured before and after each treatment .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Evaluation of immune parameters in propanil-exposed farm families .
Journal: Arch . Environ . Contam . Toxicol . Citation: V : 41 ( 1 ) P : 104-11 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11385596 Accession (PMID): 11385596
Abstract: The rice herbicide propanil induces alterations in the mouse immune system , causing significant decreases in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses . This postemergent herbicide is used extensively in rice production in the Mississippi River delta region of the southern United States . The aerial application and airborne drift of propanil may pose health concerns to exposed farm families living adjacent to sprayed rice fields . To determine if aerial spraying of propanil increases risks of altered immune responses in families bordering rice fields , immune parameters were assessed during a 2-year study . Families living within 100 yards of rice fields were compared in a case control study to farm families whose homes exceeded 1 mile from any rice field . Blood was analyzed in adults ( n = 56 ) and children ( n = 52 ) at three time intervals : ( 1 ) preseason , prior to propanil application ; ( 2 ) 5-7 days after aerial application of propanil to rice fields ; and ( 3 ) postseason , following harvest Exposed adults and children were compared with controls for a number of immune parameters . Total cell count and the percentage of various lymphocytes ( T cells , B cells , CD4+ helper cells , and CD8+ suppressor cells ) and natural killer ( NK ) cells , mitogen-induced cell proliferation , cytokine ( IL-2+ ) production , and NK cell function were assessed . A comparison of immune function between exposed and nonexposed farm families showed no significant differences , possibly related to propanil exposure . However , some immune test parameters changed as a function of season rather than propanil exposure . The data indicate that individuals living next to rice fields are not at increased risk of altered immune function due to propanil exposure .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice herbicide propanil induces alterations in the mouse immune system , causing significant decreases in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses . This postemergent herbicide is used extensively in rice production in the Mississippi River delta region of the southern United States . The aerial application and airborne drift of propanil may pose health concerns to exposed farm families living adjacent to sprayed rice fields . To determine if aerial spraying of propanil increases risks of altered immune responses in families bordering rice fields , immune parameters were assessed during a 2-year study . Families living within 100 yards of rice fields were compared in a case control study to farm families whose homes exceeded 1 mile from any rice field . Blood was analyzed in adults ( n = 56 ) and children ( n = 52 ) at three time intervals : ( 1 ) preseason , prior to propanil application ; ( 2 ) 5-7 days after aerial application of propanil to rice fields ; and ( 3 ) postseason , following harvest Exposed adults and children were compared with controls for a number of immune parameters . Total cell count and the percentage of various lymphocytes ( T cells , B cells , CD4+ helper cells , and CD8+ suppressor cells ) and natural killer ( NK ) cells , mitogen-induced cell proliferation , cytokine ( IL-2+ ) production , and NK cell function were assessed .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The rice herbicide propanil induces alterations in the mouse immune system , causing significant decreases in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses . This postemergent herbicide is used extensively in rice production in the Mississippi River delta region of the southern United States . The aerial application and airborne drift of propanil may pose health concerns to exposed farm families living adjacent to sprayed rice fields . To determine if aerial spraying of propanil increases risks of altered immune responses in families bordering rice fields , immune parameters were assessed during a 2-year study . Families living within 100 yards of rice fields were compared in a case control study to farm families whose homes exceeded 1 mile from any rice field . Blood was analyzed in adults ( n = 56 ) and children ( n = 52 ) at three time intervals : ( 1 ) preseason , prior to propanil application ; ( 2 ) 5-7 days after aerial application of propanil to rice fields ; and ( 3 ) postseason , following harvest Exposed adults and children were compared with controls for a number of immune parameters . Total cell count and the percentage of various lymphocytes ( T cells , B cells , CD4+ helper cells , and CD8+ suppressor cells ) and natural killer ( NK ) cells , mitogen-induced cell proliferation , cytokine ( IL-2+ ) production , and NK cell function were assessed . A comparison of immune function between exposed and nonexposed farm families showed no significant differences , possibly related to propanil exposure .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) phthalate contamination of retail packed lunches caused by PVC gloves used in the preparation of foods .
Journal: Citation: V : 18 ( 6 ) P : 569-79 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11407756 Accession (PMID): 11407756
Abstract: Plasticizer contamination of foods sold in retail packed lunches and set lunches in restaurants was determined by GC/MS . The phthalate esters were as follows : diethyl , dipropyl , dibutyl , dipentyl , dihexyl , butylbenzyl , dicyclohexyl , di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) , dioctyl , diisooctyl ( mixture of isomers ) and diisononyl ( mixture ) . Di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) adipate was also determined . Sixteen packed lunches and ten set lunches were analysed , and in all samples the concentration of di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) phthalate ( DEHP ) was the highest , at 0 . 80-11 . 8 mg/kg in packed lunches and 0 . 012-0 . 30 mg/kg in set lunches . The DEHP content of five packed lunches exceeded 1 . 85 mg , which is the EU tolerable daily intake ( TDI ) for a person of 50 kg body weight . Foodstuffs that were components of the packed lunches were taken from the factory at each step of preparation and phthalates were determined . For example , chicken contained 0 . 08 mg/kg DEHP when uncooked , 13 . 1 mg/kg after frying and 16 . 9 mg/kg after packing . Disposable PVC gloves used in the preparation of foods were apparently the source of high DEHP concentrations . The gloves used during cooking or packaging were sprayed with 68% ( w/w ) ethanol to sterilize them . PVC gloves from the factory contained 22 or 41% by weight of DEHP . To confirm the link with the contamination problem , samples of boiled rice , croquette and boiled dry radish were handled in the laboratory with PVC gloves containing 30% ( w/w ) DEHP . DEHP migration levels of 0 . 05 mg/kg in rice or 0 . 33 mg/kg in croquette , and 11 . 1 mg/kg in radish were found . The alcohol sprayed onto the gloves increased the migration of DEHP to 2 . 03 mg/kg in rice , 2 . 45 mg , kg in croquette , and 18 . 4 mg/kg in radish .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: The DEHP content of five packed lunches exceeded 1 . 85 mg , which is the EU tolerable daily intake ( TDI ) for a person of 50 kg body weight . Foodstuffs that were components of the packed lunches were taken from the factory at each step of preparation and phthalates were determined . For example , chicken contained 0 . 08 mg/kg DEHP when uncooked , 13 . 1 mg/kg after frying and 16 . 9 mg/kg after packing . Disposable PVC gloves used in the preparation of foods were apparently the source of high DEHP concentrations . The gloves used during cooking or packaging were sprayed with 68% ( w/w ) ethanol to sterilize them . PVC gloves from the factory contained 22 or 41% by weight of DEHP . To confirm the link with the contamination problem , samples of boiled rice , croquette and boiled dry radish were handled in the laboratory with PVC gloves containing 30% ( w/w ) DEHP . DEHP migration levels of 0 . 05 mg/kg in rice or 0 . 33 mg/kg in croquette , and 11 . 1 mg/kg in radish were found . The alcohol sprayed onto the gloves increased the migration of DEHP to 2 . 03 mg/kg in rice , 2 . 45 mg , kg in croquette , and 18 . 4 mg/kg in radish .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: The gloves used during cooking or packaging were sprayed with 68% ( w/w ) ethanol to sterilize them . PVC gloves from the factory contained 22 or 41% by weight of DEHP . To confirm the link with the contamination problem , samples of boiled rice , croquette and boiled dry radish were handled in the laboratory with PVC gloves containing 30% ( w/w ) DEHP . DEHP migration levels of 0 . 05 mg/kg in rice or 0 . 33 mg/kg in croquette , and 11 . 1 mg/kg in radish were found . The alcohol sprayed onto the gloves increased the migration of DEHP to 2 . 03 mg/kg in rice , 2 . 45 mg , kg in croquette , and 18 . 4 mg/kg in radish .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Comparison of Canadian Fusarium graminearum isolates for aggressiveness , vegetative compatibility , and production of ergosterol and mycotoxins .
Journal: Mycopathologia Citation: V : 153 ( 4 ) P : 209-15 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12014482 Accession (PMID): 12014482
Abstract: Fusarium graminearum is the predominant pathogen causing fusarium head blight of cereals in North America . Fifteen Canadian isolates of Fusarium graminearum were highly diverse in terms of vegetative compatibility grouping ( VCG ) and varied for production of ergosterol and mycotoxin production in rice culture . Aggressiveness was assessed by scoring the disease severity incited in wheat spikes by each isolate . Two inoculation methods , single-floret injection and spray of entire spikes , were used to screen 4 wheat varieties for reaction to the F graminearum isolates . All isolates were of broadly similar aggressiveness , with disease severity ranging from 17 . 2 to 39 . 1 for single floret injection , and 39 . 1 to 69 . 0 for spray inoculation . Disease severity , ergosterol production , and mycotoxin development were not correlated . Using nitrate non-utilizing mutants the 15 isolates were grouped into 14 VCGs . Deoxynivalenol ( DON ) was produced by all isolates in rice culture , at levels between 0 . 2 and 249 ppm . 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol was produced by 14 of the 15 isolates at levels between 0 . 4 and 44 . 6 ppm . These results reveal a high level of diversity for several characteristics among F graminearum isolates from Canada .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Fusarium graminearum is the predominant pathogen causing fusarium head blight of cereals in North America . Fifteen Canadian isolates of Fusarium graminearum were highly diverse in terms of vegetative compatibility grouping ( VCG ) and varied for production of ergosterol and mycotoxin production in rice culture . Aggressiveness was assessed by scoring the disease severity incited in wheat spikes by each isolate . Two inoculation methods , single-floret injection and spray of entire spikes , were used to screen 4 wheat varieties for reaction to the F graminearum isolates . All isolates were of broadly similar aggressiveness , with disease severity ranging from 17 . 2 to 39 . 1 for single floret injection , and 39 . 1 to 69 . 0 for spray inoculation . Disease severity , ergosterol production , and mycotoxin development were not correlated . Using nitrate non-utilizing mutants the 15 isolates were grouped into 14 VCGs . Deoxynivalenol ( DON ) was produced by all isolates in rice culture , at levels between 0 . 2 and 249 ppm .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Fusarium graminearum is the predominant pathogen causing fusarium head blight of cereals in North America . Fifteen Canadian isolates of Fusarium graminearum were highly diverse in terms of vegetative compatibility grouping ( VCG ) and varied for production of ergosterol and mycotoxin production in rice culture . Aggressiveness was assessed by scoring the disease severity incited in wheat spikes by each isolate . Two inoculation methods , single-floret injection and spray of entire spikes , were used to screen 4 wheat varieties for reaction to the F graminearum isolates . All isolates were of broadly similar aggressiveness , with disease severity ranging from 17 . 2 to 39 . 1 for single floret injection , and 39 . 1 to 69 . 0 for spray inoculation . Disease severity , ergosterol production , and mycotoxin development were not correlated . Using nitrate non-utilizing mutants the 15 isolates were grouped into 14 VCGs . Deoxynivalenol ( DON ) was produced by all isolates in rice culture , at levels between 0 . 2 and 249 ppm . 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol was produced by 14 of the 15 isolates at levels between 0 . 4 and 44 . 6 ppm .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: [ Studies on extensive application of bromoacetamide in various types of schistosomiasis endemic area ]
Journal: Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi Citation: V : 16 ( 1 ) P : 53-7 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12078209 Accession (PMID): 12078209
Abstract: AIM : To provide scientific basis for the popularization and application of molluscide bromoacetamide . METHODS : Large scale application of bromoacetamide in twenty eight counties of four provinces was investigated and its molluscicidal effect in marshland and influence on marshland grass ( Cyperus ) and fishes were observed . RESULTS : High molluscicidal effect of bromoacetamide was found against both snails and snail eggs in various environments . According to the results observed in different fields , the applicable dosage of bromoacetamide is 1 . 5-2 g/m2 for spraying method , 1 . 5-2 g/m3 for immersing method and 1 . 5-2 g/m for immersing in combination with shovelling the turf along the bank . When it was applied in fish-raising ponds or rivers at an applicable dosage , no toxic effect on fishes was found . The spraying dosage of bromoacetamide did not affect the rice seedling but it did some damage to the leaf-tips of marshland grass , however , the grass did turn green and grow . CONCLUSION : Bromoacetamide has proved to be a safe and effective mulluscicde against Oncomelania under various field conditions .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: AIM : To provide scientific basis for the popularization and application of molluscide bromoacetamide . METHODS : Large scale application of bromoacetamide in twenty eight counties of four provinces was investigated and its molluscicidal effect in marshland and influence on marshland grass ( Cyperus ) and fishes were observed . RESULTS : High molluscicidal effect of bromoacetamide was found against both snails and snail eggs in various environments . According to the results observed in different fields , the applicable dosage of bromoacetamide is 1 . 5-2 g/m2 for spraying method , 1 . 5-2 g/m3 for immersing method and 1 . 5-2 g/m for immersing in combination with shovelling the turf along the bank . When it was applied in fish-raising ponds or rivers at an applicable dosage , no toxic effect on fishes was found . The spraying dosage of bromoacetamide did not affect the rice seedling but it did some damage to the leaf-tips of marshland grass , however , the grass did turn green and grow . CONCLUSION : Bromoacetamide has proved to be a safe and effective mulluscicde against Oncomelania under various field conditions .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: METHODS : Large scale application of bromoacetamide in twenty eight counties of four provinces was investigated and its molluscicidal effect in marshland and influence on marshland grass ( Cyperus ) and fishes were observed . RESULTS : High molluscicidal effect of bromoacetamide was found against both snails and snail eggs in various environments . According to the results observed in different fields , the applicable dosage of bromoacetamide is 1 . 5-2 g/m2 for spraying method , 1 . 5-2 g/m3 for immersing method and 1 . 5-2 g/m for immersing in combination with shovelling the turf along the bank . When it was applied in fish-raising ponds or rivers at an applicable dosage , no toxic effect on fishes was found . The spraying dosage of bromoacetamide did not affect the rice seedling but it did some damage to the leaf-tips of marshland grass , however , the grass did turn green and grow . CONCLUSION : Bromoacetamide has proved to be a safe and effective mulluscicde against Oncomelania under various field conditions .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Abscisic acid and cytokinins in the root exudates and leaves and their relationship to senescence and remobilization of carbon reserves in rice subjected to water stress during grain filling .
Journal: Planta Citation: V : 215 ( 4 ) P : 645-52 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12172848 Accession (PMID): 12172848
Abstract: The possible regulation of senescence-initiated remobilization of carbon reserves in rice ( Oryza sativa L ) by abscisic acid ( ABA ) and cytokinins was studied using two rice cultivars with high lodging resistance and slow remobilization . The plants were grown in pots and either well-watered ( WW , soil water potential = 0 MPa ) or water-stressed ( WS , soil water potential = -0 . 05 MPa ) from 9 days after anthesis until they reached maturity . Leaf water potentials of both cultivars markedly decreased at midday as a result of water stress but completely recovered by early morning . Chlorophyll ( Chl ) and photosynthetic rate ( Pr ) of the flag leaves declined faster in WS plants than in WW plants , indicating that the water deficit enhanced senescence . Water stress accelerated starch remobilization in the stems , promoted the re-allocation of pre-fixed ( 14 ) C from the stems to grains , shortened the grain-filling period and increased the grain-filling rate . Sucrose phosphate synthase ( SPS , EC 2 . 4 . 1 . 14 ) activity was enhanced by water stress and positively correlated with sucrose accumulation in both the stem and leaves . Water stress substantially increased ABA but reduced zeatin ( Z ) + zeatin riboside ( ZR ) concentrations in the root exudates and leaves . ABA significantly and negatively , while Z+ZR positively , correlated with Pr and Chl of the flag leaves . ABA , not Z+ZR , was positively and significantly correlated with SPS activity and remobilization of pre-stored carbon . Spraying ABA reduced Chl in the flag leaves , and enhanced SPS activity and remobilization of carbon reserves . Spraying kinetin had the opposite effect . The results suggest that both ABA and cytokinins are involved in controlling plant senescence , and an enhanced carbon remobilization is attributed to an elevated ABA level in rice plants subjected to water stress .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sucrose phosphate synthase ( SPS , EC 2 . 4 . 1 . 14 ) activity was enhanced by water stress and positively correlated with sucrose accumulation in both the stem and leaves . Water stress substantially increased ABA but reduced zeatin ( Z ) + zeatin riboside ( ZR ) concentrations in the root exudates and leaves . ABA significantly and negatively , while Z+ZR positively , correlated with Pr and Chl of the flag leaves . ABA , not Z+ZR , was positively and significantly correlated with SPS activity and remobilization of pre-stored carbon . Spraying ABA reduced Chl in the flag leaves , and enhanced SPS activity and remobilization of carbon reserves . Spraying kinetin had the opposite effect . The results suggest that both ABA and cytokinins are involved in controlling plant senescence , and an enhanced carbon remobilization is attributed to an elevated ABA level in rice plants subjected to water stress .
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Water stress substantially increased ABA but reduced zeatin ( Z ) + zeatin riboside ( ZR ) concentrations in the root exudates and leaves . ABA significantly and negatively , while Z+ZR positively , correlated with Pr and Chl of the flag leaves . ABA , not Z+ZR , was positively and significantly correlated with SPS activity and remobilization of pre-stored carbon . Spraying ABA reduced Chl in the flag leaves , and enhanced SPS activity and remobilization of carbon reserves . Spraying kinetin had the opposite effect . The results suggest that both ABA and cytokinins are involved in controlling plant senescence , and an enhanced carbon remobilization is attributed to an elevated ABA level in rice plants subjected to water stress .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Release characteristics of flavor from spray-dried powder in boiling water and during rice cooking .
Journal: Biosci . Biotechnol . Biochem . Citation: V : 67 ( 2 ) P : 426-8 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12729014 Accession (PMID): 12729014
Abstract: The release characteristics of flavor in boiling water and the flavor retention in the rice after cooking were investigated by using spray dried powder in encapsulated in or emulsified with d-limonene or ethyl n-hexanoate in cyclodextrin and maltodextrin , or in gum arabic and maltodextrin . The behavior of flavor release into the boiling water was well simulated by Avramis equation . The retention of d-limonene and ethyl n-hexanoate in cooked rice was correlated in each case with the flavor amount of spray-dried powder added .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The release characteristics of flavor in boiling water and the flavor retention in the rice after cooking were investigated by using spray dried powder in encapsulated in or emulsified with d-limonene or ethyl n-hexanoate in cyclodextrin and maltodextrin , or in gum arabic and maltodextrin . The behavior of flavor release into the boiling water was well simulated by Avramis equation . The retention of d-limonene and ethyl n-hexanoate in cooked rice was correlated in each case with the flavor amount of spray-dried powder added .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The release characteristics of flavor in boiling water and the flavor retention in the rice after cooking were investigated by using spray dried powder in encapsulated in or emulsified with d-limonene or ethyl n-hexanoate in cyclodextrin and maltodextrin , or in gum arabic and maltodextrin . The behavior of flavor release into the boiling water was well simulated by Avramis equation . The retention of d-limonene and ethyl n-hexanoate in cooked rice was correlated in each case with the flavor amount of spray-dried powder added .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Preparation of spray-dried wettable powder formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis-based biopesticides .
Journal: J Econ . Entomol . Citation: V : 96 ( 2 ) P : 292-9 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14994793 Accession (PMID): 14994793
Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used biopesticide among many methods available to control insects . To make a saleable product , B thuringiensis must be substantially concentrated by removal of water and formulated to improve longevity , efficacy , and ease of transport of the product . B thuringiensis subsp . aizawai culture broth as an active ingredient was mixed with various adjuvants and then spray dried . The optimum conditions for spray drying were found to be an outlet temperature of 60-85 degrees C and an inlet temperature of 120-180 degrees C Various adjuvants had different effects on physical and biological properties of the dried product . Gelatinized tapioca starch and milk powder improved suspensibility but adversely affected wettability of the dried formulated product . Vegetable oil and Tween 20 enhanced wettability but resulted in poor suspensibility . Silica fume was used to enhance flowability because it reduced clumping and caking of the powder resulting from the addition of vegetable oil . Formulation containing 10% wt : wt B thuringiensis , 10% wt : wt gelatinized tapioca starch , 10% wt : wt sucrose , 38% wt : wt tapioca starch , 20% wt : wt milk powder , 10% wt : wt silica fume , 2% wt : wt polyvinyl alcohol , 5% vol : vol Tween 20 , 1% vol : vol refined rice bran oil , and 1% vol : vol antifoam solution was found to be optimum in terms of the physical and biological properties of the dried product . This formulation had 55% suspensibility , 24 s for wetting time , and 5 . 69 x 10 ( 4 ) CFU/ml of LC50 value against Spodoptera exigua larvae .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used biopesticide among many methods available to control insects . To make a saleable product , B thuringiensis must be substantially concentrated by removal of water and formulated to improve longevity , efficacy , and ease of transport of the product . B thuringiensis subsp . aizawai culture broth as an active ingredient was mixed with various adjuvants and then spray dried . The optimum conditions for spray drying were found to be an outlet temperature of 60-85 degrees C and an inlet temperature of 120-180 degrees C Various adjuvants had different effects on physical and biological properties of the dried product . Gelatinized tapioca starch and milk powder improved suspensibility but adversely affected wettability of the dried formulated product . Vegetable oil and Tween 20 enhanced wettability but resulted in poor suspensibility . Silica fume was used to enhance flowability because it reduced clumping and caking of the powder resulting from the addition of vegetable oil .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used biopesticide among many methods available to control insects . To make a saleable product , B thuringiensis must be substantially concentrated by removal of water and formulated to improve longevity , efficacy , and ease of transport of the product . B thuringiensis subsp . aizawai culture broth as an active ingredient was mixed with various adjuvants and then spray dried . The optimum conditions for spray drying were found to be an outlet temperature of 60-85 degrees C and an inlet temperature of 120-180 degrees C Various adjuvants had different effects on physical and biological properties of the dried product . Gelatinized tapioca starch and milk powder improved suspensibility but adversely affected wettability of the dried formulated product . Vegetable oil and Tween 20 enhanced wettability but resulted in poor suspensibility . Silica fume was used to enhance flowability because it reduced clumping and caking of the powder resulting from the addition of vegetable oil . Formulation containing 10% wt : wt B thuringiensis , 10% wt : wt gelatinized tapioca starch , 10% wt : wt sucrose , 38% wt : wt tapioca starch , 20% wt : wt milk powder , 10% wt : wt silica fume , 2% wt : wt polyvinyl alcohol , 5% vol : vol Tween 20 , 1% vol : vol refined rice bran oil , and 1% vol : vol antifoam solution was found to be optimum in terms of the physical and biological properties of the dried product .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: [ Anopheles and malaria transmission in Ambohimena , a village in the Occidental fringe of Madagascar Highlands ]
Journal: Parasite Citation: V : 11 ( 1 ) P : 75-82 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15071831 Accession (PMID): 15071831
Abstract: The anopheline vectors and malaria transmission were investigated in the Middle West of Madagascar , in the village of Ambohimena ( at the altitude of 940 meters ) during two years ( August 1996 to July 1998 ) . This village is located outside the vector control area , where yearly DDT house spraying campaigns have been conducted between 1993 and 1998 . Collection of mosquitoes was mainly based on all night man billing collections ( 650 man-nights ) , pyrethrum spray catches ( 224 bedrooms ) and direct collections in outdoor resting places ( 140 toilets , 61 pigsties , 33 holes , 19 sheds , 79 sisal hedges , 70 cart shelters ) . Blood fed anophelines allowed analysis of the origin of blood with an ELISA method . Presence of circum-sporozoite protein was assessed with another ELISA method . The total number of collected anophelines was 14 , 280 . Two malaria vectors were identified : Anopheles funestus Giles , 1900 and An . arabiensis Patton , 1902 . An . funestus was the most abundant mosquito , especially during the hot rainy season . Two peaks of abundance were observed ( in December and April ) . Endophagic rate ( for mosquitoes aggressive for man ) of 35 . 3% , an endophilic rate ( for resting mosquitoes ) of 78 . 0% and an anthropophilic rate ( for indoor resting mosquitoes ) of 64 . 0% were calculated . The average parity rate was relatively low ( 61 . 2% ) . The Plasmodium falciparum immunological sporozoite rate was 0 . 20% . An . funestus presented a higher vectorial capacity during the first round of rice cultivation ( January ) than during the second round ( April-May ) . An . arabiensis was mostly abundant in December and January at the beginning of the rainy season . This species was exophagic ( endophagic rate = 27 . 5% ) and zoophilic ( anthropophilic rate = 7 . 8% ) . The sporozoitic index was determined as zero ( number of examined mosquitoes = 871 ) . In this village , An . arabiensis presented only marginal importance for malaria transmission . Malaria transmission occurred from December to April . Annual entomological inoculation rate , only due to An . funestus , was 8 . 96 during the first year , and 3 . 17 during the second year . In this area where transmission is moderately stable , we suggest an extension of vector imagocidal control activities up to the western fringes of the Highlands .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The anopheline vectors and malaria transmission were investigated in the Middle West of Madagascar , in the village of Ambohimena ( at the altitude of 940 meters ) during two years ( August 1996 to July 1998 ) . This village is located outside the vector control area , where yearly DDT house spraying campaigns have been conducted between 1993 and 1998 . Collection of mosquitoes was mainly based on all night man billing collections ( 650 man-nights ) , pyrethrum spray catches ( 224 bedrooms ) and direct collections in outdoor resting places ( 140 toilets , 61 pigsties , 33 holes , 19 sheds , 79 sisal hedges , 70 cart shelters ) . Blood fed anophelines allowed analysis of the origin of blood with an ELISA method . Presence of circum-sporozoite protein was assessed with another ELISA method . The total number of collected anophelines was 14 , 280 .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The anopheline vectors and malaria transmission were investigated in the Middle West of Madagascar , in the village of Ambohimena ( at the altitude of 940 meters ) during two years ( August 1996 to July 1998 ) . This village is located outside the vector control area , where yearly DDT house spraying campaigns have been conducted between 1993 and 1998 . Collection of mosquitoes was mainly based on all night man billing collections ( 650 man-nights ) , pyrethrum spray catches ( 224 bedrooms ) and direct collections in outdoor resting places ( 140 toilets , 61 pigsties , 33 holes , 19 sheds , 79 sisal hedges , 70 cart shelters ) . Blood fed anophelines allowed analysis of the origin of blood with an ELISA method . Presence of circum-sporozoite protein was assessed with another ELISA method . The total number of collected anophelines was 14 , 280 . Two malaria vectors were identified : Anopheles funestus Giles , 1900 and An . arabiensis Patton , 1902 .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Residues of phosphamidon in rice fields .
Journal: Environ . Pollut . Citation: V : 61 ( 3 ) P : 227-34 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15092362 Accession (PMID): 15092362
Abstract: Thirty-day-old seedlings of rice plants ( IR-20 variety ) from the nursery were transplanted into experimental plots and after 52 days were sprayed with phosphamidon ( Dimecron 85% EC ) at two dose-rates ( 0 . 38 kg a . i . ha ( -1 ) and 0 . 76 kg a . i . ha ( -1 ) ) . Residues of phosphamidon in the plant , soil and water were analysed by GLC , at various time intervals , and were found to decrease steadily up to 15 days . A second application of the pesticide was made on day 113 and grains harvested on day 138 . The residue level in the plants was 0 . 12 microg g ( -1 ) and in the grains 0 . 04 microg g ( -1 ) with the high dose . This is slightly below the EPA prescribed tolerance level of 0 . 05 microg g ( -1 ) . The residues in both soil and water were very low , 24 h after spraying .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Thirty-day-old seedlings of rice plants ( IR-20 variety ) from the nursery were transplanted into experimental plots and after 52 days were sprayed with phosphamidon ( Dimecron 85% EC ) at two dose-rates ( 0 . 38 kg a . i . ha ( -1 ) and 0 . 76 kg a . i . ha ( -1 ) ) . Residues of phosphamidon in the plant , soil and water were analysed by GLC , at various time intervals , and were found to decrease steadily up to 15 days . A second application of the pesticide was made on day 113 and grains harvested on day 138 . The residue level in the plants was 0 . 12 microg g ( -1 ) and in the grains 0 . 04 microg g ( -1 ) with the high dose . This is slightly below the EPA prescribed tolerance level of 0 . 05 microg g ( -1 ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Residues of phosphamidon in the plant , soil and water were analysed by GLC , at various time intervals , and were found to decrease steadily up to 15 days . A second application of the pesticide was made on day 113 and grains harvested on day 138 . The residue level in the plants was 0 . 12 microg g ( -1 ) and in the grains 0 . 04 microg g ( -1 ) with the high dose . This is slightly below the EPA prescribed tolerance level of 0 . 05 microg g ( -1 ) . The residues in both soil and water were very low , 24 h after spraying .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Spherical composite particles of rice starch and microcrystalline cellulose : a new coprocessed excipient for direct compression .
Journal: Citation: V : 5 ( 2 ) P : e30 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15760088 Accession (PMID): 15760088
Abstract: Composite particles of rice starch ( RS ) and microcrystalline cellulose were fabricated by spray-drying technique to be used as a directly compressible excipient . Two size fractions of microcrystalline cellulose , sieved ( MCS ) and jet milled ( MCJ ) , having volumetric mean diameter ( D50 ) of 13 . 61 and 40 . 51 microm , respectively , were used to form composite particles with RS in various mixing ratios . The composite particles produced were evaluated for their powder and compression properties . Although an increase in the microcrystalline cellulose proportion imparted greater compressibility of the composite particles , the shape of the particles was typically less spherical with rougher surface resulting in a decrease in the degree of flowability . Compressibility of composite particles made from different size fractions of microcrystalline cellulose was not different ; however , using MCJ , which had a particle size range close to the size of RS ( D50 = 13 . 57 microm ) , provided more spherical particles than using MCS . Spherical composite particles between RS and MCJ in the ratio of 7 : 3 ( RS-MCJ-73 ) were then evaluated for powder properties and compressibility in comparison with some marketed directly compressible diluents . Compressibility of RS-MCJ-73 was greater than commercial spray-dried RS ( Eratab ) , coprocessed lactose and microcrystalline cellulose ( Cellactose ) , and agglomerated lactose ( Tablettose ) , but , as expected , lower than microcrystalline cellulose ( Vivapur 101 ) . Flowability index of RS-MCJ-73 appeared to be slightly lower than Eratab but higher than Vivapur 101 , Cellactose , and Tablettose . Tablets of RS-MCJ-73 exhibited low friability and good self-disintegrating property . It was concluded that these developed composite particles could be introduced as a new coprocessed direct compression excipient .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Composite particles of rice starch ( RS ) and microcrystalline cellulose were fabricated by spray-drying technique to be used as a directly compressible excipient . Two size fractions of microcrystalline cellulose , sieved ( MCS ) and jet milled ( MCJ ) , having volumetric mean diameter ( D50 ) of 13 . 61 and 40 . 51 microm , respectively , were used to form composite particles with RS in various mixing ratios . The composite particles produced were evaluated for their powder and compression properties . Although an increase in the microcrystalline cellulose proportion imparted greater compressibility of the composite particles , the shape of the particles was typically less spherical with rougher surface resulting in a decrease in the degree of flowability . Compressibility of composite particles made from different size fractions of microcrystalline cellulose was not different ; however , using MCJ , which had a particle size range close to the size of RS ( D50 = 13 . 57 microm ) , provided more spherical particles than using MCS .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The composite particles produced were evaluated for their powder and compression properties . Although an increase in the microcrystalline cellulose proportion imparted greater compressibility of the composite particles , the shape of the particles was typically less spherical with rougher surface resulting in a decrease in the degree of flowability . Compressibility of composite particles made from different size fractions of microcrystalline cellulose was not different ; however , using MCJ , which had a particle size range close to the size of RS ( D50 = 13 . 57 microm ) , provided more spherical particles than using MCS . Spherical composite particles between RS and MCJ in the ratio of 7 : 3 ( RS-MCJ-73 ) were then evaluated for powder properties and compressibility in comparison with some marketed directly compressible diluents . Compressibility of RS-MCJ-73 was greater than commercial spray-dried RS ( Eratab ) , coprocessed lactose and microcrystalline cellulose ( Cellactose ) , and agglomerated lactose ( Tablettose ) , but , as expected , lower than microcrystalline cellulose ( Vivapur 101 ) . Flowability index of RS-MCJ-73 appeared to be slightly lower than Eratab but higher than Vivapur 101 , Cellactose , and Tablettose . Tablets of RS-MCJ-73 exhibited low friability and good self-disintegrating property . It was concluded that these developed composite particles could be introduced as a new coprocessed direct compression excipient .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Ankle sprain discharge instructions from the emergency department .
Journal: Citation: V : 21 ( 8 ) P : 498-501 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16096593 Accession (PMID): 16096593
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : ( 1 ) To describe the incidence of inclusion of early mobilization components in emergency department ( ED ) discharge instructions ; ( 2 ) to describe the prescribed follow-up appointments ; and ( 3 ) to analyze the differences between the treatment of pediatric and adult patients . METHODS : A 1-year retrospective chart review of ED records of a large urban hospital was performed . Medical records of 374 ( 95% ) of the 397 adult and pediatric patients with ICD-9 code for ankle sprains were reviewed ( 213 males and 171 females , mean age 28 . 4 +/- 14 . 5 ; 291 adults , 93 pediatric ) . RESULTS : Sixteen percent of records contained discharge instructions that included rest , ice , compression , elevation , and medications ( RICEM ) . Twenty percent included RICE . Pediatricians ( 33 . 7% ) were more likely than adult physicians ( 10 . 3% ) to have given RICEM ( P < 0 . 0001 ) and RICE ( P = 0 . 05 , pedi = 45 . 8% , adult = 13 . 1% ) . Follow-up referrals were recommended as needed 50% of the time . Follow-up referrals were made to community clinics ( 59% ) , orthopedic clinic ( 23% ) , the ED ( 14% ) , and others ( 4% ) . Pediatricians were more likely to recommend routine scheduled follow up ( pedi = 62% , adult = 47% , P = 0 . 018 ) , suggest follow-up in a community clinic or doctors office ( pedi = 68 . 6% , adult = 51 . 2% , P < 0 . 0001 ) , and to recommend earlier follow up ( pedi = 1 . 6 weeks +/- 1 . 1 , adult = 2 . 0 weeks +/- 1 . 1 , P = 0 . 002 ) than adult physicians . CONCLUSIONS : Programs that train physicians who work in the ED need to include education on the proper treatment , rehabilitation , and follow up of patients with acute ankle sprains . Providing easy-to-complete discharge instruction templates can help providers give patients discharge instructions that may help patients minimize the risk of long-term sequelae .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVES : ( 1 ) To describe the incidence of inclusion of early mobilization components in emergency department ( ED ) discharge instructions ; ( 2 ) to describe the prescribed follow-up appointments ; and ( 3 ) to analyze the differences between the treatment of pediatric and adult patients . METHODS : A 1-year retrospective chart review of ED records of a large urban hospital was performed . Medical records of 374 ( 95% ) of the 397 adult and pediatric patients with ICD-9 code for ankle sprains were reviewed ( 213 males and 171 females , mean age 28 . 4 +/- 14 . 5 ; 291 adults , 93 pediatric ) . RESULTS : Sixteen percent of records contained discharge instructions that included rest , ice , compression , elevation , and medications ( RICEM ) . Twenty percent included RICE . Pediatricians ( 33 . 7% ) were more likely than adult physicians ( 10 . 3% ) to have given RICEM ( P < 0 . 0001 ) and RICE ( P = 0 . 05 , pedi = 45 . 8% , adult = 13 . 1% ) . Follow-up referrals were recommended as needed 50% of the time .
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Pediatricians ( 33 . 7% ) were more likely than adult physicians ( 10 . 3% ) to have given RICEM ( P < 0 . 0001 ) and RICE ( P = 0 . 05 , pedi = 45 . 8% , adult = 13 . 1% ) . Follow-up referrals were recommended as needed 50% of the time . Follow-up referrals were made to community clinics ( 59% ) , orthopedic clinic ( 23% ) , the ED ( 14% ) , and others ( 4% ) . Pediatricians were more likely to recommend routine scheduled follow up ( pedi = 62% , adult = 47% , P = 0 . 018 ) , suggest follow-up in a community clinic or doctors office ( pedi = 68 . 6% , adult = 51 . 2% , P < 0 . 0001 ) , and to recommend earlier follow up ( pedi = 1 . 6 weeks +/- 1 . 1 , adult = 2 . 0 weeks +/- 1 . 1 , P = 0 . 002 ) than adult physicians . CONCLUSIONS : Programs that train physicians who work in the ED need to include education on the proper treatment , rehabilitation , and follow up of patients with acute ankle sprains . Providing easy-to-complete discharge instruction templates can help providers give patients discharge instructions that may help patients minimize the risk of long-term sequelae .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Rice endophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19 promotes host plant growth and affects allocations of host photosynthates .
Journal: J Appl . Microbiol . Citation: V : 100 ( 5 ) P : 938-45 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16629994 Accession (PMID): 16629994
Abstract: AIMS : The aims of the study were to identify the effects of rice endophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19 on host plant growth and allocations of photosynthates . METHODS AND RESULTS : Endophytic diazotrophic YS19 showed nitrogen-fixing activity in N-free medium , and produced four categories of phytohormones which were indole-3-acetic acid , abscisic acid , gibberellic acid and cytokinin in Luria-Bertani medium . Inoculation of YS19 improved the biomass of the 12-day-cultivated host rice seedlings by 63 . 4% on N-free medium or by 18 . 7% on N-supplemented medium . Spraying of YS19 cell culture onto the rice plants at the premilk stage enhanced the transportation of the photosynthetic assimilation product from the source ( flag leaves ) to the sink ( stachys ) significantly . The formation of the plant sink was obviously inhibited when YS19 cell culture was applied at the late milk stage . CONCLUSIONS : This research suggests that endophyte YS19 promotes host rice plant growth and affects allocations of host photosynthates . SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY : These findings suggested that YS19 possesses the potential for increasing rice production in field application . Meanwhile , a suitable plant growth stage must be selected for the foliar spraying of YS19 cell culture .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: AIMS : The aims of the study were to identify the effects of rice endophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19 on host plant growth and allocations of photosynthates . METHODS AND RESULTS : Endophytic diazotrophic YS19 showed nitrogen-fixing activity in N-free medium , and produced four categories of phytohormones which were indole-3-acetic acid , abscisic acid , gibberellic acid and cytokinin in Luria-Bertani medium . Inoculation of YS19 improved the biomass of the 12-day-cultivated host rice seedlings by 63 . 4% on N-free medium or by 18 . 7% on N-supplemented medium . Spraying of YS19 cell culture onto the rice plants at the premilk stage enhanced the transportation of the photosynthetic assimilation product from the source ( flag leaves ) to the sink ( stachys ) significantly . The formation of the plant sink was obviously inhibited when YS19 cell culture was applied at the late milk stage . CONCLUSIONS : This research suggests that endophyte YS19 promotes host rice plant growth and affects allocations of host photosynthates . SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY : These findings suggested that YS19 possesses the potential for increasing rice production in field application . Meanwhile , a suitable plant growth stage must be selected for the foliar spraying of YS19 cell culture .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Spraying of YS19 cell culture onto the rice plants at the premilk stage enhanced the transportation of the photosynthetic assimilation product from the source ( flag leaves ) to the sink ( stachys ) significantly . The formation of the plant sink was obviously inhibited when YS19 cell culture was applied at the late milk stage . CONCLUSIONS : This research suggests that endophyte YS19 promotes host rice plant growth and affects allocations of host photosynthates . SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY : These findings suggested that YS19 possesses the potential for increasing rice production in field application . Meanwhile , a suitable plant growth stage must be selected for the foliar spraying of YS19 cell culture .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: [ Sustainable rice pest management and its economic benefits ]
Journal: Citation: V : 17 ( 10 ) P : 1941-7 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17209398 Accession (PMID): 17209398
Abstract: With rice varieties Jiahua 1 ( resistant to the white backed plant hopper Sogatella furcifera ) and Shanyou 63 ( susceptible ) as test materials , this paper studied the effects of different insecticide treatments on the pest population and quality and yield of rice grain , and evaluated their actual economic benefits ( AEB ) . The results indicated that in the control plot , the peak density of S furcifera on Jiahua 1 was only 1/10 of that on Shanyou 63 . Throughout the whole rice growth period , the S furcifera population on Jiahua 1 kept below economic injury level , while Shanyou 63 suffered heavy infestation by S furcifera . The spider density in the control plot was 3 -7 times higher than that in the plots treated with insecticide following farmers practice . No application of insecticide decreased the grain yield of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 by 11 . 8% and 43 . 4% , respectively . Compared with the control , spraying with insecticide one time decreased the AEB of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 by 0 . 9% - 2 . 6% and 2 . 6% - 4 . 7% , respectively . Without insecticide application , the AEB of Shanyou 63 decreased by 32 . 9% - 36 . 1% , while that of Jiahua 1 increased by 2 . 2% - 4 . 8% . The income of planting Jiahua 1 without insecticide application was 9403 yuan x hm ( -2 ) , which was remarkably higher than that ( 8632 yuan hm ( -2 ) ) of Shanyou 63 protected by spraying insecticide 3 times . It was worthwhile to point out that insecticide treatment did not affect the processing of rice grain and its commercial and edible quality , but decreased its protein content of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Throughout the whole rice growth period , the S furcifera population on Jiahua 1 kept below economic injury level , while Shanyou 63 suffered heavy infestation by S furcifera . The spider density in the control plot was 3 -7 times higher than that in the plots treated with insecticide following farmers practice . No application of insecticide decreased the grain yield of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 by 11 . 8% and 43 . 4% , respectively . Compared with the control , spraying with insecticide one time decreased the AEB of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 by 0 . 9% - 2 . 6% and 2 . 6% - 4 . 7% , respectively . Without insecticide application , the AEB of Shanyou 63 decreased by 32 . 9% - 36 . 1% , while that of Jiahua 1 increased by 2 . 2% - 4 . 8% . The income of planting Jiahua 1 without insecticide application was 9403 yuan x hm ( -2 ) , which was remarkably higher than that ( 8632 yuan hm ( -2 ) ) of Shanyou 63 protected by spraying insecticide 3 times . It was worthwhile to point out that insecticide treatment did not affect the processing of rice grain and its commercial and edible quality , but decreased its protein content of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 .
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: No application of insecticide decreased the grain yield of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 by 11 . 8% and 43 . 4% , respectively . Compared with the control , spraying with insecticide one time decreased the AEB of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 by 0 . 9% - 2 . 6% and 2 . 6% - 4 . 7% , respectively . Without insecticide application , the AEB of Shanyou 63 decreased by 32 . 9% - 36 . 1% , while that of Jiahua 1 increased by 2 . 2% - 4 . 8% . The income of planting Jiahua 1 without insecticide application was 9403 yuan x hm ( -2 ) , which was remarkably higher than that ( 8632 yuan hm ( -2 ) ) of Shanyou 63 protected by spraying insecticide 3 times . It was worthwhile to point out that insecticide treatment did not affect the processing of rice grain and its commercial and edible quality , but decreased its protein content of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Trichoderma harzianum : a biocontrol agent against Bipolaris oryzae .
Journal: Mycopathologia Citation: V : 164 P : Sep-81 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17592758 Accession (PMID): 17592758
Abstract: Rice brown spot , caused by Bipolaris oryzae , can be a serious disease causing a considerable yield loss . Trichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent for a number of plant fungal diseases . Thus , this research was carried out to investigate the mechanisms of action by which T harzianum antagonizes Bipolaris oryzae in vitro , and the efficacy of spray application of a spore suspension of T harzianum for control of rice brown spot disease under field conditions . In vitro , the antagonistic behavior of T harzianum resulted in the overgrowth of B oryzae by T harzianum , while the antifungal metabolites of T harzianum completely prevented the linear growth of B oryzae . Light and scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) observations showed no evidence that mycoparasitism contributed to the aggressive nature of the tested isolate of T harzianum against B oryzae . Under field conditions , spraying of a spore suspension of T harzianum at 10 ( 8 ) spore ml ( -1 ) significantly reduced the disease severity ( DS ) and disease incidence ( DI ) on the plant leaves , and also significantly increased the grain yield , total grain carbohydrate , and protein , and led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments ( chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids ) in rice leaves .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Rice brown spot , caused by Bipolaris oryzae , can be a serious disease causing a considerable yield loss . Trichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent for a number of plant fungal diseases . Thus , this research was carried out to investigate the mechanisms of action by which T harzianum antagonizes Bipolaris oryzae in vitro , and the efficacy of spray application of a spore suspension of T harzianum for control of rice brown spot disease under field conditions . In vitro , the antagonistic behavior of T harzianum resulted in the overgrowth of B oryzae by T harzianum , while the antifungal metabolites of T harzianum completely prevented the linear growth of B oryzae . Light and scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) observations showed no evidence that mycoparasitism contributed to the aggressive nature of the tested isolate of T harzianum against B oryzae . Under field conditions , spraying of a spore suspension of T harzianum at 10 ( 8 ) spore ml ( -1 ) significantly reduced the disease severity ( DS ) and disease incidence ( DI ) on the plant leaves , and also significantly increased the grain yield , total grain carbohydrate , and protein , and led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments ( chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids ) in rice leaves .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Trichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent for a number of plant fungal diseases . Thus , this research was carried out to investigate the mechanisms of action by which T harzianum antagonizes Bipolaris oryzae in vitro , and the efficacy of spray application of a spore suspension of T harzianum for control of rice brown spot disease under field conditions . In vitro , the antagonistic behavior of T harzianum resulted in the overgrowth of B oryzae by T harzianum , while the antifungal metabolites of T harzianum completely prevented the linear growth of B oryzae . Light and scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) observations showed no evidence that mycoparasitism contributed to the aggressive nature of the tested isolate of T harzianum against B oryzae . Under field conditions , spraying of a spore suspension of T harzianum at 10 ( 8 ) spore ml ( -1 ) significantly reduced the disease severity ( DS ) and disease incidence ( DI ) on the plant leaves , and also significantly increased the grain yield , total grain carbohydrate , and protein , and led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments ( chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids ) in rice leaves .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Inhibition by natural dietary substances of gastrointestinal absorption of starch and sucrose in rats 2 . Subchronic studies .
Journal: Int J Med Sci Citation: V : 4 P : 209-15 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17713601 Accession (PMID): 17713601
Abstract: Acute oral consumption of various natural inhibitors of amylase ( bean and hibiscus extracts ) and sucrase ( L-arabinose ) reduce absorption of starch and sucrose respectively in rats and pigs measured by lessened appearance of circulating glucose levels . The present subchronic study was designed to determine whether these selected inhibitors of gastrointestinal starch and sucrose absorption ( so-called "carb blockers" ) remain effective with continued use and to assess their metabolic influences after prolonged intake . Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged twice daily over nine weeks with either water or an equal volume of water containing a formula that included bean and hibiscus extracts and L-arabinose . To estimate CHO absorption , control and treated Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with either water alone or an equal volume of water containing glucose , rice starch , sucrose , or combined rice starch and sucrose . Circulating glucose was measured at timed intervals over four hours . The ability to decrease starch and sucrose absorption use . No toxic effects ( hepatic , renal , hematologic ) were evident . Blood chemistries revealed significantly lower circulating glucose levels and a trend toward decreased HbA1C in the nondiabetic rats receiving the natural formulation compared to control . Subchronic administration of enzyme inhibitors was also associated with many metabolic changes including lowered systolic blood pressure and altered fluid-electrolyte balance . We postulate that proper intake of natural amylase and sucrase inhibitors may be useful in the prevention and treatment of many chronic disorders associated with perturbations in glucose-insulin homeostasis secondary to the rapid absorption of refined CHO .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Acute oral consumption of various natural inhibitors of amylase ( bean and hibiscus extracts ) and sucrase ( L-arabinose ) reduce absorption of starch and sucrose respectively in rats and pigs measured by lessened appearance of circulating glucose levels . The present subchronic study was designed to determine whether these selected inhibitors of gastrointestinal starch and sucrose absorption ( so-called "carb blockers" ) remain effective with continued use and to assess their metabolic influences after prolonged intake . Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged twice daily over nine weeks with either water or an equal volume of water containing a formula that included bean and hibiscus extracts and L-arabinose . To estimate CHO absorption , control and treated Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with either water alone or an equal volume of water containing glucose , rice starch , sucrose , or combined rice starch and sucrose . Circulating glucose was measured at timed intervals over four hours . The ability to decrease starch and sucrose absorption use . No toxic effects ( hepatic , renal , hematologic ) were evident .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Acute oral consumption of various natural inhibitors of amylase ( bean and hibiscus extracts ) and sucrase ( L-arabinose ) reduce absorption of starch and sucrose respectively in rats and pigs measured by lessened appearance of circulating glucose levels . The present subchronic study was designed to determine whether these selected inhibitors of gastrointestinal starch and sucrose absorption ( so-called "carb blockers" ) remain effective with continued use and to assess their metabolic influences after prolonged intake . Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged twice daily over nine weeks with either water or an equal volume of water containing a formula that included bean and hibiscus extracts and L-arabinose . To estimate CHO absorption , control and treated Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with either water alone or an equal volume of water containing glucose , rice starch , sucrose , or combined rice starch and sucrose . Circulating glucose was measured at timed intervals over four hours . The ability to decrease starch and sucrose absorption use . No toxic effects ( hepatic , renal , hematologic ) were evident . Blood chemistries revealed significantly lower circulating glucose levels and a trend toward decreased HbA1C in the nondiabetic rats receiving the natural formulation compared to control .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Influence of deltamethrin treatment of bed nets on malaria transmission in the Kou valley , Burkina Faso .
Journal: Bull . World Health Organ . Citation: V : 69 ( 6 ) P : 735-40 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1786622 Accession (PMID): 1786622
Abstract: A 3-year entomological study was carried out on the transmission of malaria in a village of 900 inhabitants in a rice-growing area of Burkina Faso . In the study area inhabitants use bed nets to protect themselves from mosquito bites . In the first year of the study , baseline data were collected ; in the second year , the village was divided in two parts and all the bed nets in the southern part were sprayed with deltamethrin ( 25 mg/m2 ) ; and in the third year , all the bed nets in both parts of the village were sprayed . The inoculation rate was estimated by hand collection of mosquitos on human volunteers who were not protected by bed nets . The overall inoculation rate in the first year was 55 infected bites per person and was higher in the southern than in the northern part of the village . During the second year the rate increased to 70 bites per person on average ( but was slightly lower than this in the southern part of the village ) . During the third year , the inoculation rate fell to three infected bites per year , ie , a reduction of 94% compared with the first year . This reduction arose primarily because of a marked decrease in the sporozoitic index and a lower density of vectors . Thus , use of pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets by all members of the community appears to be a major tool in preventing transmission of malaria .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: A 3-year entomological study was carried out on the transmission of malaria in a village of 900 inhabitants in a rice-growing area of Burkina Faso . In the study area inhabitants use bed nets to protect themselves from mosquito bites . In the first year of the study , baseline data were collected ; in the second year , the village was divided in two parts and all the bed nets in the southern part were sprayed with deltamethrin ( 25 mg/m2 ) ; and in the third year , all the bed nets in both parts of the village were sprayed . The inoculation rate was estimated by hand collection of mosquitos on human volunteers who were not protected by bed nets . The overall inoculation rate in the first year was 55 infected bites per person and was higher in the southern than in the northern part of the village . During the second year the rate increased to 70 bites per person on average ( but was slightly lower than this in the southern part of the village ) . During the third year , the inoculation rate fell to three infected bites per year , ie , a reduction of 94% compared with the first year .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: [ Campaign against malaria vectors in the framework of a rural development project in Burundi ]
Journal: Citation: V : 71 Suppl 1 ( ) P : 113-25 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1793263 Accession (PMID): 1793263
Abstract: In the context of a large project for the socio-economic improvement of the Imbo area , measures were taken for the integration at all levels of malaria control : health centres for improvement of curative care ; hygiene and sanitation centres , communes and agricultural projects for vector control ; craftsmen , cooperatives and social centres for the manufacture and selling of impregnated bed-nets . The adopted strategy for malaria control results from preliminary epidemiological studies . The recommended measures are the improvement of medical care and vector control . The latter is based on indoor spraying of malathion , once a year . Malathion is only active during the period ( 2 months ) of highest transmission , which occurs at the end of the rainy season . Occasionally other insecticides are used . Impregnated bed-nets with deltamethrin and village draining are complementary methods . In villages of the rice-growing area with good participation of the community , vector control activities have a considerable impact on malaria prevalence . About 70% before the intervention , the prevalence does not exceed 10% in 1990 . High parasitaemia ( greater than 2000 troph . /microliters ) , and hence morbidity , decreased considerably ( 35% in 1983 to less than 5% in 1990 ) . In villages with poor community participation , the decrease of prevalence is less spectacular ( from 70% to 25% ) . Drains are not kept in repair and constitute new breeding places of vectors in the populated areas . The use of mosquito bed-nets is not common , a better information campaign should overcome this unpopularity . In peri-urban villages , inhabitants are complaining about indoor spraying , but the results are satisfactory . This programme demonstrates that reducing malaria prevalence and morbidity with conventional measures is feasible in particular biotopes . Health education activities in the Imbo Centre must be pursued and adapted according to the professional activities of the community .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the context of a large project for the socio-economic improvement of the Imbo area , measures were taken for the integration at all levels of malaria control : health centres for improvement of curative care ; hygiene and sanitation centres , communes and agricultural projects for vector control ; craftsmen , cooperatives and social centres for the manufacture and selling of impregnated bed-nets . The adopted strategy for malaria control results from preliminary epidemiological studies . The recommended measures are the improvement of medical care and vector control . The latter is based on indoor spraying of malathion , once a year . Malathion is only active during the period ( 2 months ) of highest transmission , which occurs at the end of the rainy season . Occasionally other insecticides are used . Impregnated bed-nets with deltamethrin and village draining are complementary methods . In villages of the rice-growing area with good participation of the community , vector control activities have a considerable impact on malaria prevalence .
[ Sen. 14, subscore: 1.00 ]: High parasitaemia ( greater than 2000 troph . /microliters ) , and hence morbidity , decreased considerably ( 35% in 1983 to less than 5% in 1990 ) . In villages with poor community participation , the decrease of prevalence is less spectacular ( from 70% to 25% ) . Drains are not kept in repair and constitute new breeding places of vectors in the populated areas . The use of mosquito bed-nets is not common , a better information campaign should overcome this unpopularity . In peri-urban villages , inhabitants are complaining about indoor spraying , but the results are satisfactory . This programme demonstrates that reducing malaria prevalence and morbidity with conventional measures is feasible in particular biotopes . Health education activities in the Imbo Centre must be pursued and adapted according to the professional activities of the community .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Simulated rainfall removal of tricyclazole sprayed on rice foliage .
Journal: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol Citation: V : 80 P : 438-42 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18488130 Accession (PMID): 18488130
Abstract: Two rainfall simulations of 30 mm h ( -1 ) , with 48-h interval between two simulations , were performed on rice lysimeters at 24 , 48 , and 72 h after being sprayed with tricyclazole . In the first simulated rainfall , wash-off concentration of tricyclazole was significant irrespective of the interval between the spray time and the rainfall simulation . And from 20 . 5% to 24 . 2% of tricyclazole deposited on leaves was removed from the rice foliage . In the second simulated rainfall , concentration of tricyclazole in wash-off water was significantly lower and less than 3 . 6% of the deposited tricyclazole was lost
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Two rainfall simulations of 30 mm h ( -1 ) , with 48-h interval between two simulations , were performed on rice lysimeters at 24 , 48 , and 72 h after being sprayed with tricyclazole . In the first simulated rainfall , wash-off concentration of tricyclazole was significant irrespective of the interval between the spray time and the rainfall simulation . And from 20 . 5% to 24 . 2% of tricyclazole deposited on leaves was removed from the rice foliage . In the second simulated rainfall , concentration of tricyclazole in wash-off water was significantly lower and less than 3 . 6% of the deposited tricyclazole was lost
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Two rainfall simulations of 30 mm h ( -1 ) , with 48-h interval between two simulations , were performed on rice lysimeters at 24 , 48 , and 72 h after being sprayed with tricyclazole . In the first simulated rainfall , wash-off concentration of tricyclazole was significant irrespective of the interval between the spray time and the rainfall simulation . And from 20 . 5% to 24 . 2% of tricyclazole deposited on leaves was removed from the rice foliage . In the second simulated rainfall , concentration of tricyclazole in wash-off water was significantly lower and less than 3 . 6% of the deposited tricyclazole was lost
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Behavior of sprayed tricyclazole in rice paddy lysimeters .
Journal: Chemosphere Citation: V : 74 P : 1085-9 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19062069 Accession (PMID): 19062069
Abstract: The behavior of sprayed tricyclazole in rice paddy lysimeters was studied . Tricyclazole residues were measured from rice leaves and paddy water after tricyclazole spraying in paddy lysimeters . The rate of photolysis and hydrolysis of tricyclazole on the surface of rice leaves was also determined in a laboratory experiment . Tricyclazole was extracted from leaf and water samples and determined by liquid chromatography with UV or mass spectrometry . The hydrolysis half-lives of tricyclazole on rice leaves were 11 . 9 and 5 . 1 d for the formulated product and standard , respectively . The photolysis half-lives were longer , 16 . 4d for the formulated product and 20 . 9 d for the standard . In the paddy lysimeter , tricyclazole dissipation on leaves involved either biphasic first-order kinetics or single-phase first-order kinetics , depending on the rainfall pattern . Half-lives of tricyclazole on lysimeter rice leaves were from 3 . 0 to 5 . 7 d . The dissipation of tricyclazole in paddy water followed single-phase first-order kinetics with half-lives ranging from 2 . 1 to 5 . 0 d .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The behavior of sprayed tricyclazole in rice paddy lysimeters was studied . Tricyclazole residues were measured from rice leaves and paddy water after tricyclazole spraying in paddy lysimeters . The rate of photolysis and hydrolysis of tricyclazole on the surface of rice leaves was also determined in a laboratory experiment . Tricyclazole was extracted from leaf and water samples and determined by liquid chromatography with UV or mass spectrometry . The hydrolysis half-lives of tricyclazole on rice leaves were 11 . 9 and 5 . 1 d for the formulated product and standard , respectively .
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The behavior of sprayed tricyclazole in rice paddy lysimeters was studied . Tricyclazole residues were measured from rice leaves and paddy water after tricyclazole spraying in paddy lysimeters . The rate of photolysis and hydrolysis of tricyclazole on the surface of rice leaves was also determined in a laboratory experiment . Tricyclazole was extracted from leaf and water samples and determined by liquid chromatography with UV or mass spectrometry . The hydrolysis half-lives of tricyclazole on rice leaves were 11 . 9 and 5 . 1 d for the formulated product and standard , respectively . The photolysis half-lives were longer , 16 . 4d for the formulated product and 20 . 9 d for the standard .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Characteristics of the abundance of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans , and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment samples from selected Asian regions in Can Gio , Southern Vietnam and Osaka , Japan .
Journal: Chemosphere Citation: V : 78 P : 127-33 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub19892385 Accession (PMID): 19892385
Abstract: The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran ( PCDD/PCDFs ) , and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls ( DL-PCBs ) were determined in sediment samples from Can Gio , South Vietnam , and Osaka , Japan . Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War , whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator . For comparison , we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi , Vietnam . The toxic equivalent quantity ( TEQ ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue , Hanoi , and suburban areas of Osaka , but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka . The proportion of the World Health Organization ( WHO ) -TEQ value contributed by 2 , 3 , 7 , 8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin ( TCDD ) in Can Gio was approximately 30% , higher than the values in the other sample areas . These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio . The main contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Can Gio are natural sources , as in Hue . In contrast , commercial PCBs are the dominant contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Hanoi . In Osaka , agrochemicals used in rice cultivation , the incineration of solid waste , and commercial PCBs equally contributed to WHO-TEQ values at suburban locations . The dumping of incinerator-related materials and/or the inadequate management of commercial PCBs have resulted in significantly elevated WHO-TEQ values of 240-370 ng kg ( -1 ) dw at urban locations in Osaka .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran ( PCDD/PCDFs ) , and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls ( DL-PCBs ) were determined in sediment samples from Can Gio , South Vietnam , and Osaka , Japan . Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War , whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator . For comparison , we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi , Vietnam . The toxic equivalent quantity ( TEQ ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue , Hanoi , and suburban areas of Osaka , but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka . The proportion of the World Health Organization ( WHO ) -TEQ value contributed by 2 , 3 , 7 , 8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin ( TCDD ) in Can Gio was approximately 30% , higher than the values in the other sample areas . These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War , whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator . For comparison , we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi , Vietnam . The toxic equivalent quantity ( TEQ ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue , Hanoi , and suburban areas of Osaka , but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka . The proportion of the World Health Organization ( WHO ) -TEQ value contributed by 2 , 3 , 7 , 8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin ( TCDD ) in Can Gio was approximately 30% , higher than the values in the other sample areas . These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio . The main contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Can Gio are natural sources , as in Hue . In contrast , commercial PCBs are the dominant contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Hanoi . In Osaka , agrochemicals used in rice cultivation , the incineration of solid waste , and commercial PCBs equally contributed to WHO-TEQ values at suburban locations . The dumping of incinerator-related materials and/or the inadequate management of commercial PCBs have resulted in significantly elevated WHO-TEQ values of 240-370 ng kg ( -1 ) dw at urban locations in Osaka .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Evaluation of a new method for chemical coating of aluminum wire with molecularly imprinted polymer layer . Application for the fabrication of triazines selective solid-phase microextraction fiber .
Journal: Anal Chim Acta Citation: V : 674 P : 40-8 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20638497 Accession (PMID): 20638497
Abstract: A new solid-phase microextraction ( SPME ) fiber is fabricated through ultra violet irradiation polymerization of ametryn-molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of anodized-silylated aluminum wire . The prepared fiber is durable with very good chemical and thermal stability which can be coupled to GC and GC/MS . The effective parameters on the fabrication and application procedures such as spraying mode , ultra violet irradiation ( polymerization ) time , number of sprayings and polymerizations , pH and ionic strength of sample and extraction time were optimized . This fiber shows high selectivity with great extraction capacity toward triazines . SPME and GC analysis of ametryn , prometryn , terbutryn , atrazine , simazine , propazine and cyanazine using the fabricated fiber result in the detection limits of 9 , 32 , 27 , 43 , 51 , 74 and 85 ng mL ( -1 ) , respectively . The reliability of the prepared fiber in real samples has been investigated and proved by using spiked tap water , rice , maize and onion samples .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: A new solid-phase microextraction ( SPME ) fiber is fabricated through ultra violet irradiation polymerization of ametryn-molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of anodized-silylated aluminum wire . The prepared fiber is durable with very good chemical and thermal stability which can be coupled to GC and GC/MS . The effective parameters on the fabrication and application procedures such as spraying mode , ultra violet irradiation ( polymerization ) time , number of sprayings and polymerizations , pH and ionic strength of sample and extraction time were optimized . This fiber shows high selectivity with great extraction capacity toward triazines . SPME and GC analysis of ametryn , prometryn , terbutryn , atrazine , simazine , propazine and cyanazine using the fabricated fiber result in the detection limits of 9 , 32 , 27 , 43 , 51 , 74 and 85 ng mL ( -1 ) , respectively . The reliability of the prepared fiber in real samples has been investigated and proved by using spiked tap water , rice , maize and onion samples .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Carotenoid inhibitors reduce strigolactone production and Striga hermonthica infection in rice .
Journal: Arch Biochem Biophys Citation: V : 504 P : 123-31 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20732294 Accession (PMID): 20732294
Abstract: The strigolactones are internal and rhizosphere signalling molecules in plants that are biosynthesised through carotenoid cleavage . They are secreted by host roots into the rhizosphere where they signal host-presence to the symbiotic arbuscular mycrorrhizal ( AM ) fungi and the parasitic plants of the Orobanche , Phelipanche and Striga genera . The seeds of these parasitic plants germinate after perceiving these signalling molecules . After attachment to the host root , the parasite negatively affects the host plant by withdrawing water , nutrients and assimilates through a direct connection with the host xylem . In many areas of the world these parasites are a threat to agriculture but so far very limited success has been achieved to minimize losses due to these parasitic weeds . Considering the carotenoid origin of the strigolactones , in the present study we investigated the possibilities to reduce strigolactone production in the roots of plants by blocking carotenoid biosynthesis using carotenoid inhibitors . Hereto the carotenoid inhibitors fluridone , norflurazon , clomazone and amitrole were applied to rice either through irrigation or through foliar spray . Irrigation application of all carotenoid inhibitors and spray application of amitrole significantly decreased strigolactone production , Striga hermonthica germination and Striga infection , also in concentrations too low to affect growth and development of the host plant . Hence , we demonstrate that the application of carotenoid inhibitors to plants can affect S hermonthica germination and attachment indirectly by reducing the strigolactone concentration in the rhizosphere . This finding is useful for further studies on the relevance of the strigolactones in rhizosphere signalling . Since these inhibitors are available and accessible , they may represent an efficient technology for farmers , including poor subsistence farmers in the African continent , to control these harmful parasitic weeds .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The seeds of these parasitic plants germinate after perceiving these signalling molecules . After attachment to the host root , the parasite negatively affects the host plant by withdrawing water , nutrients and assimilates through a direct connection with the host xylem . In many areas of the world these parasites are a threat to agriculture but so far very limited success has been achieved to minimize losses due to these parasitic weeds . Considering the carotenoid origin of the strigolactones , in the present study we investigated the possibilities to reduce strigolactone production in the roots of plants by blocking carotenoid biosynthesis using carotenoid inhibitors . Hereto the carotenoid inhibitors fluridone , norflurazon , clomazone and amitrole were applied to rice either through irrigation or through foliar spray . Irrigation application of all carotenoid inhibitors and spray application of amitrole significantly decreased strigolactone production , Striga hermonthica germination and Striga infection , also in concentrations too low to affect growth and development of the host plant . Hence , we demonstrate that the application of carotenoid inhibitors to plants can affect S hermonthica germination and attachment indirectly by reducing the strigolactone concentration in the rhizosphere . This finding is useful for further studies on the relevance of the strigolactones in rhizosphere signalling . Since these inhibitors are available and accessible , they may represent an efficient technology for farmers , including poor subsistence farmers in the African continent , to control these harmful parasitic weeds .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: After attachment to the host root , the parasite negatively affects the host plant by withdrawing water , nutrients and assimilates through a direct connection with the host xylem . In many areas of the world these parasites are a threat to agriculture but so far very limited success has been achieved to minimize losses due to these parasitic weeds . Considering the carotenoid origin of the strigolactones , in the present study we investigated the possibilities to reduce strigolactone production in the roots of plants by blocking carotenoid biosynthesis using carotenoid inhibitors . Hereto the carotenoid inhibitors fluridone , norflurazon , clomazone and amitrole were applied to rice either through irrigation or through foliar spray . Irrigation application of all carotenoid inhibitors and spray application of amitrole significantly decreased strigolactone production , Striga hermonthica germination and Striga infection , also in concentrations too low to affect growth and development of the host plant . Hence , we demonstrate that the application of carotenoid inhibitors to plants can affect S hermonthica germination and attachment indirectly by reducing the strigolactone concentration in the rhizosphere . This finding is useful for further studies on the relevance of the strigolactones in rhizosphere signalling . Since these inhibitors are available and accessible , they may represent an efficient technology for farmers , including poor subsistence farmers in the African continent , to control these harmful parasitic weeds .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases .
Journal: Phytopathology Citation: V : 101 P : 231-40 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub20839964 Accession (PMID): 20839964
Abstract: Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani ( teleomorph : Thanatephorus cucumeris ) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems . No economically viable control methods have been developed . We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions . The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C odorata and rice cultivar . The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity . Under semi-field conditions , extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases , ie , blast ( Pyricularia oryzae ) using foliar spray ( up to 45% ) , brown spot ( Bipolaris oryzae ) using seed treatment ( up to 57% ) , and bacterial blight ( Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ) using both application methods ( up to 50% ) .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani ( teleomorph : Thanatephorus cucumeris ) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems . No economically viable control methods have been developed . We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions . The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C odorata and rice cultivar . The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity . Under semi-field conditions , extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases , ie , blast ( Pyricularia oryzae ) using foliar spray ( up to 45% ) , brown spot ( Bipolaris oryzae ) using seed treatment ( up to 57% ) , and bacterial blight ( Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ) using both application methods ( up to 50% ) .
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: No economically viable control methods have been developed . We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions . The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C odorata and rice cultivar . The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity . Under semi-field conditions , extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases , ie , blast ( Pyricularia oryzae ) using foliar spray ( up to 45% ) , brown spot ( Bipolaris oryzae ) using seed treatment ( up to 57% ) , and bacterial blight ( Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae ) using both application methods ( up to 50% ) .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Operator contamination during pesticide application to tropical crops .
Journal: Citation: V : 81 ( 6 ) P : 457-62 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub2100759 Accession (PMID): 2100759
Abstract: Investigations to determine dermal contamination of rural farmers during pesticide application to tropical crops are described . Contamination patterns and levels vary according to crop type and height , and application method . Non-toxic model pesticides and tracer dyes were applied to rice , vegetable , mango , cotton and coffee crops in the Philippines , Thailand , Tanzania and Malawi , using knapsack and ULV spinning disc sprayers . Tracer dye falling on the operator during application was measured for each type of crop sprayed . Mean gross dermal deposits of dye were : rice 97 mg/hr ; mango 257 mg/hr ; vegetables 103 mg/hr ; cotton 220 mg/hr ; coffee 95 mg/hr . The implications of these gross dermal deposit figures in relation to pesticide contamination and hazard are discussed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Investigations to determine dermal contamination of rural farmers during pesticide application to tropical crops are described . Contamination patterns and levels vary according to crop type and height , and application method . Non-toxic model pesticides and tracer dyes were applied to rice , vegetable , mango , cotton and coffee crops in the Philippines , Thailand , Tanzania and Malawi , using knapsack and ULV spinning disc sprayers . Tracer dye falling on the operator during application was measured for each type of crop sprayed . Mean gross dermal deposits of dye were : rice 97 mg/hr ; mango 257 mg/hr ; vegetables 103 mg/hr ; cotton 220 mg/hr ; coffee 95 mg/hr . The implications of these gross dermal deposit figures in relation to pesticide contamination and hazard are discussed .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Investigations to determine dermal contamination of rural farmers during pesticide application to tropical crops are described . Contamination patterns and levels vary according to crop type and height , and application method . Non-toxic model pesticides and tracer dyes were applied to rice , vegetable , mango , cotton and coffee crops in the Philippines , Thailand , Tanzania and Malawi , using knapsack and ULV spinning disc sprayers . Tracer dye falling on the operator during application was measured for each type of crop sprayed . Mean gross dermal deposits of dye were : rice 97 mg/hr ; mango 257 mg/hr ; vegetables 103 mg/hr ; cotton 220 mg/hr ; coffee 95 mg/hr . The implications of these gross dermal deposit figures in relation to pesticide contamination and hazard are discussed .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Drought-induced proline accumulation is uninvolved with increased nitric oxide , which alleviates drought stress by decreasing transpiration in rice .
Journal: J Plant Res Citation: V : 125 P : 155-64 Type: In-Data-Review
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21400017 Accession (PMID): 21400017
Abstract: Accumulation of proline is trusted to be an adaptive response of plants against drought stress , and exogenous application of nitric oxide ( NO ) enhances proline accumulation in Cu-treated algae . In order to investigate whether NO works as a necessary signaling molecule in drought-induced proline accumulation in rice leaves , effects of drought stress on endogenous NO content and proline accumulation were studied in rice leaves , using sodium nitroprusside ( SNP , a NO donor ) and 2- ( 4-carboxyphenyl ) -4 , 4 , 5 , 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide ( cPTIO , a NO scavenger ) . The results showed that drought treatment increased both endogenous NO and proline contents in rice leaves , while foliar spray of various concentrations of SNP failed to induce proline accumulation in the leaves of well-watered rice and foliar spray of cPTIO failed to inhibit proline accumulation in the leaves of drought-stressed rice . These results indicate that increase of endogenous NO is dispensable for proline accumulation in the leaves of rice under drought stress . Further studies indicate that exogenous application of NO alleviates drought-induced water loss and ion leakage by decreasing transpiration rate of rice leaves .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 2.00 ]: Accumulation of proline is trusted to be an adaptive response of plants against drought stress , and exogenous application of nitric oxide ( NO ) enhances proline accumulation in Cu-treated algae . In order to investigate whether NO works as a necessary signaling molecule in drought-induced proline accumulation in rice leaves , effects of drought stress on endogenous NO content and proline accumulation were studied in rice leaves , using sodium nitroprusside ( SNP , a NO donor ) and 2- ( 4-carboxyphenyl ) -4 , 4 , 5 , 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide ( cPTIO , a NO scavenger ) . The results showed that drought treatment increased both endogenous NO and proline contents in rice leaves , while foliar spray of various concentrations of SNP failed to induce proline accumulation in the leaves of well-watered rice and foliar spray of cPTIO failed to inhibit proline accumulation in the leaves of drought-stressed rice . These results indicate that increase of endogenous NO is dispensable for proline accumulation in the leaves of rice under drought stress . Further studies indicate that exogenous application of NO alleviates drought-induced water loss and ion leakage by decreasing transpiration rate of rice leaves .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Improved biological effects of uniconazole using porous hollow silica nanoparticles as carriers .
Journal: Pest Manag Sci Citation: V : 68 P : 437-43 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub21997963 Accession (PMID): 21997963
Abstract: BACKGROUND : The aim of this work is to prepare a controlled-release formulation of uniconazole using porous hollow silica nanoparticles ( PHSNs ) as carrier , and to investigate the biological effects on rice growth . RESULTS : PHSNs with a shell thickness of 15 nm and a particle size of 80-100 nm were synthesised through a sol-gel route using nanosized calcium carbonate particles as templates . Simple immersing ( SI ) and supercritical fluid drug loading ( SFDL ) technologies were employed to load uniconazole into PHSNs with loading efficiencies of 22 and 26% respectively . The prepared uniconazole-loaded PHSNs ( UCZ-PHSNs ) by SI and SFDL both demonstrated sustained release properties , and the latter showed better controlled release ability with a slower release rate . Compared with free uniconazole , UCZ-PHSNs exhibited a weaker growth retardation effect in the early stage but more significant retardation ability in later stages for agar-cultured rice seedlings . For the rice that grew in clay , UCZ-PHSNs demonstrated a weaker plant height retardation effect than free uniconazole at the early jointing stage by foliar spraying , but exhibited a stronger retardation capacity than free uniconazole by being applied into soil before seedling transplantation . CONCLUSION : The results indicated that the prepared UCZ-PHSNs possessed good controlled-release properties and had improved retardation effects on rice growth . It is recommended that UCZ-PHSNs be applied into soil before seedling transplantation rather than administered by foliar spraying at the early jointing stage .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: RESULTS : PHSNs with a shell thickness of 15 nm and a particle size of 80-100 nm were synthesised through a sol-gel route using nanosized calcium carbonate particles as templates . Simple immersing ( SI ) and supercritical fluid drug loading ( SFDL ) technologies were employed to load uniconazole into PHSNs with loading efficiencies of 22 and 26% respectively . The prepared uniconazole-loaded PHSNs ( UCZ-PHSNs ) by SI and SFDL both demonstrated sustained release properties , and the latter showed better controlled release ability with a slower release rate . Compared with free uniconazole , UCZ-PHSNs exhibited a weaker growth retardation effect in the early stage but more significant retardation ability in later stages for agar-cultured rice seedlings . For the rice that grew in clay , UCZ-PHSNs demonstrated a weaker plant height retardation effect than free uniconazole at the early jointing stage by foliar spraying , but exhibited a stronger retardation capacity than free uniconazole by being applied into soil before seedling transplantation . CONCLUSION : The results indicated that the prepared UCZ-PHSNs possessed good controlled-release properties and had improved retardation effects on rice growth . It is recommended that UCZ-PHSNs be applied into soil before seedling transplantation rather than administered by foliar spraying at the early jointing stage .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: The prepared uniconazole-loaded PHSNs ( UCZ-PHSNs ) by SI and SFDL both demonstrated sustained release properties , and the latter showed better controlled release ability with a slower release rate . Compared with free uniconazole , UCZ-PHSNs exhibited a weaker growth retardation effect in the early stage but more significant retardation ability in later stages for agar-cultured rice seedlings . For the rice that grew in clay , UCZ-PHSNs demonstrated a weaker plant height retardation effect than free uniconazole at the early jointing stage by foliar spraying , but exhibited a stronger retardation capacity than free uniconazole by being applied into soil before seedling transplantation . CONCLUSION : The results indicated that the prepared UCZ-PHSNs possessed good controlled-release properties and had improved retardation effects on rice growth . It is recommended that UCZ-PHSNs be applied into soil before seedling transplantation rather than administered by foliar spraying at the early jointing stage .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Developmental toxicity evaluations of whole mixtures of disinfection by-products using concentrated drinking water in rats : gestational and lactational effects of sulfate and sodium .
Journal: Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol Citation: V : 95 P : 202-12 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub22495758 Accession (PMID): 22495758
Abstract: A developmental toxicity bioassay was used in three experiments to evaluate water concentrates for suitability in multigenerational studies . First , chlorinated water was concentrated 135-fold by reverse osmosis ; select lost disinfection by-products were spiked back . Concentrate was provided as drinking water to Sprague-Dawley and F344 rats from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 6 . Maternal serum levels of luteinizing hormone on gestation day 10 were unaffected by treatment for both strains . Treated dams had increased water consumption , and increased incidences of polyuria , diarrhea , and ( in Sprague-Dawley rats ) red perinasal staining . Pup weights were reduced . An increased incidence of eye defects was seen in F344 litters . Chemical analysis of the concentrate revealed high sodium ( 6 . 6 g/l ) and sulfate ( 10 . 4 g/l ) levels . To confirm that these chemicals caused polyuria and osmotic diarrhea , respectively , Na ( 2 ) SO ( 4 ) ( 5-20 g/l ) or NaCl ( 16 . 5 g/l ) was provided to rats in drinking water . Water consumption was increased at 5 and 10-g Na ( 2 ) SO ( 4 ) /l and with NaCl . Pup weights were reduced at 20-g Na ( 2 ) SO ( 4 ) /l . Dose-related incidences and severity of polyuria and diarrhea occurred in Na ( 2 ) SO ( 4 ) -treated rats ; perinasal staining was seen at 20 g/l . NaCl caused polyuria and perinasal staining , but not diarrhea . Subsequently , water was concentrated approximately 120-fold and sulfate levels were reduced by barium hydroxide before chlorination , yielding lower sodium (
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: A developmental toxicity bioassay was used in three experiments to evaluate water concentrates for suitability in multigenerational studies . First , chlorinated water was concentrated 135-fold by reverse osmosis ; select lost disinfection by-products were spiked back . Concentrate was provided as drinking water to Sprague-Dawley and F344 rats from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 6 . Maternal serum levels of luteinizing hormone on gestation day 10 were unaffected by treatment for both strains . Treated dams had increased water consumption , and increased incidences of polyuria , diarrhea , and ( in Sprague-Dawley rats ) red perinasal staining . Pup weights were reduced . An increased incidence of eye defects was seen in F344 litters .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: A developmental toxicity bioassay was used in three experiments to evaluate water concentrates for suitability in multigenerational studies . First , chlorinated water was concentrated 135-fold by reverse osmosis ; select lost disinfection by-products were spiked back . Concentrate was provided as drinking water to Sprague-Dawley and F344 rats from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 6 . Maternal serum levels of luteinizing hormone on gestation day 10 were unaffected by treatment for both strains . Treated dams had increased water consumption , and increased incidences of polyuria , diarrhea , and ( in Sprague-Dawley rats ) red perinasal staining . Pup weights were reduced . An increased incidence of eye defects was seen in F344 litters . Chemical analysis of the concentrate revealed high sodium ( 6 . 6 g/l ) and sulfate ( 10 . 4 g/l ) levels . To confirm that these chemicals caused polyuria and osmotic diarrhea , respectively , Na ( 2 ) SO ( 4 ) ( 5-20 g/l ) or NaCl ( 16 . 5 g/l ) was provided to rats in drinking water .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Diagnosis and treatment of ankle sprains .
Journal: Citation: V : 19 ( 3 ) P : 36-9 , 43 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8008261 Accession (PMID): 8008261
Abstract: Clinicians in ambulatory and primary care are almost guaranteed , at some point in their practice , to encounter a patient who has suffered an ankle injury . They must be prepared to diagnose , treat , and refer appropriately . By understanding the anatomy of the ankle , the health care provider will understand the mechanisms and common types of injury . By using techniques of inspection , palpation , and performing the anterior drawer and talar tilt tests , the clinician can grade a sprain accordingly , and refer for x-rays or orthopedic consultation appropriately . The principles of RICE ( rest , ice , compression , elevation ) are explained and different treatment methodologies for grades I to III of sprain are discussed .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Clinicians in ambulatory and primary care are almost guaranteed , at some point in their practice , to encounter a patient who has suffered an ankle injury . They must be prepared to diagnose , treat , and refer appropriately . By understanding the anatomy of the ankle , the health care provider will understand the mechanisms and common types of injury . By using techniques of inspection , palpation , and performing the anterior drawer and talar tilt tests , the clinician can grade a sprain accordingly , and refer for x-rays or orthopedic consultation appropriately . The principles of RICE ( rest , ice , compression , elevation ) are explained and different treatment methodologies for grades I to III of sprain are discussed .
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Clinicians in ambulatory and primary care are almost guaranteed , at some point in their practice , to encounter a patient who has suffered an ankle injury . They must be prepared to diagnose , treat , and refer appropriately . By understanding the anatomy of the ankle , the health care provider will understand the mechanisms and common types of injury . By using techniques of inspection , palpation , and performing the anterior drawer and talar tilt tests , the clinician can grade a sprain accordingly , and refer for x-rays or orthopedic consultation appropriately . The principles of RICE ( rest , ice , compression , elevation ) are explained and different treatment methodologies for grades I to III of sprain are discussed .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Small-scale field evaluation of the monomolecular surface film Arosurf MSF against Anopheles arabiensis Patton .
Journal: Acta Trop . Citation: V : 56 ( 4 ) P : 365-9 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8023759 Accession (PMID): 8023759
Abstract: A field trial was conducted to test the insecticidal action of the monolayer surface film Arosurf MSF applied by knapsack sprayers , against larvae and pupae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton in a rice irrigation scheme in Western Kenya . Larval and pupal densities and the number of emerging adults were determined by dipping and emergence cages respectively . Application of the monolayer by knapsack sprayers provided good coverage . There were high daily mortalities of the fourth instar larvae , with no adult emergence from Arosurf MSF treated plots compared to lower fourth instar mortalities and continuous adult emergence from untreated control plots , indicating the potential of the monolayer for control of An . arabiensis mosquitoes in rice fields .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: A field trial was conducted to test the insecticidal action of the monolayer surface film Arosurf MSF applied by knapsack sprayers , against larvae and pupae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton in a rice irrigation scheme in Western Kenya . Larval and pupal densities and the number of emerging adults were determined by dipping and emergence cages respectively . Application of the monolayer by knapsack sprayers provided good coverage . There were high daily mortalities of the fourth instar larvae , with no adult emergence from Arosurf MSF treated plots compared to lower fourth instar mortalities and continuous adult emergence from untreated control plots , indicating the potential of the monolayer for control of An . arabiensis mosquitoes in rice fields .
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: A field trial was conducted to test the insecticidal action of the monolayer surface film Arosurf MSF applied by knapsack sprayers , against larvae and pupae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton in a rice irrigation scheme in Western Kenya . Larval and pupal densities and the number of emerging adults were determined by dipping and emergence cages respectively . Application of the monolayer by knapsack sprayers provided good coverage . There were high daily mortalities of the fourth instar larvae , with no adult emergence from Arosurf MSF treated plots compared to lower fourth instar mortalities and continuous adult emergence from untreated control plots , indicating the potential of the monolayer for control of An . arabiensis mosquitoes in rice fields .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Fertile transgenic wheat from microprojectile bombardment of scutellar it issue .
Journal: Plant J Citation: V : 5 ( 2 ) P : 299-307 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8148881 Accession (PMID): 8148881
Abstract: A reproducible transformation system for hexaploid wheat was developed based on particle bombardment of scutellar it issue of immature embryos . Particle bombardment was carried out using a PDS 1000/He gun . Plant material was bombarded with the plasmid pDB1 containing the beta-glucuronidase gene ( uidA ) under the control of the actin-1 promoter of rice , and the selectable marker gene bar ( phosphinothricin acetyltransferase ) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter . Selection was carried out using the herbicide Basta ( Glufosinate-ammonium ) . From a total number of 1050 bombarded immature embryos , in seven independent transformation experiments , 59 plants could be regenerated . Putative transformants were screened for enzyme activity by the histochemical GUS assay using cut leaf material and by spraying the whole plants with an aqueous solution of the herbicide Basta . Twelve regenerants survived Basta spraying and showed GUS-activity . Southern-blot analysis indicated the presence of introduced foreign genes in the genomic DNA of the transformants and both marker genes were present in all plants analysed . To date , four plants have been grown to maturity and set seed . Histochemically stained pollen grains showed a 1 : 1 segregation of the uidA gene in all plants tested . A 3 : 1 segregation of the introduced genes was demonstrated by enzyme activity tests and Southern blot analysis of R1 plants .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Particle bombardment was carried out using a PDS 1000/He gun . Plant material was bombarded with the plasmid pDB1 containing the beta-glucuronidase gene ( uidA ) under the control of the actin-1 promoter of rice , and the selectable marker gene bar ( phosphinothricin acetyltransferase ) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter . Selection was carried out using the herbicide Basta ( Glufosinate-ammonium ) . From a total number of 1050 bombarded immature embryos , in seven independent transformation experiments , 59 plants could be regenerated . Putative transformants were screened for enzyme activity by the histochemical GUS assay using cut leaf material and by spraying the whole plants with an aqueous solution of the herbicide Basta . Twelve regenerants survived Basta spraying and showed GUS-activity . Southern-blot analysis indicated the presence of introduced foreign genes in the genomic DNA of the transformants and both marker genes were present in all plants analysed . To date , four plants have been grown to maturity and set seed . Histochemically stained pollen grains showed a 1 : 1 segregation of the uidA gene in all plants tested .
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Plant material was bombarded with the plasmid pDB1 containing the beta-glucuronidase gene ( uidA ) under the control of the actin-1 promoter of rice , and the selectable marker gene bar ( phosphinothricin acetyltransferase ) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter . Selection was carried out using the herbicide Basta ( Glufosinate-ammonium ) . From a total number of 1050 bombarded immature embryos , in seven independent transformation experiments , 59 plants could be regenerated . Putative transformants were screened for enzyme activity by the histochemical GUS assay using cut leaf material and by spraying the whole plants with an aqueous solution of the herbicide Basta . Twelve regenerants survived Basta spraying and showed GUS-activity . Southern-blot analysis indicated the presence of introduced foreign genes in the genomic DNA of the transformants and both marker genes were present in all plants analysed . To date , four plants have been grown to maturity and set seed . Histochemically stained pollen grains showed a 1 : 1 segregation of the uidA gene in all plants tested . A 3 : 1 segregation of the introduced genes was demonstrated by enzyme activity tests and Southern blot analysis of R1 plants .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite and entomological inoculation rates at the Ahero rice irrigation scheme and the Miwani sugar-belt in western Kenya .
Journal: Ann . Trop . Med . Parasitol . Citation: V : 87 ( 4 ) P : 379-91 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8250629 Accession (PMID): 8250629
Abstract: Anopheles arabiensis and An . funestus were collected by pyrethrum spray sheet collections in houses and by human-bait catches at a village in western Kenya adjacent to the Ahero rice irrigation scheme ; and using the same methods , An . gambiae s . l . and An . funestus were collected at Miwani , a village in the sugar-cane belt . Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates were determined by ELISA . At Ahero the mean sporozoite rates were 1 . 1% and 4 . 3% in An . arabiensis and An . funestus , respectively , while at Miwani the rates were 6 . 0% in An . gambiae s . l . and 4 . 3% in An . funestus . Entomolgoical inoculation rates ( EIR ) were derived from both human-bait collections ( IR-HBC ) and by the proportion of human blood-fed females caught resting indoors ( IR-HBF ) . The IR-HBF appeared to be a more realistic index of EIR . At Ahero and Miwani people were exposed to an average of 416 and 91 infective bites/person/year , respectively . The main vectors were An . funestus at Ahero and An . gambiae s . l . at Miwani . In view of the intense and perennial malaria transmission at Ahero , vector control by insecticides should be considered , while at Miwani , where transmission is seasonal , permethrin-impregnated bed nets could be an alternative to indoor spraying . These measures must be augmented with availability of effective antimalarials .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Anopheles arabiensis and An . funestus were collected by pyrethrum spray sheet collections in houses and by human-bait catches at a village in western Kenya adjacent to the Ahero rice irrigation scheme ; and using the same methods , An . gambiae s . l . and An . funestus were collected at Miwani , a village in the sugar-cane belt . Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates were determined by ELISA . At Ahero the mean sporozoite rates were 1 . 1% and 4 . 3% in An . arabiensis and An . funestus , respectively , while at Miwani the rates were 6 . 0% in An . gambiae s . l . and 4 . 3% in An . funestus . Entomolgoical inoculation rates ( EIR ) were derived from both human-bait collections ( IR-HBC ) and by the proportion of human blood-fed females caught resting indoors ( IR-HBF ) . The IR-HBF appeared to be a more realistic index of EIR .
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Entomolgoical inoculation rates ( EIR ) were derived from both human-bait collections ( IR-HBC ) and by the proportion of human blood-fed females caught resting indoors ( IR-HBF ) . The IR-HBF appeared to be a more realistic index of EIR . At Ahero and Miwani people were exposed to an average of 416 and 91 infective bites/person/year , respectively . The main vectors were An . funestus at Ahero and An . gambiae s . l . at Miwani . In view of the intense and perennial malaria transmission at Ahero , vector control by insecticides should be considered , while at Miwani , where transmission is seasonal , permethrin-impregnated bed nets could be an alternative to indoor spraying . These measures must be augmented with availability of effective antimalarials .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: [ Rice : source of life and death on the plateaux of Madagascar ]
Journal: Citation: V : 6 ( 2 ) P : 79-86 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub8705134 Accession (PMID): 8705134
Abstract: Since the 17th century , Europeans travelling in Madagascar described the contrast between the fever-free Plateau and the fever-ridden coasts . The former were inhabited by people of Asiatic origins and the latter by African migrants . At the end of the 18th century , "Merina" kings developed land irrigation and rice cultivation , using manpower from the coasts . Since then , rice has become a monoculture covering most of the arable lands of the Highlands . The first malaria epidemic occurred in the Tananarive area in 1878 , and rapidly spread throughout the Plateau . The mortality rate was high . A second epidemic in 1895 may have been a resurgence of the previous one . Subsequently , malaria became meso-epidemic despite control measures , mainly consisting of larvivorous fishes , quinine treatment and prophylaxis . In 1949 , an eradication program was launched based on DDT house-spraying and chloroquine prophylaxis in children . It was very successful on the Highlands where malaria disappeared , in 1962 . Spraying was cancelled and only three small foci remained under surveillance . In 1987 and 1988 , a malaria outbreak devastated the plateau . Subsequently , intensive spraying operations brought the situation under control by 1993 . The main malaria vector on the Madagascar Highlands is An . funestus . More than 95% of its breeding sites are in the rice fields just before the harvest and afterwards in the fallow lands . The vector peak and the corresponding peak of malaria cases occur between February and May , depending on the farming calender . The second but less important vector , An . arabiensis , breeds in the rice fields just after seeding when the surface water is sunlit . Although rice fields remain the main source of this vector , it also breeds in rainwater pods and borow-pits . Malaria vectors on the plateau are products of human activities of rice cultivation , which is the basis of the economy . The epidemiological importance of rice fields varies greatly from one country to another . In Southeast Asia , the rice fields harbor several anopheline species most of which are only vectors of P vivax . In West Africa where malaria is holoendemic , they produce large populations of An . gambiae ; however , the malaria pattern is unaltered and remains at peak levels . In the dry areas of southern Madagascar , the vector An . funestus and meso-hyperendemic malaria are restricted to areas of cultivated rice . In West and Central Africa , An . funestus is never found in rice fields even though it is common in marshes . In Madagascar , this vector breeds in irrigated rice fields . Because it is practically impossible to control anophelines in rice fields by chemical , biological and ecological methods on the Highlands of Madagascar , house-spraying remains the best method for mass malaria control . Bed-nets impregnated with pesticides may offer an alternative , but their use is resisted by the local population .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: A second epidemic in 1895 may have been a resurgence of the previous one . Subsequently , malaria became meso-epidemic despite control measures , mainly consisting of larvivorous fishes , quinine treatment and prophylaxis . In 1949 , an eradication program was launched based on DDT house-spraying and chloroquine prophylaxis in children . It was very successful on the Highlands where malaria disappeared , in 1962 . Spraying was cancelled and only three small foci remained under surveillance . In 1987 and 1988 , a malaria outbreak devastated the plateau . Subsequently , intensive spraying operations brought the situation under control by 1993 . The main malaria vector on the Madagascar Highlands is An . funestus . More than 95% of its breeding sites are in the rice fields just before the harvest and afterwards in the fallow lands .
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: In 1949 , an eradication program was launched based on DDT house-spraying and chloroquine prophylaxis in children . It was very successful on the Highlands where malaria disappeared , in 1962 . Spraying was cancelled and only three small foci remained under surveillance . In 1987 and 1988 , a malaria outbreak devastated the plateau . Subsequently , intensive spraying operations brought the situation under control by 1993 . The main malaria vector on the Madagascar Highlands is An . funestus . More than 95% of its breeding sites are in the rice fields just before the harvest and afterwards in the fallow lands . The vector peak and the corresponding peak of malaria cases occur between February and May , depending on the farming calender . The second but less important vector , An . arabiensis , breeds in the rice fields just after seeding when the surface water is sunlit .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 2.00
Title: Acceptability , safety , and digestibility of spray-dried bovine serum added to diets of recovering malnourished children .
Journal: J Pediatr . Gastroenterol . Nutr . Citation: V : 25 ( 4 ) P : 381-4 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub9327366 Accession (PMID): 9327366
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Specially collected , spray-dried bovine and porcine blood plasma have been incorporated previously in feeds of weanling farm animals , resulting in increased dietary intakes and greater rates of weight gain than observed in control animals . Before conducting similar trials in human populations , preliminary studies have been completed to assess the acceptability , safety , and digestibility of processed animal plasma in young children . METHODS : Masked study diets were provided sequentially to each of ten young , Peruvian children recovering from severe protein-energy malnutrition during three randomly ordered 7-day dietary periods . The control diet was prepared from rice , milk , vegetable oil , and sugar ; the two study diets included spray-dried , bovine serum concentrate to replace either 25% or 50% of the milk protein of the control diet . Urine and feces were collected quantitatively during the last four days of each diet period to assess stool weight , apparent absorption of macronutrients , and retention of nitrogen . RESULTS : All children consumed the entire amounts offered of each of the diets . The mean number of daily bowel movements and mean apparent absorption and retention of nitrogen and mean apparent absorption of carbohydrate were similar for each diet . Fractional absorption of dietary lipid and of total energy increased significantly in relation to the amount of bovine serum concentrate in the diet , although this might be explained by the simultaneous replacement of milk fat with additional vegetable oil . CONCLUSIONS : Each of the diets was well accepted by the study children , and there was no evidence of any adverse effects of bovine serum concentrate .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Specially collected , spray-dried bovine and porcine blood plasma have been incorporated previously in feeds of weanling farm animals , resulting in increased dietary intakes and greater rates of weight gain than observed in control animals . Before conducting similar trials in human populations , preliminary studies have been completed to assess the acceptability , safety , and digestibility of processed animal plasma in young children . METHODS : Masked study diets were provided sequentially to each of ten young , Peruvian children recovering from severe protein-energy malnutrition during three randomly ordered 7-day dietary periods . The control diet was prepared from rice , milk , vegetable oil , and sugar ; the two study diets included spray-dried , bovine serum concentrate to replace either 25% or 50% of the milk protein of the control diet . Urine and feces were collected quantitatively during the last four days of each diet period to assess stool weight , apparent absorption of macronutrients , and retention of nitrogen .
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Specially collected , spray-dried bovine and porcine blood plasma have been incorporated previously in feeds of weanling farm animals , resulting in increased dietary intakes and greater rates of weight gain than observed in control animals . Before conducting similar trials in human populations , preliminary studies have been completed to assess the acceptability , safety , and digestibility of processed animal plasma in young children . METHODS : Masked study diets were provided sequentially to each of ten young , Peruvian children recovering from severe protein-energy malnutrition during three randomly ordered 7-day dietary periods . The control diet was prepared from rice , milk , vegetable oil , and sugar ; the two study diets included spray-dried , bovine serum concentrate to replace either 25% or 50% of the milk protein of the control diet . Urine and feces were collected quantitatively during the last four days of each diet period to assess stool weight , apparent absorption of macronutrients , and retention of nitrogen . RESULTS : All children consumed the entire amounts offered of each of the diets . The mean number of daily bowel movements and mean apparent absorption and retention of nitrogen and mean apparent absorption of carbohydrate were similar for each diet . Fractional absorption of dietary lipid and of total energy increased significantly in relation to the amount of bovine serum concentrate in the diet , although this might be explained by the simultaneous replacement of milk fat with additional vegetable oil .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Human semen quality in relation to dietary pesticide exposure and organic diet .
Journal: Arch . Environ . Contam . Toxicol . Citation: V : 37 ( 3 ) P : 415-23 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10473800 Accession (PMID): 10473800
Abstract: The objective of the study was to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that farmers having a high intake of organic grown commodities have a high semen quality due to their expected lower level of dietary pesticides intake . Food frequency data and semen were collected from 256 farmers ( 171 traditional farmers and 85 organic farmers , overall participation rate : 32% ) who were selected from central registers . Each farmer delivered one semen sample before the spraying season started . The farmers were divided into three groups where the commodities from organic production contributed no ( N , 0% ) , medium ( M , 1-49% ) , or a high ( H , 50-100% ) proportion of the fruit and vegetables consumed . Farmers having a high relative intake of organically grown fruit and vegetables also had a high relative consumption of organically produced meat , milk , and bread , and differences were observed comparing the actual mean intake of single commodities , such as rice , potato , and pork meat . The current individual dietary intake of 40 pesticides was estimated using food frequencies and generalized serving size data in combination with data on pesticide concentrations in food commodities as obtained from the National Danish Food Monitoring Program . The estimated pesticide intake was significantly lower among farmers of group H , but for all three groups of farmers the average dietary intake of 40 pesticides was at or below 1% of the acceptable daily intake ( ADI ) except for the dithiocarbamates ( max = 0 . 21 microg/kg day = 2 . 2% ADI ) , methidathion , ( max = 0 . 01 microg/kg day = 1 . 4% ADI ) , and 2-phenylphenol ( max = 0 . 21 microg/kg day = 1 . 1% ADI ) . The median sperm concentration for the three groups of farmers was not significantly different ( p = 0 . 40 , median sperm concentration was N = 62 , M = 44 , and H = 75 million/ml ) . The group of men without organic food intake had a significant lower proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa , but in relation to 14 other semen parameters no significant differences were found between the groups . Intake of 40 individual pesticides was correlated with four semen parameters ( concentration , percentage dead spermatozoa , percentage normal sperm heads , and motility [ VCL ] ) . Five significant correlations ( p value 0 . 01 ) were found among the 160 comparisons in relation to percentage dead spermatozoa : azinphos-methyl , carbaryl , chlorfenson , fenitrothion , and tetradifon . For all of them a lower percentage of dead spermatozoa were found in the groups with a high dietary intake of the specific pesticide . In contrast , for all pesticides evaluated only minor differences were found between the groups when considering spermatozoa concentration , morphology , and motility . In conclusion , the estimated dietary intake of 40 pesticides did not entail a risk of impaired semen quality , but precautions should be taken when generalizing this negative result to populations with a higher dietary exposure level or an intake of other groups of pesticides .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The objective of the study was to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that farmers having a high intake of organic grown commodities have a high semen quality due to their expected lower level of dietary pesticides intake . Food frequency data and semen were collected from 256 farmers ( 171 traditional farmers and 85 organic farmers , overall participation rate : 32% ) who were selected from central registers . Each farmer delivered one semen sample before the spraying season started . The farmers were divided into three groups where the commodities from organic production contributed no ( N , 0% ) , medium ( M , 1-49% ) , or a high ( H , 50-100% ) proportion of the fruit and vegetables consumed . Farmers having a high relative intake of organically grown fruit and vegetables also had a high relative consumption of organically produced meat , milk , and bread , and differences were observed comparing the actual mean intake of single commodities , such as rice , potato , and pork meat . The current individual dietary intake of 40 pesticides was estimated using food frequencies and generalized serving size data in combination with data on pesticide concentrations in food commodities as obtained from the National Danish Food Monitoring Program . The estimated pesticide intake was significantly lower among farmers of group H , but for all three groups of farmers the average dietary intake of 40 pesticides was at or below 1% of the acceptable daily intake ( ADI ) except for the dithiocarbamates ( max = 0 . 21 microg/kg day = 2 . 2% ADI ) , methidathion , ( max = 0 . 01 microg/kg day = 1 . 4% ADI ) , and 2-phenylphenol ( max = 0 . 21 microg/kg day = 1 . 1% ADI ) .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Prediction of pesticide concentrations in the atmosphere using an atmospheric diffusion model ( linear source plume model ) .
Journal: Chemosphere Citation: V : 40 ( 1 ) P : 79-90 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10665448 Accession (PMID): 10665448
Abstract: The foundational model to predict concentration of pesticides in the atmosphere outside of the sprayed area was developed using the results of measured concentration in the atmosphere , in reference to the atmospheric diffusion model utilized for the air pollution prediction model . The atmospheric diffusion model assumes that the applied area was a topographically flat farmland , that wind direction and wind speeds were constant , and the pesticide was constantly discharged from the emission line sources . Therefore the linear source plume model ( LSPLM ) was developed . The concentration in the atmosphere was predicted by assigning the property of the pesticides and various conditions of measurements of the model , and compared with the measured them , then the adaptability of the model was examined . As a result , the correlation between the measured value and the predicted value in paddy and forested areas was significant ( P < 0 . 01 ) although deviations in the order of tens were observed , the measured value and the predicted value were generally in agreement .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The foundational model to predict concentration of pesticides in the atmosphere outside of the sprayed area was developed using the results of measured concentration in the atmosphere , in reference to the atmospheric diffusion model utilized for the air pollution prediction model . The atmospheric diffusion model assumes that the applied area was a topographically flat farmland , that wind direction and wind speeds were constant , and the pesticide was constantly discharged from the emission line sources . Therefore the linear source plume model ( LSPLM ) was developed . The concentration in the atmosphere was predicted by assigning the property of the pesticides and various conditions of measurements of the model , and compared with the measured them , then the adaptability of the model was examined . As a result , the correlation between the measured value and the predicted value in paddy and forested areas was significant ( P < 0 . 01 ) although deviations in the order of tens were observed , the measured value and the predicted value were generally in agreement .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Opening of Rice Floret in Rapid Response to Methyl Jasmonate .
Journal: Citation: V : 18 ( 4 ) P : 153-158 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10688703 Accession (PMID): 10688703
Abstract: Effects of methyl jasmonate ( MeJA ) on rice floret opening were investigated in seven cultivars or hybrid combinations covering various variety types . Intact or excised panicles , judged to have florets just before anthesis , were soaked in 4 x 10 ( -5 ) - 4 x 10 ( -3 ) M MeJA solutions for 2 min at different temperatures . The results indicated that MeJA significantly induced opening of rice florets within about 30 min , with the most rapid induction occurring just 6 min after treatment . Numbers of induced opening florets are correlated with MeJA concentrations . Higher concentrations of MeJA induced more florets . pH values had no influence on MeJA effect , but MeJA required less time and induced more florets at 34 degrees C than at 25 degrees C As far as we know , this is the first evidence that floret opening is induced by plant hormones . CO ( 2 ) evolution from panicles was also increased by MeJA treatment . Field experiments revealed that perfect flowering synchrony between the cytoplasmic male sterile ( CMS ) and restorer lines in hybrid seed production could be obtained by spraying MeJA solution on CMS line plants at the rate of 25 mg/m ( 2 ) . As a result , many more hybrid seeds were harvested .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The results indicated that MeJA significantly induced opening of rice florets within about 30 min , with the most rapid induction occurring just 6 min after treatment . Numbers of induced opening florets are correlated with MeJA concentrations . Higher concentrations of MeJA induced more florets . pH values had no influence on MeJA effect , but MeJA required less time and induced more florets at 34 degrees C than at 25 degrees C As far as we know , this is the first evidence that floret opening is induced by plant hormones . CO ( 2 ) evolution from panicles was also increased by MeJA treatment . Field experiments revealed that perfect flowering synchrony between the cytoplasmic male sterile ( CMS ) and restorer lines in hybrid seed production could be obtained by spraying MeJA solution on CMS line plants at the rate of 25 mg/m ( 2 ) . As a result , many more hybrid seeds were harvested .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Cholesterol supplementation attenuates the hypocholesterolemic effect of rice bran oil in rats .
Journal: J Nutr . Sci . Vitaminol . Citation: V : 46 ( 2 ) P : 58-64 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10885791 Accession (PMID): 10885791
Abstract: Rice bran oil ( RBO ) , when blended with safflower oil ( SFO ) at the ratio of 7 to 3 , has been shown to lower serum cholesterol in humans consuming cholesterol . The mechanism as to how this oil blend exerts its effect is not yet clear . This study examined the effect of cholesterol supplementation on the cholesterol-lowering ability of different RBO/SFO blends . Male Sprague Dawley rats ( 4 wk old ) were fed purified diets containing 10% fat with or without the addition of 0 . 5% cholesterol for 3 wk . The fat was either SFO or RBO alone , or the mixture of these two oils at the ratio of 7 : 3 ( 7S/3R ) , 5 : 5 ( 5S/5R ) , or 3 : 7 ( 3S/7R ) . Without cholesterol supplementation , there were no significant differences in the serum and liver total cholesterol levels among different dietary fats . However , the HDL cholesterol level of rats fed the RBO-containing diets ( especially in rats fed the 3S/7R diet ) was higher than that of rats fed the diet containing SFO alone . This resulted in an increase in the ratio of HDL/total cholesterol-a desirable outcome . Supplementation of the diets with 0 . 5% cholesterol significantly increased the cholesterol level in both the serum and the liver . Increasing the proportion of RBO in the diet further raised the total cholesterol level in the serum whereas it reduced liver cholesterol . Then , the specific effect of the 3S/7R mixture on the ratio of HDL/total cholesterol disappeared . These findings suggest that cholesterol supplemented at the level of 0 . 5% in this study masked the cholesterol-lowering effect of RBO . Smaller percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acid ( ie , 18 : 2n-6 ) in the RBO-containing diets than in the SFO diet might have reduced their ability to dispose the circulating serum cholesterol into the liver .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Rice bran oil ( RBO ) , when blended with safflower oil ( SFO ) at the ratio of 7 to 3 , has been shown to lower serum cholesterol in humans consuming cholesterol . The mechanism as to how this oil blend exerts its effect is not yet clear . This study examined the effect of cholesterol supplementation on the cholesterol-lowering ability of different RBO/SFO blends . Male Sprague Dawley rats ( 4 wk old ) were fed purified diets containing 10% fat with or without the addition of 0 . 5% cholesterol for 3 wk . The fat was either SFO or RBO alone , or the mixture of these two oils at the ratio of 7 : 3 ( 7S/3R ) , 5 : 5 ( 5S/5R ) , or 3 : 7 ( 3S/7R ) . Without cholesterol supplementation , there were no significant differences in the serum and liver total cholesterol levels among different dietary fats . However , the HDL cholesterol level of rats fed the RBO-containing diets ( especially in rats fed the 3S/7R diet ) was higher than that of rats fed the diet containing SFO alone . This resulted in an increase in the ratio of HDL/total cholesterol-a desirable outcome .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ Genetic studies of blast resistance of indica variety Zhefu 802 ]
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 27 ( 3 ) P : 235-9 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10887695 Accession (PMID): 10887695
Abstract: One indica variety , Zhefu 802 , was studied for its inheritance of blast resistance by inoculation of two strains Ken54-04 and 95-t2 . The B1F1 and F2 populations from cross of Zhefu 802 ( R ) x Lijiangxintuanheigu ( S ) and related parents were inoculated by spray inoculation method with the two above mentioned strains to determine R : S ratio of segregating populations of this cross . The results indicated that Zhefu 802 has two dominant resistance genes to strain Ken 54-04 . One of the two genes showed resistant reaction and the other is susceptible to strain 95-t2 . The allelism test indicated that one gene in Zhefu 802 , which showed resistant reaction to strain 95-t2 , is allelic to Pi-i gene locus and non-allelic to loci of Pi-a , Pi-sh , Pi-k , Pi-z , Pi-ta , Pi-b , Pi-t . The other gene in this variety was also estimated to be different from all of the known genes . So it may be an unknown gene . But this point needs to be confirmed further .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: One indica variety , Zhefu 802 , was studied for its inheritance of blast resistance by inoculation of two strains Ken54-04 and 95-t2 . The B1F1 and F2 populations from cross of Zhefu 802 ( R ) x Lijiangxintuanheigu ( S ) and related parents were inoculated by spray inoculation method with the two above mentioned strains to determine R : S ratio of segregating populations of this cross . The results indicated that Zhefu 802 has two dominant resistance genes to strain Ken 54-04 . One of the two genes showed resistant reaction and the other is susceptible to strain 95-t2 . The allelism test indicated that one gene in Zhefu 802 , which showed resistant reaction to strain 95-t2 , is allelic to Pi-i gene locus and non-allelic to loci of Pi-a , Pi-sh , Pi-k , Pi-z , Pi-ta , Pi-b , Pi-t . The other gene in this variety was also estimated to be different from all of the known genes .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Cerebroside elicitors found in diverse phytopathogens activate defense responses in rice plants .
Journal: Plant Cell Physiol . Citation: V : 41 ( 6 ) P : 676-83 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10945336 Accession (PMID): 10945336
Abstract: Cerebrosides A and C , compounds categorized as glycosphingolipids , were isolated in our previous study from the rice blast fungus ( Magnaporthe grisea ) as novel elicitors which induce the synthesis of rice phytoalexins . In this paper , these cerebroside elicitors showed phytoalexin-inducing activity when applied to plants by spray treatment and also induced the expression of pathogenesis-related ( PR ) proteins in rice leaves . This elicitor activity of the cerebrosides showed the structural specificity as that for the induction of phytoalexins . Ceramides prepared from the cerebrosides by removal of glucose also showed the elicitor activity even in lower level compared to the cerebrosides . In field experiments , the cerebroside elicitors effectively protected rice plants against the rice blast fungus , an economically devastating agent of disease of rice in Japan . The cerebrosides elicitors protected rice plants from other disease as well and were found to occur in a wide range of different phytopathogens , indicating that cerebrosides function as general elicitors in a wide variety of rice-pathogen interactions .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Cerebrosides A and C , compounds categorized as glycosphingolipids , were isolated in our previous study from the rice blast fungus ( Magnaporthe grisea ) as novel elicitors which induce the synthesis of rice phytoalexins . In this paper , these cerebroside elicitors showed phytoalexin-inducing activity when applied to plants by spray treatment and also induced the expression of pathogenesis-related ( PR ) proteins in rice leaves . This elicitor activity of the cerebrosides showed the structural specificity as that for the induction of phytoalexins . Ceramides prepared from the cerebrosides by removal of glucose also showed the elicitor activity even in lower level compared to the cerebrosides . In field experiments , the cerebroside elicitors effectively protected rice plants against the rice blast fungus , an economically devastating agent of disease of rice in Japan . The cerebrosides elicitors protected rice plants from other disease as well and were found to occur in a wide range of different phytopathogens , indicating that cerebrosides function as general elicitors in a wide variety of rice-pathogen interactions .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Genetic diversity and disease control in rice .
Journal: Nature Citation: V : 406 ( 6797 ) P : 718-22 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10963595 Accession (PMID): 10963595
Abstract: Crop heterogeneity is a possible solution to the vulnerability of monocultured crops to disease . Both theory and observation indicate that genetic heterogeneity provides greater disease suppression when used over large areas , though experimental data are lacking . Here we report a unique cooperation among farmers , researchers and extension personnel in Yunnan Province , China--genetically diversified rice crops were planted in all the rice fields in five townships in 1998 and ten townships in 1999 . Control plots of monocultured crops allowed us to calculate the effect of diversity on the severity of rice blast , the major disease of rice . Disease-susceptible rice varieties planted in mixtures with resistant varieties had 89% greater yield and blast was 94% less severe than when they were grown in monoculture . The experiment was so successful that fungicidal sprays were no longer applied by the end of the two-year programme . Our results support the view that intraspecific crop diversification provides an ecological approach to disease control that can be highly effective over a large area and contribute to the sustainability of crop production .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Both theory and observation indicate that genetic heterogeneity provides greater disease suppression when used over large areas , though experimental data are lacking . Here we report a unique cooperation among farmers , researchers and extension personnel in Yunnan Province , China--genetically diversified rice crops were planted in all the rice fields in five townships in 1998 and ten townships in 1999 . Control plots of monocultured crops allowed us to calculate the effect of diversity on the severity of rice blast , the major disease of rice . Disease-susceptible rice varieties planted in mixtures with resistant varieties had 89% greater yield and blast was 94% less severe than when they were grown in monoculture . The experiment was so successful that fungicidal sprays were no longer applied by the end of the two-year programme . Our results support the view that intraspecific crop diversification provides an ecological approach to disease control that can be highly effective over a large area and contribute to the sustainability of crop production .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Mycotoxin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolates from rice with Fusarium sheath rot disease .
Journal: Mycopathologia Citation: V : 147 ( 2 ) P : 97-104 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub10967968 Accession (PMID): 10967968
Abstract: Twenty samples of unpolished ( rough ) rice collected in Arkansas and Texas during the 1995 harvesting season from fields exhibiting Fusarium sheath rot disease or panicle blight were previously shown to include 8 samples positive for fumonisin B1 ( FB1 ) in the range 2 . 2-5 . 2 ppm , and moniliformin ( MON ) , but no beauvericin ( BEA ) , deoxynivalenol , its derivatives or zearalenone were detected . Fifteen cultures of F proliferatum were established from the 20 rough rice samples . Single spore isolates of each culture were grown on rice and tested for the production of fumonisins ( FB1 , FB2 , FB3 , etc ) , MON and BEA . All 15 isolates produced FB1 , FB2 , MON and BEA in culture on rice . No deoxynivalenol , its derivatives or zearalenone were detected . Seven cultures produced FB1 at > 50 ppm ( range 80-230 ppm ) , with the rest producing FB1 in the range 14-43 ppm . FB2 was produced in the range 5-47 ppm , and those cultures which produced the most FB1 also produced the most FB2 . Of the 15 cultures producing MON , 11 produced it at > 100 ppm in the range 188-6018 ppm , with the rest producing in the range 7-64 ppm . BEA was produced in the range 109-1350 ppm . Other derivatives of fumonisins , including FA1 , FA2 and partially hydrolyzed FB1 , as well as several unknown metabolites including a compound with MW 414 , were identified in culture extracts by continuous flow fast atom bombardment with ion spray mass spectrometry ( CF/FAB/MS ) . Further study is needed to identify the factors that control production of FB1 , MON and BEA by F proliferatum in culture and in field samples .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 10, subscore: 1.00 ]: Seven cultures produced FB1 at > 50 ppm ( range 80-230 ppm ) , with the rest producing FB1 in the range 14-43 ppm . FB2 was produced in the range 5-47 ppm , and those cultures which produced the most FB1 also produced the most FB2 . Of the 15 cultures producing MON , 11 produced it at > 100 ppm in the range 188-6018 ppm , with the rest producing in the range 7-64 ppm . BEA was produced in the range 109-1350 ppm . Other derivatives of fumonisins , including FA1 , FA2 and partially hydrolyzed FB1 , as well as several unknown metabolites including a compound with MW 414 , were identified in culture extracts by continuous flow fast atom bombardment with ion spray mass spectrometry ( CF/FAB/MS ) . Further study is needed to identify the factors that control production of FB1 , MON and BEA by F proliferatum in culture and in field samples .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Assessment of renal toxicity by analysis of regeneration of tubular epithelium in rats given low-dose cadmium chloride or cadmium-polluted rice for 22 months .
Journal: Arch . Toxicol . Citation: V : 74 ( 10 ) P : 571-7 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11201662 Accession (PMID): 11201662
Abstract: To determine whether low-dose oral administration of cadmium ( Cd ) induces renal toxicity , six groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing low amounts of CdCl2 or Cd-polluted rice at concentrations up to 40 ppm , and were killed after 12 , 18 , and 22 months ( experiment 1 ) . In addition to the determination of cortical Cd levels and histopathological assessment of kidneys , labeling indices ( LIs ) for proliferating cell nuclear antigen ( PCNA ) in the renal cortical tubular epithelium of Cd-treated rats were determined as a measure of regenerative activity . For comparison , the kidneys of rats given diets containing small to large amounts of CdCl2 up to 600 ppm for 4 months were similarly examined ( experiment 2 ) . Animals in experiment 1 demonstrated spontaneous chronic nephropathy and fluctuation in the tubular PCNA LI , but these findings were not correlated with renal Cd levels at 22 months . PCNA LI on the other hand , appeared to be linked to the severity of chronic nephropathy . In experiment 2 , levels of CdCl2 of 200 ppm or more clearly induced degeneration and apoptosis of proximal tubules with high correlations between renal Cd levels , PCNA LI , and the severity of tubular degeneration . The results demonstrated that , in contrast to high-dose Cd administration , treatment with 40 ppm or less for 22 months did not influence tubular regeneration as a component of nonspecific chronic nephropathy , suggesting that long-term oral administration of low levels of Cd does not injure renal tubules in female rats .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: To determine whether low-dose oral administration of cadmium ( Cd ) induces renal toxicity , six groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing low amounts of CdCl2 or Cd-polluted rice at concentrations up to 40 ppm , and were killed after 12 , 18 , and 22 months ( experiment 1 ) . In addition to the determination of cortical Cd levels and histopathological assessment of kidneys , labeling indices ( LIs ) for proliferating cell nuclear antigen ( PCNA ) in the renal cortical tubular epithelium of Cd-treated rats were determined as a measure of regenerative activity . For comparison , the kidneys of rats given diets containing small to large amounts of CdCl2 up to 600 ppm for 4 months were similarly examined ( experiment 2 ) . Animals in experiment 1 demonstrated spontaneous chronic nephropathy and fluctuation in the tubular PCNA LI , but these findings were not correlated with renal Cd levels at 22 months . PCNA LI on the other hand , appeared to be linked to the severity of chronic nephropathy .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Flavor production from a non-stick oil by moulds .
Journal: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi Citation: V : 42 ( 1 ) P : 7-12 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11383159 Accession (PMID): 11383159
Abstract: Natural flavor was accidentally produced from rice cake products in Japan . A non-stick oil had been sprayed on the products during the production process . It was found that a Penicillium corylophilum strain , a contaminant of the oil , produced the flavor from the oil . The ingredients of the flavor were four volatile substances , 2-heptanone , 2-nonanone , 2-heptanol , and 2-nonanol . Challenge tests with the mould strain in a rice cake system were performed under various conditions . The volatile substances were produced in the largest amounts at 25 degrees C , followed by 20 or 30 degrees C then 10 degrees C 2-Heptanone was produced most remarkably at 25 degrees C , followed by 2-nonanone , 2-heptanol , and 2-nonanol . The growth patterns of the mould were similar between 20-30 degrees C , and the growth at 10 degrees C was delayed . The non-stick oil itself had neither flavor nor volatile substance . The flavor was also produced from coconut oil , which was one of the materials of the non-stick oil . No bacteria or yeasts tested produced any flavor from the non-stick oil , whereas most of the moulds tested produced flavor components .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Natural flavor was accidentally produced from rice cake products in Japan . A non-stick oil had been sprayed on the products during the production process . It was found that a Penicillium corylophilum strain , a contaminant of the oil , produced the flavor from the oil . The ingredients of the flavor were four volatile substances , 2-heptanone , 2-nonanone , 2-heptanol , and 2-nonanol . Challenge tests with the mould strain in a rice cake system were performed under various conditions . The volatile substances were produced in the largest amounts at 25 degrees C , followed by 20 or 30 degrees C then 10 degrees C 2-Heptanone was produced most remarkably at 25 degrees C , followed by 2-nonanone , 2-heptanol , and 2-nonanol .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Selenium geochemistry of paddy soils in Yangtze River Delta .
Journal: Citation: V : 26 ( 5-6 ) P : 335-9 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11392748 Accession (PMID): 11392748
Abstract: Selenium ( Se ) content both in total and bioavailable forms were very low ( 25-35 and 9 . 5 micrograms/kg , respectively ) in waterlogged paddy soils in the central Yangtze River Delta . This was due to changes in geochemistry and the inherent properties of the parent materials of these lowland paddy soils . The very low Se content ( 23 micrograms/kg ) in the parent material resulted in low total Se content in the soil . The main chemical changes under long-term waterlogged conditions are depletion of molecular oxygen , decrease of redox potential , and reduction of Fe ( III ) to Fe ( II ) and SeO3 ( 2- ) to Se0 . This led to low availability of Se in soils , and subsequently low Se content ( 29 micrograms/kg ) in brown rice grain produced in this region . It has been suspected that low Se content in staple food might be one of the major reasons for a high infection rate of the intestine and stomach cancers and the higher death rate caused by these diseases in the region . Foliage spray of Na2SeO3 at early heading stage of rice plant growth improved the Se content of brown rice grain , hull , and straw , and would improve human and animal health .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: The very low Se content ( 23 micrograms/kg ) in the parent material resulted in low total Se content in the soil . The main chemical changes under long-term waterlogged conditions are depletion of molecular oxygen , decrease of redox potential , and reduction of Fe ( III ) to Fe ( II ) and SeO3 ( 2- ) to Se0 . This led to low availability of Se in soils , and subsequently low Se content ( 29 micrograms/kg ) in brown rice grain produced in this region . It has been suspected that low Se content in staple food might be one of the major reasons for a high infection rate of the intestine and stomach cancers and the higher death rate caused by these diseases in the region . Foliage spray of Na2SeO3 at early heading stage of rice plant growth improved the Se content of brown rice grain , hull , and straw , and would improve human and animal health .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: A new method for assessing foliar uptake of fungicides using Congo Red as a tracer .
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 57 ( 6 ) P : 564-9 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11407035 Accession (PMID): 11407035
Abstract: In order to develop a new method for measuring foliar uptake of fungicides , Congo Red was selected as a tracer , and optimum procedures were established for washing , extracting and analyzing it and fungicides from leaf surfaces . Congo Red , a water-soluble dye , was not absorbed into cucumber or rice leaf , even in the presence of various surfactants , and was completely washable from leaf surfaces by aqueous acetonitrile solutions . Congo Red and fungicides in washings were quantified to calculate the amount of foliar uptake of the latter , by comparing the ratio to Congo Red . The optimum concentration of Congo Red in a formulation should be established in order to minimize its influence on fungicide uptake . Although Congo Red has proved to be useful with a conventional droplet application method , it will give more realistic and practical results with the spraying method used in the present study .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: In order to develop a new method for measuring foliar uptake of fungicides , Congo Red was selected as a tracer , and optimum procedures were established for washing , extracting and analyzing it and fungicides from leaf surfaces . Congo Red , a water-soluble dye , was not absorbed into cucumber or rice leaf , even in the presence of various surfactants , and was completely washable from leaf surfaces by aqueous acetonitrile solutions . Congo Red and fungicides in washings were quantified to calculate the amount of foliar uptake of the latter , by comparing the ratio to Congo Red . The optimum concentration of Congo Red in a formulation should be established in order to minimize its influence on fungicide uptake . Although Congo Red has proved to be useful with a conventional droplet application method , it will give more realistic and practical results with the spraying method used in the present study .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Population-scale laboratory studies of the effect of transgenic plants on nontarget insects .
Journal: Mol . Ecol . Citation: V : 10 ( 7 ) P : 1845-53 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11472551 Accession (PMID): 11472551
Abstract: Studies of the effects of insect-resistant transgenic plants on beneficial insects have , to date , concentrated mainly on either small-scale "worst case scenario" laboratory experiments or on field trials . We present a laboratory method using large population cages that represent an intermediate experimental scale , allowing the study of ecological and behavioural interactions between transgenic plants , pests and their natural enemies under more controlled conditions than is possible in the field . Previous studies have also concentrated on natural enemies of lepidopteran and coleopteran target pests . However , natural enemies of other pests , which are not controlled by the transgenic plants , are also potentially exposed to the transgene product when feeding on hosts . The reduction in the use of insecticides on transgenic crops could lead to increasing problems with such nontarget pests , normally controlled by sprays , especially if there are any negative effects of the transgenic plant on their natural enemies . This study tested two lines of insect-resistant transgenic oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ) for side-effects on the hymenopteran parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and its aphid host , Myzus persicae . One transgenic line expressed the delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) and a second expressed the proteinase inhibitor oryzacystatin I ( OC-I ) from rice . These transgenic plant lines were developed to provide resistance to lepidopteran and coleopteran pests , respectively . No detrimental effects of the transgenic oilseed rape lines on the ability of the parasitoid to control aphid populations were observed . Adult parasitoid emergence and sex ratio were also not consistently altered on the transgenic oilseed rape lines compared with the wild-type lines .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Studies of the effects of insect-resistant transgenic plants on beneficial insects have , to date , concentrated mainly on either small-scale "worst case scenario" laboratory experiments or on field trials . We present a laboratory method using large population cages that represent an intermediate experimental scale , allowing the study of ecological and behavioural interactions between transgenic plants , pests and their natural enemies under more controlled conditions than is possible in the field . Previous studies have also concentrated on natural enemies of lepidopteran and coleopteran target pests . However , natural enemies of other pests , which are not controlled by the transgenic plants , are also potentially exposed to the transgene product when feeding on hosts . The reduction in the use of insecticides on transgenic crops could lead to increasing problems with such nontarget pests , normally controlled by sprays , especially if there are any negative effects of the transgenic plant on their natural enemies . This study tested two lines of insect-resistant transgenic oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ) for side-effects on the hymenopteran parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and its aphid host , Myzus persicae . One transgenic line expressed the delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) and a second expressed the proteinase inhibitor oryzacystatin I ( OC-I ) from rice . These transgenic plant lines were developed to provide resistance to lepidopteran and coleopteran pests , respectively . No detrimental effects of the transgenic oilseed rape lines on the ability of the parasitoid to control aphid populations were observed .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ Current epidemiological malaria situation in Kyrgyzstan ( 1995-1999 ) ]
Journal: Citation: V : -1 P : 33-4 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11548310 Accession (PMID): 11548310
Abstract: Kyzgyzstan is situated in an area which is potentially at risk for malaria . In 1995-1999 , 58 cases of malaria were recorded , six of them were local cases . The factors that promote the spread of malaria in Kyrgyzstan are the widespread and constant migration of people from Tajikistan and close economic ties between Kyrgyzstan and a number of Asian countries with widespread malaria epidemics . Most cases of malaria in Kyrgyzstan were imported from Tajikistan ( 39 cases or 75% of all imported cases ) . Plasmodium vivax , P falciparum and P malariae were identified in 95 . 9 , 1 . 7 , and 2 . 1% , respectively . There is a widespread irrigation network in the country , along with a large number of reservoirs , ponds , lakes , springs , streams , gullies , and marshy floodplains . As of 1 January 2000 , there are 2833 water areas that can support Anopheles mosquitoes , with a total area of 5008 . 5 ha . The total length of the sewerage and drainage system is 5 , 440 km . There is a great potential for the spread of malaria in the south of the republic , ie the Osh and Zhalalabad Regions , especially due to a large number of state rice ( paddy ) fields covering an area of over 3 , 500 ha . Small rice-growing plots close to private dwellings , which are cultivated without any mosquito control measures , currently provide further breeding grounds for mosquitoes . Almost 80% of the population of these areas is at risk for malaria . Almost all species of malaria mosquitoes have been identified in Kyrgyzstan . An . _claviger and An . messeae have too , two other species have also spread through the country , these are An . martinius and An . superpictus which became the main vectors of malaria epidemics in the south in the 1930s-1950s . Large-scale development of the pre-imago stages of the mosquito ( a larval , water-based stage ) takes place 5-7 months within which 4-6 mosquito generations develop . At present , there is a shortage of staff in Kyrgyzstan , especially at a local level , who has thorough knowledge of malaria and experience with its control and who can define the highest priorities and the most appropriate and effective within the Global Malaria Control Strategy at the current stage . Laboratory services are in need of considerable support : stocks of essential supplies for laboratory tests are almost exhausted , there is a shortage of essential equipment , the staff is not well enough trained . There is an acute shortage of insecticides and larvicides for mosquito control . Entomologists have no sufficient insect control equipment to treat water areas ( eg sprayers ) , there is no equipment for monitoring water areas or introducing larvicidal fishlaria ( Gambusiae ) either , and local monitoring is hampered by shortages of vehicles , fuel , and lubricants . Since malaria control is an urgent problem , Kyrgyzstan has developed a comprehensive and integrated malaria programme for 2000-2004 and a plan of actions to study malaria vector resistance to insecticides in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan in 2000 .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 17, subscore: 1.00 ]: Large-scale development of the pre-imago stages of the mosquito ( a larval , water-based stage ) takes place 5-7 months within which 4-6 mosquito generations develop . At present , there is a shortage of staff in Kyrgyzstan , especially at a local level , who has thorough knowledge of malaria and experience with its control and who can define the highest priorities and the most appropriate and effective within the Global Malaria Control Strategy at the current stage . Laboratory services are in need of considerable support : stocks of essential supplies for laboratory tests are almost exhausted , there is a shortage of essential equipment , the staff is not well enough trained . There is an acute shortage of insecticides and larvicides for mosquito control . Entomologists have no sufficient insect control equipment to treat water areas ( eg sprayers ) , there is no equipment for monitoring water areas or introducing larvicidal fishlaria ( Gambusiae ) either , and local monitoring is hampered by shortages of vehicles , fuel , and lubricants . Since malaria control is an urgent problem , Kyrgyzstan has developed a comprehensive and integrated malaria programme for 2000-2004 and a plan of actions to study malaria vector resistance to insecticides in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan in 2000 .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: In vivo pharmacokinetics of pyribenzoxim in rats .
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 57 ( 12 ) P : 1155-60 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11802604 Accession (PMID): 11802604
Abstract: Pyribenzoxim , benzophenone O- [ 2 , 6-bis ( 4 , 6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy ) benzoyl ] oxime , is a new post-emergence herbicide providing broad-spectrum weed control in rice fields . [ 14C ] Pyribenzoxim was used to study the pharmacokinetics of the compound after oral administration of a dose of 1000 mg kg-1 to male Sprague-Dawley rats . The material balance ranged from 97 . 3 to 99 . 7% of the administered dose and urinary and fecal recovery accounted for 97 . 1% , with the majority of radioactivity recovered in feces ( 88 . 6% ) by 168 h after treatment . Elimination as volatile products or as carbon dioxide was negligible . The following values were obtained for the compound in the blood : AUC0-168 h , 28 , 400 micrograms equiv hg-1 ; Tmax , 12 h ; Cmax , 372 micrograms equiv g-1 ; half-life , 53 h . Radioactivity in it issue decreased from 96 . 1% of applied radiocarbon at 6 h to 0 . 4% at 168 h and the highest concentration of radioactivity among the it issues was observed in liver while the lowest residues were found in brain . The elimination half-lives of radioactivity from it issues was in the range of 7 to 77 h and Tmax values of 12 , 24 and 12 h were observed for blood , liver and kidney , respectively . Except for that in the digestive tract , the it issue-to-blood ratio ( TBR ) was highest in the liver .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Pyribenzoxim , benzophenone O- [ 2 , 6-bis ( 4 , 6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy ) benzoyl ] oxime , is a new post-emergence herbicide providing broad-spectrum weed control in rice fields . [ 14C ] Pyribenzoxim was used to study the pharmacokinetics of the compound after oral administration of a dose of 1000 mg kg-1 to male Sprague-Dawley rats . The material balance ranged from 97 . 3 to 99 . 7% of the administered dose and urinary and fecal recovery accounted for 97 . 1% , with the majority of radioactivity recovered in feces ( 88 . 6% ) by 168 h after treatment . Elimination as volatile products or as carbon dioxide was negligible . The following values were obtained for the compound in the blood : AUC0-168 h , 28 , 400 micrograms equiv hg-1 ; Tmax , 12 h ; Cmax , 372 micrograms equiv g-1 ; half-life , 53 h . Radioactivity in it issue decreased from 96 . 1% of applied radiocarbon at 6 h to 0 . 4% at 168 h and the highest concentration of radioactivity among the it issues was observed in liver while the lowest residues were found in brain .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Mode of action of acibenzolar-S-methyl against sheath blight of rice , caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khn .
Journal: Pest Manag . Sci . Citation: V : 58 ( 1 ) P : 63-9 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11838287 Accession (PMID): 11838287
Abstract: The mode of action of acibenzolar-S-methyl ( BTH ) was investigated against sheath blight of rice and its pathogen , Rhizoctonia solani . BTH exhibited limited fungitoxicity against R solani , in the form of reduced mycelial growth , hyphal browning and sclerotia formation . Parasite fitness of mycelia and sclerotia formed on BTH-amended media was also reduced . When applied as soil drench or foliar spray , BTH inhibited both disease development on inoculated sheaths and its spread to the younger sheaths . The degree of protection against sheath blight increased with increase in duration between BTH application and inoculation . The curative effect of BTH was poor . When applied through roots a protective effect of BTH was visible even with only a 1-h interval between application and inoculation . However , in the case of foliar application , protective effect was recorded only when the gap between application and inoculation was 24 h . BTH reduced the frequency of penetration by R solani , colonization of host it issue and spread of the hyphae from primary lesions to form secondary lesions . BTH induced swelling of hyphal tips on the sheath surface , formation of papillae , browning of penetrated epidermal cells and degeneration of intra-cellular hyphae colonizing epidermal and mesophyll cells . Therefore , the protective effect of BTH against sheath blight was due to combination of its host defence-inducing activity and its adverse effect on growth and vigor ( parasite fitness ) of the pathogen .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: The mode of action of acibenzolar-S-methyl ( BTH ) was investigated against sheath blight of rice and its pathogen , Rhizoctonia solani . BTH exhibited limited fungitoxicity against R solani , in the form of reduced mycelial growth , hyphal browning and sclerotia formation . Parasite fitness of mycelia and sclerotia formed on BTH-amended media was also reduced . When applied as soil drench or foliar spray , BTH inhibited both disease development on inoculated sheaths and its spread to the younger sheaths . The degree of protection against sheath blight increased with increase in duration between BTH application and inoculation . The curative effect of BTH was poor . When applied through roots a protective effect of BTH was visible even with only a 1-h interval between application and inoculation . However , in the case of foliar application , protective effect was recorded only when the gap between application and inoculation was 24 h .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Relationship between toxicity and cadmium accumulation in rats given low amounts of cadmium chloride or cadmium-polluted rice for 22 months .
Journal: Citation: V : 26 ( 5 ) P : 337-58 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub11871130 Accession (PMID): 11871130
Abstract: To clarify toxic effects of long-term oral administration of low dose cadmium ( Cd ) on the liver and kidney , six groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing Cd-polluted rice or CdCl2 at concentrations up to 40 ppm , and killed after 12 , 18 , and 22 months . With toxicological parameters , including histopathology , there was no evidence of Cd-related hepato-renal toxicity , despite a slight decrease of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin of red blood cells with 40 ppm CdCl2 . Dose-dependent accumulation of Cd was observed in the liver and kidneys with peak levels of 130 +/- 42 micrograms/g and 120 +/- 20 micrograms/g , respectively , at 18 months in animals treated with 40 ppm CdCl2 . A dose-dependent increase in urinary Cd levels became evident with time . Induction of metallothionein ( MT ) was also observed in the liver and kidney with a high correlation to the corresponding Cd levels . In the proximal renal tubular epithelia of 40 ppm CdCl2-treated rats at 22 months , prominent accumulation of Cd was observed in secondary lysosomes associated with MT deposits in their exocytotic residual bodies . The results demonstrated that , in contrast to the case with high-dose Cd-administration , renal toxicity is not induced by long-term oral administration of low amounts of Cd , although it issue accumulation does occur . Possible protective mechanisms may be operating .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: To clarify toxic effects of long-term oral administration of low dose cadmium ( Cd ) on the liver and kidney , six groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing Cd-polluted rice or CdCl2 at concentrations up to 40 ppm , and killed after 12 , 18 , and 22 months . With toxicological parameters , including histopathology , there was no evidence of Cd-related hepato-renal toxicity , despite a slight decrease of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin of red blood cells with 40 ppm CdCl2 . Dose-dependent accumulation of Cd was observed in the liver and kidneys with peak levels of 130 +/- 42 micrograms/g and 120 +/- 20 micrograms/g , respectively , at 18 months in animals treated with 40 ppm CdCl2 . A dose-dependent increase in urinary Cd levels became evident with time . Induction of metallothionein ( MT ) was also observed in the liver and kidney with a high correlation to the corresponding Cd levels .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Epidemic malaria in the Menoreh Hills of Central Java .
Journal: Am . J Trop . Med . Hyg . Citation: V : 66 ( 3 ) P : 287-92 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12139222 Accession (PMID): 12139222
Abstract: After more than 50 years of effective management , resurgent malaria threatens residents in the Menoreh Hills and the foothills of the Dieng Plateau of Central Java , Indonesia . The Dieng Plateau dominates the highland center of Central Java . The steep Menoreh Hills , surrounded by rice paddy habitats , cover approximately 500 km2 with no peaks greater than 1 , 000 m . We studied epidemic malaria in Purworejo district , one of the three districts containing the Menoreh Hills . Between 1986 and 1995 , the annual parasite incidence ( API ) in Purworejo ranged from 2 to 11 cases per 1 , 000 residents per year and was typically approximately 5 per 1 , 000 . In 2000 the API was 44 . 5 . This sharp increase was confined to subdistricts in and around the Menoreh Hills and Dieng Plateau foothills . The primary vectors of malaria , those favoring steep , forested hillsides on Java , were Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles balabacensis . Deterioration of vector control activity , followed by a severe economic downturn in 1997 , may explain the epidemic . Malaria in the Menoreh Hills and lower Dieng Plateau threatens surrounding areas of rice paddy inhabited by Anopheles aconitus as well as a nearby coastal habitat where the even more efficient vector Anopheles sundaicus occurs in abundance . Most of the 130 million people living on Java never experienced the hyper and holoendemic malaria that occurred throughout most of the island before the effective DDT spraying and chloroquine treatment campaigns of the 1950s . Reintroduced endemic malaria threatens the island of Java .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: This sharp increase was confined to subdistricts in and around the Menoreh Hills and Dieng Plateau foothills . The primary vectors of malaria , those favoring steep , forested hillsides on Java , were Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles balabacensis . Deterioration of vector control activity , followed by a severe economic downturn in 1997 , may explain the epidemic . Malaria in the Menoreh Hills and lower Dieng Plateau threatens surrounding areas of rice paddy inhabited by Anopheles aconitus as well as a nearby coastal habitat where the even more efficient vector Anopheles sundaicus occurs in abundance . Most of the 130 million people living on Java never experienced the hyper and holoendemic malaria that occurred throughout most of the island before the effective DDT spraying and chloroquine treatment campaigns of the 1950s . Reintroduced endemic malaria threatens the island of Java .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Correlation of cytokinin levels in the endosperms and roots with cell number and cell division activity during endosperm development in rice .
Journal: Ann . Bot . Citation: V : 90 ( 3 ) P : 369-77 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12234149 Accession (PMID): 12234149
Abstract: Cell number and cell division activity in rice ( Oryza sativa ) endosperms are possibly regulated by cytokinin levels in the endosperm and its source in the roots . This study tried to find the possible correlations among them . Six rice genotypes were grown in nutrient solution . Two patterns of endosperm cell division , synchronous and asynchronous , were observed among the genotypes based on the cell division rate of superior and inferior spikelets . Contents of zeatin ( Z ) + zeatin riboside ( ZR ) were much higher than those of N6-isopentenyladenine ( iP ) and N6-isopentenyladenosine ( iPR ) in both endosperms and roots . Changes in Z + ZR levels in endosperms were significantly correlated with those in roots , and both were very significantly correlated with the cell division rate . Changes in iP + iPR contents in the roots were not significantly correlated with those in the endosperms and the cell division rate . When roots were treated with kinetin , endosperm cell number and grain weight were increased . Such enhancement was more significantly achieved by the root kinetin treatment than by spraying kinetin on leaves and panicles . The results suggest that the cell number and cell division activity in rice endosperms are regulated by cytokinin levels in the endosperm and that root-derived Z + ZR play a pivotal role .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: Contents of zeatin ( Z ) + zeatin riboside ( ZR ) were much higher than those of N6-isopentenyladenine ( iP ) and N6-isopentenyladenosine ( iPR ) in both endosperms and roots . Changes in Z + ZR levels in endosperms were significantly correlated with those in roots , and both were very significantly correlated with the cell division rate . Changes in iP + iPR contents in the roots were not significantly correlated with those in the endosperms and the cell division rate . When roots were treated with kinetin , endosperm cell number and grain weight were increased . Such enhancement was more significantly achieved by the root kinetin treatment than by spraying kinetin on leaves and panicles . The results suggest that the cell number and cell division activity in rice endosperms are regulated by cytokinin levels in the endosperm and that root-derived Z + ZR play a pivotal role .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ Genetic analysis of blast resistance in japonica rice landrace heikezijing from Taihu region ]
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 29 ( 9 ) P : 803-7 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12561228 Accession (PMID): 12561228
Abstract: Japonica rice landrace Heikezijing ( HKZJ ) from Taihu region is highly resistant to several Chinese and Japanese differential strains of Magnaporthe grisea . The F1 , F2 and RIL populations from the cross between the resistant variety Heikezijing and the susceptible variety Lijiangxintuanheigu ( LJXTHG ) were inoculated by spray with two strains of Ken 54-04 and Hoku 1 in seedling stages . Based on the R : S ratios of segregation in F1 , F2 and RIL populations it was showed that there were two independent dominant genes in Heikezijing in responsible for resistance to strain Ken 54-04 and one dominant R gene to strain Hoku 1 which is the same to one of the two genes resistant to Ken 54-04 . The allelic test indicated that the gene with resistance to both Hoku 1 and Ken 54-04 is non-allelic to loci of Pi-k , Pi-z , Pi-ta , Pi-b and Pi-t , also neither Pi-i nor Pi-a gene . It is necessary to confirm whether it is an unknown gene .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Japonica rice landrace Heikezijing ( HKZJ ) from Taihu region is highly resistant to several Chinese and Japanese differential strains of Magnaporthe grisea . The F1 , F2 and RIL populations from the cross between the resistant variety Heikezijing and the susceptible variety Lijiangxintuanheigu ( LJXTHG ) were inoculated by spray with two strains of Ken 54-04 and Hoku 1 in seedling stages . Based on the R : S ratios of segregation in F1 , F2 and RIL populations it was showed that there were two independent dominant genes in Heikezijing in responsible for resistance to strain Ken 54-04 and one dominant R gene to strain Hoku 1 which is the same to one of the two genes resistant to Ken 54-04 . The allelic test indicated that the gene with resistance to both Hoku 1 and Ken 54-04 is non-allelic to loci of Pi-k , Pi-z , Pi-ta , Pi-b and Pi-t , also neither Pi-i nor Pi-a gene . It is necessary to confirm whether it is an unknown gene .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ Survey of susceptibility of anopheline vectors to insecticides in a malaria mesoendemic area , Hubei Province ]
Journal: Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi Citation: V : 18 ( 3 ) P : 149-51 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12567689 Accession (PMID): 12567689
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To determine the susceptibility of Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis to deltamethrin and DDT in an area where different counter-measures had been adopted . METHODS : The mortality of the vectors was examined by using the standardised WHO test RESULTS : The mortality for tentative diagnostic dose in An . anthropophagus to deltamethrin were 83 . 8% , 83 . 7% and 84 . 7% , respectively in the areas where impregnated net had been used for 1 year or 3 years and DDT residual spraying had been carried out for 3 years , suggesting that An . anthropophagus was an initially resistant group . The LT50 were 8 . 69 , 7 . 48 and 9 . 87 min , respectively . The mortality for tentative diagnostic dose in An . sinensis to deltamethrin and DDT were 76 . 5% , 57 . 0% and 79 . 0% , respectively in three survey areas , suggesting that An . sinensis was a resistant group . The LT50 were 12 . 0 , 15 . 4 and 11 . 2 min , respectively . The mortality for tentative diagnostic dose in An . sinensis to DDT was 95 . 8% in impregnated net area , suggesting that An . anthropophagus was an initially resistant group . The LC50 was 0 . 73% . The mortality for tentative diagnostic dose in An . sinensis to DDT was 44% , suggesting that An . sinensis was a highly resistant group . The LC50 was more than 4% . CONCLUSION : A substantial use of insecticides in the rice paddy field has resulted in resistance of An . sinensis , whereas no apparent resistance of An . anthropophgus has been found .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVE : To determine the susceptibility of Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis to deltamethrin and DDT in an area where different counter-measures had been adopted . METHODS : The mortality of the vectors was examined by using the standardised WHO test RESULTS : The mortality for tentative diagnostic dose in An . anthropophagus to deltamethrin were 83 . 8% , 83 . 7% and 84 . 7% , respectively in the areas where impregnated net had been used for 1 year or 3 years and DDT residual spraying had been carried out for 3 years , suggesting that An . anthropophagus was an initially resistant group . The LT50 were 8 . 69 , 7 . 48 and 9 . 87 min , respectively . The mortality for tentative diagnostic dose in An . sinensis to deltamethrin and DDT were 76 . 5% , 57 . 0% and 79 . 0% , respectively in three survey areas , suggesting that An . sinensis was a resistant group . The LT50 were 12 . 0 , 15 . 4 and 11 . 2 min , respectively . The mortality for tentative diagnostic dose in An . sinensis to DDT was 95 . 8% in impregnated net area , suggesting that An . anthropophagus was an initially resistant group .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Effects of water management and herbicide treatments on red rice control .
Journal: Citation: V : 67 ( 3 ) P : 441-9 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12696411 Accession (PMID): 12696411
Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Zeme ( Pavia , Italy ) to determine the effects of water managements and herbicide treatments on red rice control . In the first experiment , all plots were flooded 10-13 cm deep from April 1 to May 17 in 1999 and from April 3 to May 6 in 2000 . At the same time , in the second experiment , the plots were alternately drained-flooded . At the end of water management , all plots of both experiments were drained and sprayed with herbicides to control the emerged red rice plants . In both years were applied : Propaquizafop 78 g a . i . ha-1 , Cycloxydim at 300 and 400 g a . i . ha-1 ; Dalapon at 15 . 300 Kg a . i . ha-1 ; Quizalofop-ethyl at 100 g a . i . ha-1 . Six days after the chemical treatments , all field plots were flooded 10 cm deep and three days later , an early variety of rice ( Loto ) was sown at 150 Kg ha-1 . Seedling emergence was reduced by lack of oxygen ( especially from seeds covered with soil in flooded condition ) . In alternately drained-flooded soil , the red rice emerged and developed from seeds located in the top 4-5 cm . In flooded condition , no red rice plants emerged from seeds at more than 1 cm depth . In both experiments , the density of red rice plants increased during the season in the untreated check and in the plots where treatments were ineffective or performed poorly . The best red rice control , both in submerged and in alternately drained-flooded soil , was obtained with Quizalofop-ethyl ( 100 g a . i . /ha ) , Cycloxydim ( 300 and 400 g a . i . ha-1 ) and Propaquizafop ( 78 g a . i . ha-1 ) . These herbicides controlled 90-99% of red rice . Partial control of red rice resulted with the other chemical treatments . The shattered grains of red rice were reduced in both experiments by the herbicide treatments . Grain yield reflected the level of red rice control . In fact , the highest commercial grain yields were obtained with Quizalofop-ethyl , Propaquizafop , and Cycloxydim ( 400 g a . i . ha-1 ) , in both years and experiments . The red rice percentages of the total yields resulted about 3 . 6-5 . 7% with all chemical treatments except Dalapon , which was not much effective .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Two field experiments were conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Zeme ( Pavia , Italy ) to determine the effects of water managements and herbicide treatments on red rice control . In the first experiment , all plots were flooded 10-13 cm deep from April 1 to May 17 in 1999 and from April 3 to May 6 in 2000 . At the same time , in the second experiment , the plots were alternately drained-flooded . At the end of water management , all plots of both experiments were drained and sprayed with herbicides to control the emerged red rice plants . In both years were applied : Propaquizafop 78 g a . i . ha-1 , Cycloxydim at 300 and 400 g a . i . ha-1 ; Dalapon at 15 . 300 Kg a . i . ha-1 ; Quizalofop-ethyl at 100 g a . i . ha-1 . Six days after the chemical treatments , all field plots were flooded 10 cm deep and three days later , an early variety of rice ( Loto ) was sown at 150 Kg ha-1 . Seedling emergence was reduced by lack of oxygen ( especially from seeds covered with soil in flooded condition ) . In alternately drained-flooded soil , the red rice emerged and developed from seeds located in the top 4-5 cm .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Effect of resistant starch from corn or rice on glucose control , colonic events , and blood lipid concentrations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats .
Journal: J Nutr . Biochem . Citation: V : 14 ( 3 ) P : 166-72 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12742545 Accession (PMID): 12742545
Abstract: To examine the effect of two types of resistant starch on blood glucose and insulin levels , colonic events , hypolipidemic actions and humoral immune responses , Sprague-Dawley streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fed diet containing resistant starch from corn or rice . The marked body weight loss by inducing diabetes was not recovered by feeding resistant starch , even though there are no differences in food intakes compared to the non-diabetic control rats . No significant effect of resistant starch feeding on blood glucose and insulin was found . Even though the length of small intestines , and cecum , colon and rectum together with the it issue weight of cecum were not affected by feeding resistant starch , the intestinal transit time was markedly shortened by both types of resistant starch and resistant starch from corn had a more pronounced effect . The short chain fatty acids in the intestinal contents did not appear to be different among the groups . Nonetheless , both of resistant starch from corn and rice significantly lowered plasma total lipid and cholesterol concentrations compared to the diabetic control . The total liver cholesterol lowering effect was observed with resistant starch from rice . Neither immunoglobulin G nor C ( 3 ) were influenced by resistant starch .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: To examine the effect of two types of resistant starch on blood glucose and insulin levels , colonic events , hypolipidemic actions and humoral immune responses , Sprague-Dawley streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fed diet containing resistant starch from corn or rice . The marked body weight loss by inducing diabetes was not recovered by feeding resistant starch , even though there are no differences in food intakes compared to the non-diabetic control rats . No significant effect of resistant starch feeding on blood glucose and insulin was found . Even though the length of small intestines , and cecum , colon and rectum together with the it issue weight of cecum were not affected by feeding resistant starch , the intestinal transit time was markedly shortened by both types of resistant starch and resistant starch from corn had a more pronounced effect . The short chain fatty acids in the intestinal contents did not appear to be different among the groups .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Family 19 chitinase of Streptomyces griseus HUT6037 increases plant resistance to the fungal disease .
Journal: Biosci . Biotechnol . Biochem . Citation: V : 67 ( 4 ) P : 847-55 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12784627 Accession (PMID): 12784627
Abstract: Chitinase C ( ChiC ) is the first bacterial family 19 chitinase discovered in Streptomyces griseus HUT6037 . In vitro , ChiC clearly inhibited hyphal extension of Trichoderma reesei but a rice family 19 chitinase did not . In order to investigate the effects of ChiC as an increaser of plant resistance to fungal diseases , the chiC gene was introduced into rice plants under the control of the increased CaMV 35S promoter and a signal sequence from the rice chitinase gene . Transgenic plants were morphologically normal Resistance to leaf blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea was evaluated in R1 and R2 generations using a spray method . Ninety percent of transgenic rice plants expressing ChiC had higher resistance than non-transgenic plants . Disease resistance of sibling plants within the same line was correlated with the ChiC expression levels . ChiC produced in rice plants accumulated intercellularly and had the hydrolyzing activity against glycol chitin .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: Chitinase C ( ChiC ) is the first bacterial family 19 chitinase discovered in Streptomyces griseus HUT6037 . In vitro , ChiC clearly inhibited hyphal extension of Trichoderma reesei but a rice family 19 chitinase did not . In order to investigate the effects of ChiC as an increaser of plant resistance to fungal diseases , the chiC gene was introduced into rice plants under the control of the increased CaMV 35S promoter and a signal sequence from the rice chitinase gene . Transgenic plants were morphologically normal Resistance to leaf blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea was evaluated in R1 and R2 generations using a spray method . Ninety percent of transgenic rice plants expressing ChiC had higher resistance than non-transgenic plants . Disease resistance of sibling plants within the same line was correlated with the ChiC expression levels . ChiC produced in rice plants accumulated intercellularly and had the hydrolyzing activity against glycol chitin .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Operational note effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin against larval Anopheles quadrimaculatus and nontarget aquatic mosquito predators in Arkansas small rice plots .
Journal: J Am . Mosq . Control Assoc . Citation: V : 19 ( 2 ) P : 172-4 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12825673 Accession (PMID): 12825673
Abstract: The effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin , applied at rates labeled for control of the rice water weevil , Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus , on 3 nontarget indigenous insect species in Arkansas rice are described . Three replicates of untreated control checks and fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated plots containing 3 sentinel cages each were performed . Ten 4th-stage larvae of Anopheles quadrimaculatus , 10 adult Tropisternus lateralis , or 10 adult Notonecta indica were placed within individual cages in small rice plots treated with ICON 6 . 2 FS ( fipronil ) at 0 . 025 lb active ingredient ( AI ) /acre ( 0 . 028 kg/ha ) or KARATEZ 2 . 08 CS ( lambda-cyhalothrin ) at 0 . 03 lb AI/acre ( 0 . 033 kg/ha ) applied over vegetation and water with a single-boom sprayer . At 24 h after treatment in fipronil plots , significantly higher control of An . quadrimaculatus and T lateralis ( 69 and 48% control , respectively ) was achieved , compared to N indica ( 18% ) . In lambda-cyhalothrin plots 24 h after treatment , 100% reductions of both T lateralis and N indica were highly significant ( P < 0 . 05 ) from the lower level of control in An . quadrimaculatus ( 10% ) . At 48 h after treatment , no significant , differences existed between all species within fipronil plots , with An . quadrimaculatus , T lateralis , and N indica obtaining 41 , 10 , and 7% control , respectively . Significantly higher ( P < 0 . 05 ) control was obtained in lambda-cyhalothrin plots 48 h after treatment , with 93 and 53% control of T lateralis and N indica , respectively , compared to 7% control of An . quadrimaculatus . A marked difference in susceptibility was found between selected nontarget organisms used in this study . When using lambda-cyhalothrin to control adult L oryzophilus , populations of nontarget beneficial insects , such as T lateralis and N indica , could be adversely affected , whereas nontarget pestilent species , such as An . quadrimaculatus , could proliferate . Fipronil achieved higher percentages of control against An . quadrimaculatus , compared to lambda-cyhalothrin , and was less harmful to both nontarget predators .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin , applied at rates labeled for control of the rice water weevil , Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus , on 3 nontarget indigenous insect species in Arkansas rice are described . Three replicates of untreated control checks and fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated plots containing 3 sentinel cages each were performed . Ten 4th-stage larvae of Anopheles quadrimaculatus , 10 adult Tropisternus lateralis , or 10 adult Notonecta indica were placed within individual cages in small rice plots treated with ICON 6 . 2 FS ( fipronil ) at 0 . 025 lb active ingredient ( AI ) /acre ( 0 . 028 kg/ha ) or KARATEZ 2 . 08 CS ( lambda-cyhalothrin ) at 0 . 03 lb AI/acre ( 0 . 033 kg/ha ) applied over vegetation and water with a single-boom sprayer . At 24 h after treatment in fipronil plots , significantly higher control of An . quadrimaculatus and T lateralis ( 69 and 48% control , respectively ) was achieved , compared to N indica ( 18% ) . In lambda-cyhalothrin plots 24 h after treatment , 100% reductions of both T lateralis and N indica were highly significant ( P < 0 . 05 ) from the lower level of control in An . quadrimaculatus ( 10% ) . At 48 h after treatment , no significant , differences existed between all species within fipronil plots , with An . quadrimaculatus , T lateralis , and N indica obtaining 41 , 10 , and 7% control , respectively . Significantly higher ( P < 0 . 05 ) control was obtained in lambda-cyhalothrin plots 48 h after treatment , with 93 and 53% control of T lateralis and N indica , respectively , compared to 7% control of An . quadrimaculatus .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Collection Of Adult And Larval Mosquitoes In US Army Compounds In The Republic Of Korea During 19791983 .
Journal: Citation: V : 22 ( 1 ) P : 102-108 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12891039 Accession (PMID): 12891039
Abstract: This paper is the result of adult female mosquito and larval collection in US Army Installations in Korea from 1979 to 1983 . New Jersey light traps ere operated for ault collection from May to October . The primary concern of this surveillance is to determine when to recommend insecticide spraying for mosquito control in the Army areas . The 5th Preventive Medicine Unit have developed an "index" level of female mosquitoes in a light trap similar to other USArmy Agencies in other parts of the world . When 10 female mosquitoes are reached on two consecutive trap-night , or 5 known vector females are collected , fogging is recommended in the trap areas . Mosquito collections were conducted in 12 US Army areas by operating 39 New Jersey light traps . Mosquitoes collected from the areas were identified to be 17 species comprising 3 genera . Anopheles sinensis ( 40% ) . Culex tritaeniorhyncus ( 31% ) , Aedes vexans nipponii ( 19% ) , and Culex pipiens pallens ( 10% ) appeared to be the most common species in the area . The species , population density and monthly appearance of adult mosquitoes were found to be almost the same in the all provinces involved . And Japanese encephalitis vector mosquitoes , Culex tritaeniorhyncus , showed their seasonal fluctuation from July to September with a peak in August each year . 3 . Larval habitats confirmed in the Army areas were categorized into 16 types as shown in Table The mosquito larvae collected in those habitats were identified to be 15 species representign 4 genera . Most breeding sites in the Army areas were those which are activated during the wet season . More mosquitoes were collected from the Kyungki province than from the other provinces . The reason for more collection of mosquitoes from military installations in the Kyungki provinces appears to be the geographic characteritics surrounded by rice fields , marshes and other stagnant water areas .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: This paper is the result of adult female mosquito and larval collection in US Army Installations in Korea from 1979 to 1983 . New Jersey light traps ere operated for ault collection from May to October . The primary concern of this surveillance is to determine when to recommend insecticide spraying for mosquito control in the Army areas . The 5th Preventive Medicine Unit have developed an "index" level of female mosquitoes in a light trap similar to other USArmy Agencies in other parts of the world . When 10 female mosquitoes are reached on two consecutive trap-night , or 5 known vector females are collected , fogging is recommended in the trap areas . Mosquito collections were conducted in 12 US Army areas by operating 39 New Jersey light traps . Mosquitoes collected from the areas were identified to be 17 species comprising 3 genera .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ A model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in the neonatal rats ]
Journal: Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao Citation: V : 28 ( 2 ) P : 133-6 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12934357 Accession (PMID): 12934357
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To duplicate a model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) in the neonatal rat to create unilateral cerebral damage . METHODS : Healthy 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley ( SD ) rats were used as research subjects and randomly divided into 3 groups : the control group ( n = 18 ) , the sham operated group ( n = 8 ) , and the HIBD group ( n = 19 ) . The HIBD model was produced according to the traditional Rice model and the brains were collected when the rats were 14 days old . The weight , left/right brain weight ratio , behavioral ability , and neuropathologic changes were studied in each group . RESULTS : 1 . The weight in the HIBD group increased obviously slowly and was lower than that in the control group and sham operated group ( P < 0 . 01 ) . 2 . The abnormity of behavioral ability was found in the HIBD group , including turnover unability ( 63 . 16% ) , spontaneously turn left round ( 89 . 47% ) , convulsion ( 47 . 37% ) , and so on . 3 . The left/right brain weight ratio was significantly lower in the HIBD group than in the other two groups ( P < 0 . 01 ) . 4 . The pathologic features in the HIBD group were as follows : atrophy of left brain ( 84 . 21% ) , softening of left brain ( 31 . 58% ) , liquefaction of left brain ( 52 . 63% ) , and cavum brain ( 15 . 79% ) . HE staining showed the neuron damage and the proliferation of neuroglial cells in the HIBD group . There was no obvious abnormity found in the control group and the sham operated group . CONCLUSION : The model of HIBD is successful and worthy of spreading , with its cheap price , easy duplication , and higher successful rate . The reasonable ambient temperature should be kept in 36-37 degrees C
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVE : To duplicate a model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) in the neonatal rat to create unilateral cerebral damage . METHODS : Healthy 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley ( SD ) rats were used as research subjects and randomly divided into 3 groups : the control group ( n = 18 ) , the sham operated group ( n = 8 ) , and the HIBD group ( n = 19 ) . The HIBD model was produced according to the traditional Rice model and the brains were collected when the rats were 14 days old . The weight , left/right brain weight ratio , behavioral ability , and neuropathologic changes were studied in each group . RESULTS : 1 . The weight in the HIBD group increased obviously slowly and was lower than that in the control group and sham operated group ( P < 0 . 01 ) .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Synthesis of 1-triazolyl-4-trimethylsilyl-2-butanol and 1-triazolyl-5-trimethylsilyl-2-pentanol derivatives and an investigation of their fungicidal activities .
Journal: Chem . Pharm . Bull . Citation: V : 51 ( 9 ) P : 1113-6 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub12951461 Accession (PMID): 12951461
Abstract: A new series of azole derivatives of 1-triazolyl-4-trimethylsilyl-2-butanol and 1-triazolyl-5-trimethylsilyl-2-pentanol were synthesized and evaluated for fungicidal activities against rice blast , sheath blight , and powdery mildew on barley . The derivatives of 2 , 4-difluorobenzene exhibited high antifungal activities when applied by spray , but exhibited no fungicidal activity by submerged application .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: A new series of azole derivatives of 1-triazolyl-4-trimethylsilyl-2-butanol and 1-triazolyl-5-trimethylsilyl-2-pentanol were synthesized and evaluated for fungicidal activities against rice blast , sheath blight , and powdery mildew on barley . The derivatives of 2 , 4-difluorobenzene exhibited high antifungal activities when applied by spray , but exhibited no fungicidal activity by submerged application .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Epidemiology and control of Japanese encephalitis .
Journal: Citation: V : 45 ( 2-3 ) P : 299-305 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1334301 Accession (PMID): 1334301
Abstract: Japanese encephalitis ( JE ) remains endemo-epidemic in several countries in East , South-East and South Asia . The disease has been under control in Japan since the 1970s owing to mass immunization using mouse-brain-derived inactivated vaccine and to reduced vector mosquito populations . The vector density which was once reduced by wide spraying of insecticides in rice fields showed an increasing trend after the 1980s as a result of mosquito resistance . In the Republic of Korea , the number of JE cases showed a significant decrease after 1983 also because of mass immunization using mouse-brain-derived vaccine . On the other hand , large outbreaks of JE continued to occur in China , Viet Nam , Thailand , India , Nepal and Sri Lanka . In China , a hamster-kidney cell-derived vaccine was developed and used for human immunization . Besides human JE , the fatal outcome of equine JE is an economic problem in China . Current JE vaccine derived from mouse brain is highly purified and its safety and efficacy have been proved by field-tests as well as laboratory experiments . In spite of slight antigenic differences among JE virus isolates , JE vaccine produced by a classical Nakayama strain was effective in preventing overt JE in a field study in Thailand . The technology of mouse-brain-derived inactivated JE vaccine production was transferred from Japan to India , Thailand and Viet Nam . The production of JE vaccine in these countries is still on a pilot scale and insufficient for mass-immunization of susceptible target populations . ( ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS )
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Japanese encephalitis ( JE ) remains endemo-epidemic in several countries in East , South-East and South Asia . The disease has been under control in Japan since the 1970s owing to mass immunization using mouse-brain-derived inactivated vaccine and to reduced vector mosquito populations . The vector density which was once reduced by wide spraying of insecticides in rice fields showed an increasing trend after the 1980s as a result of mosquito resistance . In the Republic of Korea , the number of JE cases showed a significant decrease after 1983 also because of mass immunization using mouse-brain-derived vaccine . On the other hand , large outbreaks of JE continued to occur in China , Viet Nam , Thailand , India , Nepal and Sri Lanka . In China , a hamster-kidney cell-derived vaccine was developed and used for human immunization . Besides human JE , the fatal outcome of equine JE is an economic problem in China .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Neuroprotective effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine in focal stroke in the 7-day old rat .
Journal: Eur . J Pharmacol . Citation: V : 218 ( 1 ) P : 197-8 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1397032 Accession (PMID): 1397032
Abstract: Recent evidence in primary neuronal cell culture implicates nitric oxide ( NO ) as a mediator of glutamatergic neurotoxicity acting via N-methyl-D-aspartate ( NMDA ) receptors . We find that administration of the potent nitric oxide synthetase ( NOS ) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine ( NO-Arg ) at 50 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg i . p . to 6-day old Sprague-Dawley rat pups results in prompt and long-lasting in vivo inhibition of NOS . Fifteen hours after administration , NO-Arg produces essentially complete neuroprotection against hypoxic-ischemic in a standard ( Rice-Vanucci ) model . These results support the hypothesis that NO may play a key mediatory role in brain damage attending focal ischemic stroke .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Recent evidence in primary neuronal cell culture implicates nitric oxide ( NO ) as a mediator of glutamatergic neurotoxicity acting via N-methyl-D-aspartate ( NMDA ) receptors . We find that administration of the potent nitric oxide synthetase ( NOS ) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine ( NO-Arg ) at 50 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg i . p . to 6-day old Sprague-Dawley rat pups results in prompt and long-lasting in vivo inhibition of NOS . Fifteen hours after administration , NO-Arg produces essentially complete neuroprotection against hypoxic-ischemic in a standard ( Rice-Vanucci ) model . These results support the hypothesis that NO may play a key mediatory role in brain damage attending focal ischemic stroke .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ Ecoethology of vectors and transmission of malaria in the lowland rice growing region of Mandritsara , Madagascar ]
Journal: Citation: V : 96 ( 4 ) P : 323-8 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14717053 Accession (PMID): 14717053
Abstract: To evaluate the determining factors of the malaria transmission in the northwest region of Madagascar , transversal studies were carried out through one year , from March 1997 to April 1998 , in two villages located near Mandritsara , at less than 300 meters above sea level . The rice-growing region forms an intermediate zone between the central highlands with epidemic and instable malaria and the coastal zone with endemic and stable malaria . Mosquitoes were collected when landing on humans during the night and by pyrethrum spray catches as regards endophilic mosquitoes . Three vectors were identified : Anopheles arabiensis , An . gambiae and An . funestus . An . arabiensis and An . gambiae were exophagic and zoophilic . An . funestus was endo-exophagic and anthropophilic but this species shows also a zoophilic trophic deviation . In both villages , An . funestus is the main vector of human malaria . Malaria transmission was estimated to be around 50 and 70 infective bites/person/year in each village .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: To evaluate the determining factors of the malaria transmission in the northwest region of Madagascar , transversal studies were carried out through one year , from March 1997 to April 1998 , in two villages located near Mandritsara , at less than 300 meters above sea level . The rice-growing region forms an intermediate zone between the central highlands with epidemic and instable malaria and the coastal zone with endemic and stable malaria . Mosquitoes were collected when landing on humans during the night and by pyrethrum spray catches as regards endophilic mosquitoes . Three vectors were identified : Anopheles arabiensis , An . gambiae and An . funestus . An . arabiensis and An . gambiae were exophagic and zoophilic . An . funestus was endo-exophagic and anthropophilic but this species shows also a zoophilic trophic deviation . In both villages , An . funestus is the main vector of human malaria .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Malaria transmission in relation to rice cultivation in the irrigated Sahel of Mali .
Journal: Acta Trop . Citation: V : 89 ( 2 ) P : 147-59 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14732237 Accession (PMID): 14732237
Abstract: Seven cross-sectional entomological surveys were carried out from September 1995 to February 1998 in three irrigated rice growing villages and three villages without irrigated agriculture in the area surrounding Niono , located 350km north-east of Bamako , Mali . The transmission pattern differed markedly between the two zones . In the irrigated zone , the transmission of malaria was fairly constant over the seasons at a low level . In the non-irrigated zone , transmission was mostly below detection level during the dry season , whereas it was high toward the end of the rainy season . In the irrigated zone , high densities of mosquitoes were correlated with low anthropophily , low sporozoite indices and probably low survival rates . In the non-irrigated zone , mosquito densities were lower and these relationships were less pronounced . Differential use of mosquito nets in the two zones may have been an important factor in the observed differences in transmission . The presence of cattle may also have played an important role . Two mosquito-catching methods ( human landing catch and spray catch ) were compared .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: In the irrigated zone , high densities of mosquitoes were correlated with low anthropophily , low sporozoite indices and probably low survival rates . In the non-irrigated zone , mosquito densities were lower and these relationships were less pronounced . Differential use of mosquito nets in the two zones may have been an important factor in the observed differences in transmission . The presence of cattle may also have played an important role . Two mosquito-catching methods ( human landing catch and spray catch ) were compared .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Malaria transmission in Southern Madagascar : influence of the environment and hydro-agricultural works in sub-arid and humid regions . Part 1 . Entomological investigations .
Journal: Acta Trop . Citation: V : 89 ( 2 ) P : 193-203 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14732241 Accession (PMID): 14732241
Abstract: A 4-year entomological study was carried out in Southern Madagascar to identify malaria vectors , evaluate the transmission and compare the influence of irrigation in the sub-arid and adjacent humid regions . Three villages were involved in this entomological survey : Androvasoa ( located in the natural sub-arid ecosystem ) , Ppinire ( sited at the centre of an irrigated rice scheme in the sub-arid region ) and Esana ( bordered with rice fields in the humid region ) . Mosquitoes were collected inside and outside dwellings when landing on human beings , with light traps and with knockdown indoor sprays . Anopheles arabiensis , Anopheles merus and Anopheles funestus were found in every village while Anopheles gambiae s . s . was only found in the village bordering the rice-fields ( Ppinire ) and Anopheles mascarensis , a mosquito native to Madagascar , was only found in the humid region ( Esana ) . In Ppinire , the annual entomological inoculation rate ( EIR ) was low ( EIR=0 . 4 infective bites/man/year ( IBM ) ) . In the irrigated scheme of the sub-arid region , malaria transmission was 150 times higher ( mean EIR=63 IBM ) than in the natural ecosystem and A funestus was the main vector , responsible for 90% of infective bites . In Esana , the level of malaria transmission was high ( EIR=41 IBM ) and 2/3 of the infective bites were due to A mascarensis , despite the presence of A gambiae s . s . and A funestus . These results are discussed with reference to the impact of irrigation on malaria in Africa ( "the paddies paradox" ) .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: A 4-year entomological study was carried out in Southern Madagascar to identify malaria vectors , evaluate the transmission and compare the influence of irrigation in the sub-arid and adjacent humid regions . Three villages were involved in this entomological survey : Androvasoa ( located in the natural sub-arid ecosystem ) , Ppinire ( sited at the centre of an irrigated rice scheme in the sub-arid region ) and Esana ( bordered with rice fields in the humid region ) . Mosquitoes were collected inside and outside dwellings when landing on human beings , with light traps and with knockdown indoor sprays . Anopheles arabiensis , Anopheles merus and Anopheles funestus were found in every village while Anopheles gambiae s . s . was only found in the village bordering the rice-fields ( Ppinire ) and Anopheles mascarensis , a mosquito native to Madagascar , was only found in the humid region ( Esana ) . In Ppinire , the annual entomological inoculation rate ( EIR ) was low ( EIR=0 . 4 infective bites/man/year ( IBM ) ) . In the irrigated scheme of the sub-arid region , malaria transmission was 150 times higher ( mean EIR=63 IBM ) than in the natural ecosystem and A funestus was the main vector , responsible for 90% of infective bites . In Esana , the level of malaria transmission was high ( EIR=41 IBM ) and 2/3 of the infective bites were due to A mascarensis , despite the presence of A gambiae s . s . and A funestus .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Prima facie evidence that a phytocystatin for transgenic plant resistance to nematodes is not a toxic risk in the human diet .
Journal: J Nutr . Citation: V : 134 ( 2 ) P : 431-4 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub14747684 Accession (PMID): 14747684
Abstract: A protein-engineered rice cystatin ( OcIDeltaD86 ) provides transgenic , partial crop resistance to plant nematodes . This study determined whether its oral uptake has adverse effects on male Sprague-Dawley rats when they are administered by oral gavage 0 . 1-10 mg OcIDeltaD86/kg body weight daily for 28 d . Body weight and water and food intakes were unaltered for most of the study . The only significant changes in fresh weight of nine organs were for the liver ( 4% decrease ; P < 0 . 05 ) and the empty cecum ( 14% increase ; P < 0 . 05 ) at the two lowest doses and the highest dose of OcIDeltaD86 , respectively . No abnormalities in either organ were detected by histochemistry . There were no changes in the urine or in hematological variables measured , and blood serum revealed no dose-dependent responses for any of 17 variables measured . OcIDeltaD86 was degraded by boiling with a 50% loss of its inhibition of papain after 9 . 2 +/- 8 . 0 min . It also showed >95% loss of such inhibition after 15 s in simulated gastric fluid . The results suggest that the no effect level ( NOEL ) for OcIDeltaD86 is >10 mg/ ( kg . d ) . This provides a range of dietary exposure >200-2000 fold depending upon the promoter used to control its expression in potato .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: A protein-engineered rice cystatin ( OcIDeltaD86 ) provides transgenic , partial crop resistance to plant nematodes . This study determined whether its oral uptake has adverse effects on male Sprague-Dawley rats when they are administered by oral gavage 0 . 1-10 mg OcIDeltaD86/kg body weight daily for 28 d . Body weight and water and food intakes were unaltered for most of the study . The only significant changes in fresh weight of nine organs were for the liver ( 4% decrease ; P < 0 . 05 ) and the empty cecum ( 14% increase ; P < 0 . 05 ) at the two lowest doses and the highest dose of OcIDeltaD86 , respectively . No abnormalities in either organ were detected by histochemistry . There were no changes in the urine or in hematological variables measured , and blood serum revealed no dose-dependent responses for any of 17 variables measured .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Effects of propanil , tebufenozide and mefenacet on growth of four freshwater species of phytoplankton : a microplate bioassay .
Journal: Chemosphere Citation: V : 56 ( 4 ) P : 315-20 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15183992 Accession (PMID): 15183992
Abstract: The Albufera Natural Park situated in Valencia ( Spain ) , with a very rich flora and fauna is surrounded by rice fields in which pesticide spraying is a regular practice . With this in mind , the sensitivity of four algal species , Scenedesmus acutus , Scenedesmus subspicatus , Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella saccharophila to pesticides propanil , tebufenozide and mefenacet was studied using single species toxicity tests . Organisms were exposed to different concentrations of these herbicides and the algal growth was measured in a microplate reader at 410 nm , at 0 , 24 , 48 and 72 h . Tebufenozide appeared to be the most inhibitory to Scenedesmus and Chlorella species growth . 72 h EC50 of propanil , tebufenozide and mefenacet ranged from 0 . 29 to 5 . 98 mg/l , 0 . 12 to 0 . 15 mg/l and from 0 . 25 to 0 . 67 mg/l , respectively for the four algal species . The two species of Chlorella were more tolerant than the two species of Scenedesmus .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The Albufera Natural Park situated in Valencia ( Spain ) , with a very rich flora and fauna is surrounded by rice fields in which pesticide spraying is a regular practice . With this in mind , the sensitivity of four algal species , Scenedesmus acutus , Scenedesmus subspicatus , Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella saccharophila to pesticides propanil , tebufenozide and mefenacet was studied using single species toxicity tests . Organisms were exposed to different concentrations of these herbicides and the algal growth was measured in a microplate reader at 410 nm , at 0 , 24 , 48 and 72 h . Tebufenozide appeared to be the most inhibitory to Scenedesmus and Chlorella species growth . 72 h EC50 of propanil , tebufenozide and mefenacet ranged from 0 . 29 to 5 . 98 mg/l , 0 . 12 to 0 . 15 mg/l and from 0 . 25 to 0 . 67 mg/l , respectively for the four algal species .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ Time-course of mu-calpain activation , c-Fos , c-Jun , HSP70 and HSP27 expression in hypoxic-ischemic neonatal rat brain ]
Journal: Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi Citation: V : 42 ( 6 ) P : 441-5 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15265432 Accession (PMID): 15265432
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : The cascade of physiological events underlying hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) remains to be fully established . The perinatal brain shows both an increased tolerance to hypoxic-ischemic ( HI ) injury and a faster and more complete recovery than the adult . It is , therefore , important to understand the sequence of events following hypoxia and ischemia in young animals . The present study aimed to clarify the time-course of the activation of the mu-calpain , and the expression of c-Fos , c-Jun , HSP70 and HSP27 proteins following severe HI ( 2 h hypoxia ) and their relationship with each other . METHODS : A modified newborn rat model of HIBD that included a combination of hypoxia and ischemia as described by Rice was used . Forty-two postnatal 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups ( 6 rats in each ) : 6 time-window groups and a normal control group . Samples were collected at 0 , 1 , 2 , 4 , 12 and 24 h after HI insults . The protein concentration was determined using a modified Bradford assay . mu-calpain activation , c-Fos , c-Jun , HSP70 and HSP27 expressions were observed respectively by Western blot from cortical and hippocampal samples . RESULTS : The cleavage of cytosolic mu-calpain was observed from both cortical and hippocampal samples in neonatal rats after HI . The ratio 76 : 80 of mu-calpain was increased significantly post-HI and reached a maximum at 24 h in cortex and at 12 h in hippocampus after HI . The expressions of c-Fos and c-Jun from both cortical and hippocampal samples in neonatal rats were up-regulated and peaked at 2 or 4 h after HI , demonstrating significant differences at 1 , 2 , 4 , and 12 h compared with that observed in the control ( P < 0 . 05 ) . When compared with that observed in cortex , the nuclear c-Fos expression from hippocampal samples was highly elevated at 2 , 4 and 12 h but significantly decreased at 24 h after HI ( P < 0 . 05 ) , while the nuclear c-Jun expression from hippocampal samples was highly elevated at 0 and 1 h but significantly decreased at 4 and 24 h after HI ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Similarly , the expressions of HSP70 and HSP27 from both cortical and hippocampal samples were up-regulated and reached a maximum at 12 or 24 h after HI , demonstrating significant differences at 12 or 24 h both in cortex and hippocampus for HSP70 , and at 24 h in cerebral cortex as well as at 12 and 24 h in hippocampus for HSP27 compared with the control ( P < 0 . 05 ) . Furthermore , in comparison with that observed in cortex , the HSP70 expression from hippocampal samples was highly elevated at 1 h , but significantly decreased at 4 , 12 and 24 h after HI ( P < 0 . 05 ) , while the HSP27 expression was permanently elevated in hippocampus after HI . CONCLUSION : The neuronal injury induced by HI insults appears to involve many ongoing and simultaneous mechanisms . HI activates the calpains immediately , which may contribute to neuron apoptosis , and induces a significant brain neuroprotection , since there is an increased HSP70 expression and a relatively late remarkable HSP27 expression in hypoxic-ischemic neonatal rat brain . Nuclear c-Fos and c-Jun may participate in the pathogenesis of HIBD .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: The perinatal brain shows both an increased tolerance to hypoxic-ischemic ( HI ) injury and a faster and more complete recovery than the adult . It is , therefore , important to understand the sequence of events following hypoxia and ischemia in young animals . The present study aimed to clarify the time-course of the activation of the mu-calpain , and the expression of c-Fos , c-Jun , HSP70 and HSP27 proteins following severe HI ( 2 h hypoxia ) and their relationship with each other . METHODS : A modified newborn rat model of HIBD that included a combination of hypoxia and ischemia as described by Rice was used . Forty-two postnatal 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups ( 6 rats in each ) : 6 time-window groups and a normal control group . Samples were collected at 0 , 1 , 2 , 4 , 12 and 24 h after HI insults . The protein concentration was determined using a modified Bradford assay . mu-calpain activation , c-Fos , c-Jun , HSP70 and HSP27 expressions were observed respectively by Western blot from cortical and hippocampal samples . RESULTS : The cleavage of cytosolic mu-calpain was observed from both cortical and hippocampal samples in neonatal rats after HI . The ratio 76 : 80 of mu-calpain was increased significantly post-HI and reached a maximum at 24 h in cortex and at 12 h in hippocampus after HI .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Suppression of diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats by tocotrienol-rich fraction isolated from rice bran oil .
Journal: Eur . J Cancer Prev . Citation: V : 13 ( 6 ) P : 515-20 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15548946 Accession (PMID): 15548946
Abstract: The anticancer efficacy of tocotrienol-rich fraction ( TRF ) was evaluated during diethylnitrosamine ( DEN ) /2-acetylaminofluorene ( AAF ) -induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male Sprague-Dawley rats . TRF treatment was carried out for 6 months , and was started 2 weeks before initiation phase of hepatocarcinogenesis . Morphological examination of the livers from DEN/AAF rats showed numerous off-white patches and few small nodules , which were significantly reduced by TRF treatment . Cytotoxic damage by DEN/AAF was estimated by alkaline phosphatase ( ALP ) release into the plasma from the cell membranes . DEN/AAF caused a twofold increase in the activity of ALP in plasma as compared with normal control rats , and this increase was prevented significantly by TRF treatment . We observed an increase of 79% in liver ALP activity in DEN/AAF rats , which was further increased by another 48% after the administration of TRF . Hepatic activity of glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) was also increased ( 3 . 5-fold ) during the induction of hepatic carcinogenesis . Lipid peroxidation and low-density lipoprotein ( LDL ) oxidation increased threefold following initiation by DEN/AAF as compared with normal control rats . However , TRF treatment to DEN/AAF-treated rats substantially decreased ( 62-66% ) the above parameters and thus limited the action of DEN/AAF . We conclude that long-term intake of TRF could reduce cancer risk by preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation damage due to its antioxidant actions .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The anticancer efficacy of tocotrienol-rich fraction ( TRF ) was evaluated during diethylnitrosamine ( DEN ) /2-acetylaminofluorene ( AAF ) -induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male Sprague-Dawley rats . TRF treatment was carried out for 6 months , and was started 2 weeks before initiation phase of hepatocarcinogenesis . Morphological examination of the livers from DEN/AAF rats showed numerous off-white patches and few small nodules , which were significantly reduced by TRF treatment . Cytotoxic damage by DEN/AAF was estimated by alkaline phosphatase ( ALP ) release into the plasma from the cell membranes . DEN/AAF caused a twofold increase in the activity of ALP in plasma as compared with normal control rats , and this increase was prevented significantly by TRF treatment .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Malaria transmission dynamics in central Cte dIvoire : the influence of changing patterns of irrigated rice agriculture .
Journal: Med . Vet . Entomol . Citation: V : 19 ( 1 ) P : 27-37 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub15752174 Accession (PMID): 15752174
Abstract: The dynamics of malaria transmission was studied comparatively in the villages of Zatta and Tiemelekro , central Cote dIvoire , from February 2002 to August 2003 . Prominent agroecosystems in these villages are irrigated rice growing and vegetable farming , respectively . Mosquitoes ( Diptera : Culicidae ) were collected on human bait at night and by pyrethrum knock-down spray sheet collections at four randomly selected sentinel sites in each village . In 2002 , for a total of 96 man-nights per village , 7716 mosquitoes were collected in Zatta and 3308 in Tiemelekro . In 2003 , with half the sampling effort , 859 and 2056 mosquitoes were collected in Zatta and Tiemelekro , respectively . Anopheles gambiae Giles s . l . was the predominant mosquito and the key malaria vector throughout , followed by An . funestus Giles . Anthropophily among adult female Anopheles exceeded 95% in both villages . Comparison between years revealed that the biting rate of An . gambiae s . l . in Zatta decreased several-fold from 49 . 3 bites per person per night ( b/p/n ) in 2002 to 7 . 9 b/p/n in 2003 ( likelihood ratio test ( LRT ) = 1072 . 66 ; P < 0 . 001 ) . Although the biting rate remained fairly constant in Tiemelekro , the difference between years was significant ( 16 . 1 vs 18 . 2 b/p/n ; LRT = 148 . 06 ; P < 0 . 001 ) . These observations were paralleled by a marked decrease in the infective rate of An . gambiae s . l . in Zatta ( 4 . 6-1 . 2% ) , and an increase in Tiemelekro ( 3 . 1-7 . 6% ) . Meanwhile , the entomological inoculation rate of An . gambiae s . l . decreased 21-fold in Zatta , from 789 to 38 infective bites per person per year ( ib/p/y ) , whereas it remained high in Tiemelekro ( 233 vs 342 ib/p/y ) . The interruption of irrigated rice growing in Zatta in 2003 , consequential to a farmers conflict over land , might be the underlying cause for the significant reduction in malaria transmission , whereas more stable conditions occurred in Tiemelekro .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The dynamics of malaria transmission was studied comparatively in the villages of Zatta and Tiemelekro , central Cote dIvoire , from February 2002 to August 2003 . Prominent agroecosystems in these villages are irrigated rice growing and vegetable farming , respectively . Mosquitoes ( Diptera : Culicidae ) were collected on human bait at night and by pyrethrum knock-down spray sheet collections at four randomly selected sentinel sites in each village . In 2002 , for a total of 96 man-nights per village , 7716 mosquitoes were collected in Zatta and 3308 in Tiemelekro . In 2003 , with half the sampling effort , 859 and 2056 mosquitoes were collected in Zatta and Tiemelekro , respectively . Anopheles gambiae Giles s . l . was the predominant mosquito and the key malaria vector throughout , followed by An . funestus Giles . Anthropophily among adult female Anopheles exceeded 95% in both villages .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Efficacy of various ground-applied pyrethroids against adult Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the rice growing region of Arkansas .
Journal: J Am . Mosq . Control Assoc . Citation: V : 8 ( 1 ) P : 77-9 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1583494 Accession (PMID): 1583494
Abstract: Ground-applied ULV , cold aerosol , insecticide sprays were evaluated against caged adult female Anopheles quadrimaculatus . Treatments included 2 rates each of resmethrin , permethrin and a water-based permethrin formulation . Mortality at 24 h posttreatment was not significantly ( P greater than or equal to 0 . 05 ) different between the resmethrin and water-based permethrin treatments . Both rates of permethrin were significantly ( P less than 0 . 05 ) less effective than the other treatments .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ground-applied ULV , cold aerosol , insecticide sprays were evaluated against caged adult female Anopheles quadrimaculatus . Treatments included 2 rates each of resmethrin , permethrin and a water-based permethrin formulation . Mortality at 24 h posttreatment was not significantly ( P greater than or equal to 0 . 05 ) different between the resmethrin and water-based permethrin treatments . Both rates of permethrin were significantly ( P less than 0 . 05 ) less effective than the other treatments .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Ankle injuries in athletes .
Journal: Prim . Care Citation: V : 19 ( 2 ) P : 377-92 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub1609010 Accession (PMID): 1609010
Abstract: Ankle injuries are the most frequent cause of physician evaluation in a sports-oriented environment . The lateral ligaments are most commonly injured . With a detailed history , physical and radiographic examination to avoid missing underlying pathology , the primary care physician can diagnose and treat the majority of ankle injuries . Occasionally , stress radiographs , arthograms , or magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) is needed . The vast majority of ankle sprains can be treated with adhesive tape strapping or semirigid orthotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication followed by rehabilitation . Key points of rehabilitation are control of pain and swelling acutely with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories and RICE ( rest , ice , compression , and elevation ) , then restoring normal range of motion , strengthening muscle groups , and retraining proprioception of the ankle joint .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Ankle injuries are the most frequent cause of physician evaluation in a sports-oriented environment . The lateral ligaments are most commonly injured . With a detailed history , physical and radiographic examination to avoid missing underlying pathology , the primary care physician can diagnose and treat the majority of ankle injuries . Occasionally , stress radiographs , arthograms , or magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) is needed . The vast majority of ankle sprains can be treated with adhesive tape strapping or semirigid orthotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication followed by rehabilitation . Key points of rehabilitation are control of pain and swelling acutely with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories and RICE ( rest , ice , compression , and elevation ) , then restoring normal range of motion , strengthening muscle groups , and retraining proprioception of the ankle joint .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ Transgenic maize plants with low copy number of foreign genes were produced with maize Ubi-1 promoter ]
Journal: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao Citation: V : 20 ( 1 ) P : 120-5 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16108502 Accession (PMID): 16108502
Abstract: Direct DNA delivery procedures ( include biolistics method ) often resulted in multiple copies of the transgenes in transformants and certain copies of them were rearranged . Integration of multiple copies of the introduced genes was the main reason of gene silencing which meant inhibition or loss of foreign gene expression in filial generations of transformants . In the present work , we compared the influences of maize Ubi-1 promoter and other promoters on copy number of transgenes in maize transgenic plants . Immature embryos from Zea mays L plants of sib-pollinated of A188 x H99 genotype were used as initial materials . Type I embryonic calluses derived from preculture of immature embryos were treated on N6 medium containing 0 . 6 mol/L sucrose for 3 approximately 5 hours and transformed via particle bombardment with PDS1000/He delivery system ( Bio-Rad ) . Bombarded calluses were treated with hyperosmotic N6 medium for 16 approximately 20 hours continuously . Then the cultures were transferred onto normal N6 medium and incubated at 26 degrees C in dark for two weeks and subsequently selected on N6 medium supplemented with 2 or 5 mg/L phosphinothricin ( PPT ) but without casamino acid for another two weeks . The calluses after selective culture were transferred onto hormone-free MS medium containing 2 or 5 mg/L PPT but without casamino acid , and incubated at 24 degrees C under 16 h illumination for plant regeneration . Regenerated plantlets over 2 cm in height were transferred to Magenta box containing 1/2 hormone-free MS medium . Plantlets over 8 cm in height were transplanted to soil . After growing for one week in greenhouse , the plants were sprayed with 250 mg/L PPT solution . Fertile transgenic maize plants were regenerated and confirmed by Southern blotting and histochemical localization of beta-glucuronidase ( GUS ) activity . Relations between promoter and copy number of transgenes in transformants were analyzed . Maize transgenic plants possessing an intact copy and another incomplete copy of beta-glucuronidase gene ( gus ) were obtained in case gus gene under the control of maize Ubi-1 promoter ( pUbi : GUS ) . Simultaneously the co-transformed phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene ( bar ) controlled by CaMV 35S promoter in another plasmid ( p35S : BAR ) also existed with only one copy . When pDB1 and ( pUbi : in2 ) were cobombarded , the regenerated transgenic maize plant exhibited with only one copy of in2 gene too . It suggested that the copy number of transgenes in maize transformants was low if the transgenes controlled by maize Ubi-1 promoter . The possible reason might be that the foreign genes were integrated site-specifically via homologous recombination between Ubi-1 promoter and its endogenous sequences in maize genome , and two cotransformed plasmids had reconstructed as one intact molecule before integrating into maize chromosome . On the contrary , if p35S : BAR was cobom-barded with plasmid pAct : In1 containing rice Act-1 promoter ( without maize Ubi-1 promoter ) , the transgenic maize plants had 4 approximately 8 copies of bar gene . These results reflected that utilization of self gene promoter could reduce the copy number of the transgenes in transgenic plants of certain species itself and avoid the occurrence of gene silencing . T2 seeds have been harvested .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 11, subscore: 1.00 ]: Then the cultures were transferred onto normal N6 medium and incubated at 26 degrees C in dark for two weeks and subsequently selected on N6 medium supplemented with 2 or 5 mg/L phosphinothricin ( PPT ) but without casamino acid for another two weeks . The calluses after selective culture were transferred onto hormone-free MS medium containing 2 or 5 mg/L PPT but without casamino acid , and incubated at 24 degrees C under 16 h illumination for plant regeneration . Regenerated plantlets over 2 cm in height were transferred to Magenta box containing 1/2 hormone-free MS medium . Plantlets over 8 cm in height were transplanted to soil . After growing for one week in greenhouse , the plants were sprayed with 250 mg/L PPT solution . Fertile transgenic maize plants were regenerated and confirmed by Southern blotting and histochemical localization of beta-glucuronidase ( GUS ) activity . Relations between promoter and copy number of transgenes in transformants were analyzed . Maize transgenic plants possessing an intact copy and another incomplete copy of beta-glucuronidase gene ( gus ) were obtained in case gus gene under the control of maize Ubi-1 promoter ( pUbi : GUS ) . Simultaneously the co-transformed phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene ( bar ) controlled by CaMV 35S promoter in another plasmid ( p35S : BAR ) also existed with only one copy .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Studies on Anopheles sinensis , the vector species of vivax malaria in Korea .
Journal: Korean J Parasitol . Citation: V : 43 ( 3 ) P : 75-92 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16192749 Accession (PMID): 16192749
Abstract: Extensive previous studies on taxonomy , behavior/bionomics and control of Anopheles sinensis are reviewed and summarized . Recent molecular identification revealed that the population of An . sinensis complex includes An . sinensis , An . pullus , An . lesteri and at least two new species , and An . yatsushiroensis is synonmy of An . pullus . An . sinensis is the main vector species of vivax malaria in Korea . Larvae of An . sinensis breed in wide range of habitats which are naturally-made clean water , stagnant or flowing ; main habitats include rice fields , ditches , streams , irrigation canals , marshes , ponds , ground pools , etc Their host preferences are highly zoophilic . Human blood rate is very low ( 0 . 7-1 . 7% ) ; nevertheless An . sinensis readily feeds on man when domestic animals are not found near by . They feed on hosts throughout the night from dusk to dawn with a peak period of 02 : 00-04 : 00 hours ; they are slightly more exophagic ( biting outdoors ) ; much larger numbers come into the room when light is on . Main resting places are outdoors such as grasses , vegetable fields and rice fields . A mark-release-recapture study resulted that 37 . 1% was recaptured within 1 km , 29 . 4% at 1-3 km , 21 . 1% at 3-6 km , 10 . 3% at 6-9 km and 2 . 1% at 9-12 km distance . An . sinensis hibernate outdoors ( mostly under part of dense grasses ) during October-March . At the end of the hibernation period ( March-April ) they feed on cows at daytime . Until today any single measure to effectively control An . sinensis population has not been found . Indoor residual spray with a long-lasting insecticide can not reduce vector population densities , but shorten their life spans in some degree , so contributes to malaria control .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 12, subscore: 1.00 ]: A mark-release-recapture study resulted that 37 . 1% was recaptured within 1 km , 29 . 4% at 1-3 km , 21 . 1% at 3-6 km , 10 . 3% at 6-9 km and 2 . 1% at 9-12 km distance . An . sinensis hibernate outdoors ( mostly under part of dense grasses ) during October-March . At the end of the hibernation period ( March-April ) they feed on cows at daytime . Until today any single measure to effectively control An . sinensis population has not been found . Indoor residual spray with a long-lasting insecticide can not reduce vector population densities , but shorten their life spans in some degree , so contributes to malaria control .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Effect of polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan resinate tablets .
Journal: Citation: V : 6 ( 2 ) P : E190-7 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16353977 Accession (PMID): 16353977
Abstract: The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of different polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on physical properties of multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan ( DMP ) tablets . DMP resinates were formed by a complexation of DMP and strong cation exchange resins , Dowex 50 W and Amberlite IRP69 . The tablets consisted of the DMP resinates and direct compression fillers , such as microcrystalline cellulose ( MCC ) , dicalcium phosphate dihydrate ( DCP ) , and spray-dried rice starch ( SDRS ) . Physical properties of tablets , such as hardness , disintegration time , and in vitro release , were investigated . A good performance of the tablets was obtained when MCC or SDRS was used . The use of rod-like and plate-like particles of Amberlite IRP69 caused a statistical decrease in tablet hardness , whereas good tablet hardness was obtained when spherical particle of Dowex 50 W was used . The plastic deformation of the fillers , such as MCC and SDRS , caused a little change in the release of DMP . A higher release rate constant was found in the tablets containing DCP and Dowex 50 W , indicating the fracture of the resinates under compression , which was attributable to the fragmentation of DCP . However , the release of DMP from the tablets using Amberlite IRP69 was not significantly changed because of the higher degree of cross-linking of the resinates , which exhibited more resistance to deformation under compression . In conclusion , the properties of polysulfonate resin , such as particle shape and degree of cross-linking , and the deformation under compaction of fillers affect the physical properties and the drug release of the resinate tablets .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of different polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on physical properties of multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan ( DMP ) tablets . DMP resinates were formed by a complexation of DMP and strong cation exchange resins , Dowex 50 W and Amberlite IRP69 . The tablets consisted of the DMP resinates and direct compression fillers , such as microcrystalline cellulose ( MCC ) , dicalcium phosphate dihydrate ( DCP ) , and spray-dried rice starch ( SDRS ) . Physical properties of tablets , such as hardness , disintegration time , and in vitro release , were investigated . A good performance of the tablets was obtained when MCC or SDRS was used . The use of rod-like and plate-like particles of Amberlite IRP69 caused a statistical decrease in tablet hardness , whereas good tablet hardness was obtained when spherical particle of Dowex 50 W was used . The plastic deformation of the fillers , such as MCC and SDRS , caused a little change in the release of DMP .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ Effect of chronic exposure by mercury contaminated rice on neurotransmitter level changes in rat brain ]
Journal: Huan Jing Ke Xue Citation: V : 27 ( 1 ) P : 142-5 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16599137 Accession (PMID): 16599137
Abstract: In order to survey the potential health risk of environmental exposure by mercury , Sprague-Dawley rats were reared by mercury contaminated rice from mercury mining area . The changes of neurotransmitter acetylcholine ( ACh ) and acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) in rat brain were examined at different times . The results show that the mercury-contaminated rice significantly increase the content of ACh in rat brain after exposure for 7 days . ACh maintained at a high level even after exposure for 30 days , but decreased significantly after exposure for 90 days . The changes of AChE represented an inverse trend compared with that of ACh . The coexisting selenium in rice exhibited antagonistic effects on both mercury accumulation and toxicity . The findings suggested that neurotoxic effects of environmental mercury contamination had been significantly represented after chronically dietary exposure . Further studies are needed to examine the relationship between the neurotransmitter level changes and the Alzheimers Disease ( AD ) .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: In order to survey the potential health risk of environmental exposure by mercury , Sprague-Dawley rats were reared by mercury contaminated rice from mercury mining area . The changes of neurotransmitter acetylcholine ( ACh ) and acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) in rat brain were examined at different times . The results show that the mercury-contaminated rice significantly increase the content of ACh in rat brain after exposure for 7 days . ACh maintained at a high level even after exposure for 30 days , but decreased significantly after exposure for 90 days . The changes of AChE represented an inverse trend compared with that of ACh .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: The influence of drug-excipient and drug-polymer interactions on butt adhesive strength of ranitidine hydrochloride film-coated tablets .
Journal: Citation: V : 32 ( 4 ) P : 463-71 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16638685 Accession (PMID): 16638685
Abstract: The influence of fillers and polymeric films on adhesive strength of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ( HPMC ) and Eudragit E100 films coated on ranitidine HCl tablets containing either spray-dried rice starch ( SDRS ) or lactose monohydrate as fillers after storage at 45 degrees C/75% RH for four weeks was investigated by the use of butt adhesion technique . The adhesive strength of film-coated tablets of fillers without drug was found to slightly decrease after storage . In contrast , the adhesive strength of drug-containing film-coated tablets significantly reduced , the degree of which was higher for Eudragit E100 than HPMC . Physicochemical characterization by employing differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC ) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy ( DRIFTS ) revealed that the drug was obviously incompatible with lactose and possibly mild interaction with Eudragit E100 was suggested . The results indicated that the adhesive strength of film-coated tablets would be affected not only by the drug-excipient interaction , but also by the drug-polymeric film interaction .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: The influence of fillers and polymeric films on adhesive strength of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ( HPMC ) and Eudragit E100 films coated on ranitidine HCl tablets containing either spray-dried rice starch ( SDRS ) or lactose monohydrate as fillers after storage at 45 degrees C/75% RH for four weeks was investigated by the use of butt adhesion technique . The adhesive strength of film-coated tablets of fillers without drug was found to slightly decrease after storage . In contrast , the adhesive strength of drug-containing film-coated tablets significantly reduced , the degree of which was higher for Eudragit E100 than HPMC . Physicochemical characterization by employing differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC ) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy ( DRIFTS ) revealed that the drug was obviously incompatible with lactose and possibly mild interaction with Eudragit E100 was suggested . The results indicated that the adhesive strength of film-coated tablets would be affected not only by the drug-excipient interaction , but also by the drug-polymeric film interaction .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: A Gibberellin-Deficient Brassica Mutant-rosette .
Journal: Citation: V : 89 ( 2 ) P : 482-487 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16666569 Accession (PMID): 16666569
Abstract: A single-gene mutant ( rosette [ ros/ros ] ) in which shoot growth and development are inhibited was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa ( syn campestris ) . Relative to normal plants , the mutant germinated slowly , had delayed or incomplete floral development , and reduced leaf , petiole , and internode growth . The exogenous application of GA ( 3 ) by foliar spray or directly to the shoot tip of rosette resulted in rapid flowering , bolting ( shoot elongation ) , and viable seed production . Shoots of rosette contained endogenous levels of total gibberellin ( GA ) -like substances ( ; Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice assay ) of about one-tenth of that of the normal rapid-cycling line of B rapa which consisted almost entirely of a very nonpolar , GA-like substance which yielded GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) upon mild acid hydrolysis . In a normal rapid-cycling B rapa line , the nonpolar putative GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) conjugates were present , but additionally , free GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) were abundant and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring . The quantities of free GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) in the normal line and in rosette were quantified by GC-MS-SIM using [ ( 2 ) H ( 2 ) ] GA ( 1 ) as an internal standard . Fourteen-day-old rosette and normal seedlings contained 5 . 3 and 23 . 2 ng GA ( 1 ) per plant , respectively . At day 21 the rosette plants contained 7 . 7 and 26 . 1 nanograms per plant of GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) , while normal plants contained 31 . 1 and 251 . 5 nanograms per plant , respectively . Thus , normal plants contained from four to ten times higher levels of total GA-like substances , GA ( 1 ) , or GA ( 3 ) , than rosette . The ros allele results in reduced GA level , yielding the rosette phenotype whose delayed germination and flowering , and reduced shoot growth responses indicate a probable role for endogenous GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) in the regulation of these processes in Brassica .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: A single-gene mutant ( rosette [ ros/ros ] ) in which shoot growth and development are inhibited was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa ( syn campestris ) . Relative to normal plants , the mutant germinated slowly , had delayed or incomplete floral development , and reduced leaf , petiole , and internode growth . The exogenous application of GA ( 3 ) by foliar spray or directly to the shoot tip of rosette resulted in rapid flowering , bolting ( shoot elongation ) , and viable seed production . Shoots of rosette contained endogenous levels of total gibberellin ( GA ) -like substances ( ; Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice assay ) of about one-tenth of that of the normal rapid-cycling line of B rapa which consisted almost entirely of a very nonpolar , GA-like substance which yielded GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) upon mild acid hydrolysis . In a normal rapid-cycling B rapa line , the nonpolar putative GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) conjugates were present , but additionally , free GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) were abundant and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring . The quantities of free GA ( 1 ) and GA ( 3 ) in the normal line and in rosette were quantified by GC-MS-SIM using [ ( 2 ) H ( 2 ) ] GA ( 1 ) as an internal standard . Fourteen-day-old rosette and normal seedlings contained 5 . 3 and 23 . 2 ng GA ( 1 ) per plant , respectively .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Status of insecticide susceptibility in Anopheles arabiensis from Mwea rice irrigation scheme , Central Kenya .
Journal: Malar . J Citation: V : 5 ( ) P : 46 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16756645 Accession (PMID): 16756645
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Control of the Anopheline mosquito vectors of malaria by use of insecticides has been shown to impact on both morbidity and mortality due to this disease . Evidence of insecticide resistance in different settings necessitates surveillance studies to allow prompt detection of resistance should it arise and thus enable its management . Possible resistance by Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes from Mwea rice irrigation scheme in Central Kenya to insecticides in the four classes of insecticides approved by WHO for indoor residual spraying was investigated . METHODS : Susceptibility to DDT ( an organochlorine ) , fenitrothion ( an organophosphate ) , bendiocarb ( a carbamate ) , lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin ( both pyrethroids ) was tested using standard WHO diagnostic bioassay kits . Bioassays were performed on non-blood fed mosquitoes one to three-day old . Knockdown was recorded every 10 min and mortality 24 h post-exposure was noted . RESULTS : Mortality 24 h post-exposure was 100% for all insecticides except for lambdacyhalothrin , which averaged 99 . 46% . Knockdown rates at 10 min intervals were not significantly different between the Mwea population and the susceptible KISUMU strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto control . The KDT50 and KDT95 values for the Mwea population were either lower than those for the control or higher by factors of no more than 2 for most comparisons and compared well with those of An . gambiae sensu lato categorized as susceptible in other studies . CONCLUSION : These results suggest that the Mwea population of An . arabiensis is susceptible to all the insecticides tested . This implies that vector control measures employing any of these insecticides would not be hampered by resistance .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : Control of the Anopheline mosquito vectors of malaria by use of insecticides has been shown to impact on both morbidity and mortality due to this disease . Evidence of insecticide resistance in different settings necessitates surveillance studies to allow prompt detection of resistance should it arise and thus enable its management . Possible resistance by Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes from Mwea rice irrigation scheme in Central Kenya to insecticides in the four classes of insecticides approved by WHO for indoor residual spraying was investigated . METHODS : Susceptibility to DDT ( an organochlorine ) , fenitrothion ( an organophosphate ) , bendiocarb ( a carbamate ) , lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin ( both pyrethroids ) was tested using standard WHO diagnostic bioassay kits . Bioassays were performed on non-blood fed mosquitoes one to three-day old . Knockdown was recorded every 10 min and mortality 24 h post-exposure was noted . RESULTS : Mortality 24 h post-exposure was 100% for all insecticides except for lambdacyhalothrin , which averaged 99 . 46% .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Identification of quantitative trait loci for ABA sensitivity at seed germination and seedling stages in rice .
Journal: Yi Chuan Xue Bao Citation: V : 33 ( 6 ) P : 532-41 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16800384 Accession (PMID): 16800384
Abstract: Abscisic acid ( ABA ) is one of the important plant hormones , which plays a critical role in seed development and adaptation to abiotic stresses . The sensitivity of rice ( Oryza sativa L ) to exogenous ABA at seed germination and seedling stages was investigated in the recombinant inbred line ( RIL ) population derived from a cross between irrigated rice Zhenshan 97 and upland rice IRAT109 , using relative germination vigor ( RGV ) , relative germination rate ( RGR ) and leaf rolling scores of spraying ( LRS ) or culturing ( LRC ) with ABA as sensitivity indexes . The phenotypic correlation analysis revealed that only RGV at germination stage was positively correlated to ABA sensitivity at seedling stage . QTL detection using composite interval mapping ( CIM ) and mixed linear model was conducted to dissect the genetic basis of ABA sensitivity , and the single-locus QTLs detected by both methods are in good agreement with each other . Five single QTLs and six pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected for ABA sensitivity at germination stage . Eight single QTLs and five pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected for ABA sensitivity at seedling stage . Two QTLs were common between LRS and LRC ; and one common QTL was detected for RGV , LRS and LRC simultaneously . These results indicated that both single and epistatic loci were involved in the ABA sensitivity in rice , and the genetic basis of ABA sensitivity at seed germination and seedling stage was largely different .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Abscisic acid ( ABA ) is one of the important plant hormones , which plays a critical role in seed development and adaptation to abiotic stresses . The sensitivity of rice ( Oryza sativa L ) to exogenous ABA at seed germination and seedling stages was investigated in the recombinant inbred line ( RIL ) population derived from a cross between irrigated rice Zhenshan 97 and upland rice IRAT109 , using relative germination vigor ( RGV ) , relative germination rate ( RGR ) and leaf rolling scores of spraying ( LRS ) or culturing ( LRC ) with ABA as sensitivity indexes . The phenotypic correlation analysis revealed that only RGV at germination stage was positively correlated to ABA sensitivity at seedling stage . QTL detection using composite interval mapping ( CIM ) and mixed linear model was conducted to dissect the genetic basis of ABA sensitivity , and the single-locus QTLs detected by both methods are in good agreement with each other . Five single QTLs and six pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected for ABA sensitivity at germination stage . Eight single QTLs and five pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected for ABA sensitivity at seedling stage .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ The inductive activation of the promoter of pib gene ]
Journal: Yi Chuan Citation: V : 28 ( 6 ) P : 689-94 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16818431 Accession (PMID): 16818431
Abstract: A 5 . 7 kb putative promoter region of pib gene was isolated from the pib genomic clone and substituted for the 35S promoter upstream of gus gene in plasmid pCAMBIA1301 to construct a new plant expression vector pNAR604 ( putative pib promoter-GUS + 35S-hpt ) . From Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and hygromycin selective culture in vitro , hygromycin resistant calli and 36 transgenic rice ( Oryza sativa L ) plants were obtained . Histochemical assays of GUS activity showed that no expression was observed in the resistant calli and roots from transgenic rice if cultured under light , but after 24 h dark treatment there was strong GUS staining . Fluorimetric quantitative analysis indicated that GUS expression was organ-specific in transgenic rice . Without the dark treatment , GUS activity in roots and stems were about 7 and 3 times higher than in leaves in which GUS activity was only trace detected . After 24 h dark treatment , GUS activity in roots , stems and leaves of transgenic plants were all promoted and the largest increase was observed in leaves . Twenty-four hours after spraying with 5 mmol/L SA ( Salicylic Acid ) or 0 . 3 mol/L NaCl , GUS activity in leaves of the transgenic plants was 2 . 7 or 3 . 6 times respectively higher than untreated control . It was confirmed that an inductive promoter was involved in this 5 . 7 kb upstream region of pib gene , and dark , SA and NaCl treatments were inductive factors for pib promoter .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Histochemical assays of GUS activity showed that no expression was observed in the resistant calli and roots from transgenic rice if cultured under light , but after 24 h dark treatment there was strong GUS staining . Fluorimetric quantitative analysis indicated that GUS expression was organ-specific in transgenic rice . Without the dark treatment , GUS activity in roots and stems were about 7 and 3 times higher than in leaves in which GUS activity was only trace detected . After 24 h dark treatment , GUS activity in roots , stems and leaves of transgenic plants were all promoted and the largest increase was observed in leaves . Twenty-four hours after spraying with 5 mmol/L SA ( Salicylic Acid ) or 0 . 3 mol/L NaCl , GUS activity in leaves of the transgenic plants was 2 . 7 or 3 . 6 times respectively higher than untreated control . It was confirmed that an inductive promoter was involved in this 5 . 7 kb upstream region of pib gene , and dark , SA and NaCl treatments were inductive factors for pib promoter .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in a riceland agroecosystem in Mwea , Kenya .
Journal: J Vector Ecol . Citation: V : 31 ( 1 ) P : 129-37 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16859101 Accession (PMID): 16859101
Abstract: We conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in the Mwea rice scheme , Kenya . Adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor spraying of houses and outdoors by CDC light traps in three villages representing planned ( Mbuinjeru ) and unplanned ( Kiamachiri ) rice agroecosystems and a non-irrigated agroecosystem ( Murinduko ) . During the 12-month sampling period , a total of 98 , 708 mosquitoes belonging to five genera and 25 species were collected . The five most common species collected during this study were Anopheles arabiensis Patton ( 52 . 5% ) , Culex quinquefasciatus Say ( 36 . 7% ) , Anopheles pharoensis Theobald ( 5 . 2% ) , Anopheles coustani Laveran ( 1 . 4% ) , and Anopheles funestus Giles ( 1 . 3% ) . Anopheles arabiensis , Cx quinquefasciatus , and An . pharoensis were more abundant in rice agroecosystems than in the non-irrigated agroecosystem , and in planned than in the unplanned rice agroecosystems . In contrast , An . funestus was more abundant in the non-irrigated agroecosystem . The mosquito species diversity ( H ) and evenness ( E ( H ) ) in the non-irrigated agroecosystem ( Shannon diversity Index , H = 1 . 507 , EH = 0 . 503 ) was significantly higher than in the rice agroecosystems ( H ) = 0 . 968 , E ( H ) = 0 . 313 , unplanned ; and H= 1 . 040 , E ( H ) = 0 . 367 planned ) . Results of lag cross correlation analysis revealed a strong relationship between rainfall and the abundance of An . arabiensis , and C quinquefasciatus in the non-irrigated agroecosystem but not in the rice agroecosystems . It is inferred from the data that different levels of habitat perturbations with regard to rice cultivation have different effects on mosquito diversity and abundance . This provides an understanding of how mosquito diversity is impacted by different habitat management and rice cropping strategies .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: We conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in the Mwea rice scheme , Kenya . Adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor spraying of houses and outdoors by CDC light traps in three villages representing planned ( Mbuinjeru ) and unplanned ( Kiamachiri ) rice agroecosystems and a non-irrigated agroecosystem ( Murinduko ) . During the 12-month sampling period , a total of 98 , 708 mosquitoes belonging to five genera and 25 species were collected . The five most common species collected during this study were Anopheles arabiensis Patton ( 52 . 5% ) , Culex quinquefasciatus Say ( 36 . 7% ) , Anopheles pharoensis Theobald ( 5 . 2% ) , Anopheles coustani Laveran ( 1 . 4% ) , and Anopheles funestus Giles ( 1 . 3% ) . Anopheles arabiensis , Cx quinquefasciatus , and An . pharoensis were more abundant in rice agroecosystems than in the non-irrigated agroecosystem , and in planned than in the unplanned rice agroecosystems . In contrast , An . funestus was more abundant in the non-irrigated agroecosystem .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Induction of resistance against rice blast fungus in rice plants treated with a potent elicitor , N-acetylchitooligosaccharide .
Journal: Biosci . Biotechnol . Biochem . Citation: V : 70 ( 7 ) P : 1599-605 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16861793 Accession (PMID): 16861793
Abstract: The mode of action of a potent elicitor , N-acetylchitooligosaccharide , in rice plants was examined . In intact seedlings , no significant uptake of the elicitor via the roots was observed within 3 h , whereas rapid uptake was observed in excised leaves . Rapid and transient expression of an elicitor-responsive gene , EL2 , was induced in the leaves of intact seedlings sprayed with the elicitor or in the roots and leaves of intact seedlings by immersing roots in the elicitor solution . Histochemical analysis indicated that EL2 was expressed in cells exposed to the elicitor of root and leaves . In seedlings treated with the elicitor for 1 d or longer , hyphal growth of rice blast fungus was significantly delayed , and an accumulation of auto-fluorescence around the infection site was observed . Two defense-related genes , PR-1 and PR-10 ( PBZ1 ) , were induced in a systemic and local manner by elicitor treatment , in correlation with the induction of resistance against rice blast fungus . N-Acetylchitoheptaose did not inhibit the hyphal growth of the fungi . These results indicate the occurrence of systemic signal transmission from N-acetylchitooligosaccharide in rice plants .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: The mode of action of a potent elicitor , N-acetylchitooligosaccharide , in rice plants was examined . In intact seedlings , no significant uptake of the elicitor via the roots was observed within 3 h , whereas rapid uptake was observed in excised leaves . Rapid and transient expression of an elicitor-responsive gene , EL2 , was induced in the leaves of intact seedlings sprayed with the elicitor or in the roots and leaves of intact seedlings by immersing roots in the elicitor solution . Histochemical analysis indicated that EL2 was expressed in cells exposed to the elicitor of root and leaves . In seedlings treated with the elicitor for 1 d or longer , hyphal growth of rice blast fungus was significantly delayed , and an accumulation of auto-fluorescence around the infection site was observed . Two defense-related genes , PR-1 and PR-10 ( PBZ1 ) , were induced in a systemic and local manner by elicitor treatment , in correlation with the induction of resistance against rice blast fungus . N-Acetylchitoheptaose did not inhibit the hyphal growth of the fungi .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Map-based cloning of a novel rice cytochrome P450 gene CYP81A6 that confers resistance to two different classes of herbicides .
Journal: Plant Mol . Biol . Citation: V : 61 ( 6 ) P : 933-43 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub16927205 Accession (PMID): 16927205
Abstract: Development of hybrid rice has greatly contributed to increased yields during the past three decades . Two bentazon-lethal mutants 8077S and Norin8m are being utilized in developing new hybrid rice systems . When the male sterile lines are developed in such a mutant background , the problem of F1 seed contamination by self-seeds from the sterile lines can be solved by spraying bentazon at seedling stage . We first determined the sensitivity of the mutant plants to bentazon . Both mutants showed symptoms to bentazon starting from 100 mg/l , which was about 60-fold , lower than the sensitivity threshold of their wild-type controls . In addition , both mutants were sensitive to sulfonylurea-type herbicides . The locus for the mutant phenotype is bel for 8077S and bsl for Norin8m . Tests showed that the two loci are allelic to each other . The two genes were cloned by map-based cloning . Interestingly , both mutant alleles had a single-base deletion , which was confirmed by PCR-RFLP . The two loci are renamed bel ( a ) ( for bel ) and bel ( b ) ( for bsl ) . The wild-type Bel gene encodes a novel cytochrome P450 monooxgenase , named CYP81A6 . Analysis of the mutant protein sequence also revealed the reason for bel ( a ) being slightly tolerant than bel ( b ) . Introduction of the wild-type Bel gene rescued the bentazon and sulfonylurea-sensitive phenotype of bel ( a ) mutant . On the other hand , expression of antisense Bel in W6154S induced a mutant phenotype . Based on these results we conclude that the novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP81A6 encoded by Bel confers resistance to two different classes of herbicides .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: Development of hybrid rice has greatly contributed to increased yields during the past three decades . Two bentazon-lethal mutants 8077S and Norin8m are being utilized in developing new hybrid rice systems . When the male sterile lines are developed in such a mutant background , the problem of F1 seed contamination by self-seeds from the sterile lines can be solved by spraying bentazon at seedling stage . We first determined the sensitivity of the mutant plants to bentazon . Both mutants showed symptoms to bentazon starting from 100 mg/l , which was about 60-fold , lower than the sensitivity threshold of their wild-type controls . In addition , both mutants were sensitive to sulfonylurea-type herbicides . The locus for the mutant phenotype is bel for 8077S and bsl for Norin8m .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Co-bombardment , integration and expression of rice chitinase and thaumatin-like protein genes in barley ( Hordeum vulgare cv . Conlon ) .
Journal: Citation: V : ( ) P : Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17103003 Accession (PMID): 17103003
Abstract: Pathogenesis-related ( PR ) proteins associated with degradation of structural components of pathogenic filamentous fungi were overexpressed in the two-rowed malting barley ( Hordeum vulgare L ) cultivar Conlon . Transgenes were introduced by co-bombardment with two plasmids , one carrying a rice ( Oryza sativa L ) chitinase gene ( chi11 ) and another carrying a rice thaumatin-like protein gene ( tlp ) . Each gene was under the control of the maize ubiquitin ( Ubi1 ) promoter . Fifty-eight primary transformants from three independent transformation events were regenerated . T ( 1 ) plants with high rice chi11 and tlp protein expression levels were advanced to identify T ( 2 ) homozygotes by herbicide spray and subjected to further molecular analyses . T ( 3 ) progeny from one event ( E2 ) had stable integration and expression of the rice chi11 and tlp while those from the other events ( E1 and E3 ) showed stable integration only of tlp . The successful production of these lines overexpressing the antifungal chi and tlp proteins provides materials to test the effects of these genes on a variety of fungal diseases that attack barley and to serve as potential additional sources of disease resistance .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: Pathogenesis-related ( PR ) proteins associated with degradation of structural components of pathogenic filamentous fungi were overexpressed in the two-rowed malting barley ( Hordeum vulgare L ) cultivar Conlon . Transgenes were introduced by co-bombardment with two plasmids , one carrying a rice ( Oryza sativa L ) chitinase gene ( chi11 ) and another carrying a rice thaumatin-like protein gene ( tlp ) . Each gene was under the control of the maize ubiquitin ( Ubi1 ) promoter . Fifty-eight primary transformants from three independent transformation events were regenerated . T ( 1 ) plants with high rice chi11 and tlp protein expression levels were advanced to identify T ( 2 ) homozygotes by herbicide spray and subjected to further molecular analyses . T ( 3 ) progeny from one event ( E2 ) had stable integration and expression of the rice chi11 and tlp while those from the other events ( E1 and E3 ) showed stable integration only of tlp . The successful production of these lines overexpressing the antifungal chi and tlp proteins provides materials to test the effects of these genes on a variety of fungal diseases that attack barley and to serve as potential additional sources of disease resistance .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Bt rice harbouring cry genes controlled by a constitutive or wound-inducible promoter : protection and transgene expression under Mediterranean field conditions .
Journal: Plant Biotechnol . J Citation: V : 2 ( 5 ) P : 417-30 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17168888 Accession (PMID): 17168888
Abstract: Seven homozygous transgenic lines of two European commercial cultivars of rice ( Ariete ( A ) and Senia ( S ) ) , harbouring the cry1B or cry1Aa Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) delta-endotoxin genes , were field evaluated for protection from striped stem borer ( SSB ) ( Chilo suppressalis ) damage during the 2001 and 2002 summer crop seasons in the Delta de lEbre region , Spain . The plant codon-optimized toxin gene was placed under the control of the promoter of either the constitutive ubi1 gene or the wound-inducible mpi gene from maize . Stable , high-level , insecticidal protein accumulation was observed throughout root , leaf and seed it issues of field-grown plants harbouring the cry1B ( lines A64 . 1 , A33 . 1 , A3 . 4 and S98 . 9 ) or cry1Aa ( lines S05 . 1 and A19 . 14 ) genes under the control of the ubi1 promoter . Conversely , no toxin was detected in unwounded vegetative it issues of the A9 . 1 line harbouring the cry1B gene controlled by the mpi promoter , indicating that natural environmental stresses did not trigger the activity of the wound-inducible promoter . However , the toxin accumulated at 0 . 2% total soluble proteins in A9 . 1 sheath it issue exhibiting brown lesions resulting from SSB damage . The agronomical traits and performance of the transgenic lines were generally comparable with parental controls , except in the two lines accumulating Cry1Aa , which exhibited a high frequency of plants non-true to type . Natural infestation was assisted with manual infestations of L2/L3 SSB larvae in border control plants surrounding the experimental plots , which served as a reservoir for the second-cycle SSB population . The observation of damage ( brown lesions and dead hearts ) during the crop season and dissection of plants at harvest stage revealed a range of protection amongst the transgenic lines , which was highly consistent with the level of toxin accumulation and with previous experience in greenhouse assays . Lines A3 . 4 and S05 . 1 were found to exhibit stable and full protection against SSB attacks , mediated by the accumulation of Cry1B and Cry1Aa toxin , respectively , which was comparable with that afforded by the spraying of chemical insecticides on control plants . The wound-induced A9 . 1 line exhibited a satisfactory level of protection , with a notably low level of penetration of SSB larvae in the stems , but higher external symptoms than constitutive lines , probably due to the time lag to benefit from the protective effect of Cry1B .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 9, subscore: 1.00 ]: However , the toxin accumulated at 0 . 2% total soluble proteins in A9 . 1 sheath it issue exhibiting brown lesions resulting from SSB damage . The agronomical traits and performance of the transgenic lines were generally comparable with parental controls , except in the two lines accumulating Cry1Aa , which exhibited a high frequency of plants non-true to type . Natural infestation was assisted with manual infestations of L2/L3 SSB larvae in border control plants surrounding the experimental plots , which served as a reservoir for the second-cycle SSB population . The observation of damage ( brown lesions and dead hearts ) during the crop season and dissection of plants at harvest stage revealed a range of protection amongst the transgenic lines , which was highly consistent with the level of toxin accumulation and with previous experience in greenhouse assays . Lines A3 . 4 and S05 . 1 were found to exhibit stable and full protection against SSB attacks , mediated by the accumulation of Cry1B and Cry1Aa toxin , respectively , which was comparable with that afforded by the spraying of chemical insecticides on control plants . The wound-induced A9 . 1 line exhibited a satisfactory level of protection , with a notably low level of penetration of SSB larvae in the stems , but higher external symptoms than constitutive lines , probably due to the time lag to benefit from the protective effect of Cry1B .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ Induction of free radicals after dietary exposure by mercury contaminated rice and protective effect of coexisting selenium ]
Journal: Huan Jing Ke Xue Citation: V : 27 ( 10 ) P : 2087-90 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17256615 Accession (PMID): 17256615
Abstract: Sprague-Dawley rats were reared by environmental mercury contaminated rice to survey the potential health risk of Wanshan mercury mining area . Electron spin resonance ( ESR ) was introduced to detect the species and the intensities of free radicals , using spin trap 5 , 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide ( DMPO ) . The results showed that the mercury-contaminated rice significantly increased the levels of free radicals and MDA in rat brain at 7 days ( p < 0 . 05 ) . ESR spectrums showed that the principal spin adducts resulted from the trapping of alkyl free radical ( alphaH = 22 . 7 x 10 ( -4 ) T +/- 1 . 6 x 10 ( -4 ) T , alphaN = 15 . 5 x 10 ( -4 ) T +/- 0 . 5 x 10 ( -4 ) T ) , and hydroxyl radical Levels of free radicals and MDA increased slowly until after 90-day exposure period ( 83% , 100% ) . Element correlation analysis showed high correlations of mercury and selenium in the brain of rat fed with Wanshan rice , suggesting that the coexisting selenium in rice exhibited antagonistic effects on both mercury accumulation and toxicity . The slight increases of free radicals in rat brain at 7 , 20 and 30-day exposure periods should be related with the scavenger effect of Se .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 1, subscore: 1.00 ]: Sprague-Dawley rats were reared by environmental mercury contaminated rice to survey the potential health risk of Wanshan mercury mining area . Electron spin resonance ( ESR ) was introduced to detect the species and the intensities of free radicals , using spin trap 5 , 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide ( DMPO ) . The results showed that the mercury-contaminated rice significantly increased the levels of free radicals and MDA in rat brain at 7 days ( p < 0 . 05 ) . ESR spectrums showed that the principal spin adducts resulted from the trapping of alkyl free radical ( alphaH = 22 . 7 x 10 ( -4 ) T +/- 1 . 6 x 10 ( -4 ) T , alphaN = 15 . 5 x 10 ( -4 ) T +/- 0 . 5 x 10 ( -4 ) T ) , and hydroxyl radical Levels of free radicals and MDA increased slowly until after 90-day exposure period ( 83% , 100% ) . Element correlation analysis showed high correlations of mercury and selenium in the brain of rat fed with Wanshan rice , suggesting that the coexisting selenium in rice exhibited antagonistic effects on both mercury accumulation and toxicity .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus from Benin , West Africa .
Journal: Acta Trop . Citation: V : 101 ( 3 ) P : 207-16 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17359927 Accession (PMID): 17359927
Abstract: Because free-insecticide treated net distribution is planned in Benin ( West Africa ) during the next few years , we investigated the type , frequency and distribution of insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in four localities selected on the basis of contrasting agricultural practices , use of insecticides and environment . Bioassays with WHO diagnostic test kits were carried out using pyrethroid , carbamate , organophosphate and organochlorine insecticides . An . gambiae mosquitoes were identified to species and to M or S molecular forms using PCR techniques . Molecular and biochemical assays were carried out to identify kdr and Ace . 1 mutations in individual mosquitoes and to detect any increase in the activity of enzymes typically involved in insecticide metabolism ( oxidase , esterase and glutathion-S-transfrases ) . WHO diagnostic tests showed high frequency of resistance in An . gambiae and Cx . quinquefasciatus to permethrin and DDT in three areas . This was consistent with the presence of target site insensitivity due to kdr mutation and to increased metabolism through enzymatic activity . Kdr was expressed in both M and S forms . However , less than 1% of An . gambiae or Cx . quiqnuefasciatus showed the presence of the Ace . 1 ( R ) mutation . Carbamate/OP resistance was present at higher frequency in Culex than in An . gambiae . Dieldrin resistance was present in both species at all four localities . A higher frequency of pyrethroid-resistance was found in An . gambiae mosquitoes collected in urban areas compared to those collected in rice growing areas . The expansion of vegetable growing within urban areas probably contributed to selection pressure on mosquitoes . The detection of multiple resistance mechanisms in both An . gambiae and Cx . quinquefasciatus in Benin may represent a threat for the efficacy of ITNs and other forms of vector control such as indoor residual spraying in the future .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 13, subscore: 1.00 ]: Carbamate/OP resistance was present at higher frequency in Culex than in An . gambiae . Dieldrin resistance was present in both species at all four localities . A higher frequency of pyrethroid-resistance was found in An . gambiae mosquitoes collected in urban areas compared to those collected in rice growing areas . The expansion of vegetable growing within urban areas probably contributed to selection pressure on mosquitoes . The detection of multiple resistance mechanisms in both An . gambiae and Cx . quinquefasciatus in Benin may represent a threat for the efficacy of ITNs and other forms of vector control such as indoor residual spraying in the future .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Malaria transmission dynamics in Niono , Mali : The effect of the irrigation systems .
Journal: Acta Trop . Citation: V : 101 ( 3 ) P : 232-40 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17362859 Accession (PMID): 17362859
Abstract: The type of water management and drainage system could be a potential reason for variation in malaria transmission in rice cultivation areas . To investigate this we have compared the population dynamics of Anopheles mosquitoes ( Diptera , Culicidae ) in rice plots with controlled and uncontrolled water depth , ie casiers and hors-casiers , respectively in the Office du Niger , Mali . We also compared malaria transmission in areas with mixed and casiers plots . Larval collection was performed fortnightly with the standard WHO dipping technique . Adult Anopheles were collected both by pyrethrum spray and landing catches . During the dry season rice cultivation cycle , the larval density in the hors-casier was significantly higher than in the casier plots . The larval peak in the casier plots was considerably smaller than the one in the hors-casier . During the rainy season , no significant difference was observed between the two plot types . However , larval densities begin to rise approximately one month earlier in the casier then in the hors-casier plots , and continued to increase trough the rice development phases until the grain filling/maturation phase , declining thereafter . In contrast , in the hors-casier rice plots larval density increased throughout the rice development . This difference was not significantly reflected in the adult vector density and man biting rate . However , high relative frequencies of Anopheles funestus , survival and entomological inoculation rates of An . gambiae s . l . were observed in the mixed plot sector .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The type of water management and drainage system could be a potential reason for variation in malaria transmission in rice cultivation areas . To investigate this we have compared the population dynamics of Anopheles mosquitoes ( Diptera , Culicidae ) in rice plots with controlled and uncontrolled water depth , ie casiers and hors-casiers , respectively in the Office du Niger , Mali . We also compared malaria transmission in areas with mixed and casiers plots . Larval collection was performed fortnightly with the standard WHO dipping technique . Adult Anopheles were collected both by pyrethrum spray and landing catches . During the dry season rice cultivation cycle , the larval density in the hors-casier was significantly higher than in the casier plots . The larval peak in the casier plots was considerably smaller than the one in the hors-casier . During the rainy season , no significant difference was observed between the two plot types . However , larval densities begin to rise approximately one month earlier in the casier then in the hors-casier plots , and continued to increase trough the rice development phases until the grain filling/maturation phase , declining thereafter .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: The novel botanical insecticide for the control brown planthopper ( Nilaparvata lugens Stal ) .
Journal: Commun . Agric . Appl . Biol . Sci . Citation: V : 71 ( 2 Pt B ) P : 475-81 Type: ARTICLE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17385515 Accession (PMID): 17385515
Abstract: Brown planthopper , Nilaparvata lugens Stal , ( BPH ) was the most devastating insect pest on rice in many partS of Asia . The Outbreak of BPH? which is resistant to many synthetic insecticides can cause total rice crop loss . This research was done to evaluate the efficiency of mangostin from the pericarp of mangosteen fruit extract ( Garcina mangostana L ) as the alternative control of BPH . The pericarp of mangosteen fruit was extracted by Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol as a solvent and purified by chromatography method then qualified structure by 2D-NMR , MS and IR . The crude extracts contained mangostin ca 2 . 956% w/w . This extract was trailed by the topical sprayer method with 1st , 2nd , 3rd , 4th and 5th nymph and adult BPH shows toxicity in term of LC50 ca 1 . 39 , 2 . 26 , 5 . 44 , 4 . 49 , 4 . 03 and 3 . 84 % w/v at 24 h exposure , respectively . The in vitro enzyme activity from BPH survived after 24 h exposure and showed to inhibit the carboxylesterase ( CarE ) , acetylchoinesterase ( AchE ) and glutathione-S-transferase ( GST ) activities which the correction factors of CarE , AchE and GST indicated ca 1 . 21-2 . 05 fold , 1 . 24-2 . 50 fold and 1 . 01-3 . 34 fold , respectively . Moreover , the data shows that the carboxylesterase may play an important role to detoxify this extract . The results suggested that pericarp of mangosteen fruit extract which have mangostin as active ingredient compound shows mechanism as the inhibitor of detoxification enzymes . Thus , it is likely to be uses this extract as an insecticide alternative to the control of BPH .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: which is resistant to many synthetic insecticides can cause total rice crop loss . This research was done to evaluate the efficiency of mangostin from the pericarp of mangosteen fruit extract ( Garcina mangostana L ) as the alternative control of BPH . The pericarp of mangosteen fruit was extracted by Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol as a solvent and purified by chromatography method then qualified structure by 2D-NMR , MS and IR . The crude extracts contained mangostin ca 2 . 956% w/w . This extract was trailed by the topical sprayer method with 1st , 2nd , 3rd , 4th and 5th nymph and adult BPH shows toxicity in term of LC50 ca 1 . 39 , 2 . 26 , 5 . 44 , 4 . 49 , 4 . 03 and 3 . 84 % w/v at 24 h exposure , respectively . The in vitro enzyme activity from BPH survived after 24 h exposure and showed to inhibit the carboxylesterase ( CarE ) , acetylchoinesterase ( AchE ) and glutathione-S-transferase ( GST ) activities which the correction factors of CarE , AchE and GST indicated ca 1 . 21-2 . 05 fold , 1 . 24-2 . 50 fold and 1 . 01-3 . 34 fold , respectively . Moreover , the data shows that the carboxylesterase may play an important role to detoxify this extract . The results suggested that pericarp of mangosteen fruit extract which have mangostin as active ingredient compound shows mechanism as the inhibitor of detoxification enzymes . Thus , it is likely to be uses this extract as an insecticide alternative to the control of BPH .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Consumption of mercury-contaminated rice induces oxidative stress and free radical aggravation in rats .
Journal: Biomed Environ Sci Citation: V : 20 P : Sep-84 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17458147 Accession (PMID): 17458147
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To study the oxidative stress induced by consumption of mercury-contaminated rice in rats , and to assess the possible public health risk of mercury contamination in Wanshan mining area . METHODS : Sprague Dawley rats were fed the mercury-contaminated rice produced from Wanshan area for 90 days . The antioxidant status and the free radicals in rat serum were evaluated . RESULTS : High mercury accumulation in organs of rats fed the mercury-contaminated rice confirmed the server pollution of mercury in Wanshan mining area . The intensity of electron spin resonance ( ESR ) signal increased by 87 . 38% in rats fed the rice from Wanshan compared with that in the control rats fed the rice from Shanghai , suggesting that chronic dietary consumption of rice from mercury mining area could induce an aggravation of free radicals . Feeding the mercury-contaminated rice was associated with significant decreases in the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px ) and concentration of serum nitric oxide ( NO ) , but it had no effect on serum nitric oxide synthase ( NOS ) activity . Feeding the mercury-contaminated rice raised the level of serum malonyldialdehyde ( MDA ) , indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress . CONCLUSION : The long-term dietary consumption of mercury-contaminated rice induces the aggravation of free radicals and exerts oxidative stress .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVE : To study the oxidative stress induced by consumption of mercury-contaminated rice in rats , and to assess the possible public health risk of mercury contamination in Wanshan mining area . METHODS : Sprague Dawley rats were fed the mercury-contaminated rice produced from Wanshan area for 90 days . The antioxidant status and the free radicals in rat serum were evaluated . RESULTS : High mercury accumulation in organs of rats fed the mercury-contaminated rice confirmed the server pollution of mercury in Wanshan mining area . The intensity of electron spin resonance ( ESR ) signal increased by 87 . 38% in rats fed the rice from Wanshan compared with that in the control rats fed the rice from Shanghai , suggesting that chronic dietary consumption of rice from mercury mining area could induce an aggravation of free radicals . Feeding the mercury-contaminated rice was associated with significant decreases in the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px ) and concentration of serum nitric oxide ( NO ) , but it had no effect on serum nitric oxide synthase ( NOS ) activity .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Determination of imazosulfuron persistence in rice crop and soil .
Journal: Environ Monit Assess Citation: V : 137 P : 205-11 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17562212 Accession (PMID): 17562212
Abstract: Imazosulfuron is a new post-emergence sulfonylurea herbicide . It is highly active at low application rates to control annual and perennial broad-leaf weeds and sedges in rice . There is increasing concerned about the persistence of pesticide residues in soils , crop produce and subsequent contamination of groundwater . Thus persistence of imazosulfuron residues under field condition was evaluated . Imazosulfuron was applied at 30 , 40 , 50 and 60 a . i . g ha ( -1 ) rates , 4 days after transplanting of rice as post-emergence herbicide . Soil and plant samples treated with imazosulfuron were collected at 60 , 90 and 120 days after herbicide application and analyzed for residues . Rice grains and straw samples were sampled at harvest ( 120 days ) . Residues of imazosulfuron in soil were not found after 90 and 120 DAS ( days after spraying ) . Rice grains contained 0 . 006 , 0 . 009 microg g ( -1 ) residues at 50 and 60 g ha ( -1 ) application rates . 0 . 009 and 0 . 039 microg g ( -1 ) residues of imazosulfuron were detected at 50 and 60 g/ha rates respectively in rice straw . Residues of imazosulfuron were not detected applied at 30 and 40 g ha ( -1 ) in rice grains and straw , respectively and can be safely applied to the transplanted rice .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 8, subscore: 1.00 ]: Thus persistence of imazosulfuron residues under field condition was evaluated . Imazosulfuron was applied at 30 , 40 , 50 and 60 a . i . g ha ( -1 ) rates , 4 days after transplanting of rice as post-emergence herbicide . Soil and plant samples treated with imazosulfuron were collected at 60 , 90 and 120 days after herbicide application and analyzed for residues . Rice grains and straw samples were sampled at harvest ( 120 days ) . Residues of imazosulfuron in soil were not found after 90 and 120 DAS ( days after spraying ) . Rice grains contained 0 . 006 , 0 . 009 microg g ( -1 ) residues at 50 and 60 g ha ( -1 ) application rates . 0 . 009 and 0 . 039 microg g ( -1 ) residues of imazosulfuron were detected at 50 and 60 g/ha rates respectively in rice straw . Residues of imazosulfuron were not detected applied at 30 and 40 g ha ( -1 ) in rice grains and straw , respectively and can be safely applied to the transplanted rice .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy administered at different time on white matter damage following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats ]
Journal: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi Citation: V : 9 P : 308-12 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17706027 Accession (PMID): 17706027
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : A recent study has suggested that hyperbaric oxygen ( HBO ) therapy administered within 3 hrs following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) may alleviate brain white matter damage ( WMD ) in neonatal rats . However it is unclear whether a delayed HBO therapy ( more than 3 hrs following HIBD ) has neuroprotective effects in neonatal rats . This study aimed to explore the effect of HBO therapy administered at different time points following HIBD on WMD in neonatal rats . METHODS : The HIBD model was prepared according to the Rice-Vannucci procedure in 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats . HBO therapy was administered at 3 , 6 , 12 , 24 or 72 hrs after HIBD , once daily for consecutive 7 days . T-maze test , the foot-fault test and the radial arm maze test were performed after 14 days of HIBD . Myelin basic protein ( MBP ) in the callositas and corpora striata was examined by immunohistochemical method 28 days after HIBD . RESULTS : The rats receiving HBO therapy at 3 , 6 and 12 hrs after HIBD performed significantly better in the T-maze test , the radial arm maze test and the foot-fault test than the untreated HIBD rats . There were no significant differences in the behavioral test results between the HBO-treated groups administered HBO at 24 and 72 hrs after HIBD and the untreated HIBD group . The MBP expression in the HBO-treated groups treated within 12 hrs after HIBD was significantly higher than that in the untreated HIBD group ( P < 0 . 05 ) . When the HBO therapeutic window was delayed to 24 hrs after HIBD , there were no significant differences in the MBP expression between the HBO-treated and the untreated HIBD groups . CONCLUSIONS : HBO therapy administered within 12 hrs following HIBD can alleviate brain WMD in neonatal rats , but the efficacy of HBO therapy administered 24 hrs after HIBD does not appear to be satisfactory .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: OBJECTIVE : A recent study has suggested that hyperbaric oxygen ( HBO ) therapy administered within 3 hrs following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage ( HIBD ) may alleviate brain white matter damage ( WMD ) in neonatal rats . However it is unclear whether a delayed HBO therapy ( more than 3 hrs following HIBD ) has neuroprotective effects in neonatal rats . This study aimed to explore the effect of HBO therapy administered at different time points following HIBD on WMD in neonatal rats . METHODS : The HIBD model was prepared according to the Rice-Vannucci procedure in 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats . HBO therapy was administered at 3 , 6 , 12 , 24 or 72 hrs after HIBD , once daily for consecutive 7 days . T-maze test , the foot-fault test and the radial arm maze test were performed after 14 days of HIBD . Myelin basic protein ( MBP ) in the callositas and corpora striata was examined by immunohistochemical method 28 days after HIBD . RESULTS : The rats receiving HBO therapy at 3 , 6 and 12 hrs after HIBD performed significantly better in the T-maze test , the radial arm maze test and the foot-fault test than the untreated HIBD rats .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Impacts of pesticide use on semen characteristics among rice farmers in Kienxuong District , Thaibinh Province , Vietnam .
Journal: Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health Citation: V : 38 P : 569-75 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17877235 Accession (PMID): 17877235
Abstract: This case-control study assessed the effects of pesticide use on semen characteristics among rice farmers of Kienxuong District , Thaibinh Province , Vietnam . Semen samples of 1 , 036 rice farmers were obtained by manual masturbation and screened at Commune Health Stations . Of these , 156 abnormal semen samples were identified ; 314 rice farmers with normal semen were recruited as controls . The semen characteristics ( volume , sperm concentration , total sperm count , motility , vitality and morphology ) of the cases were considerably poorer than the controls . Factors associated with abnormal semen after adjusting for age , smoking and alcohol drinking by logistic regression were : distance of less than 300 meters from household to rice fields and duration of work over 10 years as a farmer ( adjusted OR = 3 . 16 , 95% Cl : 1 . 97-5 . 05 and adjusted OR = 3 . 98 , 95% Cl : 2 . 20-7 . 21 , respectively ) . Rice farmers without personal protective equipment ( PPE ) when spraying pesticides and without pesticide training ( adjusted OR = 3 . 05 , Cl : 1 . 92-4 . 85 and adjusted OR = 1 . 90 , Cl : 1 . 14-3 . 16 , respectively ) were also at risk for abnormal semen compared to controls . These findings showed the strength of association between pesticide use and abnormal semen characteristics among rice farmers in Kienxuong District , Thaibinh Province , Vietnam .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Semen samples of 1 , 036 rice farmers were obtained by manual masturbation and screened at Commune Health Stations . Of these , 156 abnormal semen samples were identified ; 314 rice farmers with normal semen were recruited as controls . The semen characteristics ( volume , sperm concentration , total sperm count , motility , vitality and morphology ) of the cases were considerably poorer than the controls . Factors associated with abnormal semen after adjusting for age , smoking and alcohol drinking by logistic regression were : distance of less than 300 meters from household to rice fields and duration of work over 10 years as a farmer ( adjusted OR = 3 . 16 , 95% Cl : 1 . 97-5 . 05 and adjusted OR = 3 . 98 , 95% Cl : 2 . 20-7 . 21 , respectively ) . Rice farmers without personal protective equipment ( PPE ) when spraying pesticides and without pesticide training ( adjusted OR = 3 . 05 , Cl : 1 . 92-4 . 85 and adjusted OR = 1 . 90 , Cl : 1 . 14-3 . 16 , respectively ) were also at risk for abnormal semen compared to controls . These findings showed the strength of association between pesticide use and abnormal semen characteristics among rice farmers in Kienxuong District , Thaibinh Province , Vietnam .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Distribution of organophosphate insecticides in a Thai biomass-water system .
Journal: J Environ Sci Health B Citation: V : 42 P : 869-75 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17978954 Accession (PMID): 17978954
Abstract: Sorption and leaching of the organophosphate ( OP ) pesticides chlorpyrifos , profenofos , methyl parathion and malathion were investigated with four different types of biomass : coconut husk , rice husk , peat moss and peanut shell . Organic carbon contents of the biomass were in the range of 35 . 4-45 . 4% . Sorption studies were carried out by the batch ( equilibrium ) method at 4 different OP spike concentrations and at pH 3-7 . Sorption isotherms conformed to a linear Freundlich equation and the Freundlich constant or sorption coefficient ( KD ) confirmed that biomass organic carbon content was the principal sorbent factor affecting OP sorption . For a given sorbent , correlation of the extent of sorption with sorbate chemical properties was examined . Column leaching experiments involving different masses of coconut husk and peanut shell pre-spiked with OPs at the level equivalent to actual spraying concentrations in some Thai tangerine orchards were conducted . These experiments included repeated spikings and leaching . A water flow rate of 20 mL min ( -1 ) was employed corresponding to the current average watering regime . Retardation and biodegradation with these sorbents were also examined .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 6, subscore: 1.00 ]: Organic carbon contents of the biomass were in the range of 35 . 4-45 . 4% . Sorption studies were carried out by the batch ( equilibrium ) method at 4 different OP spike concentrations and at pH 3-7 . Sorption isotherms conformed to a linear Freundlich equation and the Freundlich constant or sorption coefficient ( KD ) confirmed that biomass organic carbon content was the principal sorbent factor affecting OP sorption . For a given sorbent , correlation of the extent of sorption with sorbate chemical properties was examined . Column leaching experiments involving different masses of coconut husk and peanut shell pre-spiked with OPs at the level equivalent to actual spraying concentrations in some Thai tangerine orchards were conducted . These experiments included repeated spikings and leaching . A water flow rate of 20 mL min ( -1 ) was employed corresponding to the current average watering regime . Retardation and biodegradation with these sorbents were also examined .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: The delta-opioid receptor agonist SNC80 [ ( + ) -4- [ alpha ( R ) -alpha- [ ( 2S , 5R ) -4-allyl-2 , 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl ] - ( 3-methoxyben zyl ) -N , N-diethylbenzamide ] synergistically enhances the locomotor-activating effects of some psychomotor stimulants , but not direct dopamine agonists , in rats .
Journal: J Pharmacol Exp Ther Citation: V : 324 P : 714-24 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub17986650 Accession (PMID): 17986650
Abstract: The nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonist SNC80 [ ( + ) -4- [ alpha ( R ) -alpha- [ ( 2S , 5R ) -4-allyl-2 , 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl ] - ( 3-methoxyben zyl ) -N , N-diethylbenzamide ] produces many stimulant-like behavioral effects in rodents and monkeys , such as locomotor stimulation , generalization to cocaine in discrimination procedures , and antiparkinsonian effects . Tolerance to the locomotor-stimulating effects of SNC80 develops after a single administration of SNC80 in rats ; it is not known whether cross-tolerance develops to the effects of other stimulant compounds . In the initial studies to determine whether SNC80 produced cross-tolerance to other stimulant compounds , it was discovered that amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity was greatly enhanced in SNC80-pretreated rats . This study evaluated acute cross-tolerance between delta-opioid agonists and other locomotor-stimulating drugs . Locomotor activity was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with radiotransmitters , and activity levels were recorded in the home cage environment . Three-hour SNC80 pretreatment produced tolerance to further delta-opioid receptor stimulation but also augmented greatly amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner . Pretreatments with other delta-opioid agonists , ( + ) BW373U86 [ ( + ) -4- [ alpha ( R ) -alpha- [ ( 2S , 5R ) -4-allyl-2 , 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl ] -3-hydroxybenz yl ] -N , N-diethylbenzamide ] and oxymorphindole ( 17-methyl-6 , 7-dehydro-4 , 5-epoxy-3 , 14-dihydroxy-6 , 7 , 2 , 3-indolomorphinan ) , also modified amphetamine-induced activity levels . SNC80 pretreatment enhanced the stimulatory effects of the dopamine/norepinephrine transporter ligands cocaine and nomifensine ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-phenyl-8-isoquinolinanmine maleate salt ) , but not the direct dopamine receptor agonists SKF81297 [ R- ( + ) -6-chloro-7 , 8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2 , 3 , 4 , 5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide ] and quinpirole [ trans- ( - ) - ( 4alphaR ) -4 , 4a , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 8a , 9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo [ 3 , 4-g ] quinoline monohydrochloride ] . In conclusion , SNC80 enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effects of monoamine transporter ligands suggesting that delta-opioid receptor activation might alter the functional activity of monoamine transporters or presynaptic monoamine terminals .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: The nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonist SNC80 [ ( + ) -4- [ alpha ( R ) -alpha- [ ( 2S , 5R ) -4-allyl-2 , 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl ] - ( 3-methoxyben zyl ) -N , N-diethylbenzamide ] produces many stimulant-like behavioral effects in rodents and monkeys , such as locomotor stimulation , generalization to cocaine in discrimination procedures , and antiparkinsonian effects . Tolerance to the locomotor-stimulating effects of SNC80 develops after a single administration of SNC80 in rats ; it is not known whether cross-tolerance develops to the effects of other stimulant compounds . In the initial studies to determine whether SNC80 produced cross-tolerance to other stimulant compounds , it was discovered that amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity was greatly enhanced in SNC80-pretreated rats . This study evaluated acute cross-tolerance between delta-opioid agonists and other locomotor-stimulating drugs . Locomotor activity was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with radiotransmitters , and activity levels were recorded in the home cage environment . Three-hour SNC80 pretreatment produced tolerance to further delta-opioid receptor stimulation but also augmented greatly amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner . Pretreatments with other delta-opioid agonists , ( + ) BW373U86 [ ( + ) -4- [ alpha ( R ) -alpha- [ ( 2S , 5R ) -4-allyl-2 , 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl ] -3-hydroxybenz yl ] -N , N-diethylbenzamide ] and oxymorphindole ( 17-methyl-6 , 7-dehydro-4 , 5-epoxy-3 , 14-dihydroxy-6 , 7 , 2 , 3-indolomorphinan ) , also modified amphetamine-induced activity levels . SNC80 pretreatment enhanced the stimulatory effects of the dopamine/norepinephrine transporter ligands cocaine and nomifensine ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-phenyl-8-isoquinolinanmine maleate salt ) , but not the direct dopamine receptor agonists SKF81297 [ R- ( + ) -6-chloro-7 , 8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2 , 3 , 4 , 5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide ] and quinpirole [ trans- ( - ) - ( 4alphaR ) -4 , 4a , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 8a , 9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo [ 3 , 4-g ] quinoline monohydrochloride ] . In conclusion , SNC80 enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effects of monoamine transporter ligands suggesting that delta-opioid receptor activation might alter the functional activity of monoamine transporters or presynaptic monoamine terminals .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Effects of solid-state fermented rice on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in high-cholesterol-fed rats .
Journal: J Med Food Citation: V : 10 P : 608-14 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18158830 Accession (PMID): 18158830
Abstract: We investigated the effect of solid-state fermented rice cultured with Basidiomycota ( sangwhang ) and Monascus ruber on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity . Forty 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high cholesterol diets in which carbohydrate sources in the treatment groups consisted of non-fermented rice and sangwhang or M ruber rice at 80% and 20% , respectively , for 5 weeks . Supplementation with sangwhang and M ruber rice had no effect on growth and food intakes in high-cholesterol-fed rats . The plasma triglyceride concentration was not significantly different among the groups . Supplementation with M ruber rice resulted in lower plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations and atherogenic index compared to the control group , while the plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration was elevated . In addition , fermented rice cultured with M ruber-supplemented animals had greater bile acid excretion . The M ruber groups had significantly lower plasma and hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances than the control group . Moreover , hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities , including catalase and superoxide dismutase , were significantly higher in the M ruber group . In conclusion , fermented rice , especially M ruber rice , was very effective for improving the lipid metabolism and reducing oxidative stress by up-regulating the hepatic antioxidant enzymes in high-cholesterol-fed rats .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: We investigated the effect of solid-state fermented rice cultured with Basidiomycota ( sangwhang ) and Monascus ruber on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity . Forty 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high cholesterol diets in which carbohydrate sources in the treatment groups consisted of non-fermented rice and sangwhang or M ruber rice at 80% and 20% , respectively , for 5 weeks . Supplementation with sangwhang and M ruber rice had no effect on growth and food intakes in high-cholesterol-fed rats . The plasma triglyceride concentration was not significantly different among the groups . Supplementation with M ruber rice resulted in lower plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations and atherogenic index compared to the control group , while the plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration was elevated . In addition , fermented rice cultured with M ruber-supplemented animals had greater bile acid excretion .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Malaria transmission and rice cultivation in Lagdo , northern Cameroon .
Journal: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg Citation: V : 102 P : 352-9 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18295810 Accession (PMID): 18295810
Abstract: Cross-sectional entomological surveys were carried out during the 2006 dry and rainy seasons in Lagdo , Cameroon to measure the impact of rice cultivation on malaria transmission and to monitor vector susceptibility to insecticides . Adult anopheline mosquitoes were captured on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray collections . A total of 4740 mosquitoes was collected during the study . Anopheles arabiensis was the major species and the main malaria vector in all study sites , followed by A funestus . Malaria transmission was high in the non-irrigated zone of Mayo Mbocki , whereas in the irrigated area of Gounougou it was below detection level during the dry season and high during the rainy season . Insecticide susceptibility tests performed on A gambiae s . l . populations detected resistance to lambdacyhalothrin and to a lower extent to deltamethrin . All survivors were A arabiensis . None of the surviving mosquitoes carried the kdr mutation , suggesting an alternative resistance mechanism .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 2, subscore: 1.00 ]: Cross-sectional entomological surveys were carried out during the 2006 dry and rainy seasons in Lagdo , Cameroon to measure the impact of rice cultivation on malaria transmission and to monitor vector susceptibility to insecticides . Adult anopheline mosquitoes were captured on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray collections . A total of 4740 mosquitoes was collected during the study . Anopheles arabiensis was the major species and the main malaria vector in all study sites , followed by A funestus . Malaria transmission was high in the non-irrigated zone of Mayo Mbocki , whereas in the irrigated area of Gounougou it was below detection level during the dry season and high during the rainy season . Insecticide susceptibility tests performed on A gambiae s . l . populations detected resistance to lambdacyhalothrin and to a lower extent to deltamethrin .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: A built-in strategy for containment of transgenic plants : creation of selectively terminable transgenic rice .
Journal: PLoS ONE Citation: V : 3 P : e1818 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18350155 Accession (PMID): 18350155
Abstract: Plant transgenic technology has been widely utilized for engineering crops for trait improvements and for production of high value proteins such as pharmaceuticals . However , the unintended spreading of commercial transgenic crops by pollination and seed dispersal is a major concern for environmental and food safety . Simple and reliable containment strategies for transgenes are highly desirable . Here we report a novel method for creating selectively terminable transgenic rice . In this method , the gene ( s ) of interest is tagged with a RNA interference cassette , which specifically suppresses the expression of the bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6 and thus renders transgenic rice to be sensitive to bentazon , a herbicide used for rice weed control . We generated transgenic rice plants by this method using a new glyphosate resistant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase ( EPSPS ) gene from Pesudomonas putida as the gene of interest , and demonstrated that these transgenic rice plants were highly sensitive to bentazon but tolerant to glyphosate , which is exactly the opposite of conventional rice . Field trial of these transgenic rice plants further confirmed that they can be selectively killed at 100% by one spray of bentazon at a regular dose used for conventional rice weed control . Furthermore , we found that the terminable transgenic rice created in this study shows no difference in growth , development and yield compared to its non-transgenic control . Therefore , this method of creating transgenic rice constitutes a novel strategy of transgene containment , which appears simple , reliable and inexpensive for implementation .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Simple and reliable containment strategies for transgenes are highly desirable . Here we report a novel method for creating selectively terminable transgenic rice . In this method , the gene ( s ) of interest is tagged with a RNA interference cassette , which specifically suppresses the expression of the bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6 and thus renders transgenic rice to be sensitive to bentazon , a herbicide used for rice weed control . We generated transgenic rice plants by this method using a new glyphosate resistant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase ( EPSPS ) gene from Pesudomonas putida as the gene of interest , and demonstrated that these transgenic rice plants were highly sensitive to bentazon but tolerant to glyphosate , which is exactly the opposite of conventional rice . Field trial of these transgenic rice plants further confirmed that they can be selectively killed at 100% by one spray of bentazon at a regular dose used for conventional rice weed control . Furthermore , we found that the terminable transgenic rice created in this study shows no difference in growth , development and yield compared to its non-transgenic control . Therefore , this method of creating transgenic rice constitutes a novel strategy of transgene containment , which appears simple , reliable and inexpensive for implementation .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: An efficient field screening procedure for identifying transposants for constructing an Ac/Ds-based insertional-mutant library of rice .
Journal: Genome Citation: V : 51 P : 41-9 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18356938 Accession (PMID): 18356938
Abstract: An efficient system was developed , and several variables tested , for generating a large-scale insertional-mutagenesis population of rice . The most important feature in this improved Ac/Ds tagging system is that one can conveniently carry out large-scale screening in the field and select transposants at the seedling stage . Rice was transformed with a plasmid that includes a Basta-resistance gene ( bar ) . After the Ds element is excised during transposition , bar becomes adjacent to the ubiquitin promoter , and the rice plant becomes resistant to the herbicide Basta . In principle , one can plant up to one million plants in the field and select those plants that survive after spraying with Basta . To test the utility of this system , 4 Ds starter lines were crossed with 14 different Ac plants , and many transposants were successfully identified after planting 134 , 285 F2 plants in the field . Over 2 , 800 of these transposants were randomly chosen for PCR analysis , and the results fully confirmed the reliability of the field screening procedure .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 5, subscore: 1.00 ]: An efficient system was developed , and several variables tested , for generating a large-scale insertional-mutagenesis population of rice . The most important feature in this improved Ac/Ds tagging system is that one can conveniently carry out large-scale screening in the field and select transposants at the seedling stage . Rice was transformed with a plasmid that includes a Basta-resistance gene ( bar ) . After the Ds element is excised during transposition , bar becomes adjacent to the ubiquitin promoter , and the rice plant becomes resistant to the herbicide Basta . In principle , one can plant up to one million plants in the field and select those plants that survive after spraying with Basta . To test the utility of this system , 4 Ds starter lines were crossed with 14 different Ac plants , and many transposants were successfully identified after planting 134 , 285 F2 plants in the field . Over 2 , 800 of these transposants were randomly chosen for PCR analysis , and the results fully confirmed the reliability of the field screening procedure .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Selection of global Metarhizium isolates for the control of the rice pest Nilaparvata lugens ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) .
Journal: Pest Manag Sci Citation: V : P : Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18438960 Accession (PMID): 18438960
Abstract: BACKGROUND : This study was initiated to search for fungal candidates for microbial control of brown planthopper ( BPH ) Nilaparvata lugens Stal , to which little attention has been paid in the past two decades . RESULTS : Thirty-five isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae ( Metschnikoff ) Sorokin and M flavoviride Gams & Rozsypal from different host insects worldwide were bioassayed for their lethal effects against third-instar BPH nymphs at 25 degrees C and a 14 : 10 h light : dark photoperiod at ca 1000 conidia mm ( -2 ) . On day 9 post-treatment , mortality attributable to mycosis ranged from 6 . 5 to 64 . 2% and differed significantly among the tested isolates with no apparent relationship to their host origin . Only two BPH-derived M anisopliae isolates from the Philippines ( ARSEF456 ) and Indonesia ( ARSEF576 ) killed > 50% of the nymphs . Both isolates were further bioassayed for time-concentration-mortality responses of the nymphs to the sprays of 19-29 , 118-164 and 978-1088 conidia mm ( -2 ) in repeated bioassays . The resultant data fitted a time-concentration-mortality model very well . Their LC ( 50 ) values were estimated as 731 and 1124 conidia mm ( -2 ) on day 7 and fell to 284 and 306 conidia mm ( -2 ) , respectively , on day 10 . CONCLUSION : The two M anisopliae isolates are potential biocontrol agents of BPH for further research . This is the first report of the lethal effects of global Metarhizium isolates on the rice pest Copyright ( c ) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: BACKGROUND : This study was initiated to search for fungal candidates for microbial control of brown planthopper ( BPH ) Nilaparvata lugens Stal , to which little attention has been paid in the past two decades . RESULTS : Thirty-five isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae ( Metschnikoff ) Sorokin and M flavoviride Gams & Rozsypal from different host insects worldwide were bioassayed for their lethal effects against third-instar BPH nymphs at 25 degrees C and a 14 : 10 h light : dark photoperiod at ca 1000 conidia mm ( -2 ) . On day 9 post-treatment , mortality attributable to mycosis ranged from 6 . 5 to 64 . 2% and differed significantly among the tested isolates with no apparent relationship to their host origin . Only two BPH-derived M anisopliae isolates from the Philippines ( ARSEF456 ) and Indonesia ( ARSEF576 ) killed > 50% of the nymphs . Both isolates were further bioassayed for time-concentration-mortality responses of the nymphs to the sprays of 19-29 , 118-164 and 978-1088 conidia mm ( -2 ) in repeated bioassays . The resultant data fitted a time-concentration-mortality model very well . Their LC ( 50 ) values were estimated as 731 and 1124 conidia mm ( -2 ) on day 7 and fell to 284 and 306 conidia mm ( -2 ) , respectively , on day 10 . CONCLUSION : The two M anisopliae isolates are potential biocontrol agents of BPH for further research . This is the first report of the lethal effects of global Metarhizium isolates on the rice pest Copyright ( c ) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Imidacloprid susceptibility survey and selection risk assessment in field populations of Nilaparvata lugens ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) .
Journal: J Econ Entomol Citation: V : 101 P : 515-22 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18459419 Accession (PMID): 18459419
Abstract: Imidacloprid has been used for many years to control planthopper Nilaparvata lugens ( Stal ) ( Homoptera : Delphacidae ) in China . To provide resistance assessment for the national insecticide resistance management program , we collected a total of 42 samples of the planthoppers from 27 locations covering eight provinces to monitor their dose responses and susceptibility changes to imidacloprid over an 11-yr period ( 1996-2006 ) . Results showed that most field populations maintained susceptibility from 1996 to 2003 except for a population from Guilin , Guangxi , in 1997 , which showed a low level of resistance to imidacloprid . However , surveys conducted in 2005 indicated that 16 populations from six provinces quickly developed resistance with resistance ratios ranging from 79 to 811 . The data collected in 2006 revealed that the resistance levels in 12 populations collected from seven different provinces decreased slightly ( RR = 107-316 ) , except the Tongzhou population ( Jiangsu Province ) , which developed 625-fold resistance . Dominant and intensive use of imidacloprid in a wide range of rice , Oryza savita L , growing areas might be a driving force for the resistance development . Migration of the insect also significantly boosted the resistance levels due to extensive and intensive use of imidacloprid in emigrating areas and continuous postmigration sprays of the chemical In addition , laboratory resistance selection using imidacloprid showed that resistance ratio increased to 14-fold after 27 generations , suggesting that quick resistance development might be associated with more frequent applications of the insecticide in recent years .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 7, subscore: 1.00 ]: Results showed that most field populations maintained susceptibility from 1996 to 2003 except for a population from Guilin , Guangxi , in 1997 , which showed a low level of resistance to imidacloprid . However , surveys conducted in 2005 indicated that 16 populations from six provinces quickly developed resistance with resistance ratios ranging from 79 to 811 . The data collected in 2006 revealed that the resistance levels in 12 populations collected from seven different provinces decreased slightly ( RR = 107-316 ) , except the Tongzhou population ( Jiangsu Province ) , which developed 625-fold resistance . Dominant and intensive use of imidacloprid in a wide range of rice , Oryza savita L , growing areas might be a driving force for the resistance development . Migration of the insect also significantly boosted the resistance levels due to extensive and intensive use of imidacloprid in emigrating areas and continuous postmigration sprays of the chemical In addition , laboratory resistance selection using imidacloprid showed that resistance ratio increased to 14-fold after 27 generations , suggesting that quick resistance development might be associated with more frequent applications of the insecticide in recent years .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: [ Regulation effect of exogenous salicylic acid on weed suppression and molecular physiological characteristics of allelopathic rice ]
Journal: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao Citation: V : 19 P : 330-6 Type: In-Process
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18464639 Accession (PMID): 18464639
Abstract: To investigate the feasibility of using exogenous salicylic acid ( SA ) to regulate the allelopathic weed suppression of rice , this paper studied the effects of different concentrations exogenous SA on the weed-suppression and physiological-biochemical characteristics of allelopathic rice PI312777 , and the relative expression quantity of gene ZB8 in the rice by real time quantitative RT-PCR ( FQ-PCR ) . The results showed that exogenous SA induced the enhancement of the allelopathic potential of donor rice in suppressing target weed plants , and this inducing effect was SA dose and treatment time dependent . After foliar spraying SA , the inhibitory effect of PI312777 on barnyardgrass increased significantly , and the root vigor and superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) and perocidase ( POD ) activities of PI312777 increased , while its catalase ( CAT ) activity decreased . The reverse was true for the target weed barnyardgrass . At the same time , the phenylalanine ammonialyase ( PAL ) activity of PI312777 increased significantly , leading to an increase of the total content of phenols . Among the test concentrations of SA , 0 . 2 mmol x L ( -1 ) had the best inducing effect , under which , the relative expression quantity of ZB8 increased first and decreased then , with a peak at 24 hours after treatment .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 3, subscore: 1.00 ]: To investigate the feasibility of using exogenous salicylic acid ( SA ) to regulate the allelopathic weed suppression of rice , this paper studied the effects of different concentrations exogenous SA on the weed-suppression and physiological-biochemical characteristics of allelopathic rice PI312777 , and the relative expression quantity of gene ZB8 in the rice by real time quantitative RT-PCR ( FQ-PCR ) . The results showed that exogenous SA induced the enhancement of the allelopathic potential of donor rice in suppressing target weed plants , and this inducing effect was SA dose and treatment time dependent . After foliar spraying SA , the inhibitory effect of PI312777 on barnyardgrass increased significantly , and the root vigor and superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) and perocidase ( POD ) activities of PI312777 increased , while its catalase ( CAT ) activity decreased . The reverse was true for the target weed barnyardgrass . At the same time , the phenylalanine ammonialyase ( PAL ) activity of PI312777 increased significantly , leading to an increase of the total content of phenols . Among the test concentrations of SA , 0 . 2 mmol x L ( -1 ) had the best inducing effect , under which , the relative expression quantity of ZB8 increased first and decreased then , with a peak at 24 hours after treatment .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Integrated disinfection by-products research : assessing reproductive and developmental risks posed by complex disinfection by-product mixtures .
Journal: J Toxicol Environ Health A Citation: V : 71 P : 1222-34 Type: MEDLINE
Literature: oryza Field: abstract Doc ID: pub18636394 Accession (PMID): 18636394
Abstract: This article presents a toxicologically-based risk assessment strategy for identifying the individual components or fractions of a complex mixture that are associated with its toxicity . The strategy relies on conventional component-based mixtures risk approaches such as dose addition , response addition , and analyses of interactions . Developmental toxicity data from two drinking-water concentrates containing disinfection by-products ( DBP ) mixtures were used to illustrate the strategy . The results of this study showed that future studies of DBP concentrates using the Chernoff-Kavlock bioassay need to consider evaluating DBP that are concentrated more than 130-fold and using a rat strain that is more sensitive to chemically-induced pregnancy loss than Sprague-Dawley rats . The results support the planned experimental design of a multigeneration reproductive and developmental study of DBP concentrates . Finally , this article discusses the need for a systematic evaluation of DBP concentrates obtained from multiple source waters and treatment types . The development of such a database could be useful in evaluating whether a specific DBP concentrate is sufficiently similar to tested combinations of source waters and treatment alternatives so that health risks for the former may be estimated using data on the latter .
Matching Sentences:
[ Sen. 4, subscore: 1.00 ]: This article presents a toxicologically-based risk assessment strategy for identifying the individual components or fractions of a complex mixture that are associated with its toxicity . The strategy relies on conventional component-based mixtures risk approaches such as dose addition , response addition , and analyses of interactions . Developmental toxicity data from two drinking-water concentrates containing disinfection by-products ( DBP ) mixtures were used to illustrate the strategy . The results of this study showed that future studies of DBP concentrates using the Chernoff-Kavlock bioassay need to consider evaluating DBP that are concentrated more than 130-fold and using a rat strain that is more sensitive to chemically-induced pregnancy loss than Sprague-Dawley rats . The results support the planned experimental design of a multigeneration reproductive and developmental study of DBP concentrates . Finally , this article discusses the need for a systematic evaluation of DBP concentrates obtained from multiple source waters and treatment types . The development of such a database could be useful in evaluating whether a specific DBP concentrate is sufficiently similar to tested combinations of source waters and treatment alternatives so that health risks for the former may be estimated using data on the latter .
Supplemental links/files: reference in endnote online text related articles pubmed citation
Score: 1.00
Title: Malaria vector control practices in an irrigated rice agro-ecosystem in central Kenya and implications for malaria control .
Journal: Malar J Citation: V : 7 P : 146 Type: Publisher
Literature: oryza Field: abstr